Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)
Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
Arsenical used in trypanosomiases. It may cause fatal encephalopathy and other undesirable side effects.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Members of the peptidase C19 family which regulate signal transduction by removing UBIQUITIN from specific protein substrates via a process known as deubiquitination or deubiquitylation.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
Pharmacological agents destructive to nematodes in the superfamily Filarioidea.
A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.
A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.

Effect of mebendazole and praziquantel on glucosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall harbored in mice. (1/284)

AIM: To study effects of antihydatid drugs on glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall. METHODS: Mice infected with the parasite for 8-10 months were treated i.g. with mebendazole (Meb) or praziquantel (Pra). The activities of GPI and GAPDH in the cysts were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. RESULTS: GPI activity in the cyst wall was 197 +/- 103 U, while that of GAPDH was 25 +/- 13 U. When infected mice were treated i.g. with Meb 25-50 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 7-14 d, no apparent effect on the GAPDH activity in the cyst was found. In mice treated i.g. with praziquantel (Pra) 500 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d, the GAPDH activity in the cyst wall was inhibited by 26.5%. As to GPI activity only the group treated i.g. with Meb 25 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d showed 33.2% inhibition of the enzyme in the collapsed cyst wall. CONCLUSION: GPI and GAPDH are not the major targets attacked by the antihydatid drug.  (+info)

Beauveriolides, specific inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse macrophages, produced by Beauveria sp. FO-6979. (2/284)

Beauveria sp. FO-6979, a soil isolate, was found to produce inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in mouse peritoneal macrophages. A new compound beauveriolide III was isolated along with a known compound beauveriolide I from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, ODS column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Beauveriolides I and III caused a reduction in the number and size of cytosolic lipid droplets in macrophages at 10 microM without any cytotoxic effect on macrophages.  (+info)

Resistance to levamisole resolved at the single-channel level. (3/284)

Levamisole is commonly used to treat nematode parasite infections but therapy is limited by resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of resistance to this selective nicotinic drug. Levamisole receptor channel currents in muscle patches from levamisole-sensitive and levamisole-resistant isolates of the parasitic nematode Oesophagostomum dentatum were compared. The number of channels present in patches of sensitive and resistant isolates was similar at 10 microM levamisole, but at 30 microM and 100 microM the resistant isolate contained fewer active patches, suggesting desensitization. Mean Po and open times were reduced in resistant isolates. The distribution of conductances of channels in the sensitive isolate revealed a heterogeneous receptor population and the presence of G25, G35, G40, and G45 subtypes. A G35 subtype was missing in the resistant isolate. Resistance to levamisole was produced by changes in the averaged properties of the levamisole receptor population, with some receptors from sensitive and resistant isolates having indistinguishable characteristics.  (+info)

Maintaining compliance to ivermectin in communities in two West African countries. (4/284)

We have investigated various aspects related to managing wide-scale ivermectin distribution schemes within randomized controlled trials in communities where onchocerciasis is endemic. Multiple logistic regression analysis of determinants of compliance to five doses of ivermectin in 589 people in Sierra Leone showed independent significant associations with leopard skin depigmentation, the severity of side effects of treatment, fulfilling the exclusion criteria for treatment, and long-term residence in the community. These results are useful for tailoring health promotion messages in Sierra Leone, but the associations may differ in other West African societies. In Nigeria 1847 people were interviewed about various subjective responses, including itching. None of these showed clear improvement after three years of ivermectin treatment. Positive comments about treatment were generally non-specific and similar in the placebo and ivermectin groups. Negative comments were usually related to adverse reactions, especially itching and rash, and were more common after ivermectin. The lack of any benefit attributable to ivermectin that is discernible to its recipients may make it difficult to maintain the high compliance rates needed for long periods if mass dosing programmes are to have a lasting impact on onchocerciasis. In addition, no consistent effects of ivermectin were found by measuring visual acuity, height, weight or haematocrit in comparison with placebo. This may indicate that evidence of clinical impact is very slow to develop and is hard to measure using simple objective methods after only three doses of treatment. At present it seems that parasitological, entomological and detailed ophthalmological or dermatological methods are required to demonstrate the impact of ivermectin treatment in the medium-term.  (+info)

Case studies in international medicine. (5/284)

Family physicians in the United States are increasingly called on to manage the complex clinical problems of newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Case studies and discussions are provided in this article to update physicians on the diagnosis and management of potentially unfamiliar ailments, including strongyloidiasis, hookworm infection, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis and tropical pancreatitis. Albendazole and ivermectin, two important drugs in the treatment of some worm infections, are now available in the United States.  (+info)

A controlled evaluation of two school-based anthelminthic chemotherapy regimens on intensity of intestinal helminth infections. (6/284)

BACKGROUND: School-based deworming programmes have been promoted as a cost-effective strategy for control of nematode infection in developing countries. While numerous efficacy studies have been conducted, there is little information on actual programme effectiveness in areas of intense transmission. METHODS: A randomized trial of a school-based deworming programme was conducted in 12 primary schools on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Four schools each were randomized to control, twice a year deworming with single dose mebendazole or three times a year deworming. Baseline and 12-month follow-up data on helminth infection using the Kato-Katz technique, demographic information and nutritional status were collected on 3028 children from March 1994 to May 1995. RESULTS: Intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces (epg) declined significantly for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections in both treatment groups. A. lumbricoides infection intensity declined 63.1% and 96.7% in the twice and three times per year treatment groups compared to the controls. T. trichiura infection intensity declined 40.4% and 75.9% respectively and hookworm intensity declined 35.3% and 57.2% respectively compared to control schools. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that school-based programmes can be a cost-effective approach for controlling the intensity of intestinal helminth infection even in environments where transmission is high.  (+info)

Liver tumor promoting effects of fenbendazole in rats. (7/284)

In order to examine whether fenbendazole has tumor-promoting activity, a total of 70 male Fischer 344 rats were initiated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or were given the saline vehicle alone; beginning 1 wk later, rats were given a diet containing 3,600; 1,800; 600; 200; 70; or 0 ppm of fenbendazole for 8 wk. Subgroups of 5 rats each from the DEN+ 1,800; DEN+0; 1,800; and 0 ppm groups were euthanatized after 1 wk of fenbendazole treatment, and the remaining animals were euthanatized at 8 wk. After 1 wk, relative liver weights (ratios to body weights) were significantly increased in the DEN+ 1,800 and 1,800 ppm groups, and based on light microscopy, periportal hepatocellular hypertrophy was evident in these groups. After 8 wk, relative liver weights were significantly increased in the groups given > or =600 ppm with or without DEN initiation. Periportal hepatocellular hypertrophy, characterized by a marked increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum, was observed in the groups given > or =600 ppm with or without DEN initiation. Induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A2, 2B1, or 4A1 was noted in the fenbendazole-treated groups with or without DEN initiation; that associated with CYP 1A2 was most marked. Positive immunostaining for anti-CYP 1A1/2 or CYP 2B1/2 was observed diffusely in the livers of animals in the DEN+1,800 and DEN+3,600 ppm groups. The numbers and areas of connexin 32 (Cx32)-positive spots per square centimeter in centrilobular hepatocytes were significantly decreased in an almost dose-dependent manner with fenbendazole treatment after DEN initiation. In situ hybridization for Cx32 mRNA revealed a remarkable decrease in its expression in the centrilobular hepatocytes in the DEN+70 ppm group. The numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental-form positive single cells (plus mini foci) were significantly increased in the DEN+ 1,800 and DEN+3,600 ppm groups. Since those agents that induce CYP 2B1/2 isozymes and reduce Cx32 in centrilobular hepatocytes have been suggested to be liver tumor promoters, the present results indicate that fenbendazole may be a liver tumor promoter.  (+info)

Structures of flagranones A, B and C, cyclohexenoxide antibiotics from the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. (8/284)

Spectroscopic data define the structures of the flagranones A (2), B (3) and C (4) from the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. These antibiotics are structurally related to the farnesylated cyclohexenoxides of the oligosporon group recently isolated from the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora, and show similar antimicrobial activity.  (+info)

cochlioquinone A: from Helminthosporium sativum; competitive inhibitor of ivermectin binding; RN from Chem Abstract Index Guide 1990; structure given in first source
Define nematocidal. nematocidal synonyms, nematocidal pronunciation, nematocidal translation, English dictionary definition of nematocidal. also nem·a·ti·cide n. A substance or agent used to kill nematodes. nem′a·to·cid′al , nem′a·ti·cid′al adj. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English...
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After sowing the mustard and waiting for about two months, we incorporate it into the ground (using a disc harrow) to reduce the population of nematodes. Then we can sow our crop.. ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Olanzapine Extended-Release Injection. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Easy to read patient leaflet for Exenatide Extended-Release Injection (Bydureon) (Trays). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
This chapter is an update of the chapter which appeared in The Mycota, Vol. Xin 2002. Not many novel compounds with nematicidal and insecticidal activities have been described in the meantime....
MIXOTROPHIC CHLORELLA-BASED COMPOSITION, AND METHODS OF ITS PREPARATION AND APPLICATION TO PLANTS | ANTI-ADHERENT BOTANICAL COMPOSITIONS | INSECTICIDAL PROTEINS AND METHODS FOR THEIR USE | BACTERIA WITH NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY AND THE ABILITY TO PROMOTE PLANT GROWTH | MICROBIAL COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF USE FOR BENEFITING PLANT GROWTH AND TREATING PLANT DISEASE |
Ron Smith Josielle Rezende, LSU AgCenter research associate, discussed the guava root knot nematode at the recent Louisiana Agricultural Technology and Management Conference in Marksville, La. Guava root knot nematode, worlds most aggressive Guava root knot nematode reported to be more difficult to manage than the southern root knot nematode. Ron Smith | Mar 12,…
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In this study, we investigated global changes in miRNAs of Meloidogyne incognita throughout its life cycle. Small RNA sequencing resulted in approximately 62, 38, 38, 35, and 39 Mb reads in the egg, J2, J3, J4, and female stages, respectively. Overall, we identified 2724 known and 383 novel miRNAs (read count > 10) from all stages, of which 169 known and 13 novel miRNA were common to all the five stages. Among the stage-specific miRNAs, miR-286 was highly expressed in eggs, miR-2401 in J2, miR-8 and miR-187 in J3, miR-6736 in J4, and miR-17 in the female stages. These miRNAs are reported to be involved in embryo and neural development, muscular function, and control of apoptosis. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 91 miRNA clusters, of which 36 clusters were novel and identified in this study. Comparison of miRNA families with other nematodes showed 17 families to be commonly absent in animal parasitic nematodes and M. incognita. Validation of 43 predicted common and stage-specific miRNA by
Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant), due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment
Two root-knot nematode species, Me/oidogyne incognita and M.javanica, were studied with regard to their seasonal population fluctuations on grapevines growing in two vastly different climatic areas. Regular observations on reproduction and numbers of larvae in the soil were compared with patterns of root growth, soil temperature and moisture. Population fluctuations of the two species showed similar trends in spite of the climatic differences in the two areas, but M. incognita in the northern Cape reached higher populations. Larvae populations in the soil declined in summer in both areas and increased during autumn to reach peaks in winter. With the onset of root growth in spring, larvae numbers decreased in the soil, as a result of large scale root penetration.. ...
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Antiox(Mebendazole): Treatment of single or mixed GI worm infestations by roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, pinworm, Regulatory Classification. Non-Rx. Consumer information about the medication mebendazole (Vermox), a drug used to treat pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and many others.. Generic Name:Mebendazole Brand Name:Vermox Classifications: antiinfective; anthelmintic Pregnancy Category: C Availability 100 mg. Mebendazole (MBZ) is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infestations. This includes ascariasis, pinworm disease, hookworm infections. Mebendazole official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more. Easy to read patient leaflet for mebendazole. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects. ...
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The primary objectives of this study are to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral mebendazole in patients with recurrent/progressive pediatric brain tumors and to confirm the tolerance of the MTD of oral mebendazole by assessing tolerance in a dose expansion cohort. Secondary Objectives of the study include to determine the safety, tolerability and toxicity of mebendazole in this patient population, determine the plasma levels of mebendazole in this patient population and Determine progression-free and overall survival of mebendazole in an extended cohort of patients with treatment refractory pediatric brain cancer.. Mebendazole (MBZ) is a drug developed to treat human helminthic disease and is FDA-approved for the treatment of roundworm, common hookworm, American hookworm, pinworm and whipworm. MBZ use is well documented and frequently used in tropical countries at higher doses for the rarer parasitic infections of the brain.. We have shown efficacy in preclinical laboratory models ...
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Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) place a heavy burden on agriculture throughout the world. This burden is accentuated by a lack of effective and safe methods for the control of these crop pests, with many nematicides having been banned due to unacceptable non-target toxicity. Few alternatives have emerged to fill this gap. Fluensulfone is a newly registered nematicide that has a favourable toxicity profile relative to previously used nematicides. Fluensulfone has proven efficacy in the field against a range of nematode species. The mode of action of fluensulfone is however currently unknown. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fluensulfone on nematodes and to gain insight into its mechanism of action. Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism with well characterised genetics, neurophysiology and behaviour. C. elegans has proven useful in previous mechanism of action studies on anthelmintics. Fluensulfone was found to have nematicidal activity against C. elegans but at ...
Fig. 1. Annual crop yield loss in US dollars (billion) by nematodes in 2001 based on 1987 international yield loss survey (Sasser & Freckman, 1987). Ten major crops include rice, maize, potato, wheat, tomato, grape, sugarcane, yam, soybean, banana. Figure adapted and modified from McCarter, 2009. The root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne species, are sedentary endoparasitic species which are economically the most important and wide spread throughout the world with a broad host range. Meloidogyne chitwoodi was the first species described from the Pacific Northwest of the USA in 1980 (Golden et al., 1980) which caused severe damage to potato tubers. Meloidogyne species such as Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica have been found at destructive levels in almost all maize growing regions of the world. Meloidogyne africana and Meloidogyne arenaria have been also found infecting maize in India and in Pakistan(McDonald & Nicol, 2005). The symptoms of root knot nematode infection ranged from ...
Selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) were compared to DBCP in causing acute renal damage in rats. All of the six deuterated analogs tested at 340 mumol/kg, including the perdeutero compound, failed to significantly alter the kidney necrosis observed at 48 hr compared to DBCP. Furthermore, when the perdeutero analog was administered at several doses (42.5, 85, 170, and 340 mumol/kg), it caused kidney damage that was not significantly different than that caused by an equivalent molar dose of nondeuterated DBCP. Of the five methylated analogs tested at 170 and 340 mumol/kg, only C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane caused nephrotoxicity. The C2-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, and C2-methyl-DBCP analogs failed to cause renal necrosis determined 48 hr after dosing. In distribution studies DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and all the methylated analogs were found to concentrate in the kidney approximately 25 times relative to plasma 1 hr after administration
2013 http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6163 M. hapla M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X X+Z B Scenario 3 M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X Z+Z A Scenario 1 & 2 A M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X X+Z B Scenario 3 M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X Z+Z A Scenario 1 & 2 B M. hapla X Y Z M. floridensis M. incognita X+Y Y+Z C Scenario 4 M. hapla X Y Z M. floridensis M. incognita X+Y (X+Y)+Z D Scenario 5 M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X X+Z B Scenario 3 M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X Z+Z A Scenario 1 & 2 X+Y C M. hapla X Y Z M. floridensis M. incognita X+Y Y+Z C Scenario 4 M. hapla X Y Z M. floridensis M. incognita X+Y (X+Y)+Z D Scenario 5 M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X X+Z B Scenario 3 M. hapla X Z M. floridensis M. incognita X Z+Z A Scenario 1 & 2 X+Y D We assess the fit of the tree topologies to our hypotheses! • Five out of seven cluster sets, and 95% of all trees, support hybrid origins for both M. floridensis and M. incognita! • ...
The active ingredient of Panacur dog dewormer is Fenbendazole. Treatment with Albendazole is a single tablet, which kills the worms. Results have shown to be ineffective if complete treatment is avoided. Posted by 2 days ago. Joined: Jul 13, 2009 Messages: 3 Likes Received: 0. As a result, there are some supplement web-shops selling Fenbendazole in the most clever ways. Drontal is often prescribed for young pets, whereas older pets might take Interceptor or Iverhart Plus. Thanks! Each pill contains 22.2% of ... How quickly does Panacur work on dogs? It is very important that puppies are wormed with an all wormer that covers all the worms on a regular basis. At 2 and 4 weeks after treatment, no L1 larvae were found in the feces, and necropsy failed to reveal adult worms. I have spent an hour online trying to find out how long it takes before the worms die and the chicken gets better, but cant find anything. The only real side effects that I have had was some nausea, which may of may not have ...
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Buy Mebendazole Online! Mebendazole is used to treat several types of worm infections. Mebendazole (Mebendazole) is used to treat roundworm and whipworm infections.
At the end of the incubation period order mebendazole online hiv infection using condom, pellets from each pin were transferred to 1 ml of sterile deionised water containing 0 discount 100mg mebendazole with visa antiviral eye drops. In experiment 3 order mebendazole in united states online hiv infection using condom, the ability of the fungal pellets to form a sporulating mycelial mat in the continuous presence of the adjuvants was assessed through two ways of pellet treat- ment. In the rst method, 5 ml of the biomass was transferred along with the spent medium to 15-ml glass vials and each adjuvant was added separately, swirled and incubated for 30 days by which time a sporulating mycelial mat (ca. In the second method, the adjuvant solutions were prepared separately, and the pellets obtained from 10 ml of shake-ask culture of H. In both methods, at the end of the incubation period, the 20-mm-diameter mycelial mat was transferred to 10 ml of 0. Growth and conidiation of mycelial pellets on ...
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Wang, Yei-Zeng. A new species and a new record of Lachnum from Taiwan. Mycotaxon 87: 137 - 140. 2003.. ABSTRACT: A new species and a new record of Lachnum are described and illustrated from Taiwan. The new species, Lachnum meifengense, is characterized by its foliicolous habitat, white apothecia, fusiform ascospores, and lanceolate paraphyses. A newly recorded species, Lachnum patenum, is recognized by its white apothecia and long fusiform ascospores. KEYWORDS: discomycetes, Helotiales, Hyaloscyphaceae. ...
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Johnathan Dalzell of Queens University Belfast in the United Kingdom will improve food crop productivity particularly for small hold subsistence farmers by reducing the losses caused by pathogenic nematode worms, which are estimated to cost around $125 billion per year globally. These pathogenic worms absorb small proteins called neuropeptides from their external environment directly into their central nervous system, which can influence their movement and sensory behavior. They will exploit this process to destroy the worms. In Phase I, they identified two neuropeptide genes in the root knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, which is a serious pathogen of many crop types. They also exposed infectious stage nematodes to a selection of neuropeptides and found 11 that inhibited their movement towards plant roots, and 13 that protected a crop plant from infection. Finally, they established protocols to genetically modify crops to express and secrete the neuropeptides. In Phase II, they will ...
Fenbendazole (frequently called Fenben or Panacur) - is a benzimidazole class anthelmintic medication and was discovered in 1974
Fenbendazole is a cheap, easily synthesized anthelmintic medication effective against many types of hookworms, roundworms and flatworms in animals.
Mebendazole is an anthelmintic (an-thel-MIN-tik) or anti-worm medication. It prevents newly hatched insect larvae (worms) from growing or multiplying in your body. Mebendazole is used to treat infections caused by worms such as whipworm, pinworm, roundworm, and hookworm. It is also used to treat infections caused by...
Nemadectin is a macrocyclic lactone antibiotic with a broad-spectrum endectocidal and nematocidal activity [1]. In dogs, oral administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg nemadectin (a liquid formulation administered in gelatin capsules) was effective in eliminating
Find details on Fenbendazole. Medication for cats including uses, administration, pharmacokinetics, precautions, adverse reactions and more. All information is peer reviewed.
The active ingredient in Vermox is Mebendazole and its labeled as an antihelmintic kind of medication. Its used for the purpose of treating whipworm, pinworm, hookworm, roundworm, as well as other worm infections. When taken properly its able to stop worms from absorbng different sugars that they need in order to survive. What this does is it diminishes their energy source and causes them to die out within a few days. The dead worms are them eliminated from the body through stools.. What are some of the minor side effects for Vermox?. There are some minor side effects that could occur, with the main one being headaches or nausea. If you experience minor side effects, continue to take the medication and speak with a medical professional if you start experiencing something more serious such as abdominal pain, diarrhea or fever.. What are some of the more serious side effects? Allergic reactions (swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; shortness of breath; closing of your throat; or ...
quote][i]Originally posted by Dr. Jerry Vanek[/i] [br]In addition to the above new posts, heres as good a place as any to reiterate some dosages on fenbendazole and the life cycle of whipworms. I am responding to two personal e-mails which I think might benefit all. First, the dosage for fenbendazole (Panacur) is still 50 milligrams for every kilogram of dog weight. At 2.2 lb/KG that translates into 22.7 milligrams per pound of dog weight. A 22.2% concentration of fenbendazole in its Panacur carrier means there are 222 mg of drug in every gram of Panacur. So a 50-pound (22.7 KG) dog would need about 1136 mg of fenbendazole. Divided by 222 mg means the dog should get 5 grams of Panacur, which is the recommended dose on the package, which often comes in 5-gram sizes. Give a 50-pound dog the whole 5-gram packet. Every day for three days. Yum! Giving a dog that size a half-teaspoon is underdosing the dog by a third and giving the tougher worms a selective advantage. However, you cant just treat ...
Fish Aid Fenbendazole is designed to be a supportive agent in the removing of worms and other parasites from fresh and saltwater aquariums as well as from the within the fish themselves.
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Mebendazole This article is about a pharmaceutical drug, for the automobile brand abbreviated as MBZ, see Mercedes-Benz Mebendazole Systematic (IUPAC) name
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Bästa apotek för att köpa Vermox Grekland. Generisk Vermox (Mebendazole) används för att behandla vissa typer av maskinfektioner (t.ex. springmask, rundmask, piskmask, hakmask). Mebendazole är ett anthelmintiskt medel. Det fungerar genom att döda känsliga maskar och orsaka dem att stötas bort från kroppen. ...
Several antinematodal agents are available.[citation needed] "Nematode Infections: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". ...
... is a fungus species of the genus of Penicillium which produces the antinematodal and antiparasitic agents ... Liesch, J. M.; Wichmann, C. F. (1990). "Novel antinematodal and antiparasitic agents from Penicillium charlesii. II. Structure ...
... antitumor agents and anti nematodal agents. The A. capsulatum genome contains three clustered genes that encode NRPs, several ... A. capsulatum can has a positive effect on plant growth indirectly by acting as a biocontrol agent or directly by modulating ...
Antinematodal agents. (including. macrofilaricides). Binds tubulin. *benzimidazole *Mebendazole#. *Albendazole#. *Tiabendazole ... Tiabendazole is also a chelating agent, which means it is used medicinally to bind metals in cases of metal poisoning, such as ... It has also been shown to serve as a vascular disrupting agent to reduce newly established blood vessels. Tiabendazole has been ... an antifungal agent, and an antiparasitic agent. ... Drug Thiabendazole to Be a Novel Vascular Disrupting Agent". ...
Antinematodal agents. (including. macrofilaricides). Binds tubulin. *benzimidazole *Mebendazole#. *Albendazole#. *Tiabendazole ... Ivermectin is also being studied as a potential antiviral agent against the viruses chikungunya and yellow fever.[66] ... Thadanipon K, Anothaisintawee T, Rattanasiri S, Thakkinstian A, Attia J (2019). "Efficacy and safety of antiscabietic agents: A ...
Antinematodal agents. (including. macrofilaricides). Binds tubulin. *benzimidazole *Mebendazole#. *Albendazole#. *Tiabendazole ... Mebendazole is a broad-spectrum antihelminthic agent of the benzimidazole type.[3] ...
Antinematodal agents. (including. macrofilaricides). Binds tubulin. *benzimidazole *Mebendazole#. *Albendazole#. *Tiabendazole ... Spastic (tetanic) paralyzing agents, in particular pyrantel pamoate, may induce complete intestinal obstruction in a heavy worm ... Pyrantel pamoate acts as a depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, thereby causing sudden contraction, followed by paralysis ...
Antinematodal agents. (including. macrofilaricides). Binds tubulin. *benzimidazole *Mebendazole#. *Albendazole#. *Tiabendazole ...
... antiparasitic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.075 - anthelmintics MeSH D27.505.954.122.250.075.080 - antinematodal agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ...
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Used as alternative treatment for ascariasis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) and enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) caused by Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm). It is also used to treat partial intestinal obstruction by the common roundworm, a condition primarily occurring in children ...
Book; Format: print Publisher: Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 2004Title translated: Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis : report of a WHO expert committee.; Prevención y control de la esquistosomiasis y las helmintiasis transmitidas por el suelo : informe de un comité de expertos de la OMS..Online access: Full text now in IRIS Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: DC.HQ SERIAL] (2). ...
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6 Pregnant women are excluded because mebendazole is a Class C agent with the potential for teratogenic effects. Because it is ... Antinematodal Agents. Anthelmintics. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Tubulin Modulators. To Top ...
Anti-Asthmatic Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Filaricides. Antinematodal Agents. Anthelmintics. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti- ... The subject has used immunosuppressive agents (as listed in section 8.1) within the past 30 days. ... The subject has used any other investigational agent within the past 30 days. ...
Class Name : Antinematodal Agents. Related Brand Name Drugs : Emverm: Chewable tablet , Stromectol: Oral tablet ...
Antinematodal Agents / toxicity* * Haemonchus / drug effects* * Haemonchus / ultrastructure * Ivermectin / toxicity* * Larva * ...
Antinematodal Agents / pharmacology* * Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology* * Disease Models, Animal * Female * Larva / drug ...
Several antinematodal agents are available.[citation needed] "Nematode Infections: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". ...
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42 results for Category equals ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS Info. Please enable JavaScript in your browser. Row Number. Result. ...
Penicillium cluniae is a fungus species of the genus of Penicillium which produces the antinematodal and antiparasitic agents ... Liesch, J. M.; Wichmann, C. F. (1990). "Novel antinematodal and antiparasitic agents from Penicillium charlesii. II. Structure ...
Antinematodal Agents. 1. Antioxidants. 1. ANTX-a. 1. Aphanoascus fulvescens. 1. Aphanomyces astaci. ...
P02C ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS. This group comprises drugs mainly used for nematode infections.. The DDDs are based on the treatment ...
P02CA03 - albendazole ; Belongs to the class of benzimidazole derivative agents. Used as antinematodal. ...
P02CA01 - mebendazole : Belongs to the class of benzimidazole derivative agents. Used as antinematodal. ...
Identification and characterization of a dual-acting antinematodal agent against the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus ... Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of ... U. maydis is a biotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of corn smut on maize. This disease is responsible for ... Therefore, it is essential to identify new targets and pathways critical for the causative agent of the tuberculosis, ...
Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Filaricides. Antinematodal Agents. ... Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antimalarials. Antirheumatic Agents. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. ...
Anthelmintics / Antinematodal Agents. Molecular Structure. Molecular Formula. (C4H10N2)3·2C6H8O7·xH2O ...
An anti-nematodal agent effective against the intestinal nematodes ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES (roundworm) and ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS ...
It is used as an antinematodal agent and an intermediate in the preparation of sodium thiophenolate, pentachlorothiophenol and ...
Ivermectin is also an overactive anti-nematodal agent with activity against Syphilis lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis ... It is however, punk as a purchasing ivermectin final agent in these purchasing ivermectin or as a suspension with other ... It has a provider and a look of a prescription private letter 9. Stromectol is a semisynthetic antibiotic-parasitic agent ...
Anti-Infective Agents. *. Antimitotic Agents. *. Antinematodal Agents. *. Antiparasitic Agents. *. Drug / Therapeutic Agent ...
229940058303 antinematodal Benzimidazole derivatives Drugs 0 description 1 * 239000002246 antineoplastic agents Substances 0 ... Anti-tumor agents US6573273B1 (en) 1999-06-10. 2003-06-03. 3M Innovative Properties Company. Urea substituted imidazoquinolines ... Arachidonic acid-induced skin disease-treating agent AU781897B2 (en) * 1999-05-25. 2005-06-23. Point Therapeutics, Inc.. Anti- ... Therapeutic agent for arachidonic acid-induced dermatosis US6525064B1 (en) 2000-12-08. 2003-02-25. 3M Innovative Properties ...
... emergence of resistance to the existing anti-nematodal pharmacopeia has made it imperative to develop new anthelminthic agents ... Previous studies have suggested that Ascaris suum ACR-16 nAChRs are a suitable target for the development of antinematodal ... The limited arsenal of anthelmintic agents and the prevalence of drug resistance imply that future defense against parasitic ... Here, our results suggested that EE may be a potential therapeutic agent against ISO-induced cognitive dysfunction. The ...
... antitumor agents, and antinematodal agents (reviewed in references 9, 15, 30, 47, and 58). NRPSs also make biosurfactants (79 ...
The macerated and soxhlet extracts of M. pruriens (DC) leaves contain more potent antinematodal agent than C. schweinfurthii ( ... which is an indication of the absence of ovicidal phytochemical agents (Table 2). The in vitro test of all the partition crude ... The macerated extract contains thermolabile compounds that are potential anti-nematodical agent which its biological activity ... this indicates that both extracts contains different tegumental diffusing agent (Table 1). ...
Animals , Antinematodal Agents/administration & dosage , Antinematodal Agents/analysis , Antinematodal Agents/therapeutic use ... Antinematodal Agents/administration & dosage , Antinematodal Agents/adverse effects , Nematode Infections/diagnosis , Nematode ... Antinematodal Agents/administration & dosage , Antiparasitic Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Gnathostoma/drug effects ... Animals , Antinematodal Agents/administration & dosage , Ascariasis/drug therapy , Ascaris lumbricoides , Child , Dosage Forms ...
  • Antinematodal Drugs Carlos E. Lanusse, Juan M. Sallovitz, Sergio F. Sanchez Bruni, and Luis I. Alvarez The economic importance of helminth infections in livestock has long been recognized and it is probably for this reason that the most important advances in the chemotherapy of helminthiasis have come from the animal health area Horton, Anthelmintics are used in all animal species and man. (rodferbrache.com)
  • Belongs to the class of benzimidazole derivative agents. (mims.com)
  • Parbendazole, a benzimidazole carbamat used as an antinematodal agent, is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly and functions. (bocsci.com)
  • Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Penicillium cluniae is a fungus species of the genus of Penicillium which produces the antinematodal and antiparasitic agents paraherquamide B, paraherquamide C, paraherquamide D, paraherquamide E, paraherquamide F, paraherquamide G, paraherquamide H List of Penicillium species MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium cluniae López-Gresa, M. P. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel antinematodal and antiparasitic agents from Penicillium charlesii. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent. (meddic.jp)
  • Tiabendazole ( INN , BAN ), also known as thiabendazole ( AAN , USAN ) or TBZ and the trade names Mintezol, Tresaderm, and Arbotect, is a preservative, [1] an antifungal agent, and an antiparasitic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 2000 and 2005, twenty new antiparasitic agents were developed or in development. (readtiger.com)
  • Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths. (readtiger.com)
  • Despite the availability of several preventive trunk-injection agents, no therapeutic trunk-injection agent for eradication of PWN currently exists. (jove.com)
  • Focusing on the mechanisms that confer resistance to individual HER2 targeting agents, we envisage therapeutic approaches to delay or overcome the evolvement of resistance in patients. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have suggested that Ascaris suum ACR-16 nAChRs are a suitable target for the development of antinematodal drugs. (bvsalud.org)
  • During the course is presented the characteristic of the principal groups of drugs used in veterinary medicine: effects and mechanism of action (pharmacodynamics), disposition and fate of drugs in the body ( (pharmacokinetics), basic indications and contraindications to use particular groups of drugs in animals (foundations of pharmacotherapy), route of administration, adverse effect of drugs and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of the agents. (wroc.pl)
  • Stromectol is a semisynthetic antibiotic-parasitic agent dosage an anthelmintic effect. (thedomains.com)
  • Pyrvinium is an anthelmintic agent which acts to kill pinworms [ 3 ] . (drugbank.ca)
  • A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This chapter covers the information available for the different specific antinematodal drug families used in veterinary therapeutics. (rodferbrache.com)
  • Using this HTS method, we screened 206 compounds with known activities, mostly antifungal, for antinematodal activities and identified HWY-4213 (1-n-undecyl-2-[2-fluorphenyl] methyl-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinolinium chloride), a highly water-soluble protoberberine derivative, as a potent nematicidal and antifungal agent. (jove.com)
  • We report a case of pulmonary toxicity associated with the relatively new antineoplastic agent topotecan. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly and DNA topoisomerase II and it is a natural product that inhibits the polymerization of tubulin and has served as a prototype for the development of diverse antitumor agents in clinical use. (bocsci.com)
  • It has also been shown to serve as a vascular disrupting agent to reduce newly established blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plinabulin is a vascular disrupting agent (VDA) against tubulin-depolymerizing with IC50 value of 9.8~18 nM in tumor cells under the development of Nereus Pharm. (bocsci.com)
  • Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy). (thefreedictionary.com)
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  • Solano F, Briganti S, Picardo M, Ghanem G (2006) Hypopigmenting agents: an updated review on biological, chemical and clinical aspects. (springer.com)
  • Docetaxel Injection is an antineoplastic agent intended for the treatment of breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer ("NSCLC"), prostate cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and head and neck cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Docetaxel is a cytotoxic agent, which is related to its ability to promote the formation of microtubule bundles and induce sustained mitotic arrest, followed by. (bocsci.com)
  • An anti-nematodal agent effective against the intestinal nematodes ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES (roundworm) and ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (pinworm, threadworm). (nih.gov)
  • Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitors are currently in clinical development as potential lipid-lowering and antiatherosclerotic agents. (tudelft.nl)
  • s Closed System for Antineoplastic Agent Administration," was conducted by a team of nurses at the Abramson Cancer Center of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center with more than 55,000 doses of chemotherapy delivered per year. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cladribine is an antineoplastic agent that has been approved for the treatment of active hairy cell leukemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SAN DIEGO -- The antineoplastic agent letrozole is a promising alternative to clomiphene citrate as a frontline treatment for ovulation induction, results of a small prospective study suggest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In vitro activity of five tetracyclines and some other antimicrobial agents four porcine respiratory tract pathogens. (sciendo.com)
  • Group of agents which induce sedation. (wroc.pl)