Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.
Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Congener of CYTARABINE that is metabolized to cytarabine and thereby maintains a more constant antineoplastic action.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.
Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.
A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
Alkylating antineoplastic agent used mainly for ovarian tumors. It is toxic to skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and kidneys.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).
Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They are responsible for producing a species-characteristic methylation pattern, on either adenine or cytosine residues, in a specific short base sequence in the host cell's own DNA. This methylated sequence will occur many times in the host-cell DNA and remain intact for the lifetime of the cell. Any DNA from another species which gains entry into a living cell and lacks the characteristic methylation pattern will be recognized by the restriction endonucleases of similar specificity and destroyed by cleavage. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.
Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
Functions and activities of DENTITION as a whole.
A nitroimidazole that sensitizes hypoxic tumor cells that are normally resistant to radiation therapy.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Nitrogen mustard analog of quinacrine used primarily as a stain in the studies of chromosomes and chromatin. Fluoresces by reaction with nucleic acids in chromosomes.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.
Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE I.
Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.
Oligopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces distallicus. Their binding to DNA inhibits synthesis of nucleic acids.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia of mice.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Benzene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
Toxic antibiotic of the mitomycin group, obtained from MITOMYCIN and also from Streptomyces ardus and other species. It is proposed as an antineoplastic agent, with some antibiotic properties.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons which contain one or more double bonds in the ring. The cyclohexadienes are not aromatic, in contrast to BENZOQUINONES which are sometimes called 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diones.
A basic polypeptide isolated from Streptomyces netropsis. It is cytotoxic and its strong, specific binding to A-T areas of DNA is useful to genetics research.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.

L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET to evaluate response to hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer. (1/1947)

PET with L-[1-11C]-tyrosine (TYR) was investigated in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) with recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF-alpha) and melphalan for locally advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and skin cancer of the lower limb. METHODS: Seventeen patients (5 women, 12 men; age range 24-75 y; mean age 52 y) were studied. TYR PET studies were performed before HILP and 2 and 8 wk afterwards. The protein synthesis rates (PSRs) in nanomoles per milliliter per minute were calculated. After final PET studies, tumors were resected and pathologically examined. Patients with pathologically complete responses (pCR) showed no viable tumors after treatment. Those with pathologically partial responses (pPR) showed various amounts of viable tumors in the resected tumor specimens. RESULTS: Six patients (35%) showed a pCR and 11 patients (65%) showed a pPR. All tumors were depicted as hot spots on PET studies before HILP. The PSR in the pCR group at 2 and 8 wk after perfusion had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in comparison to the PSR before HILP. A significant difference was found in PSR between the pCR and pPR groups at 2 and at 8 wk (P < 0.05). Median PSR in nonviable tumor tissue was 0.62 and ranged from 0.22 to 0.91. With a threshold PSR of 0.91, sensitivity and specificity of TYR PET were 82% and 100%, respectively. The predictive value of a PSR > 0.91 for having viable tumor after HILP was 100%, whereas the predictive value of a PSR < or = 0.91 for having nonviable tumor tissue after HILP was 75%. The 2 patients in the pPR groups with a PSR < 0.91 showed microscopic islets of tumor cells surrounded by extensive necrosis on pathological examination. CONCLUSION: Based on the calculated PSR after HILP, TYR PET gave a good indication of the pathological outcome. Inflammatory tissue after treatment did not interfere with viable tumor on the images, suggesting that it may be worthwhile to pursue TYR PET in other therapy evaluation settings.  (+info)

In vivo isolated kidney perfusion with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in tumour-bearing rats. (2/1947)

Isolated perfusion of the extremities with high-dose tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) plus melphalan leads to dramatic tumour response in patients with irresectable soft tissue sarcoma or multiple melanoma in transit metastases. We developed in vivo isolated organ perfusion models to determine whether similar tumour responses in solid organ tumours can be obtained with this regimen. Here, we describe the technique of isolated kidney perfusion. We studied the feasibility of a perfusion with TNF-alpha and assessed its anti-tumour effects in tumour models differing in tumour vasculature. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) proved to be only 1 microg TNF-alpha. Higher doses appeared to induce renal failure and a secondary cytokine release with fatal respiratory and septic shock-like symptoms. In vitro, the combination of TNF-alpha and melphalan did not result in a synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on CC 531 colon adenocarcinoma cells, whereas an additive effect was observed on osteosarcoma ROS-1 cells. In vivo isolated kidney perfusion, with TNF-alpha alone or in combination with melphalan, did not result in a significant anti-tumour response in either tumour model in a subrenal capsule assay. We conclude that, because of the susceptibility of the kidney to perfusion with TNF-alpha, the minimal threshold concentration of TNF-alpha to exert its anti-tumour effects was not reached. The applicability of TNF-alpha in isolated kidney perfusion for human tumours seems, therefore, questionable.  (+info)

Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-temozolomide following oral administration to patients with advanced cancer. (3/1947)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of carbon 14-labeled temozolomide (14C-TMZ) administered p.o. to adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. On day 1 of cycle 1, six patients received a single oral 200-mg dose of 14C-TMZ (70.2 microCi). Whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces were collected from days 1-8 and on day 14 of cycle 1. Total radioactivity was measured in all samples. TMZ, 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), and 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) concentrations were determined in plasma, and urine and plasma samples were profiled for metabolite/degradation products. Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m2, and 104 ml/min/m2, respectively. A first-order absorption, one-compartment linear model, which included first-order formation of MTIC from TMZ and elimination of MTIC via degradation to AIC, and a peripheral distribution compartment for AIC, adequately described the plasma TMZ, MTIC, and AIC concentrations. MTIC systemic clearance was estimated to be 5384 ml/min/m2, and the half-life was calculated to be 2.5 min. Metabolite profiles of plasma at 1 and 4 h after treatment showed that 14C-derived radioactivity was primarily associated with TMZ, and a smaller amount was attributed to AIC. Profiles of urine samples from 0-24 h revealed that 14C-TMZ-derived urinary radioactivity was primarily associated with unchanged drug (5.6%), AIC (12%), or 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]tetrazine-8-carboxyl ic acid (2.3%). The recovered radioactive dose (39%) was principally eliminated in the urine (38%), and a small amount (0.8%) was excreted in the feces. TMZ exhibits rapid oral absorption and high systemic availability. The primary elimination pathway for TMZ is by pH-dependent degradation to MTIC and further degradation to AIC. Incomplete recovery of radioactivity may be explained by the incorporation of AIC into nucleic acids.  (+info)

The effect of fluconazole on cyclophosphamide metabolism in children. (4/1947)

Fluconazole is increasingly used in children receiving chemotherapy. Many of these patients are being treated with cyclophosphamide, which must undergo hepatic metabolism to produce active alkylating species. As a consequence of the cytochrome P-450 inhibitory properties of fluconazole, a potential interaction exists between these two agents that could influence the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide. To investigate this interaction, a retrospective case series of patients was chosen from a population of children with a previously established profile of cyclophosphamide metabolism. Twenty-two children who were not receiving other therapy known to influence drug metabolism were selected and analyzed in terms of fluconazole treatment; of these, nine were receiving fluconazole and thirteen were identified as controls. Study design was not randomized. The plasma clearance of cyclophosphamide was lower in patients receiving fluconazole [mean(SD) 2.4(0.71) versus 4.2(1.2) l/h/m2, p =.001]. In vitro studies were performed to characterize the interaction between fluconazole and cyclophosphamide in six human liver microsomes. The concentration of fluconazole required to reduce the production of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide to 50% of control values (IC50) varied between 9 and 80 microM (median 38 microM). Further studies of the effect of fluconazole on 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide production in vivo are warranted to determine whether this interaction reduces the therapeutic effect of cyclophosphamide in clinical practice.  (+info)

Hprt mutant frequency and molecular analysis of Hprt mutations in Fischer 344 rats treated with thiotepa. (5/1947)

Thiotepa is a bifunctional alkylating anticancer drug that is a rodent carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. In order to determine the sensitivity of mutant induction in the Hprt lymphocyte assay for detecting tumorigenic doses of thiotepa, Fischer 344 rats were treated for 4 weeks with thiotepa using a procedure adapted from a carcinogenesis protocol. At various times after beginning the treatment regimen, rats were killed and the lymphocyte Hprt assay was performed on splenic lymphocytes isolated from the animals. The 6-thioguanine-resistant T lymphocyte mutant frequency increased with time during the period of thiotepa exposure and declined slightly thereafter. Significant dose-dependent increases in mutant frequency were found using concentrations of thiotepa that eventually result in lymphoproliferative tumors. Hprt mRNA from mutant lymphocytes was reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by PCR and examined for mutations by DNA sequencing. This analysis indicated that the major type of point mutation was G:C-->T:A transversion and that 33% of the mutants contained simple or complex frameshifts. Also, a multiplex PCR performed on DNA from mutant clones that were expanded in vitro indicated that 34% of the clones had deletions in the Hprt gene. These results indicate that the induction of lymphocyte Hprt mutants is a sensitive biomarker for the carcinogenicity of thiotepa and that the types of mutations found in the lymphocyte Hprt gene reflect the kinds of DNA damage produced by thiotepa.  (+info)

Therapy-related leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in breast cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide or anthracyclines. (6/1947)

BACKGROUND: Accumulation of data regarding therapy-related leukemia (TRL) or myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) is critical for assessing the risk of developing such diseases and for subsequent decision-making processes for better treatment. METHODS: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with TRL/t-MDS diagnosed at the National Cancer Center Hospital between January 1989 and September 1997. This report is concerned with those patients who initially had been treated with chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer. RESULTS: Thirteen patients (median age, 55 years) developed TRL (n = 4) or t-MDS (n = 9). The median interval between the development of TRL/t-MDS and initial treatment was 94 months (range 23-190 months). For the primary therapy, all patients had received intense and prolonged treatment with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and/or anthracyclines including doxorubicin (DOX), with a median cumulative dose of 55 g/body (range 16.4-288.5 g) for CPA and 480 mg/m2 (range 395-625.5 mg/m2) for DOX. Seven patients were subsequently treated by chemotherapy and one received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians must remain alert to the risks associated with unproven medical practices which include long-term administration of alkylating agents. Selected patients with TRL/t-MDS may respond to intense salvage combination chemotherapy.  (+info)

Cardiac effects of high-dose epirubicin and cyclophosphamide in women with poor prognosis breast cancer. (7/1947)

PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the long term cardiac effects of high-dose epirubicin and cyclophosphamide given to women with early stage, poor prognosis breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with stage 2 breast cancer and 10+ nodes or 4+ nodes and estrogen receptor negative tumor, or stage 3 breast cancer received three cycles of epirubicin 200 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 4 gm/m2 with peripheral blood progenitor cell and filgrastim support. Treatment was given every 28 days (n = 79) or 21 days (n = 20). Fifty patients received radiotherapy to the chest wall or breast, 25 of to the left side. Patients were assessed clinically regularly during chemotherapy and at least three times yearly after completion of treatment. Cardiac left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed by radionuclide scan before therapy, after each cycle of chemotherapy, three months and six months after completion of chemotherapy, and yearly thereafter until relapse. RESULTS: Ninety-nine women were treated, and 92 completed all three cycles of chemotherapy. The median age was 43 years (range 24 to 60 years). All patients were included in this analysis. The median relapse-free survival was 39 months (11 to 68 months). There was a significant fall in LVEF during chemotherapy. In general, there was no further deterioration in cardiac function from the third month after cessation of treatment, however there was substantial variation between individuals. 35 patients had at least one LVEF measure less than normal (< 50%), but the LVEF returned to normal in 20 of these with further follow-up. Cardiac dysfunction was not increased in women who received radiotherapy and was not different between cohorts given chemotherapy every three or every four weeks. One patient died of acute myocardial necrosis following the third cycle of chemotherapy. Two patients developed clinical evidence of cardiac failure, and another had radiological signs but was asymptomatic. One woman died of progressive cardiac failure, one recovered clinically but also developed recurrent breast cancer, while the third recovered after commencement of medical therapy. CONCLUSIONS: During follow-up after high-dose epirubicin and cyclophosphamide as delivered in this study, the LVEF fell to below normal in approximately one third of patients. However, in over half of these patients the LVEF subsequently recovered to the normal range, and the incidence of clinically evident chronic cardiac failure was low. Further follow-up is required to assess the long-term safety. A randomized comparison with standard-dose anthracycline-based chemotherapy is needed to determine whether this regimen is associated with an increased risk of clinical cardiac toxicity.  (+info)

Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (FluCyD) combination is effective in pretreated low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (8/1947)

PURPOSE: Fludarabine phosphate is effective as a single agent in low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Combined with other antineoplastic agents it enhances the antitumor effect. Our aim was to define the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of a combination of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (FluCyD) in patients with advanced low-grade lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five adults with pretreated advanced-stage low-grade NHL were treated with three-day courses of fludarabine 25 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m2/day, and dexamethasone 20 mg/day, every four weeks for a maximum of six courses. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) responded, 8 (32%) achieving CR and 10 (40%) PR. Seven were failures. The median follow-up was 21 months (5-26). Eight CR patients remain in CR after 5-21 months. Of 10 PR patients, 3 are in continuous PR without further treatment after 12, 17 and 18 months. Myelosuppression was the most prevalent toxic effect. Although severe granulocytopenia (granulocyte count nadir < 500/microliter) and thrombocytopenia (platelet count nadir < 50,000/microliter) occurred in only 10% and 16% of courses, respectively, slow granulocyte or platelet count recovery caused delay of 40% of the courses. Nine patients (36%) required discontinuation of therapy because of persistent granulocytopenia and/or thrombocytopenia: three after one course, three after 2-4 courses, and three after five courses. Thirteen infectious episodes in 11 patients complicated 11% of courses. Two of 10 patients monitored for the circulating EBV load showed increased viral load. One of these developed aggressive lymphoma. CD4+ lymphocytes declined from a pre-therapy median value of 425/microliter to 141/microliter post-treatment (P = 0.001). Non-hematologic toxicities were rare and mild. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of fludarabine with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone is effective in pretreated advanced-stage low-grade NHL. It may broaden the range of therapeutic options in the salvage treatment of these patients. The main toxicity of this combination is prolonged myelosuppression that may cause treatment delay or withdrawal. The benefit of adding granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, particularly in patients with poor marrow reserve, needs to be investigated.  (+info)

Background: High-dose chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer has been abandoned by many. Patients and methods: 885 patients with stage III primary breast cancer and four or more axillary lymph node metastases were randomised to receive either five courses of FEC (fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) followed by radiation therapy ... read more and tamoxifen, or the same treatment but with high-dose alkylating chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin) replacing the fifth course of FEC. Of these patients, 621 had HER2/ neu-negative disease, as determined by immunohistochemistry and chromogenic in situ hybridisation. Results: At a median follow-up of 84 months, a trend for a better relapse-free survival was observed in the high-dose arm: (hazard ratio (HR) 0.84, P = 0.076, two-sided). The 621 patients with HER2/neu-negative disease benefited from high-dose therapy, while patients with HER2/neu-positive disease did not (test for interaction, P = 0.006). ...
This trial is investigating the tolerability of irinotecan, temozolomide and bevacizumab in combination with existing high dose alkylator based chemotherapy for
Introduction: After lymphoma the risk of secondary cancer namely lung cancer increases. Treatment (alkylating agents, radiotherapy) and smoking are known risk factors. Aims: To report on patients with lung cancer (LC) after lymphoma (LY), focusing on disease characteristics, detection methods and clinical outcomes. Methods: Retrospective study of patients diagnosed in a single institution with LC and previous LY from 1992 to 2012. Data regarding LY characteristics and treatment, smoking history and LC stage, histology and survival were obtained from medical records. Results: Of the 44 patients 43% had Hodgkin and 57% non Hodgkin lymphoma. All had known risk factors: 13 (30%) thoracic radiotherapy, 21 (48%) alkylating chemotherapy, 34 (75%) smoking habits. Median time between diagnoses was 9,5 years (±9.3).Thirteen were female (30%). Median age at LC diagnosis was 60 years (±13). Stage distribution was: 21(48%) IV, 10(23%) III; 13(30%) I/II. PS was 0/1 in 36(81%) patients. Diagnosis was ...
GyrI-like proteins are widely distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and recognized as small-molecule binding proteins. Here, we identify a subfamily of these proteins as cyclopropanoid cyclopropyl hydrolases (CCHs) that can catalyze the hydrolysis of the potent DNA-alkylating agents yatakemycin (YTM) and CC-1065. Co-crystallography and molecular dynamics simulation analyses reveal that these CCHs share a conserved aromatic cage for the hydrolytic activity. Subsequent cytotoxic assays confirm that CCHs are able to protect cells against YTM. Therefore, our findings suggest that the evolutionarily conserved GyrI-like proteins confer cellular protection against diverse xenobiotics via not only binding, but also catalysis.
PURPOSE: In the setting of a prospective clinical trial, we determined the predictive value of the methylation status of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter for outcome in glioblastoma patients treated with the alkylating agent temozolomide. Expression of this excision repair enzyme has been associated with resistance to alkylating chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methylation status of MGMT in the tumor biopsies was evaluated in 38 patients undergoing resection for newly diagnosed glioblastoma and enrolled in a Phase II trial testing concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide and radiation. The epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene was determined using methylation-specific PCR. RESULTS: Inactivation of the MGMT gene by promoter methylation was associated with longer survival (P = 0.0051; Log-rank test). At 18 months, survival was 62% (16 of 26) for patients testing positive for a methylated MGMT promoter but reached only 8% (1 of 12) in absence of methylation (
Tumor recurrence after initial treatment with radiation and temozolomide is the major cause of mortality for patients with glioblastomas, yet recurrences are understudied because of the dearth of matched tumors samples. This is of particular concern because temozolomide treatment profoundly affects the tumors evolution as evidenced by dramatic alterations in the genomic landscape of recurrent tumors compared with their primary tumor counterparts (65). A big effort has been made recently to understand this evolutionary process by comparing the genomic and proteomic profiles of primary versus recurrent tumors and correlating these datasets with treatment regimens, radiologic data, and clinical history (65-67). However, in these studies, no functional assays were carried out to understand mechanisms of temozolomide resistance due to the lack of matching primary and recurrent cell lines. We developed an in vivo model of tumor recurrence in mice that allows us to understand temozolomide resistance ...
Tumor recurrence after initial treatment with radiation and temozolomide is the major cause of mortality for patients with glioblastomas, yet recurrences are understudied because of the dearth of matched tumors samples. This is of particular concern because temozolomide treatment profoundly affects the tumors evolution as evidenced by dramatic alterations in the genomic landscape of recurrent tumors compared with their primary tumor counterparts (65). A big effort has been made recently to understand this evolutionary process by comparing the genomic and proteomic profiles of primary versus recurrent tumors and correlating these datasets with treatment regimens, radiologic data, and clinical history (65-67). However, in these studies, no functional assays were carried out to understand mechanisms of temozolomide resistance due to the lack of matching primary and recurrent cell lines. We developed an in vivo model of tumor recurrence in mice that allows us to understand temozolomide resistance ...
All patients entering this study will initially undergo combined modality treatment with concurrent radiation therapy + temozolomide. Four weeks after completing radiation therapy, patients will begin 6 months of follow-up treatment with oral temozolomide plus sorafenib.. Combined Modality Therapy - Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy must begin within ≤ 6 weeks of surgery. One treatment of 2.0Gy will be given daily 5 days per week for a total of 60.0Gy over 6 weeks. Temozolomide 75mg/m2 PO will be given daily, beginning on the first day of radiation therapy and continuing through the last day of radiation therapy.. After completion of combined modality therapy, patients will have 4 weeks without any therapy.. Systemic Therapy Beginning 4 weeks after the completion of radiation therapy, patients will receive 6 months of treatment with temozolomide and sorafenib. Temozolomide 150mg/m2 orally will be administered days 1-5, and repeated every 28 days for 6 courses. Sorafenib 400mg PO bid will be ...
Purpose In this large cohort of Hodgkins lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and age at treatment. Patients and Methods The Life Situation Questionnaire was sent to 1,700 women treated in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe dEtude des Lymphomes de lAdulte trials between 1964 and 2004. Women treated between ages 15 and 40 years and currently not using hormonal contraceptives (n = 460) were selected to assess occurrence of POF. Cumulative POF risk was estimated using the life-table method. Predictive factors were assessed by Cox regression analysis. Results Median follow-up was 16 years (range, 5 to 45 years). Cumulative risk of POF after alkylating chemotherapy was 60% (95% CI, 41% to 79%) and only 3% (95% CI, 1% to 7%) after nonalkylating ...
Single-agent docetaxel (Taxotere) has been shown to be highly active in metastatic breast cancer, with an overall response rate of 47%, median time to progression of 4 months, and survival of 10 months when administered as 1
Background: Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most widely used drug to treat glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most common and aggressive primary tumor of the Central Nervous System and one of the hardest challenges in oncotherapy. TMZ is an alkylating agent that induces autophagy, apoptosis and senescence in GBM cells. However, therapy with TMZ increases survival after diagnosis only from 12 to 14.4 months, making the development of combined therapies to treat GBM fundamental. One candidate for GBM therapy is Resveratrol (Rsv), which has additive toxicity with TMZ in several glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of Rsv and TMZ additive toxicity, which is the aim of the present work, is not clear, especially concerning cell cycle dynamics and long term effects. Methods: Glioma cell lines were treated with Rsv and TMZ, alone or in combinations, and the induction and the role of autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle dynamics, protein expression and phosphorylation status were measured. We ...
By sacrificing its only alkyl component to the TMZ-induced lethal depletion of alkyl products on tumoural DNA, MGMT serves as a suicidal DNA repair enzyme. Theoretically, this irreversible depletion of the MGMT protein could be exploited by increasing tumoural exposure to TMZ. The effect might be even more prominent when MGMT promoter is hypermethylated, although the impact of MGMT promoter methylation could not be demonstrated in the present study. Nonetheless this mechanism also accounts for myelosuppression, the main concern of long-term use of TMZ, since MGMT protein in normal cells can also be depleted by TMZ. It is more common in haematopoietic stem cells contributing to toxicity for patients using this alkylating agent.3 In a cohort that comprised 114 patients, 39 (34%) were observed to have CTCAE grade 3 haematological toxicity during administration of TMZ. The study included all patients who received 1 to 57 cycles of TMZ.8 The French SV3 Study also evaluated the effect of prolonged TMZ ...
A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Phase IIb/III Study of ABT-414 with Concurrent Chemoradiation and Adjuvant Temozolomide in Subjects with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma (GBM) with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Amplification (Intellance 1)
Alkylating Antineoplastic Agents: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Title:A Short Review on the Synthetic Strategies of Duocarmycin Analogs that are Powerful DNA Alkylating Agents. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Pravin C. Patil, Vijay Satam and Moses Lee. Affiliation:Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.. Keywords:Antitumor-antibiotics, apoptosis, centanamycin, duocarmycins, tafuramycin A.. Abstract:The duocarmycins and CC-1065 are members of a class of DNA minor groove, AT-sequence selective, and adenine-N3 alkylating agents, isolated from Streptomyces sp. that exhibit extremely potent cytotoxicity against the growth of cancer cells grown in culture. Initial synthesis and structural modification of the cyclopropa[c] pyrrolo[3,2-e]indole (CPI) DNA-alkylating motif as well as the indole non-covalent binding region in the 1980s have led to several compounds that entered clinical trials as potential anticancer drugs. However, due to significant systemic toxicity none of the analogs have passed clinical evaluation. As a result, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Augmented HR repair mediates acquired temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This randomized phase II/III trial is studying vorinostat, temozolomide, or bevacizumab to see how well they work compared with each other when given together with radiation therapy followed by bevacizumab and temozolomide in treating young patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. Vorinostat may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as temozolomide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, can block tumor growth in different ways. Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing substances to them. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. It is not yet known whether giving vorinostat is more effective then temozolomide or bevacizumab when given together with radiation therapy in treating ...
Phase II: Primary Objectives: -To determine the effectiveness of dasatinib (Sprycel) with radiotherapy (RT) and 6 weeks of concomitant temozolomide (TMZ)
Temozolomide is used in the treatment of brain tumor.get complete information about temozolomide including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with temozolomide at 1mg.com
Clinical trial for Malignant neoplasm of brain , An Investigational Immuno-therapy Study of Temozolomide Plus Radiation Therapy With Nivolumab or Placebo for Newly Diagnosed Patients With Glioblastoma (GBM a Malignant Brain Cancer)
Clinical trial for Malignant neoplasm of brain , An Investigational Immuno-therapy Study of Temozolomide Plus Radiation Therapy With Nivolumab or Placebo for Newly Diagnosed Patients With Glioblastoma (GBM a Malignant Brain Cancer)
Radiation Therapy or Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide or Temozolomide Alone in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Anaplastic Glioma This study is…
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
This is a non-randomized two-part study of MK-4827 given with temozolomide in participants with advanced cancer. In Part A of the study, the dose-limiti
Research paper that shows Temozolomide coupled with transporter molecules for drug delivery results in increased efficiency in cancer cell lines and lower toxicity in normal cells. ...
Carmustine with NDC 68475-503 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by Navinta Llc. The generic name of Carmustine is carmustine.
Metronomic cyclophosphamide given on an intermittent, 6-day repeating schedule, but not on an exposure dose-equivalent daily schedule, activates an anti-tumor innate immune response that leads to major regression of large implanted gliomas, without anti-angiogenesis. Mice bearing implanted 9L gliomas were used to investigate the effects of this 6-day repeating, immunogenic cyclophosphamide schedule on myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are pro-angiogenic and can inhibit anti-tumor immunity, and to elucidate the mechanism whereby the innate immune cell-dependent tumor regression response to metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is blocked by several anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Intermittent metronomic cyclophosphamide scheduling strongly increased glioma-associated CD11b+ immune cells but not CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while bone marrow and spleen reservoirs of the suppressor cells were decreased. The inhibition of immune cell recruitment and tumor
Metronomic cyclophosphamide given on an intermittent, 6-day repeating schedule, but not on an exposure dose-equivalent daily schedule, activates an anti-tumor innate immune response that leads to major regression of large implanted gliomas, without anti-angiogenesis. Mice bearing implanted 9L gliomas were used to investigate the effects of this 6-day repeating, immunogenic cyclophosphamide schedule on myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are pro-angiogenic and can inhibit anti-tumor immunity, and to elucidate the mechanism whereby the innate immune cell-dependent tumor regression response to metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is blocked by several anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Intermittent metronomic cyclophosphamide scheduling strongly increased glioma-associated CD11b+ immune cells but not CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while bone marrow and spleen reservoirs of the suppressor cells were decreased. The inhibition of immune cell recruitment and tumor
A Phase I/II study of lomustine and temozolomide in patients with cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma Temozolomide is an alkylating agent with activity in the treatment of melanoma metastatic to the brain. Lomustine is a nitrosurea that crosses the blood brain barrier and there is evidence to suggest that temozolomide may reverse resistance to lomustine. A multicentre phase I/II study was conducted to assess the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety and efficacy of the combination of temozolomide and lomustine in melanoma metastatic to the brain. Increasing doses of temozolomide and lomustine were administered in phase 1 of the study to determine the MTD. Patients were treated at the MTD in phase II of the study to six cycles, disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in the study. In phase I of the study, the MTD was defined as temozolomide 150 mg m(-2) days 1-5 every 28 days and lomustine 60 mg m(-2) on day 5 every 56 days. Dose-limiting ...
Tumor microenvironments can promote stem cell maintenance, tumor growth, and therapeutic resistance, findings linked by the tumor-initiating cell hypothesis. Standard of care for glioblastoma (GBM) includes temozolomide chemotherapy, which is not curative, due, in part, to residual therapy-resistant brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs). Temozolomide efficacy may be increased by targeting carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), a hypoxia-responsive gene important for maintaining the altered pH gradient of tumor cells. Using patient-derived GBM xenograft cells, we explored whether CA9 and CA12 inhibitor SLC-0111 could decrease GBM growth in combination with temozolomide or influence percentages of BTICs after chemotherapy. In multiple GBMs, SLC-0111 used concurrently with temozolomide reduced cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest via DNA damage in vitro. In addition, this treatment shifted tumor metabolism to a suppressed bioenergetic state in vivo. SLC-0111 also inhibited the enrichment of BTICs after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of STAT3 reverses drug resistance acquired in temozolomide-resistant human glioma cells. AU - Lee, Eun Sang. AU - Ko, Kyung Kon. AU - Joe, Young Ae. AU - Kang, Seok Gu. AU - Hong, Yong Kil. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - The alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) is an effective drug used for the treatment of malignant gliomas. However, tumor relapse combined with the development of drug resistance remains a significant problem. To clarify the mechanism of the resistance of glioma cells to TMZ chemotherapy, TMZ-resistant glioma cell lines (TR cells) were generated using U373 and U251 human glioma cells, and TMZ-resistance was confirmed via viability and apoptosis assays. The TMZ-resistance of TR cells was not associated with the TMZ-resistance molecule O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase. Notably, the expression level of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and serine 727-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3-Ser727) was highly increased in TR cells, ...
Clinically achievable concentrations of temozolomide (TMZ) produce cytotoxic effects only in mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient cells endowed with low O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase6(MGMT) activity. Aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance of melanoma cells to TMZ and the effect of O6-benzylguanine (BG), a specific MGMT inhibitor, on the development of a TMZ-resistant phenotype. Three MMR-proficient melanoma cell clones with low or no MGMT activity were treated daily for 5 days with 50 µmol/l TMZ, alone or in combination with 5 µmol/l BG. Parental clones and sublines established after one or four cycles of treatment were analyzed for sensitivity to TMZ or TMZ+BG and for other parameters. The sublines established after one cycle of TMZ or TMZ+BG exhibited a marked increase in MGMT activity and resistance to TMZ alone. BG only partially reversed acquired resistance to the drug. In some cases, alterations in the MMR system accounted ...
Alkylating drug definition, any of various potentially cytotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic substances: used therapeutically to destroy cells, especially proliferating cancer cells. See more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) is the most malignant and common type of all astrocytic tumors. Current standard of care entails maximum surgical resection of the tumor, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, usually by the alkylating agent Temozolomide (TMZ). Despite this aggressive combination t …
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CAPTEM een combinatie behandeling van Xeloda - capecitabine met temozolomide - temodal zorgt voor spectaculaire resultaten - 97% bereikte minimaal duurzame stabiele ziekte - bij patiënten met alvleesklierkanker (NET tumoren), carcinoid, schildkliertumoren en hypofyse tumoren, ontstaan vanuit neuro endocriene afkomst, welke allemaal uitbehandeld waren. Nieuwe studies toegevoegd. Artikel update 22 december 2018
BACKGROUND. Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most potent chemotherapy agents for the treatment of glioblastoma. Unfortunately, almost half of glioblastoma tumors are TMZ resistant due to overexpression of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMThi). Coadministration of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG) can restore TMZ sensitivity, but causes off-target myelosuppression. Here, we conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether gene therapy to confer O6BG resistance in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) improves chemotherapy tolerance and outcome.. METHODS. We enrolled 7 newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with MGMThi tumors. Patients received autologous gene-modified HSCs following single-agent carmustine administration. After hematopoietic recovery, patients underwent O6BG/TMZ chemotherapy in 28-day cycles. Serial blood samples and tumor images were collected throughout the study. Chemotherapy tolerance was determined by the observed myelosuppression and recovery following each cycle. Patient-specific ...
Enter Tumor Treating Fields (TTF): a little bit science fiction, a little bit science fact. I have to admit I was very skeptical when I first heard of the technology, and was even less enthused when I saw what a nuisance it is for patients - but it works. In 2015, investigator Roger Stupp (who developed temozolomide treatment in the first place) showed that adding TTF to standard treatment improved median overall survival from 16.6 to 19.6 months, and improved a patients chances of surviving 2 years from 29% to 43%3 - thats as big a step forward as adding temozolomide was in 2005.. Whats the magic? TTF subjects tumor cells to rapidly alternating electrical fields, disrupting cell division. And since its uncontrolled cell division that makes a cell cancerous in the first place, the TTF approach hits the cancer right where it hurts.. TTF doesnt cause nausea, or fatigue, or infections, or low blood counts. It doesnt even require patients come into the office for treatment- but there is a down ...
The addition of the investigational hypoxia-targeted drug TH-302 to dexamethasone has demonstrated beneficial activity and a manageable adverse event profile in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.
Everolimus, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants….
The purpose of this study is to treat metastatic melanoma with a combination of standard chemotherapy (decitabine and Temozolomide in a dose escalation
The current studies demonstrate that MOPC-315 tumor cells secrete large amounts of interleukin-10 (IL-10), which contributes to the inhibitory activity of MOPC-315 culture supernatants for the in vitro generation of antitumor cytotoxicity by MOPC-315-immune spleen cells. Moreover, addition of neut …
Hancock, E J. and Kilburn, D G., The effects of cyclophosphamide on in vitro cytotoxic responses to a syngeneic tumour. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 988 ...
THE STUDYS invited discussant, Jordi Bruix, MD, PhD, of the University of Barcelona, Spain, said one of the benefits of the TACTICS study was to evaluate the use of the new unTACEable-based endpoint, which he favors. The endpoint used in the trial is a good attempt to do something new that may.... ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mechanisms of chemoresistance to alkylating agents in malignant glioma. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Melphalan is a DNA alkylating agent; induces cytotoxicity through the formation of stable interstrand and intrastrand crosslinks within DNA which inhibits growth of PC-3 cells (IC50 values are 0.074 and 0.77 μM for sequential dosing and single dosing respectively). Learn More ...
Read The effect of the Primary Structure of DNA on Induction of Mutations by Alkylating Agents, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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... an alkylating antineoplastic agent of the oxazafosforine group; Carboplatin - a platinum-based antineoplastic drug, also an ... alkylating antineoplastic agent; Etoposide - a topoisomerase inhibitor. Cycles are repeated every 14 days for 3 cycles, then ...
... is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents. Nucleophilic alkylating agents ... Electrophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl cation. Alkyl halides are typical alkylating agents. ... Alkylating agents Category:Ethylating agents Category:Methylating agents March Jerry; (1985). Advanced Organic Chemistry ... This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. ...
Melanoma Hodgkin disease ABVD History of cancer chemotherapy Alkylating antineoplastic agent J. Elks; C. R. Ganellin (1990). ... Dacarbazine is in the alkylating agent and purine analog families of medication. Dacarbazine was approved for medical use in ... Dacarbazine is bioactivated in liver by demethylation to "MTIC" and then to diazomethane, which is an alkylating agent. ... As of mid-2006, dacarbazine is commonly used as a single agent in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, and as part of the ABVD ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agents are a class of compounds that are used to treat cancer. In such case, the term alkyl is used ... For example, nitrogen mustards are well-known alkylating agents, but they are not simple hydrocarbons. In chemistry, alkyl is a ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agents, for example, cause DNA damage, which is more harmful to cancer cells than regular cells. ...
It is a cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent, in the class of alkyl sulfonates. Its chemical designation is ... It is an alkylating agent that forms DNA-DNA intrastrand crosslinks between the DNA bases guanine and adenine and between ... Both IV and oral formulations require prophylactic antiemetic agents administered prior to the busulfan dose and scheduled ... "Portal vein thrombosis during antineoplastic chemotherapy in children: report of five cases and review of the literature". Eur ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... there are now many types of alkylating agents in use.[1] They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules ...
... and hence was thought to be an alkylating antineoplastic agent. However, subsequent research has found that EMP is devoid of ... developed as a dual ester prodrug of an estrogen and normustine as a nitrogen mustard alkylating antineoplastic agent which, ... Antineoplastic agents related to EMP, although none of them were marketed, include alestramustine, atrimustine, cytestrol ... EMP is described as relatively well tolerated among cytostatic antineoplastic and nitrogen-mustard agents, rarely or not at all ...
MeSH D27.505.519.124 - alkylating agents MeSH D27.505.519.124.035 - antineoplastic agents, alkylating MeSH D27.505.519.155 - ... antineoplastic MeSH D27.505.954.248.147 - antimitotic agents MeSH D27.505.954.248.150 - antineoplastic agents, alkylating MeSH ... alkylating agents MeSH D27.888.569.035.035 - antineoplastic agents, alkylating MeSH D27.888.569.042 - antimetabolites MeSH ... antineoplastic agents, hormonal MeSH D27.505.954.248.179 - antineoplastic agents, phytogenic MeSH D27.505.954.248.589 - ...
... is a cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent, in the class of alkyl sulfonates. Its chemical ... It is an alkylating agent that forms DNA-DNA intrastrand crosslinks between the DNA bases guanine and adenine and between ... Both IV and oral formulations require prophylactic antiemetic agents administered prior to the busulfan dose and scheduled ... clofarabine as a conditioning agent prior to bone marrow transplantation, especially in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and ...
This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. ... Nucleophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Nucleophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl anion (carbanion). The ... Electrophilic alkylating agentsEdit. Electrophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl cation. Alkyl halides ... Alcohols alkylate to give ethers: ROH + R'X → ROR'. When the alkylating agent is an alkyl halide, the conversion is called the ...
It is a monofunctional alkylating agent, alkylates both DNA and RNA, has the ability to cross-link DNA.[4] As with other ... This antineoplastic or immunomodulatory drug article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "NextSource Biotechnology Gains FDA Approval for Use of Tradename Gleostine (lomustine), an Anti-Cancer Chemotherapy Agent". www ... is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy. It is closely related to semustine and is in the same family as ...
An alkylating agent adds an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to DNA. It attaches the alkyl group to the guanine base of DNA, at the number ... Another amino acid-like drug is the antineoplastic agent melphalan. Tumor cells spend less time in resting phases than normal ... is a chemotherapy drug belonging to the class of nitrogen mustard alkylating agents. ... The agent was first investigated as a possible drug for use in melanoma, it was not found to be effective. ...
Alkylating antineoplastic agents (e.g. mechlorethamine). *Other alkylating agents (e.g. dimethyl sulfate) ... Genotoxins include chemical agents like N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) or non-chemical agents such as ultraviolet light and ... Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several specific work-locations:. Carcinogen. Associated ... Group 4: the agent (mixture) is probably not carcinogenic to humans.. Globally Harmonized SystemEdit. The Globally Harmonized ...
... which are divided into broad categories such as alkylating agents and antimetabolites.[144] Traditional chemotherapeutic agents ... Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with one or more cytotoxic anti-neoplastic drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a ... Hormones are important agents in sex-related cancers, such as cancer of the breast, endometrium, prostate, ovary and testis and ... Physical agents. Some substances cause cancer primarily through their physical, rather than chemical, effects.[63] A prominent ...
Anticancer agents (Antimetabolites, Alkylating, Spindle poisons, Antineoplastic, Topoisomerase inhibitors). Immune disease (L03 ... Antidementia Agents • Antidepressants • Antimigraine Agents • Antiparkinson's Agents • Antipsychotics • Anxiolytics • ... Analgesics • Anesthetics (General, Local) • Anorectics • Anti-ADHD Agents • Antiaddictives • Anticonvulsants • ...
Anticancer agents (Antimetabolites, Alkylating, Spindle poisons, Antineoplastic, Topoisomerase inhibitors). Immune disease (L03 ... Antidementia Agents • Antidepressants • Antimigraine Agents • Antiparkinson's Agents • Antipsychotics • Anxiolytics • ... Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents (NDRAs). Amfetamini • Befuraline • Lisdexamfetamine • Methamphetamine • Phenethylamine ... Analgesics • Anesthetics (General, Local) • Anorectics • Anti-ADHD Agents • Antiaddictives • Anticonvulsants • ...
... antimicrotubule agent - antimitotic agent - antineoplastic - antineoplastic antibiotic - antioxidant - antiparasitic - ... alkylating agent - ALL - all-trans retinoic acid - allogeneic - allogeneic bone marrow transplantation - allogeneic stem cell ... adjunct agent - adjunctive therapy - adjuvant therapy - adrenocortical - Adriamycin - adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma - AE-941 ... chemotherapeutic agent - chemotherapy - chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy - chest x-ray - chiasma - child-life worker ...
"In Sartorelli AC, Johns DJ (eds.). Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Agents. pp. 170-192. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-65806-8_11. ... 17α-Alkylated derivatives. *Marketed *Androisoxazole (a 2,3-isoxazole A ring-fused derivative of 17α-methyl-DHT) ... Morton I, Hall JM (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer Science & ... Non-17α-alkylated derivatives. *Marketed *Bolazine (an azine dimer prodrug of drostanolone) ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... The compound is known to bind and alkylate DNA at the N2 position of guanine. It is known from in-vitro work that this binding ... or who are unsuited to receive these agents. The agency's evaluating committee, the CHMP, observed that trabectedin had not ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... "Dermatotherapeutic Agents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). 2007. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_301.pub2. ... Kyriakidis I, Tragiannidis A, Munchen S, Groll AH (February 2017). "Clinical hepatotoxicity associated with antifungal agents ... "The cost effectiveness of testing for onychomycosis versus empiric treatment of onychodystrophies with oral antifungal agents ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another.[1][2] ... In British Columbia, Canada the cost of the PPIs varies significantly from 0.20 CAD to 2.38 CAD per dose while all agents in ... The cost between different agents varies significantly.[1] ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ... Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ... Diuretics increase the urine volume and dilute doping agents and their metabolites. Another use is to rapidly lose weight to ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... Reducing agent (antioxidant), e.g. if epinephrine is used, then sodium metabisulfite is used as a reducing agent ... LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action.[1] Low doses of LA drugs ... This can be a factor in choosing an agent in patients with liver failure,[56] although since cholinesterases are produced in ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
The alkylating agent affects more the upper parts of the respiratory tract, and only intensely exposed victims showed signs ... Bleomycin is an antineoplastic antibiotic drug isolated in 1966 from the actinomycete Streptomyces verticillus. Bleomycin forms ... Sulfur mustard is a vesicant alkylating agent with strong cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic properties. After exposure, ... followed by death allowing for evaluation of novel cytoprotective agents. Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... This antineoplastic or immunomodulatory drug article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Mechlorethamine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... Romidepsin, also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell ...
Like many alkylating agents, chlorambucil has been associated with the development of other forms of cancer. ... Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... In the 1950s, aromatic mustards like chlorambucil were introduced as less toxic alkylating agents than the aliphatic nitrogen ... Chlorambucil is in the alkylating agent family of medications.[2] It works by blocking the formation of DNA and RNA.[2] ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... As a purine analog, it is a synthetic chemotherapy agent that targets lymphocytes and selectively suppresses the immune system ... It used, often in combination with other cytotoxic agents, to treat various kinds of histiocytosis, including Erdheim-Chester ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... Richards, A. D.; Rodgers, A. (2007). "Synthetic metallomolecules as agents for the control of DNA structure". Chemical Society ... Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. 18. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 387-435. doi:10.1515/9783110470734-020.. ...
... cooperate with other anti-neoplastic agents activity, and have greater cytotoxicity than paclitaxel, possibly due to its more ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Bendamustine#. *Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# ( ... Docetaxel is a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent.[9][22] As with all chemotherapy, adverse effects are common, and many side ... Both in vitro and in vivo analysis show the anti-neoplastic activity of docetaxel to be effective against a wide range of known ...
Intracellular chemotherapeutic agents / antineoplastic agents (L01). SPs/MIs. (M phase). Block microtubule assembly. *Vinca ... Alkylating. *Nitrogen mustards: Chlormethine. *Cyclophosphamide# (Ifosfamide#. *Trofosfamide). *Chlorambucil# (Melphalan. * ... "Single-agent phototherapy system diagnoses and kills cancer cells , KurzweilAI". www.kurzweilai.net. November 2, 2015. ... HpD, under the brand name Photofrin, was the first PDT agent approved for clinical use in 1993 to treat a form of bladder ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs, also known as immunosuppressive agents, immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Although cisplatin is frequently designated as an alkylating agent, it has no alkyl group and it therefore cannot carry out ... Cisplatin is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications.[1] It works in part by binding to DNA and inhibiting ... "The Discovery, Use and Impact of Platinum Salts as Chemotherapy Agent for Cancer". Wellcome Trust Witnesses to Twentieth ... Anti-cancer Agents: A treatment of Cisplatin and their analogues by Sia M. Liu (excellent detailed overview) ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... Agents Chemother. 12 (5): 642-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.12.5.642. PMC 429991 . PMID 303498.. ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... Virtue, RW; Alanis, JM; Mori, M; Lafargue, RT; Vogel, JH; Metcalf, DR (1967). "An anaesthetic agent: 2-orthochlorophenyl, 2- ...
Anticancer agents *Antimetabolites. *Alkylating. *Spindle poisons. *Antineoplastic. *Topoisomerase inhibitors. Immune disease. ... "Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review" (PDF). Respiratory Care. 60 ...
Antineoplastic Agent, Alkylating Agent. Class Summary. These agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. ... Oral alkylating agent converted to MTIC at physiologic pH; 100% bioavailable; approximately 35% crosses the blood-brain barrier ... These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. ... which can interfere with antineoplastic therapy. Steroid therapy, usually combined with a gastroprotectant, is initiated for ...
5-year DFS for favorable risk subset of NCI HR B-ALL (HR favorable) when treated with mBFM chemotherapy with a single high-dose methotrexate (HD MTX) Interim Maintenance (IM) phase and treatment duration of 2 years from the start of IM regardless of ...
5 Studies found for: Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating. Also searched for Churg strauss. See ...
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to ... Alkylating; Antineoplastics, Alkylating; Antineoplastic Alkylating Drugs; Drugs, Antineoplastic Alkylating; Alkylating Agents, ... Alkylating Antineoplastic Drugs; Alkylating Antineoplastics; Alkylating Drugs, Antineoplastic; Antineoplastic Alkylating Agents ... Alkylating Antineoplastic Agents. Subscribe to New Research on Alkylating Antineoplastic Agents A class of drugs that differs ...
Antineoplastic agents Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients and precursors.. ... Agents acting on the renin-angiot.. Ace inhibitors, plain Ace inhibitors, plain ... Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents, non-selecti.. Beta blocking agents, selective ...
On the other hand, alkylating agents such as cisplatin, cis- [PtCl2 (NH3) 2] have been widely used as antineoplastic agents for ... Screening of natural products and alkylating agents for antineoplastic activity. dc.contributor.advisor. Rees, Jasper. ... Screening of natural products and alkylating agents for antineoplastic activity. en_US. ... However, the use of cisplatin as an anticancer agent is limited due to toxicity and resistance problems. The aim of this ...
... An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent that attaches an alkyl group to DNA. ... Chemotherapeutic agents/Antineoplastic agents (L01). Alkylating and alkylating-like agents. Nitrogen mustards: (Chlorambucil, ... An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent that attaches an alkyl group to DNA. ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Alkylating_antineoplastic_agent". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
Busulfan is an antineoplastic in the class of alkylating agents and is used to treat various forms of cancer. Alkylating agents ... Alkylating agents are cell cycle-nonspecific. Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms all of which achieve the ...
... an alkylating antineoplastic agent of the oxazafosforine group; Carboplatin - a platinum-based antineoplastic drug, also an ... alkylating antineoplastic agent; Etoposide - a topoisomerase inhibitor. Cycles are repeated every 14 days for 3 cycles, then ...
Alkylating agents. These drugs are the most commonly used cytostatic drugs.. Alkylating agent work by covalently binding alkyl ... Alkylating-like agents. The only important alkylating-like agents are the platinum compounds. These include cisplatin, ... Alkylating-like agents (platinum compounds) - these drugs act similarly to alkylating agents ... Antineoplastic drugs. Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, microtubule-damaging drugs, topoisomerase inhibitors. Last updated on ...
Alkylation is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents. Nucleophilic alkylating agents ... Electrophilic alkylating agents deliver the equivalent of an alkyl cation. Alkyl halides are typical alkylating agents. ... Alkylating agents Category:Ethylating agents Category:Methylating agents March Jerry; (1985). Advanced Organic Chemistry ... This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... there are now many types of alkylating agents in use.[1] They are so named because of their ability to alkylate many molecules ...
Single-agent chemotherapy with alkylating agents has been used in patients with GCTs with only modest partial response rates. ... Antineoplastic agents. Class Summary. Adjunct chemotherapy for GCTs that are higher than stage Ia and for recurrent tumors. ... Alkylating agent that inhibits tumor growth by binding to DNA. Limited use currently, but could be tried in second-line ... Platinum-based alkylating agent. Found in most currently prescribed regimens for ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Treatment ...
Angiogenesis Modulating Agents. Growth Substances. Growth Inhibitors. Antineoplastic Agents. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating ... Patients receiving any other investigational agents. *History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical ...
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Antineoplastic Agents. Alkylating Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Nucleic ...
Antineoplastic agent; a polyfunctional alkylating agent.100 b d. Uses for Procarbazine Hydrochloride. Hodgkins Disease. ... Class: Antineoplastic Agents. VA Class: AN900. Chemical Name: N-Isopropyl-α-(2-methylhydrazino)-p-toluamide monohydrochloride. ... Antineoplastic agents general statement. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc; 2009. From website: ... Use under supervision of a qualified clinician experienced in therapy with antineoplastic agents.100 ...
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology* * Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use* * DNA Damage / drug ... using either single-agent or combination therapy, is an especially appealing therapeutic option for a diverse range of cancers ...
... assessment of MGMT methylation for clinical purposes since it could refine prediction of response to alkylating agent … ... Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use* * Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy* * Brain Neoplasms / mortality ... Digital PCR quantification of MGMT methylation refines prediction of clinical benefit from alkylating agents in glioblastoma ... Keywords: DNA methylation; MGMT; alkylating agent; cell free circulating DNA; digital PCR; metastatic colorectal cancer. ...
Antineoplastic Agent, Alkylating Agent. *Antineoplastic Agent, Antimicrotubular. *Antineoplastic Agent, Hormone (Estrogen/ ... Lenograstim: Antineoplastic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lenograstim. Management: Avoid the use of lenograstim ... Lipegfilgrastim: Antineoplastic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lipegfilgrastim. Management: Avoid concomitant ... Palifermin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antineoplastic Agents. Specifically, the duration and severity of oral ...
... especially alkylating agents such as carmustine.[1] The manufacturer recommends that breastfeeding be discontinued during ... Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, ... Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating ... Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: How should we counsel cancer patients about ...
DNA-Damaging Agents (Antineoplastics) and Alkylating Agents *Inhibitors *DNA-Repair Enzyme Inhibitors ... The number for the same are 439 and 305 agents respectively. Majority of the drugs developed in the United States are at pre- ... The introduction and approval of anti-PD-1 agents nivolumab and pembrolizumab for NSCLC has bought a new era for the cancer ... The global cancer cell therapy pipeline includes 1,011 active agents. Amongst them, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell ...
T or F, Susceptibility to infection is common outcome of treatment with alkylating agents. ... Exam 3: Antineoplastic agents Flashcards Preview Pharmacology II , Exam 3: Antineoplastic agents , Flashcards ... B)Alkylate DNA, probably at guanine as the primary mechanism for cell death. - (B)Interfere with DNA, RNA and proteins to ...
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use. *Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy. *Brain Neoplasms/pathology* ...
Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, and antibiotics have all been considered inhibitors of wound healing. Ac... more ... Many antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents have been thought to retard wound healing. ... Many antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents have been thought to retard wound healing. Alkylating agents, antimetabolites ... However, the use of immunosuppressive or antineoplastic agents may predispose the patient to an even greater risk of infection ...
The cumulative exposure to chemotherapy with alkylating agents and topoisomer ... Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage, adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / ... The cumulative exposure to chemotherapy with alkylating agents and topoisomerase II inhibitors is associated with t-AML that ... 0/Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 147-94-4/Cytarabine; 20830-81-3/Daunorubicin; 302-79-4/Tretinoin; 50-44-2/6-Mercaptopurine ...
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / toxicity. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects*. Cells, Cultured. Chromosomes / drug effects, ... 0/Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0/Mutagens; 0/Semicarbazides; 50-18-0/Cyclophosphamide ...
... Antineoplastics (or antitumor antibiotics, or noncovalent DNA-binding drugs, or cytotoxic antibiotics, see ... Chemotherapeutic agents/Antineoplastic agents (L01). Alkylating and alkylating-like agents. Nitrogen mustards: (Chlorambucil, ... The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs.[ ... The very nature of antineoplastic agents makes them harmful to healthy cells and tissues, as well as the cancerous cells. For ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Alkylating Agents. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck ... Antineoplastic Antibiotics. *Hormonal Agents. *Miscellaneous Antineoplastic Agents. *Ancillary Antineoplastic Agents. * ... Other Alkylating Agents:. Of the other subgroups of alkylating agents, several have limited but specific uses. ... Alkylating Agents By Lisa G. Barber, DVM, Assistant Professor, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University ...
The purpose of this study is to test the safety and effectiveness of an investigational chemotherapy agent in patients with ... Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating. *Alkylating Agents. *Adnexal Diseases. *Neoplasms. *Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. *Genital ...
  • Alkylating agents like cyclophosphamide alkylates and damages DNA. (greek.doctor)
  • Cyclophosphamide is the most commonly used alkylating agent. (greek.doctor)
  • However, among the alkylating chemotherapy agents, the myelosuppressive effect of cyclophosphamide is considered relatively sparing of platelets and progenitor cells. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Busulfan is used in pediatrics and adults in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine / clofarabine as a conditioning agent prior to bone marrow transplantation , especially in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and other leukemias , lymphomas , and myeloproliferative disorders . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclophosphamide is a synthetic alkylating agent chemically related to the nitrogen mustards with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. (medchemexpress.com)
  • As early as 1967, the carcinogenic effects of the two alkylating drugs cyclophosphamide and triazichone in rats were reported (Schmähl 1967). (springer.com)
  • Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. (hindawi.com)
  • In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System , alkylating agents are classified under L01A. (chemeurope.com)
  • The opportunity to combine direct cytotoxic activity with a capacity to favorably modify the tumor microenvironment, using either single-agent or combination therapy, is an especially appealing therapeutic option for a diverse range of cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Lenograstim: Antineoplastic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lenograstim. (drugs.com)
  • Antineoplastic agents can also be organized according to their chemical class, mechanism of action, therapeutic use or their toxicities. (umn.edu)
  • A balloon catheter with delivery probe and method of use for delivering a therapeutic agent and/or diagnostic agent to tissue is provided. (google.es)
  • The probe has a lumen for delivering a diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent to tissue. (google.es)
  • When the balloon is inflated the probe is captured between an outer wall of the balloon and the tissue so that therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent may be delivered to the tissue through the probe lumen via the distal end of the probe. (google.es)
  • delivering a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent through the at least one delivery lumen to the tissue via the distal end of the delivery probe. (google.es)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising the step of repeatedly deflating and inflating said at least one balloon by supplying fluid to the balloon in a pulsed fashion such that the repeated deflation and inflation causes said therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent to spread on the tissue. (google.es)
  • 8 . The method of claim 7 , further comprising the step of delivering a first therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent through said first delivery lumen to the tissue via the distal end of the delivery probe and delivering a second therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent through said second delivery lumen to the tissue via the distal end of the delivery probe. (google.es)
  • delivering the therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent to the chamber. (google.co.uk)
  • 7 . The method of claim 1 , further comprising the step of circulating the therapeutic agent within the chamber, wherein the agent enters the chamber through a first opening in the catheter positioned on one side of the third balloon and exits the chamber through a second opening in the catheter positioned on the other side of the third balloon. (google.co.uk)
  • delivering a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent to tissue via a second lumen of the catheter. (google.co.uk)
  • Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are urgently needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Boswellia sacra essential oil as a therapeutic agent for treating breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alkeran(R): Melphalan should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (allinahealth.org)
  • Melphalan belongs to the group of medicines called alkylating agents (cancer medicines). (allinahealth.org)
  • ALKERAN® Glaxo Wellcome Melphalan Antineoplastic Action And Clinical Pharmacology: Melphalan is an alkylating agent of the bischloroethylamine type. (rxmed.com)
  • However, the use of cisplatin as an anticancer agent is limited due to toxicity and resistance problems. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Combining multiple antitumor agents increases the cytotoxicity against cancer cells without necessarily increasing the general toxicity. (greek.doctor)
  • This mechanism of toxicity is relevant to the function of anti-cancer drugs in the form of alkylating antineoplastic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-agent therapy: After satisfactory recovery from toxicity, may resume dosage at 1-2 mg/kg daily. (drugs.com)
  • Originally, alkylating agents were best known for their use as mustard gas and related chemical weapons in World War I because of their toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ifosfamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used in the treatment of cancer. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Ifosfamide belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics , and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as alkylating agents . (medbroadcast.com)
  • The investigations revealed that predominantly those antineoplastic drugs which have an alkylating mechanism of action had to be classified as potential carcinogens, whereas antimetabolites and antimitotics exerted practically no carcinogenic effects. (springer.com)
  • Busulfan is an antineoplastic in the class of alkylating agents and is used to treat various forms of cancer. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Busulfan is a cell cycle non-specific alkylating antineoplastic agent , in the class of alkyl sulfonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both IV and oral formulations require prophylactic antiemetic agents administered prior to the busulfan dose and scheduled antiemetics administered thereafter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Busulfan is a bifunctional alkylating agent. (medchemexpress.com)
  • The 'alkylating-based' group will receive CapTem regimen (capecitabine and temozolomide, /4 week), alternatively LV5FU2 (folinic acid-5 fluorouracil)-dacarbazine (1x/2 week) or LV5FU2 (folinic acid-5-fluorouracil)-streptozotocine (1x/2 week). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • O(6)-methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) silencing by promoter methylation may identify cancer patients responding to the alkylating agents dacarbazine or temozolomide. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that cancer cells in which TDP1 is inherently deficient are hypersensitive to alkylation damage and that TDP1 depletion sensitizes glioblastoma-resistant cancer cells to the alkylating agent temozolomide. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Temozolomide is a DNA-methylating agent. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Temozolomide is an alkylating cytostatic drug. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Since cancer cells generally proliferate unrestrictively more than do healthy cells they are more sensitive to DNA damage, and alkylating agents are used clinically to treat a variety of tumours. (chemeurope.com)
  • Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx ) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs ( chemotherapeutic agents ) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are cytotoxic by means of interfering with cell division (mitosis) but cancer cells vary widely in their susceptibility to these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global cancer cell therapy pipeline includes 1,011 active agents. (prnewswire.com)
  • The introduction and approval of anti-PD-1 agents' nivolumab and pembrolizumab for NSCLC has bought a new era for the cancer industry. (prnewswire.com)
  • A ntineoplastic agents are widely used in cancer therapy because they can inhibit growth by disrupt- ing cell division and killing actively growing cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: How should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding? (nih.gov)
  • An alkylating nitrogen mustard used to treat ovarian cancer, myeloma, and occasionally melanoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An effective antineoplastic agent and is used for a variety of cancer s. (cancer.gov)
  • Valley Cottage, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 02/25/2019 -- Anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents are the drugs which prevent or inhibit the maturation and proliferation of neoplasms and thus helps in the management of cancer. (sbwire.com)
  • Thus, growing demand for anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents has captured the attention of pharmaceutical companies to enter into anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents market and develop more efficient drugs against several cancer conditions. (sbwire.com)
  • Increasing prevalence of cancer cases, technological advancements, increasing funding from government bodies, and favorable reimbursement policies are the major factors driving the growth of global anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents market. (sbwire.com)
  • However, factors such as lack of awareness about cancer condition in developing regions and technical complexities associated with the existing diagnostic tests would hinder the growth of anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents market. (sbwire.com)
  • The global anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents market is segmented based on type of cancer, anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents, and regional presence. (sbwire.com)
  • Geographically, North America followed by Europe dominates the global anti-neoplastic pharmaceutical agents owing high prevalence of cancer cases and increasing demand of drugs for cancer treatment. (sbwire.com)
  • Thus, in addition to the documented genotoxic effects of antineoplastic drugs in cancer patients, this meta-analysis confirmed a significant association between occupational exposure to antineoplastics during the course of a normal work day and increases in chromosomal aberrations in healthcare workers. (cdc.gov)
  • However, given the potential for increased cancer risk linked to increases in chromosomal aberrations, the results of this study support the need to limit occupational exposure of healthcare workers to antineoplastic drugs as much as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Base damage and topoisomerase I (Top1)-linked DNA breaks are abundant forms of endogenous DNA breakage, contributing to hereditary ataxia and underlying the cytotoxicity of a wide range of anti-cancer agents. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Mitomycin C is a DNA-damaging agent and small-molecule inhibitor effectively sensitize cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). (medchemexpress.com)
  • Tiofosfamid) is an alkylating agent used to treat cancer, this molecule features tetrahedral phosphorus and is structurally akin to phosphate. (medchemexpress.com)
  • 1987) Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer. (springer.com)
  • The chemotherapy drug resistance and non-selectivity toward targets have turned the current cancer research on to the highly emerging selective targets for the development of potential anticancer agents. (intechopen.com)
  • It is recommended that dacarbazine for injection be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (drugster.info)
  • Hexamethylmelamine is an anti-cancer ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (chemocare.com)
  • In medical applications , a class of cancer treatment is alkylating antineoplastic agents, in which DNA is methylated, causing damage to the cancerous cells and inhibiting growth. (mt.com)
  • The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • To obtain an overall assessment of the exposure effect, we performed a meta-analysis on data obtained from peer-reviewed publications reporting chromosomal aberration levels in healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • Results showed the level of chromosomal aberrations in healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic drugs was significantly higher than in controls. (cdc.gov)
  • Vincristine is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the periwinkle plant. (medscape.com)
  • Alkylating agents use selective alkylation by adding the desired aliphatic carbon chain to the previously chosen starting molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkylation is accomplished with the class of drugs called alkylating antineoplastic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkylation can result in miscoding of DNA strands, incomplete repair of alkylated segments (which leads to strand breakage or depurination), excessive cross-linking of DNA, and inhibition of strand separation at mitosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Resistance to one alkylating agent often implies resistance to other drugs in the same class and can be caused by increased production of nucleophilic substances that compete with the target DNA for alkylation. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The hypersensitivity to alkylation damage is partly restored by depletion of Top1, illustrating that alkylating agents can trigger cytotoxic Top1-breaks. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Alkylating agents are typically olefin, alcohols, sulfates halides and various nitrogen containing compounds that promote alkylation by enabling alkyl groups to selectively bond to molecules. (mt.com)
  • In the manufacturing of gasoline , alkylation is used to produce high octane product by converting isoparaffins and low-molecular-weight alkenes into alkylate. (mt.com)
  • The alkylation process produces alkylate from propylene, butylene, and isobutane (i.e. alkylating olefins to form longer branched-chain hydrocarbons). (mt.com)
  • A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. (curehunter.com)
  • 13. Antineoplastic drugs. (greek.doctor)
  • Many alkylating agents are pro-drugs which are converted into an active metabolite in the body. (greek.doctor)
  • Drugs of this group are related to mustard gas, a chemical warfare agent. (greek.doctor)
  • Most antineoplastic drugs target what activity? (brainscape.com)
  • The sample may have been biased as many patients receiving treatments frequently associated with drug-induced hyperpigmentation, such as antineoplastic drugs, are diagnosed and treated by other specialties, such as oncologists. (jabfm.org)
  • Meta-analysis of chromosomal aberrations as a biomarker of exposure in healthcare workers occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • A literature search identified 39 studies reporting on occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and measurement of chromosomal aberrations in healthcare workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Schmähl D, Kaldor JM (ed) (1986) Carcinogenicity of alkylating cytostatic drugs. (springer.com)
  • Most sources consider breastfeeding to be contraindicated during maternal antineoplastic drug therapy, especially alkylating agents such as carmustine. (nih.gov)
  • Know that dosage may need to be decreased if drug is given with other antineoplastics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • contraindications Pregnancy, recent exposure to antineoplastic medication or to radiation, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A vesicant and necrotizing irritant destructive to mucous membranes, mechlorethamine is an alkylating drug. (drugbank.ca)
  • Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic Agents are used in the treatment of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia? (medscape.com)
  • When this drug is used as an alkylating agent, the mechanism of action of its active metabolites may involve cross-linking of DNA, which may interfere with the growth of normal and neoplastic cells. (medscape.com)
  • The drug is not cross-resistant with other mustard-type alkylating agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Paraplatin is an anticancer drug ("antineoplastic" or "cytotoxic") chemotherapy drug. (chemocare.com)
  • Individual alkylating agents are generally cell-cycle nonspecific and can be subgrouped according to chemical structure into nitrogen mustards, ethyleneamines, alkyl sulfonates, nitrosoureas, and triazene derivatives. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • On the other hand, alkylating agents such as cisplatin, cis- [PtCl2 (NH3) 2] have been widely used as antineoplastic agents for a wide variety of cancers including testicular, ovarian, neck and head cancers, amongst others. (uwc.ac.za)
  • On the other hand the newly synthesized palladium complexes also need further evaluation to see if they can be used as anticancer agents that can overcome the problems associated with cisplatin. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Some agents act at specific phases of the cell cycle, whereas others (ie, alkylating agents, anthracyclines, cisplatin) are not phase-specific. (medscape.com)
  • 11 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the agent is cisplatin, and wherein the method further comprises the step of supplying a second agent, said second agent being epinephrine. (google.es)
  • Kempf SR, Ivankovic S (1986) Chemotherapy induced malignancies in rats after treatment with cisplatin as single agent and in combination: preliminary results. (springer.com)
  • What is the dermatologic preoperative evaluation and management of antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents? (medscape.com)
  • Many antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agents have been thought to retard wound healing. (medscape.com)
  • However, the use of immunosuppressive or antineoplastic agents may predispose the patient to an even greater risk of infection, and physicians may consider the use of prophylactic antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • It is also synergistic with some other antineoplastic agents and has immunosuppressive activity. (drugbank.ca)
  • Experiments on the mechanism of the carcinogenic action of alkylating agents yielded the clear result that this type of carcinogenesis is not linked to the immunosuppressive porperties of alkylating agents, but is due to direct interaction between the alkylating agent and DNA. (springer.com)
  • Brock N, Schneider B, Stekar J, Pohl J (1989) Experimental investigations into the carcinogenic effect of antitumor and immunosuppressive agents. (springer.com)
  • Alkylating agent work by covalently binding alkyl chemical groups into DNA bases. (greek.doctor)
  • Cytosine arabinoside is an antimetabolic agent with the chemical name of 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine . (bionity.com)
  • reducing agent a substance that acts as an electron donor in a chemical redox reaction . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The principal use of sulfur mustard was as a vesicant chemical warfare agent. (cdc.gov)
  • o-and p-Nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl)-5-fluorouracil Derivatives as Potential Conjugated Bioreductive Alkylating Agents" Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Washington, US, vol. 29, No. 1, 1986, pp. 84-89. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • There is hardly any other field in chemical carcinogenesis in which such good agreement between experimental and clinical results has been reached as in carcinogenesis induced by antineoplastic agents. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, it would lead to providing a path for the development of novel target-specific and highly effective benzimidazole-based anticancer agents. (intechopen.com)
  • Levetiracetam is often used because it lacks the effects on the P450 system seen with phenytoin and carbamazepine, which can interfere with antineoplastic therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Most chemotherapy agents interfere with what carcinogenesis phase? (brainscape.com)
  • Antineoplastic agents interfere with cell reproduction. (medscape.com)
  • By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons , especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis , and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyfunctional alkylating agents typically cause strand cross-linking and inhibition of mitosis with consequent cell death. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • It also prevents the tumors from developing resistance to individual agents. (greek.doctor)
  • Anti-Neoplastic pharmaceutical agents are used in combination with surgery, immunotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy for many solid tumors, especially metastatic. (sbwire.com)
  • Neuroendocrine tumors were most sensitive to antiproliferative agents, such as mitomycin and topotecan. (onclive.com)
  • a polyfunctional alkylating agent. (drugs.com)
  • potassium channel blocking agent any of a class of antiarrhythmic agents that inhibit the movement of potassium ions through the potassium channels, thus prolonging repolarization of the cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sodium channel blocking agent any of a class of antiarrhythmic agents that prevent ectopic beats by acting on partially inactivated sodium channels to inhibit abnormal depolarizations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But there is also the third class of oncotherapy, biological therapy , which is neither cytostatic like endocrine therapy nor cytotoxic like chemotherapy, using biological agents or 'biologics', that target intrinsic molecular (signaling) pathways underlying fundamental onco-processes like carcinogenesis, tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, metastasis, cell adhesion and motility, etc. (earthlink.net)
  • Fotemustine (S 10036) is a nitrosourea alkylating agent approved for use in the treatment of metastasising melanoma. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Dacarbazine belongs to a group of medicines known as antineoplastic or cytotoxic agents. (mydr.com.au)
  • Electrophilic, soluble alkylating agents are often toxic and carcinogenic, due to their tendency to alkylate DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated this agent to have a carcinogenic and teratogenic effect when used in animals. (drugster.info)
  • The aim of this present study was to screen the leaves of Rhus laevigata, a South African indigenous plant, for the presence of pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative natural compounds and also to screen newly synthesised palladium based complexes (15 and 57) and a platinum based complex (58) for their antineoplastic activities tested against a panel of cell lines. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Alkylating agents form highly reactive intermediate compounds that are able to transfer alkyl groups to DNA. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Alkylating agents, antimetabolities, hormones and other antineoplastic compounds. (edu.sa)
  • The results were systematically supported in later experiments and extended to other antineoplastic compounds (Schmähl and Osswald 1970). (springer.com)
  • Patient sensitivity for the 89 agents was determined using the NCI-60 panel, which uses 60 different human tumor cell lines to identify and characterize novel compounds with growth inhibition or killing of tumor cell lines. (onclive.com)
  • The hydrochloride is used as an antineoplastic in Hodgkin's disease and lymphomas. (drugbank.ca)
  • An orally administered hydrazine derivative antineoplastic agent. (cancer.gov)
  • An antineoplastic alkylating agent used in the treatment of polycythemia vera, administered orally. (lexic.us)
  • Anti-neoplastic agents do not get stabilized in one part of the body, however they travel through body and help in destruction of cancerous cells. (sbwire.com)
  • Cytarabine is a shortened form of cytosine arabinoside , a commonly used chemotherapy agent used mainly in the treatment of leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma . (bionity.com)
  • This medication is classified as an "alkylating agent. (chemocare.com)
  • These agents are also known as cytotoxic agents. (sbwire.com)
  • An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent that attaches an alkyl group to DNA . (chemeurope.com)
  • alkylating agent a cytotoxic agent, e.g., a nitrogen mustard , which is highly reactive and can donate an alkyl group to another compound. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ethylene oxide is the alkylating group in this reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current chemotherapy regimens usually consist of multidrug regimens and most commonly include platinum as one of the agents. (medscape.com)
  • Alkylating agents are cell cycle-nonspecific. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Alkylating agents work by three different mechanisms all of which achieve the same end result - disruption of DNA function and cell death. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Amongst them, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy number has increased substantially and is cumulating to a total of 568 agents. (prnewswire.com)
  • A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Cell cycle non-specific antineoplastic agent against various sarcomas and carcinomas. (vetstream.com)
  • Cellular apoptosis (ie, programmed cell death) is another potential mechanism of many antineoplastic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Nelarabine is a prodrug of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (ara-G). This agent is converted to the active arabinofuranosyl-guanine-5'-triphosphate (ara-GTP), a T-cell-selective nucleoside analogue. (medscape.com)
  • blocking agent an agent that inhibits a biological action, such as movement of an ion across the cell membrane, passage of a neural impulse, or interaction with a specific receptor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These active metabolites are often bifunctional , meaning that they can alkylate two guanine bases and not just one. (greek.doctor)
  • Dialkylating agents can react with two different 7-N-guanine residues and if these are in different strands of DNA the result is cross-linkage of the DNA strands, which prevents uncoiling of the DNA double helix. (chemeurope.com)
  • Monoalkylating agents can react only with one 7-N of guanine. (chemeurope.com)
  • The alkylated guanine can be excised, paired with an A or T instead of the normal C or form cross-links with other alkylated guanine bases. (greek.doctor)
  • These agents are thought to react with the N7 position of guanine or any nitrogen base in each of the double strands of DNA, resulting in damage to the DNA (NLM, 2014). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this project, we wish to evaluate the contribution of the MGMT methylation, evaluated in the tumor , in predicting the Objective Response (OR) in patients treated with ALKY and to evaluate a treatment with alkylating agents versus Oxaliplatin in patients with a duodeno-pancreatic or lung or unknown primitive NET. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A widely used local anesthetic agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Alkylating agents are widely used in chemistry because the alkyl group is probably the most common group encountered in organic molecules. (medchemexpress.com)