Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.Ellipticines: Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.Bibenzyls: Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.ThiadiazinesBryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Ancitabine: Congener of CYTARABINE that is metabolized to cytarabine and thereby maintains a more constant antineoplastic action.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Aminoacridines: Acridines which are substituted in any position by one or more amino groups or substituted amino groups.Epothilones: A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Sarcoma 180Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Leukemia L1210Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Aster Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Olacaceae: A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.LaunderingSulindac: A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Dental Physiological Processes: Functions and activities of DENTITION as a whole.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Amsacrine: An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Vanadium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain vanadium as an integral part of the molecule.Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.ThiosemicarbazonesCarcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Topoisomerase II Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE II. Included in this category are a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS which target the eukaryotic form of topoisomerase II and ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS which target the prokaryotic form of topoisomerase II.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Farnesyltranstransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Isocoumarins: Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.Nitrogen Mustard Compounds: A group of alkylating agents derived from mustard gas, with the sulfur replaced by nitrogen. They were formerly used as toxicants and vesicants, but now function as antineoplastic agents. These compounds are also powerful mutagens, teratogens, immunosuppressants, and carcinogens.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.DioxolesSuramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Topoisomerase I Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE I.Azacitidine: A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.DNA Topoisomerases, Type II: DNA TOPOISOMERASES that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Nitrosourea CompoundsMice, Inbred BALB CPharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.PyrazinesMetabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Alkylating Agents: Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Razoxane: An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.PiperazinesMitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Dehydroascorbic Acid: The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.

Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy. (1/35913)

The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate.  (+info)

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (2/35913)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Differential regulation of p21waf-1/cip-1 and Mdm2 by etoposide: etoposide inhibits the p53-Mdm2 autoregulatory feedback loop. (3/35913)

The Mdm2 protein is frequently overexpressed in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and transitional carcinoma of the bladder where it may contribute to tolerance of wtp53. Mdm2 forms an autoregulatory feedback loop with p53; the Mdm2 gene is responsive to transactivation by p53 and once synthesized the Mdm2 protein terminates the p53 response. We show here that the topoisomerase poison etoposide, like ultra violet irradiation, inhibits Mdm2 synthesis. Cytotoxic concentrations of etoposide (IC90 for > 3 h) result in inhibition of Mdm2 induction at both the RNA and protein level. Rapid apoptosis ensues. Global transcription is not inhibited: p21waf-1/cip1 and GADD45 expression increase in a dose dependent manner. Inhibition of Mdm2 synthesis depends on the continuous presence of etoposide, suggesting the DNA damage may prevent transcription. Downregulation of Mdm2 transcript occurs in cells expressing HPV16-E6 suggesting that inhibition of Mdm2 transcription is p53-independent. When cells are -treated with a pulse (1 h) of etoposide and reincubated in drug free medium, Mdm2 synthesis commences immediately after damage is repaired (3 h) and the p53 response is attenuated. Induction of apoptosis and loss of clonogenicity are 3-5-fold lower under pulse treatment conditions. This is the first observation of inhibition of Mdm2 transcription following treatment with topoisomerase (topo II) poisons, a feature that may be useful in tumour types where p53 is tolerated by overexpression of Mdm2.  (+info)

Retinoic acid, but not arsenic trioxide, degrades the PLZF/RARalpha fusion protein, without inducing terminal differentiation or apoptosis, in a RA-therapy resistant t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL patient. (4/35913)

Primary blasts of a t(11;17)(q23;q21) acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patient were analysed with respect to retinoic acid (RA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3) sensitivity as well as PLZF/RARalpha status. Although RA induced partial monocytic differentiation ex vivo, but not in vivo, As203 failed to induce apoptosis in culture, contrasting with t(15;17) APL and arguing against the clinical use of As203 in t(11;17)(q23;q21) APL. Prior to cell culture, PLZF/RARalpha was found to exactly co-localize with PML onto PML nuclear bodies. However upon cell culture, it quickly shifted towards microspeckles, its localization found in transfection experiments. Arsenic trioxide, known to induce aggregation of PML nuclear bodies, left the microspeckled PLZF/RARalpha localization completely unaffected. RA treatment led to PLZF/RARalpha degradation. However, this complete PLZF/RARalpha degradation was not accompanied by differentiation or apoptosis, which could suggest a contribution of the reciprocal RARalpha/PLZF fusion product in leukaemogenesis or the existence of irreversible changes induced by the chimera.  (+info)

Constitutive activation of Stat3 signaling confers resistance to apoptosis in human U266 myeloma cells. (5/35913)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is the major survival factor for myeloma tumor cells and induces signaling through the STAT proteins. We report that one STAT family member, Stat3, is constitutively activated in bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with multiple myeloma and in the IL-6-dependent human myeloma cell line U266. Moreover, U266 cells are inherently resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis and express high levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL. Blocking IL-6 receptor signaling from Janus kinases to the Stat3 protein inhibits Bcl-xL expression and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that Stat3 signaling is essential for the survival of myeloma tumor cells. These findings provide evidence that constitutively activated Stat3 signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma by preventing apoptosis.  (+info)

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells. (6/35913)

Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals.  (+info)

Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with the long-acting somatostatin analogue lanreotide: in vitro and in vivo results. (7/35913)

Fourteen patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with the long-acting somatostatin (SST) analogue lanreotide. No objective response was obtained, and the median survival was 4 months (range 1.8-7 months). Pancreatic cancer could not be visualized by means of SST-receptor (R) scintigraphy in our patients. In vitro data also demonstrated absence of SSTR2 expression, suggesting pancreatic cancer not to be a potential target for treatment with SST analogues.  (+info)

Role of dexamethasone dosage in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists for prophylaxis of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. (8/35913)

Dexamethasone (20 mg) or its equivalent in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists appears to be the gold-standard dose for antiemetic prophylaxis. Additional to concerns about the use of corticosteroids with respect to enhanced tumour growth or impaired killing of the tumour cells, there is evidence that high-dosage dexamethasone impairs the control of delayed nausea and emesis, whereas lower doses appear more beneficial. To come closer to the most adequate dose, we started a prospective, single-blind, randomized trial investigating additional dosage of 8 or 20 mg dexamethasone to tropisetron (Navoban), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in cis-platinum-containing chemotherapy. After an interim analysis of 121 courses of chemotherapy in 69 patients, we have been unable to detect major differences between both treatment alternatives. High-dose dexamethasone (20 mg) had no advantage over medium-dose dexamethasone with respect to objective and subjective parameters of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting. In relation to concerns about the use of corticosteroids in non-haematological cancer chemotherapy, we suggest that 8 mg or its equivalent should be used in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists until further research proves otherwise.  (+info)

*Taurolidine

Although the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity has not been fully elucidated, it may be related to this agent's ... cytotoxic and mechanistic evaluation of a novel antineoplastic agent". Cancer Research. 61 (18): 6816-6821. ISSN 0008-5472. ... Taurolidine has been used as an antimicrobial agent in the clinical setting since the 1970s and thus far appears nontoxic. The ... Taurolidine is an antimicrobial agent used in an effort to prevent catheter infections. It however is not approved for this use ...

*List of antineoplastic agents

This is a list of antineoplastic agents used to treat cancer. Rossi, S, ed. (2013). Australian Medicines Handbook (2013 ed.). ...

*Alkylating antineoplastic agent

An alkylating antineoplastic agent is an alkylating agent used in cancer treatment that attaches an alkyl group (CnH2n+1) to ... The platinum agents are also sometimes described as nonclassical. Alkylating antineoplastic agents have limitations. Their ... List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents "Alkylating Agents". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2 August 2014 ... University of Nebraska page on alkylating agent drugs Alkylating antineoplastic agents at the US National Library of Medicine ...

*Cell-cycle nonspecific antineoplastic agents

... (CCNS) refer to a class of pharmaceuticals that act as antitumor agents at all or ... Alkylating antineoplastic agent and anthracyclins are two examples. "Chemotherapy: The Basics". OncoLink. Archived from the ... "Cell killing action of cell cycle phase-non-specific antitumor agents is dependent on concentration--time product". Cancer ...

*List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents

This is a list of dual hormonal and alkylating antineoplastic agents. Estramustine phosphate (Emcyt, Estracyt; Leo 299, NSC- ...

*Streptomyces griseoluteus

"Antineoplastic agents. 47. Structure of an antineoplastic agent from Streptomyces griseoluteus". Journal of the American ...

*John Hooper (marine biologist)

"Antineoplastic agents. 219. Isolation and structure of the cell growth inhibitory constituents from the western Pacific marine ... "Antineoplastic agents. 257. Isolation and structure of spongistatin 1". Journal of Organic Chemistry. 58: 1302. doi:10.1021/ ...

*Psymberin

Pettit GR, Xu JP, Chapuis JC, Pettit RK, Tackett LP, Doubek DL, Hooper JN, Schmidt JM (2004). "Antineoplastic agents. 520. ...

*Aplidium californicum

Certain antineoplastic agents, bryostatins 4 and 5, have been extracted from Aplidium californicum and are being evaluated. ... Pettit GR, Leet JE, Herald CL, Kamano Y, Doubek DL (1986). "Antineoplastic agents, 116. An evaluation of the marine ascidian ...

*Combretum caffrum

Pettit GR, Cragg GM, Singh SB (May-June 1987). "Antineoplastic agents, 122. Constituents of Combretum caffrum". Journal of ...

*Prednisone

Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal (2009). Retrieved 9-11-2010 RIEMER, AD (April 1958). "Application of the newer corticosteroids ...

*O6-Benzylguanine

It is an antineoplastic agent. It exerts its effect by acting as an suicide inhibitor of the enzyme O6-alkylguanine-DNA ... O6-BG was used clinically in combination with the alkylating agent temozolomide for glioblastoma, however the combination was ...

*Alestramustine

G. W. A. Milne (1 July 2000). Ashgate Handbook of Antineoplastic Agents. Wiley. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-566-08382-2. KD Tripathi (30 ... List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents List of estrogen esters NCI Thesaurus. "Alestramustine". Retrieved 24 June ... is a nitrogen mustard alkylating antineoplastic drug that was never marketed. It is the L-alanine ester of estramustine, which ...

*Crotogoudin

List of antineoplastic agents Breitler, Simon; Carreira, Erick M. (2013). "Total Synthesis of (+)-Crotogoudin". Angewandte ...

*Chemotherapy

Antineoplastic Agents in Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. Eds. Offermanns S and Rosenthal W. ... The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs. ... Healthcare workers exposed to antineoplastic agents take precautions to keep their exposure to a minimum. There is a limitation ... There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. Several classification schemes have been used to subdivide the medicines ...

*EPOCH (chemotherapy)

... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (H)ydroxydaunorubicin, also known as doxorubicin: an anthracycline antibiotic that is able ...

*Alacizumab pegol

... is an antineoplastic agent. Chemically, it is a pegylated F(ab')2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody. ...

*Diethylstilbestrol disulfate

It is described as an antineoplastic agent. J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, ...

*Combretastatin A-4

"Antineoplastic Agents. 291. Isolation and Synthesis of Combretastatins A-4, A-5, and A-6", Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 38: ... "A Comprehensive Review on Combretastatin Analogues as Tubulin Binding Agents". Current Organic Chemistry. 18 (19): 2462-2512. ... O-substituted carbonic ether moiety as potential antitumor agents". doi:10.1186/1752-153X-7-179. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et ... "Synthesis and evaluation of azetidinone analogues of combretastatin A-4 as tubulin targeting agents". Journal of Medicinal ...

*Adherence (medicine)

Partridge AH, Avorn J, Wang PS, Winer EP (2002). "Adherence to therapy with oral antineoplastic agents". Journal of the ... trials evaluating Tamoxifen as a preventative agent have shown dropout rates of around one-third: 36% in the Royal Marsden ... Is there a difference between typical and atypical agents?". American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (1): 103-108. doi:10.1176/appi ...

*CEPP

... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (P)rednisone or (P)rednisolone - a glucocorticoid hormone that has the ability to cause ... an alkylating antineoplastic agent; (E)toposide - a topoisomerase inhibitor from the epipodophyllotoxin group; (P)rocarbazine ...

*Altretamine

... is an antineoplastic agent. It was approved by the U.S. FDA in 1990. It is indicated for use as a single agent in the ... which altretamine exerts its anti-cancer effect is unknown but it is classified by MeSH as an alkylating antineoplastic agent. ... of patients with persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer following first-line therapy with cisplatin and/or alkylating agent- ...

*Hormonal therapy (oncology)

List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents DeVita, Vincent T.; Hellman, Samuel; Rosenberg, Steven A., eds. (2005). ... It was previously used in the treatment of breast cancer, but has been replaced by more effective and less toxic agents. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are an important class of hormonal therapy agents which act as antagonists of ... although another class of hormonal agents, aromatase inhibitors, now have an expanding role in that disease. One effective ...

*Monomethyl auristatin F

... (MMAF) is a synthetic antineoplastic agent. It is part of some experimental anti-cancer antibody-drug ... Monomethyl auristatin F is an antimitotic agent which inhibits cell division by blocking the polymerisation of tubulin. It is ...

*Exisulind

... (tentative trade name Aptosyn) is an antineoplastic agent. It acts by inhibiting the enzyme cyclic guanosine ... as a chemopreventive agent in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis". Clinical Cancer Research. 6 (1): 78-89. PMID ... a Potential Mechanism for Their Antineoplastic Properties". International Journal of Tissue Reactions. 20 (3): 85-9. PMID ...

*Bohemic acid

Most of those components are antitumor agents and anthracycline antibiotics active against Gram-positive bacteria. Bohemic acid ... "The Toxicologic Evaluation of Marcellomycin-An Antineoplastic Anthracycline Antibiotic". Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 6 (1): ... Subscription or UK public library membership required.) "Antitumor agents from the bohemic acid complex. 4. Structures of ... "Antitumor Agents from Bohemic Acid Complex, VI. Schaunardimycin". Journal of Natural Products. 47 (4): 698-701. doi:10.1021/ ...

*Cytestrol acetate

List of hormonal alkylating antineoplastic agents Oborotov, A. V.; Smirnova, Z. S.; Osetrova, I. P.; Polozkova, A. P.; ... Cytestrol acetate is a steroidal antiestrogen and an alkylating antineoplastic agent (i.e., chemotherapeutic) which was ...
Vascularization, oxygenation, and metabolism are important parameters of a tumor, determining its development and treatment response. The overall goals of this thesis were to: 1) describe these parameters in colorectal cancer, both in animal models and in humans; 2) explore the possibility to manipulate vascularization, oxygenation and metabolism for the improvement of cytotoxic treatment; 3) monitor uptake and metabolism of fluorinated cytotoxic drugs in colorectal cancer in an early stage of the treatment. The specific questions were addressed whether vascularization as measured by dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and uptake and metabolism of 5-fluorouracil (FU) as measured by fluorine-19 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F MRS) could predict response to cytotoxic treatment. This research shows that nicotinamide and carbogen can decrease tumor hypoxia in murine colon carcinoma, both in subcutaneously implanted tumors and in an orthotopic liver metastases model. Moreover, carbogen ...
The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studi
TY - JOUR. T1 - 2-Aroylquinoline-5,8-diones as potent anticancer agents displaying tubulin and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition. AU - Nepali, Kunal. AU - Kumar, Sunil. AU - Huang, Hsiang Ling. AU - Kuo, Fei Chiao. AU - Lee, Cheng Hsin. AU - Kuo, Ching Chuan. AU - Yeh, Teng Kuang. AU - Li, Yu Hsuan. AU - Chang, Jang Yang. AU - Liou, Jing Ping. AU - Lee, Hsueh Yun. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - This study reports the synthesis of a series of 2-aroylquinoline-5,8-diones (11-23) on the basis of scaffold hopping. The presence of a methoxy group at C6 assists the highly regioselective incorporation with various amines, and simplifies the structural identification process. Among the synthetic compounds, 6-dimethylamino-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-quinoline-5,8-dione (12) and 7-pyrrolidin-1-yl-2-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-quinoline-5,8-dione (23) exhibit remarkable anti-proliferative activity against the cancer cell lines tested with mean IC50 values of 0.14 and 0.27 μM, respectively. Compound 23 ...
Antineoplastic Agents products for sale from more than 7568 Antineoplastic Agents manufacturers and Antineoplastic Agents suppliers.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) plays critical roles in tumorigenesis and malignant evolution and has been intensively studied as a therapeutic target for cancer. A number of STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated for their antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo in experimental tumor models and several approved therapeutic agents have been reported to function as STAT3 inhibitors. Nevertheless, most STAT3 inhibitors have yet to be translated to clinical evaluation for cancer treatment, presumably because of pharmacokinetic, efficacy, and safety issues. In fact, a major cause of failure of anticancer drug development is lack of efficacy. Genetic interactions among various cancer-related pathways often provide redundant input from parallel and/or cooperative pathways that drives and maintains survival environments for cancer cells, leading to low efficacy of single-target agents. Exploiting genetic interactions of STAT3 with other cancer-related pathways may provide molecular
A breakthrough international trial of a new cancer drug has given researchers renewed hope in the fight against leukaemia, with one Melbourne doctor suggesting it could end traditional chemotherapy treatments for good.
VISAGIE, Michelle Helen; JAISWAL, Seema Rummurat e JOUBERT, Anna Margaretha. In vitro assessment of a computer-designed potential anticancer agent in cervical cancer cells. Biol. Res. [online]. 2016, vol.49, pp.1-13. ISSN 0716-9760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40659-016-0104-5.. BACKGROUND: Computer-based technology is becoming increasingly essential in biological research where drug discovery programs start with the identification of suitable drug targets. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2) is a 17ß-estradiol metabolite that induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines including cervical cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Owing to 2ME2s poor in vivo bioavailability, our laboratory in silico-designed and subsequently synthesized a novel 2ME2 analogue, 2-ethyl-3-O-sulphamoyl-estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-17-ol (ESE-15-ol), using receptor- and ligand molecular modeling. In this study, the biological effects of ESE-15-ol (180 nM) and its parent molecule, 2ME2 (1 μM), were assessed on morphology ...
A multi-center, international, randomized, Phase III study of older untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) demonstrated that ibrutinib, a kinase inhibitor, is significantly more effective than traditional chemotherapy with chlorambucil.
New anti-cancer drugs that are used for treating various kinds of cancer like lung cancer, breast cancer, blood cancer, myeloma, bone cancer and brain cancer have been added to IDM
A mysterious form of cell death, coded in proteins and enzymes, led to a discovery by UNC researchers uncovering a prime suspect for new cancer drug development.
BACKGROUND: TNBC is an aggressive breast cancer subtype defined by lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and for which no approved targeted therapies have shown benefit to date. Inhibition of PARP1, a key regulator of DNA repair, has been associated with antitumor activity in both clinical and preclinical settings. Iniparib, a PARP inhibitor, has demonstrated promising efficacy and safety for treatment of patients with metastatic TNBC when combined with gemcitabine (G) and carboplatin (C), two standard chemotherapeutic agents that synergize to induce DNA damage (OShaughnessy et al. SABCS 2009). We hypothesized that by inhibiting DNA repair, iniparib potentiates antiproliferative effects and cell cycle arrest induced by G+C. METHODS: Triple-negative MDA-MB-468(-) cells were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of HER2-negative cells. Cells confirmed negative for ER, PR, and HER2 were ...
Drug resistance represents a major obstacle towards the cure of different tumor types including non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), being one of the main causes of failure of antitumor therapy. Tumor cells frequently exhibit simultaneous resistance to multiple structurally unrelated drugs, a phenotype known as multidrug resistance (MDR). A major cause of the MDR phenotype is the over‐expression of members of a conserved family of transmembrane proteins (ABC transporters). Different structurally unrelated compounds, including conventional cytotoxic and target‐specific agents are substrates for ABC transporters. Cancer stem cells (CSC) refer to a subset of tumor cells with the ability to self‐renew and generate the diverse cells that comprise tumors. At present, the mechanisms contributing to the drug‐resistant phenotype of CSC are poorly understood. Some lines of evidence support that specific ABC transporters may be expressed in CSC and may be relevant therapeutic targets. The aim of ...
Chemoradiotherapy comparing different chemotherapeutic agents: Three randomized trials of chemoradiotherapy evaluated different chemotherapeutic agents (Table 1[C]). The Southwest Oncology Group randomly allocated 69 patients to 60 Gy of radiation with methyl lomustine 125 mg/m2 orally every six weeks and 5-FU 400 mg/m2 weekly, with or without testalactone 200 mg orally daily. Survival was similar in each arm (P=0.68). Among 62 evaluable patients, the most common adverse effects were myelosuppres-sion (87%) and gastrointestinal toxicity (23%), and there was one treatment-related death associated with granulocytopenia.. In 1988, the GITSG reported a randomized controlled trial evaluating multidrug chemotherapy with streptozocin 1 g/m2 day 1, mitomycin-C 10 mg/m2 day 1, and 5-FU 600 mg/m2 (SMF) on days 1, 8, 29, and 36 given in eight-week cycles for two years, or until disease progression, versus 54 Gy of radiation given with 5-FU 350 mg/m2/day on the first three and last three days of ...
... This report provides an overview of the Gastric and Esophageal Cancer pipeline landscape. The report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under
Anticancer drugs are also called anti-neoplastic agents or chemotherapeutic agents. They act upon rapidly dividing cancer cells and destroy them.
Alkaloids: -These agents block microtubular precipitation which is necessary for mitosis, i.e. they bind with the tubulin thus interfere with the assembly of spindle proteins during mitosis. (interfere with mitotic spindle formation). These include:  Vincristine (Oncovin).  Vinplastine (Velban).  Taxol  Taxotere  Eptoside Hormones: -Corticosteroids  in lymphocytic leukemia. -Androgens  in breast cancer. -Estrogens  in prostatic carcinoma. -Progestins  in endometrium carcinoma. Antibiotics: -They inhibit DNA synthesis & are used in treatment of colon, stomach, pancreas, breast & bladder cancer. -These are cytotoxic drugs.  Actinomycin D  (D-actinomycin).  Mithramycin  Mithracin.  Mitomycin  Mutamycin.  Doxo-rubicin Miscellaneous Group: -Procarbazine (Natulane): used in treating Hodgkins disease (lymph node enlargement). It is possibly an alkylating agent. -Nitrosoureas: in GIT malignancies. -L- asparaginase (Elspar): it hydrolysis L-asparagin, thus
... CHARLOTTESVILLE Va. Nov. 7 2013 /PRNewswi...(Logo: a href http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20120416/PH86899LOGO...Anticancer drugs continue to suffer the highest rate of failure in cli...HemoShears contract with the National Cancer Institute will support t...,HemoShear,to,Develop,Human,Cancer,Models,to,Improve,Industry,Success,Rates,in,New,Anticancer,Drug,Development,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Press Release issued Jul 3, 2014: Small molecule targeted cancer therapies are drugs designed to block the growth of cancerous cells. Conventional cytotoxic medications and chemotherapies usually destroys rapidly dividing cancer cells by inhibiting cell division process. However, small molecule targeted therapies destroys cancerous cells with fewer side effects and high precision. Small molecule targeted cancer therapies can be used for the treatment of various cancers such as prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, lymphoma, melanoma and other cancers.
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): This Phase II SBIR project is aimed at developing a novel type of drugs, termed SNX9-class compounds, with a unique combination of two anticancer activities. The first is a selective antiproliferative effect on tumor cells relative to normal cells. The second is the inhibition of chemotherapy- or radiation-induced expression of multiple genes encoding secreted tumor-supporting factors with mitogenic, antiapoptotic and angiogenic activities; as a result, SNX9-class compounds potentiate the induction of apoptosis by conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Studies conducted during Phase I of this project showed that both activities of SNX9- class compounds are due to their ability to inhibit CDK3. This understudied member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family is apparently unneeded by normal cells, based on its very low expression in normal human tissues and spontaneous germline inactivation in laboratory mice. However, CDK3 is overexpressed in different ...
Antineoplastic agents frequently disrupt replication at the cellular level by obstructing the synthesis of new genetic material or by causing irreversible damage to the DNA itself. While this affects both normal and malignant cells, normal cells have a greater ability to repair minor damage and continue living. The increased weakness of malignant cells is exploited to achieve the therapeutic effects seen with the administration of antineoplastic agents.1
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Current Status of Marine-Derived Compounds as Warheads in Anti-Tumor Drug Candidates. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The long-term objective of this research program is to discover and develop new and effective chemotherapeutic agents for fight against cancer, including cytoto...
Therapy for advanced lung cancer has improved only moderately in the last 20 years. Despite the most aggressive approaches of single-agent and combination chemotherapy with these cytotoxic agents, response rates have improved only modestly, ∼20-25%, and median survival remains at 8-10 months (11, 12, 13) . Clearly, there is a need for development of novel and rationally designed therapeutic agents that can be used either as single agents or in combination with conventional cytotoxic drug regimens.. Angiogenesis inhibitors represent a very exciting approach for NSCLC patients. There is a wealth of data in the literature now documenting the requirement for angiogenesis in human tumor growth and metastasis. The inhibition of angiogenesis has proved to be an important concept and a potentially effective strategy for treatment of existing tumors and prevention of metastasis both in animals and humans. In addition to eliminating the tumors "supply line," other theoretical advantages of targeting ...
Molecular targeting in the treatment of cancer is based on the premise that the molecular basis of cancer is associated with one or more genetic abnormalities that give rise to increased production or activation of some molecules and/or decreased production or activation of others ( 2). Determination of the structure of the target enzyme allows for the design of often exquisitely selective and effective inhibitors, enabling the selective inhibition of the up-regulated group of enzymes or activation of the down-regulated. This is expected to lead to inhibition of the pathways that typify cancer and to the death of the cancer cells, with low effect on normal cells and, therefore, low toxicity. However, there are a number of problems with this strategy.. Progression of a normal cell to cancer cell has recently been shown to involve dozens of genetic mutations, and therefore, targeting even a few gene products may be ineffective ( 5- 7). Inhibition of pathways that are the hallmark of cancer may be ...
Compare hormones/antineoplastics (hormonal oncology). View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and more...
Study Flashcards On MSD review: Antineoplastics/AntiCOAGs at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
This course introduces second-year graduate students to chemotherapy agents used to combat bacterial and viral infections as well as cancers. The course develops a detailed understanding of the strategies involved in identifying drug targets in these two diverse therapeutic settings. The antibacterial lectures emphasize the problem of drug resistance and the need to develop new agents to combat resistant organisms. The anti-cancer lectures begin with a comprehensive analysis of the molecular basis of cellulartransformation leading to neoplastic disease. Lectures on cancer therapy emphasize the contrast between conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy and novel therapeutic approaches guided by recent developments in cancer research. Novel computational biology and structural biology approaches are featured throughout the course. Each student is expected to make two formal journal-club style presentations during the course and to actively participate in group discussion.. 0-3 credits, Letter graded (A, ...
Determining the optimal time-window for prodrug injection is therefore of utmost importance for success of these strategies, Zaver M. Bhujwalla, lead author Cong Li and their colleagues note in a report scheduled for the Nov. 29 issue of the weekly Journal of the American Chemical Society. If the prodrug were injected before all the enzyme cleared from normal tissue, it could damage normal tissue and cause body-wide side effects, they say ...
The study findings suggest the genetic variations could eventually help researchers design more effective chemotherapeutic agents for pediatric ALL.
The anti-cancer drug is also known as an anti-neoplastic drug, it is used to treat malignancy or cancerous growths. This drug therapy may be used alone or in association with other treatments like surgery or radiant therapy.
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To get a better understanding of this phenomenon and develop treatments to address it, Mitsiades and his colleagues developed a technique in which tumor and normal cells are "co-cultured" - that is, grown together - and exposed to hundreds or thousands of compounds in large-scale screening tests. In the technique, dubbed "cell-specific in vitro bioluminescence imaging," or CS-BLI, the cancer cells in each sample are equipped with a gene that makes them glow - a process unaffected by the normal cells nearby. By measuring the amount of light emitted by each sample after treatment, investigators can determine which compounds are most proficient at killing tumor cells, and whether this effectiveness changes when normal cells are around the tumor. (To make sure the candidate drugs arent also killing normal cells, researchers can do a "counter-screen," in which they measure the effect of each compound on the normal cells.) While there are other techniques for screening drug activity in co-cultures of ...
The worlds largest cancer meeting of scientists, physicians and industry has just ended in Chicago. The annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical
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There are five different strategies of combination therapies that can and are being used with cancer vaccines. All have been validated in preclinical models and several have provided preliminary evidence of clinical benefit. As the field matures, progress in this area will undoubtedly be accelerated.. (a) Conventional combination therapy. In many cases of combination therapies using two or more chemotherapeutic agents or a chemotherapeutic agent and a targeted therapy (e.g., Herceptin and docetaxel), each agent works individually with the goal of additive antitumor effects. This too has been shown in numerous preclinical models using vaccines in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. Both preclinical and early clinical studies have highlighted the following important phenomena: although vaccines are less effective in patients heavily pretreated with chemotherapy before vaccine, no detrimental effects in immune responses to vaccines have been seen in patients when vaccine is given in ...
Just a month shy of its first birthday, Blend Therapeutics of Watertown, MA, says it has secured $16 million in Series B financing. It plans to use the mon
Gemzar: Gemcitabine belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as antimetabolites. Gemcitabine fights cancer by preventing the growth of cancer cells, which eventually results in their destruction. It is used to treat certain types of lung cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, and cancer of the pancreas.
Teva-Capecitabine: Capecitabine belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as antimetabolites. Capecitabine fights cancer by killing cancer cells and preventing their growth. Capecitabine may be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain types of breast cancer and colorectal cancer.
The journal publishes pre-clinical and clinical studies on the development of new anti-cancer agents. Clinical studies of new reported anti-cancer...
The journal publishes pre-clinical and clinical studies on the development of new anti-cancer agents. Clinical studies of new reported anti-cancer...
A wide variety of research has shown that γ-tubulin activates during cell division and that it is overexpressed in a portion of cancer cells, so it holds potential as a target protein for new anticancer agents with few side effects. Despite this research, no specific inhibitors have thus far been discovered.
BNC105 is a vascular disruption agent that selectively disrupts tumor blood vessels resulting in hypoxia and necrosis. Evofosfamide (previously known as TH-302, Evo) is a nitroimidazole-triggered prodrug of bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM), an alkylating agent with DNA cross-linking ability. Evo is reduced by intracellular reductases, and under hypoxic conditions selectively releases Br-IPM. Evo has little activity under normoxic conditions, but is highly cytotoxic under hypoxic conditions. Both BNC105 and Evo are currently being evaluated in Phase 1-3 clinical trials. Our studies sought to establish the potential therapeutic combination of BNC105 and Evo. It was reasoned that tumor hypoxia caused by BNC105 will result in increased intratumoral activation of Evo. A greater localized conversion of Evo to Br-IPM would increase the tumor kill achieved. A dose range-finding study was conducted to define the dose level and administration schedule for the BNC105 + Evo combination. The study ...
Synonyms for cytotoxic drug in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cytotoxic drug. 7 words related to cytotoxic drug: antineoplastic, antineoplastic drug, cancer drug, medicament, medication, medicinal drug, medicine. What are synonyms for cytotoxic drug?
Antineoplastic agentsThese agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. They are used for chemotherapy.Gemcitabine (Gemzar)A frequently quoted trial showed a small, but statistically significant, imp... more
Patients in early clinical trials of new-style targeted cancer therapies appear to have a much lower risk of the most serious side-effects than with traditional chemotherapy, according to a new analysis.
Alkeran: Melphalan belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as alkylating agents.
Pinpointing which colon cancer patients need chemotherapy in addition to surgery can be difficult. Studies have suggested that those with stage-2 disease arent likely to benefit from chemotherapy, so doctors may chose to bypass the treatment and its toxic side effects. Now cancer biologist Michael Clarke, MD, working with former postdoctoral scholars Piero Dalerba, MD, and Debashis Sahoo, PhD, have found …Read More. ...
The new anti-cancer drug, OMO-1, was given to the first cancer patient in the world last week in Oxford Universitys Early Phase trials unit. Dr Sarah Blagden (Oxfords ECMC lead and Director of the Early Phase Trials Unit) is Chief Investigator of this Phase I/II study of the combined c-MET/ OCT-1... ...
New cancer drugs that target genetic mutations regardless of where the tumor is growing should expand the practice of testing patients for such glitches, oncology experts say.
A new Ni(ii) complex, [Ni(L)(H2O)] (1), with diethyl 3,3′-(2,2′-(1,1′-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(ethan-1-yl-1-ylidene))bis(hydrazin-1-yl-2-ylidene))bis(3-oxopropanoate) ligand (H2L) was synthesized as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. Polidentate ligand was coordinated to Ni(ii) NNN-tridentately, in dianionic form, w
[113 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Antineoplastic Drugs of Tinib Class Detailed Analysis Report 2017-2022 report by QYResearch Group. This report mainly introduces volume and value market share by...
Phillip Sabin, the former vice president of finance at Revenue Science, has joined vcfo as a senior associate and chief financial officer. John L. Scott Real Estate continues to invest in its technology offerings, with the real-estate brokerage firm announcing Monday that it has acquired Real Tech. [...] the frequency of toxic side effects was lower among both men and women taking Xyotax, compared with those taking standard chemotherapy.
Inoculation of 337 human tumours of different types into nude mice resulted in tumour takes in 131 cases (39%). Tumour takes varied among the various tumour categories and the various histological...
Improved antineoplastic compositions comprising an antineoplastic agent combined with a pluronic and a water-soluble non-toxic homopolymer resulting in a decrease of toxicity and/or an increase in anti-cancer activity, and methods of treatment using such formulations.
Toro-Salazar OH, Ferranti J, Lorenzoni R, Walling S, Mazur W, Raman SV, Davey BT, Gillan E, OLoughlin M, Klas B, Hor KN. Feasibility of Echocardiographic Techniques to Detect Subclinical Cancer Therapeutics-Related Cardiac Dysfunction among High-Dose Patients When Compared with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2016 Feb; 29(2):119-31 ...
Genetically engineered mice convinced scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies that it was time to overhaul widely held beliefs about how a powerful tumor suppressor called p53 is controlled in cells. Their new model of p53 regulation has important implications for the development of anticancer drugs.
These side effects are usually temporary and disappear after treatment ends. It is important to inform the team of health care provider about any side effects you have, because there are often ways to lessen these side effects. For example, drugs can be given to help prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting.. Also it may be other side effects. Some of these are only seen with certain chemotherapy drugs. The team of professionals serving the cancer can provide information about the possible side effects of specific drugs you are getting. It is important to know the specific side effects that can occur with drugs so you know what to expect and when to call your doctor.. As with other types of treatments, the probability that the benefits of chemotherapy overcome the disadvantages depend on a number of factors including the type and extent of the cancer, as well as the health condition of the person before treatment. If you are considering chemotherapy, it is important to talk with your doctor about ...
Thats an encouragement," Liu said. "But its still not where we want to go." In cell culture, Liu wants to increase blood levels of paclitaxel from four times to 10 times. And in the mouse study, the researchers want a greater improvement in tumor reduction. "We want at least an 80 percent tumor reduction," he said ...
Bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics. BCG is thought to treat cancer in the bladder by stimulating the bodys own defense system to attack the cancer cells.
Increased rate of adverse events, including deaths, are being reported in clinical trials with Zydelig (idelalisib) in combination with other antineoplastic agents.
Today, the U.S. Senate passed the FDA Reauthorization Act and with it, the RACE for Children Act. Now, new cancer drugs will be developed not only for adults - but for kids too.
Text of H.R. 1730: Cancer Drug Parity Act of 2019 as of Mar 13, 2019 (Introduced version). H.R. 1730: Cancer Drug Parity Act of 2019
University of Queensland researchers have discovered a key driver in the development of most cancers, including breast, lung, liver and ovarian cancers.
TEHRAN (Tasnim) - Investigators have discovered a novel non-genetic cause of resistance to the targeted anti-cancer therapy cetuximab. Their findings suggest a strategy for overcoming this resistance.
With this acquisition, Merck gains a lead anti-tumor drug candidate and a proprietary technology that can potentially induce immediate and long-term anti-tumor immunity.
Cancer drugs that are designed to shrink tumours by cutting off the supply to their blood may be doing the opposite and helping them spread to other parts of the body, a study has warned. Researchers...
Recent advances in the understanding of cancer have led to more personalized therapies, such as drugs that target particular proteins and tests that analyze gene expression patterns in tumors to predict a patients response ...
Learn more about cancer & the most common cancer drugs. Also find free printable coupons for cancer medications for use in your pharmacy to save on costly meds.
Yale Cancer Center scientists now have made a fundamental discovery about EGFR signaling, reported in the journal Cell, that may open the potential for new types of cancer drugs.
Please refer to the specific agent in the Test and Services Guide for prices and details. If agent not listed above may be available as a referred out test or new test (contact PDS).. ...
Researchers have developed a method of producing P450 enzymes - used by plants to defend against predators and microbes - in bacterial cell factories. The process could facilitate the production of large quantities of the enzymes, which are also involved in the biosynthesis of active ingredients of cancer drugs.
Tephrosin is a natural rotenoid which has potent antitumor activities. Tephrosin induces degradation of of EGFR and ErbB2 by inducing internalization of the receptors. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Over 1000 People Cured: The Famous Scientist Discovers The Most Powerful Natural Cancer Drug-Food for the treatment of the whole organism! Cleans blood
Anticancer herbs: A giant list of over 60 herbs that have been suggested to have anti-cancer qualities - with scientific references and a report on each herb ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in survivors of adult cancers. T2 - American society of clinical oncology clinical practice guideline. AU - Hershman, Dawn L.. AU - Lacchetti, Christina. AU - Dworkin, Robert H.. AU - Lavoie Smith, Ellen M.. AU - Bleeker, Jonathan. AU - Cavaletti, Guido. AU - Chauhan, Cynthia. AU - Gavin, Patrick. AU - Lavino, Antoinette. AU - Lustberg, Maryam B.. AU - Paice, Judith. AU - Schneider, Bryan. AU - Smith, Mary Lou. AU - Smith, Tom. AU - Terstriep, Shelby. AU - Wagner-Johnston, Nina. AU - Bak, Kate. AU - Loprinzi, Charles L.. PY - 2014/6/20. Y1 - 2014/6/20. N2 - Purpose: To provide evidence-based guidance on the optimum prevention and treatment approaches in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies (CIPN) in adult cancer survivors. Methods: A systematic literature search identified relevant, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of CIPN. Primary outcomes included incidence and ...
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible condition featuring pain, numbness, tingling and sensitivity to cold in the hands and feet (sometimes progressing to the arms and legs) that afflicts between 30% and 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs associated with CIPN include thalidomide, the epothilones such as ixabepilone, the vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, the proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, and the platinum-based drugs cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin. Whether CIPN arises, and to what degree, is determined by the choice of drug, duration of use, the total amount consumed and whether the patient already has peripheral neuropathy. Though the symptoms are mainly sensory - pain, tingling, numbness and temperature sensitivity - in some cases motor nerves are affected, and occasionally, also, the autonomic nervous system. CIPN often follows the first ...
ASCO has released a clinical practice guideline on prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in adult cancer patients, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.1. The guidelines resulted from the efforts of an expert panel, with representation from the fields of medical oncology, community oncology, nursing, pain research, genetics, neurology, pharmacology, patient representation, and guideline methodology. Charles Loprinzi, MD, of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and Dawn Hershman, MD, of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, were the panel co-chairs.. The overall incidence of the condition is estimated at close to 40% in patients treated with multiple agents, with reported rates varying according to chemotherapy regimens, duration of exposure, and assessment methods. Regimens associated with higher risk are those including platinum drugs, vinca alkaloids, bortezomib (Velcade), and taxanes.. Clinical Question. The clinical question addressed by ...
The primary objective for this study is to establish if any side effects or toxicity issues occur, that will prevent further clinical development of the autologous cell based immunotherapy ALECSAT in Glioblastoma (GBM) or to establish if there are side effects or toxicity issues, that will suggest that the further clinical development planned, has to change course significantly. It is a primary objective to show safety and tolerability for administration of ALECSAT, thus not meeting this endpoint, may stop further clinical development of ALECSAT.. The secondary objective for this study is to establish if any indications of a positive therapeutic or palliative effect may be observed. As this is a secondary objective, no observed significant positive clinical effect, will not prevent further clinical development or in itself, trigger changes in the further clinical development planned.. The overall endpoint of the study is to develop a new therapeutic approach that may slow down or stop disease ...
ROCKVILLE, Md., June 2 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- ENMD-2076 Demonstrates Preclinical Antitumor Activity in Colorectal Cancer. Data Published in Clinical...
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents including vincristine, paclitaxel, cisplatin, oxaliplatin, bortezomib and ixabepilone. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy commonly occurs in greater than 40% of patients. To improve the peripheral neuropathy, the chemotherapy dosing is often either decreased or discontinued potentially affecting tumor responsiveness, prognosis, and survival.. There is an unmet medical need for treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain (CINP) and the proposed study will investigate the efficacy and safety of multiple dose levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) versus placebo in moderate to severe neuropathic pain caused by chemotherapy. ...
THOUSAND OAKS, Calif., Oct 09, 2010 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ --. Amgen (Nasdaq: AMGN) today announced AMG 386, combined with paclitaxel, demonstrated antitumor activity in a randomized Phase 2 trial involving 161 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The updated results, now including data on overall survival, are being presented in a poster discussion at the 35th European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress being held in Milan, Italy. (Abstract Number: 975PD) "Treatment advances in ovarian cancer are desperately needed. Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in women with 5-year survival rates across all stages remaining low," explained Ignace Vergote, MD, PhD, professor and chairman of the Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Leuven University Hospitals, Belgium. "The results of this Phase 2 trial are promising." Patients in the trial were randomized to receive paclitaxel via IV weekly, three weeks on and one week off, plus weekly: AMG 386 at 10 mg/kg ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) the third leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide with an estimated 639,000 deaths each year. In the United States, CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-related death, resulting in approximately 49,920 deaths in 2009. Despite significant advances in research and development in CRC and gastric cancer, the current response rate for 1st line treatment of mCRC remains ~50% and dramatically decreases for 2nd line therapy. In addition, the five-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with mCRC is approximately 10%. While, molecularly targeted therapies have improved treatment outcomes for patients with cancer, these benefits are modest and in only select patient populations. It is clear that the new chemotherapeutic options and novel drug combinations must be developed to provide benefit for the approximately half of patients that fail to response to current chemotherapeutic options that are available. We hypothesize that combining novel agents that target ...
The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives on human ovarian cancer cells, to evaluate their potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in combination with a conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to investigate their underlying mechanisms of action. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3), and immortalized non-tumourigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE144), were exposed to four ARS compounds for cytotoxicity testing. The in vitro and in vivo antitumour effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the most effective compound, were further determined in ovarian cancer cells. ...These effects were also observed in in vivo ovarian A2780 and OVCAR-3 xenograft tumour models. In conclusion, ARS derivatives, particularly DHA, exhibit significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with minimal toxicity to non-tumourigenic human OSE ...
SHIRLEY, NOV 30TH,2017 - Researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine found a compound that can directly contribute to the "suicide" of cancer cells for the first time by inducing cell apoptosis, moreover, it will not affect specific compounds in healthy cells of the body. The study results was published in the Journal of Cancer. As a new type of therapy which can directly resist Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells, it also can help offer effectively supply for other types of cancer cells.. Professor Evripidis Gavathiotis, one of the researchers for this study, claimed that this new targeting compounds they developed were more effective than the current anticancer therapies, which promote cancer cells to self-destruct. Ideally, this new type of compounds will work with other therapies to kill cancer cells more quickly and efficiently but with fewer side effects, while the traditional chemotherapy often causes some side effects to patients.. AML, which accounts for almost a third of ...
Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy plays a major role in cancer therapy. Development of intensified regimen improved the outcome of several diseases [45, 46, 49, 66, 67] but is limited by toxic side effects. A major dose-limiting side effect is general haematotoxicity which is routinely treated with growth factors EPO and G-CSF. Different pharmaceutical derivatives of these factors are available, which differ greatly in pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. Furthermore, outcome of growth factor treatment depends on many factors such as chemotherapy drugs used, drug doses, growth-factor derivatives and individual risk factors [68, 69]. Due to this variety of variable therapy parameters, identification of optimal growth-factor schedules cannot be performed solely on the basis of clinical trials. We showed in the past that mathematical models of haematopoiesis under chemotherapy can facilitate the development of optimised and individualised growth-factor schedules [6].. Efforts to model ...
Cisplatin is a widely used cancer therapy drug that unfortunately has major side effects in normal tissues, notably nephrotoxicity in kidneys. Despite intensive research, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains unclear, and renoprotective approaches during cisplatin-based chemotherapy are lacking. Here we have identified PKCδ as a critical regulator of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, which can be effectively targeted for renoprotection during chemotherapy. We showed that early during cisplatin nephrotoxicity, Src interacted with, phosphorylated, and activated PKCδ in mouse kidney lysates. After activation, PKCδ regulated MAPKs, but not p53, to induce renal cell apoptosis. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ pharmacologically or genetically attenuated kidney cell apoptosis and tissue damage, preserving renal function during cisplatin treatment. Conversely, inhibition of PKCδ enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death in multiple cancer cell lines and, remarkably, enhanced the chemotherapeutic ...
Cisplatin is a widely used cancer therapy drug that unfortunately has major side effects in normal tissues, notably nephrotoxicity in kidneys. Despite intensive research, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remains unclear, and renoprotective approaches during cisplatin-based chemotherapy are lacking. Here we have identified PKCδ as a critical regulator of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, which can be effectively targeted for renoprotection during chemotherapy. We showed that early during cisplatin nephrotoxicity, Src interacted with, phosphorylated, and activated PKCδ in mouse kidney lysates. After activation, PKCδ regulated MAPKs, but not p53, to induce renal cell apoptosis. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ pharmacologically or genetically attenuated kidney cell apoptosis and tissue damage, preserving renal function during cisplatin treatment. Conversely, inhibition of PKCδ enhanced cisplatin-induced cell death in multiple cancer cell lines and, remarkably, enhanced the chemotherapeutic ...
We have, for some time, been using water-soluble polymers as platforms on which a platinum drug or prodrug might be supported and from which it might be slowly released into the extracellular fluid (Howell & Walles 1985, 1986, 1988; Howell et al. 1988a,b,c, 1993; Howell & Richards 1996; Howell & Sastry 1996; Dysterhouse et al. 2000; Saltmarsh et al. 2000). This approach has several major potential advantages over the traditional forced hydration therapy currently practised. First, the solubility of the drug formulation may be dramatically enhanced such that the volume of the fluid required to introduce a satisfactory dose of drug is strongly diminished (cisplatin has a solubility of about 10 mg l−1 in aqueous saline). More importantly, if the release rate is optimal, the drug is released into the blood stream at a level that is beneath the toxicity threshold such that side effects may be mitigated (for an excellent review of the development of polymer-based organoplatinum antitumour agents see ...
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Treatment of multifunctional diseases such as cancer typically cannot be achieved by therapeutic agents that inhibit a single target.1 Single agent therapeutics often lead to development of drug resistance as well as limited accessibility of drug to tumour tissue due to intra-tumour heterogeneity.2 Moreover, in order to achieve therapeutically relevant concentrations within the tumour, high systemic doses of chemotherapy agents need to be administered, often resulting in severe toxic side effects.3 This is the case with drugs such as cisplatin and other platinum derivative drugs that are widely used in the treatment of ovarian cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).4,5 The primary mechanism of action of cisplatin is through DNA damage.6 However, several cellular pathways are activated by cisplatin exposure, including DNA repair pathways that remove the damage and result in the emergence of drug resistance.7 It has been shown that a combination of multiple anticancer drugs can ...
Multidrug resistance is a major barrier against successful chemotherapy, and this has been shown in vitro to be often caused by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These transporters are frequently overexpressed in human cancers and confer an adverse prognosis in many common malignancies. The genetic factors, however, that initiate their expression in cancer are largely unknown. Here we report that the major multidrug transporter ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR) is directly and specifically activated by the transcription factor E2F1-a factor perturbed in the majority of human cancers. E2F1 regulates ABCG2 expression in multiple cell systems, and, importantly, we have identified a significant correlation between elevated E2F1 and ABCG2 expression in human lung cancers. We show that E2F1 causes chemotherapeutic drug efflux both in vitro and in vivo via ABCG2. Furthermore, the E2F1-ABCG2 axis suppresses chemotherapy-induced cell death that can be restored by the inhibition of ABCG2. These findings therefore ...
The establishment of new treatment options for chemo- and radiation-resistant NETs is essential because of the inefficacy of conventional chemotherapy. Medicinal herbs have come increasingly into the spotlight as complementary medicines. In the present study, we provide a first report of the antitumor activity of plant extracts from Christia vespertilionis, in which the ethylacetate fraction CV-45 showed significant antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in MTC-SK as well as in KRJ-I cells.. It is known that many chemotherapeutic agents are able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, as with sorafenib or 5-fluorouracil for human hepatoma cells (18,19). One goal in the establishment of new therapies against NETs is to define substances that have the ability to trigger anticancer effects and to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells, but not in normal cells.. In the human fibroblasts (HF-SAR) tested, the same concentration of CV-45 (10 μg/ml) as used for tumor cells did not inhibit ...
Sulfonamides are the first effective chemotherapeutic agents used for several years to cure or prevent systemic bacterial infections. In addition, this agents showed anti-carbonic anhydrase and cause cell cycle perturbation in the G1 phase, disruption of microtubule assembly, suppression of the transcription activator Nf-Y, angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). In recent years, novel synthesized sulfonamides have been introduced as antitumor, antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents. In this paper, the cytotoxic effects of 8 synthesized sulfonamides were investigated by MTT assay on HeLa, MDA-MD-468 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Human cancer cells were cultured and passaged in RPMI-1640 medium. Cells incubated in 96-well plates in a concentration of 1 × 105 cells/mL for 24 h, and then logarithmic concentrations (0.1 µm, 1 µm, 10 µm, 100 µm, 1mM) of each drug were prepared, added to the plates and incubated for 72 h. Cell survival was then determined using ELISA plate reader in 540 nm
Multi-drug resistance is the biggest threat to long-term survival of cancer patients. Despite treatment, some tumor cells survive chemotherapy and become resistant to the drugs, causing follow-up treatments to fail. These drug-resistant tumors become untreatable and continue to flourish, ultimately killing the patient. Multi-drug resistance proteins expressed by tumor cells are a major source of resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can silence these messenger RNAs that make multi-drug resistance proteins and EnGeneIC has discovered that EDVs can effectively load up to 10,000 copies of siRNA and deliver them directly to cancer cells. This process silences the respective messenger RNAs and makes the tumor cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs which are subsequently delivered via the EDVs to eradicate the formerly drug resistant tumor. EnGeneIC has demonstrated in mouse studies carrying human drug resistant tumors and the data has been published in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva™), a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in combination with chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. AU - Hightower, Mary. AU - Belani, Chandra P.. AU - Jain, Vinay K.. PY - 2003/5. Y1 - 2003/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0038080166&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0038080166&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S1525-7304(11)70302-3. DO - 10.1016/S1525-7304(11)70302-3. M3 - Article. C2 - 14599299. AN - SCOPUS:0038080166. VL - 4. SP - 336. EP - 338. JO - Clinical Lung Cancer. JF - Clinical Lung Cancer. SN - 1525-7304. IS - 6. ER - ...
INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a prevalent and clinically meaningful side effect of cancer treatment. CIPN is induced by neurotoxic agents, causing severe sensory and/or motor deficits, resulting in disability and poor recovery, reducing patients" quality of life and limiting medical therapy. To date, effective treatment options are lacking. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training can attenuate motor and sensory deficits. We are conducting a two-armed, multicentre, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial, to investigate the effects of WBV on relevant symptoms of CIPN and determine the training characteristics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this ongoing study, 44 patients who have completed therapy in the past 3 months, with a neurologically confirmed CIPN are assessed before and after a 12-week intervention and follow-up. The intervention group receives WBV twice a week. Exercises are individually tailored according to the initially determined optimal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gefitinib enhances cytotoxicities of antimicrotubule agents in non-small-cell lung cancer cells exhibiting no sensitizing epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. AU - Tsai, Chun Ming. AU - Chiu, Chao Hua. AU - Chang, Kao Ting. AU - Chen, Jen-Ting (Tina). AU - Lai, Chun Liang. AU - Chen, Yuh Min. AU - Hsiao, Shih Yin. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - INTRODUCTIONS:: Although randomized clinical trials showed no benefit from combining epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with standard chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), better results might be obtained by combining EGFR-TKI with individual agents that are substrates for the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporters (ABCTs) because EGFR-TKIs can inhibit their efflux. The combination effects deserved to be further examined in vitro. METHODS:: The combination effects of gefitinib with three antimicrotubule agents (AMTAs), paclitaxel, docetaxel or vinorelbine, ...
Title: Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and New Therapeutic Perspectives in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Laura Bonanno, Antonio Jirillo and Adolfo Favaretto. Affiliation:Medical Oncology 2, Istituto Oncologico Veneto-IRCCS, Via Gattamelata, 64, 35128 Padova, Italy.. Keywords:EGFR, Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, resistance, mutations, amplifications, MET, VEGFR, NSCLC, Gefitinib, Erlotinib. Abstract: EGFR somatic mutations define a subset of NSCLCs that are most likely to benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). These tumors are dependent on EGFR-signaling for survival. Recently, tyrosine kinase domain somatic mutations have been approved as criterion to decide first-line therapy in this group of advanced NSCLCs. Anyway, all patients ultimately develop resistance to these drugs. Acquired resistance is linked to a secondary EGFR mutation in about a half of patients. Uncontrolled activation of ...
Epigenetic alterations of the histone acetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression associated with cell cycles and apoptosis that may affect the chemosensitivity of gastric carcinomas. Recently, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), was proven to be a chemo-sensitizer on human erythroleukemia cells. With the aim of improving the chemotherapeutic efficacy of gastric carcinoma, the effect of TSA on the chemosensitivity of several anticancer drugs in gastric carcinoma cells was investigated. Human gastric cancer cell lines, OCUM-8 and MKN-74, and 5 anticancer drugs, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), paclitaxel (PTX), oxaliplatin (OXA), irinotecan (SN38) and gemcitabine (GEM) were used. In both gastric cancer cell lines, a synergistic anti-proliferative effect by the combination of TSA (30 ng/ml) with 5-FU, PTX or SN38 showed a synergistic anti-proliferative effect in OCUM-8 and MKN-74 cells. TSA increases the expression of p21, p53, DAPK-1 and the DAPK-2 gene in ...
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a devastating disease in the metastatic setting, but its natural history has been dramatically altered by the development of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most notably imatinib. Although patients with advanced GIST live much longer today than they did in the past, imatinib-refractory disease remains a tremendous problem. For disease that is refractory to imatinib and sunitinib, regorafenib is an excellent option. In this review, we discuss the biology and clinical work establishing regorafenib as the standard of care for advanced GIST refractory to both imatinib and sunitinib.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Uncommon frame-shift exon 19 EGFR mutations are sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung carcinoma. AU - Improta, Giuseppina. AU - Zupa, Angela. AU - Natalicchio, Maria Iole. AU - Sisinni, Lorenza. AU - Marinaccio, Anna. AU - Bozza, Giovanni. AU - Vita, Giulia. AU - Aieta, Michele. AU - Landriscina, Matteo. PY - 2018/1/31. Y1 - 2018/1/31. N2 - Exons 19-21 EGFR activating mutations are predictive biomarkers of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, uncommon exon 19 EGFR mutations, due to their low frequency, have an uncertain biological and clinical significance and very little is known about their TKI sensitivity. This study was designed to describe the TKI sensitivity of a small cohort of lung adenocarcinomas bearing uncommon exon 19 mutations and to evaluate in silico the correlation between frame-shift exon 19 mutations and EGFR sequence/structure modification. Among 1168 NSCLCs screened for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Paclitaxel by either 1-hour or 24-hour infusion in combination with carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. T2 - Preliminary results comparing sequential phase II trials. AU - DeVore, R. F.. AU - Jagasia, M.. AU - Johnson, D. H.. PY - 1997/10/22. Y1 - 1997/10/22. N2 - Our group previously described the activity of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) (given as a 24-hour infusion) in 51 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. To facilitate outpatient administration, the regimen was modified to infuse paclitaxel over 1 hour. Between February 1995 and August 1996, 63 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were accrued by the Vanderbilt Cancer Center and its affiliate network. The first four patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/ml2; all subsequent patients received paclitaxel 200 mg/m2. The carboplatin dose was determined using the Calvert formula, with a target area under the concentration-time curve of 6. ...

Testicular Choriocarcinoma Medication: Antineoplastic agentsTesticular Choriocarcinoma Medication: Antineoplastic agents

Inorganic metal complex thought to act analogously to alkylating agents. Kills cells in all stages of cell cycle and inhibits ... Metastatic pure choriocarcinoma is treated with the same multi-agent chemotherapy regimens used in nonseminomatous germ cell ... Additional agents in some regimens or for salvage include vinblastine and ifosfamide. ...
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Desmoid Tumor Medication: Antineoplastic agentsDesmoid Tumor Medication: Antineoplastic agents

Antineoplastic agents. Class Summary. These agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Pharmacologic agents result in ...
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Antineoplastic Agents and Thyroid DysfunctionAntineoplastic Agents and Thyroid Dysfunction

Antineoplastic agents such as immunotherapies and targeted therapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of ... Antineoplastic agents such as immunotherapies and targeted therapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of ... Over the past two decades, novel antineoplastic agents have been introduced that inhibit specific cellular processes to limit ... To understand the thyroid-related side effects of antineoplastic agents, their frequency, and underlying mechanisms, Ole-Petter ...
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Antineoplastic Agents: Hazardous Drug Exposures in Healthcare | NIOSH | CDCAntineoplastic Agents: Hazardous Drug Exposures in Healthcare | NIOSH | CDC

The adverse health effects associated with antineoplastic agents (cancer chemotherapy drugs, cytotoxic drugs) in cancer ... In addition to acute or short-term effects related to treatment with antineoplastic agents, there are a number of long-term or ... The very nature of antineoplastic agents make them harmful to healthy cells and tissues as well as the cancerous cells. For ... The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs. ...
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Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal - DrugBankAntineoplastic Agents, Hormonal - DrugBank

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Antineoplastic Agents | GreenMedInfo | Keyword | Natural MedicineAntineoplastic Agents | GreenMedInfo | Keyword | Natural Medicine

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Oral Antineoplastic Agents: Assessing the Delay in CareOral Antineoplastic Agents: Assessing the Delay in Care

... Brandi Anders,1 Alexandra Shillingburg,2 and Michael Newton2,3 ... A median of 8 days elapsed between when the prescription for a first-time fill of a new oral antineoplastic agent was written ... Patients 18 years of age and older, who received a new prescription (first-time fill) for an oral antineoplastic agent, were ... The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is ...
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Lung Xenografts as a Predictive Screen for Antineoplastic Agents | SpringerLinkLung Xenografts as a Predictive Screen for Antineoplastic Agents | SpringerLink

Mattern J., Wayss K., Volm M. (1988) Lung Xenografts as a Predictive Screen for Antineoplastic Agents. In: Winograd B., Peckham ... to CTX and DDP as reported in the literature is reflected in the lack of response of the tumour lines to these two agents. ...
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Hypersensitivity Reactions Associated with Platinum Antineoplastic Agents: A Systematic ReviewHypersensitivity Reactions Associated with Platinum Antineoplastic Agents: A Systematic Review

E. Syrigou, N. Makrilia, I. Koti, M. W. Saif, and K. N. Syrigos, "Hypersensitivity reactions to antineoplastic agents: an ... E. Syrigou, K. Syrigos, and M. W. Saif, "Hypersensitivity reactions to oxaliplatin and other antineoplastic agents," Current ... Hypersensitivity Reactions Associated with Platinum Antineoplastic Agents: A Systematic Review. Nektaria Makrilia,1 Ekaterini ... Substituting with a Different Platinum Agent. Substituting one platinum agent with another without additional desensitization ...
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Alkylating Antineoplastic Agents
     Summary Report | CureHunterAlkylating Antineoplastic Agents Summary Report | CureHunter

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Search of: Testicular Leukemia | Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: 'Testicular Leukemia' | 'Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

5-year DFS for favorable risk subset of NCI HR B-ALL (HR favorable) when treated with mBFM chemotherapy with a single high-dose methotrexate (HD MTX) Interim Maintenance (IM) phase and treatment duration of 2 years from the start of IM regardless of ...
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Results for:  Subject:Antineoplastic Agents | EthicShare CommunityResults for: Subject:Antineoplastic Agents | EthicShare Community

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Antineoplastic agent | definition of antineoplastic agent by Medical dictionaryAntineoplastic agent | definition of antineoplastic agent by Medical dictionary

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List of antineoplastic agents - WikipediaList of antineoplastic agents - Wikipedia

This is a list of antineoplastic agents used to treat cancer. Rossi, S, ed. (2013). Australian Medicines Handbook (2013 ed.). ...
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Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Pancreatic Cancer?Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Pancreatic Cancer?

Antineoplastic agentsThese agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. They are used for chemotherapy.Gemcitabine (Gemzar)A ... Antineoplastic agents. These agents inhibit cell growth and proliferation. They are used for chemotherapy. ... Which medications in the drug class Antineoplastic agents are used in the treatment of Pancreatic Cancer?. Updated: Jan 10, ... This agent is pharmacologically classified as a human epidermal growth factor receptor type 1/epidermal growth factor receptor ...
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  • Metastatic pure choriocarcinoma is treated with the same multi-agent chemotherapy regimens used in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs), which are discussed in a separate article (see Nonseminomatous Testicular Tumors ). (medscape.com)
  • Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. (drugbank.ca)
  • Platinum agents are also effective in pediatric tumors [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Goodman, Gilman, and others began studying nitrogen mustards at Yale in 1942, and, following the sometimes dramatic but highly variable responses of experimental tumors in mice to treatment, these agents were first tested in humans late that year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study was undertaken to determine the length of time between when a prescription for an oral antineoplastic agent is written by the provider and when the medication is received by the patient and to identify risk factors that significantly increase time to medication receipt. (hindawi.com)
  • These agents reduce edema around the tumor, frequently leading to symptomatic and objective improvement. (medscape.com)
  • Hypersensitivity to a chemotherapeutic agent is defined as an unforeseen reaction whose signs and symptoms cannot be explained by the known toxicity of the drug [ 29 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Antineoplastic agents such as immunotherapies and targeted therapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of cancer patients taking them, according to a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute . (medindia.net)
  • To understand the thyroid-related side effects of antineoplastic agents, their frequency, and underlying mechanisms, Ole-Petter Riksfjord Hamnvik, M.D., of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and colleagues reviewed articles on thyroid dysfunction in cancer patients. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers found that there are no known strategies to prevent thyroid disease in patients receiving these new antineoplastic agents, and that possible preventative measures may be more toxic than the thyroid disease itself. (medindia.net)
  • They recommend close monitoring of patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. (medindia.net)
  • For cancer patients with a life-threatening disease, there is certainly a great benefit to treatment with these agents. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to acute or short-term effects related to treatment with antineoplastic agents, there are a number of long-term or chronic effects that have been identified in patients. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer external icon (IARC) in Lyon, France has identified a number of antineoplastic agents and two combination therapies as having an association with cancer in patients who are treated with them. (cdc.gov)
  • First-line agent in patients with partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. (medscape.com)
  • However, in recent years, the use of oral antineoplastic agents has steadily increased among patients with a cancer diagnosis. (hindawi.com)
  • With the increasing use of oral agents, patients now have more responsibility for monitoring and reporting side effects to their health care providers [ 3 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With the average cost of a new oral antineoplastic drug in 2012 approximating $10,000, paying for medications can be a significant out-of-pocket expense and burden for patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Of 2,100 oncology nurses and other healthcare personnel, 80% do not wear two pairs of chemotherapy gloves and 15% do not even wear a single pair during the administration of antineoplastic agents to patients. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The researchers also recommend several paths of research that should be pursued, namely knowledge of the biological effects of the antineoplastic agents on the thyroid, so they can identify possible preventative strategies and improve the proposed screening strategies. (medindia.net)
  • For the past several decades, cancer treatment has entailed primarily intravenous delivery of antineoplastic agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Statistically significant genotoxic effects and genetic damage (for example, increased micronuclei formation and increases in sister chromatid exchange and chromo- somal aberrations) have been reported in hospital phar- macists and nurses exposed to antineoplastic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • s Closed System for Antineoplastic Agent Administration," was conducted by a team of nurses at the Abramson Cancer Center of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center with more than 55,000 doses of chemotherapy delivered per year. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An understanding of the median time involved, as well as factors affecting the time to delivery of prescriptions, will help healthcare providers better plan and prepare for the use of oral antineoplastic agents. (hindawi.com)
  • The selective cytotoxicity displayed by these conjugates towards tested cancer cells with non-toxicity against normal human VERO cells indicated their potential for further antineoplastic drug development. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 [1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] and analogues have received much interest as anticancer agents because the secosteroid hormone has shown antitumor activity ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and analogues can enhance, either synergistically or additively, the antitumor activities of several classes of antineoplastic agents ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mattern J., Wayss K., Volm M. (1988) Lung Xenografts as a Predictive Screen for Antineoplastic Agents. (springer.com)
  • Thus, a regulatory effect of antineoplastic agents on CYP24 expression seemed likely. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These agents can also cause health effects among health care workers who work with them. (cdc.gov)
  • The very nature of antineoplastic agents make them harmful to healthy cells and tissues as well as the cancerous cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Vasogenic cerebral edema is typically managed with corticosteroids (eg, dexamethasone), usually in combination with some form of antiulcer agent (eg, famotidine, ranitidine). (medscape.com)
  • Interestingly, antineoplastic agents are known to stimulate the activity of MAP kinases ( 12 - 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • IARC currently lists eleven agents and two combined therapies as Group 1 (Human carcinogens), twelve as Group 2A (Probable human carcinogens) and eleven as Group 2B (Possible human carcinogens). (cdc.gov)
  • Due to the increased costs associated with oral antineoplastic agents, many pharmacy benefit plans have implemented cost-containment mechanisms [ 3 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We doesn't provide Antineoplastic Agents products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (benadorassociates.com)
  • This agent acts by inhibiting microtubule formation in mitotic spindles, causing metaphase arrest. (medscape.com)