Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Gluconates are salts or esters of gluconic acid, primarily used in medical treatments as a source of the essential nutrient, calcium, and as a chelating agent to bind and remove toxic metals such as aluminum and iron from the body.
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tartrates are salts or esters of tartaric acid, primarily used in pharmaceutical industry as buffering agents, and in medical laboratories for the precipitation of proteins.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).

Diagnostic and prognostic potential of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leishmaniasis in India. (1/139)

A Leishmania donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody (monoclonal antibody D2) was evaluated for its diagnostic and prognostic potential by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) in sera from Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and seven patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). These results were compared with those obtained by microscopy with Giemsa-stained tissue smears and a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) with crude parasite antigen. Of 121 patients with clinically diagnosed VL examined, 103 (85.1%) were positive and 11 (9.1%) were negative by all three methods. An additional 7 (5.8%) who were negative by microscopy were positive by both C-ELISA and direct ELISA. Seven PKDL patients were also examined and were found to be positive by all three methods. Analysis of the chemotherapeutic response to sodium antimony gluconate of these 110 serologically positive VL patients showed that 57 (51.8%) were drug responsive and 53 (48.2%) were drug resistant. The C-ELISA with sera from 20 longitudinally monitored VL patients before and after chemotherapy showed a significant decrease in percent inhibition of monoclonal antibody D2 in drug-responsive patients. However, in drug-unresponsive patients, the percent inhibition of D2 was unchanged or was slightly increased. Our results therefore indicate (i) the applicability of L. donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody D2 for sensitive and specific serodiagnosis by C-ELISA, (ii) that the C-ELISA is more sensitive than microscopy, especially for early diagnosis, (iii) that L. donovani is still the main causative agent of VL, irrespective of the chemotherapeutic response, and (iv) that the C-ELISA can be used to evaluate the success of drug treatment.  (+info)

Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. (2/139)

The possibility that the high frequency of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar might be due to infection with antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani has not been experimentally addressed. L. donovani isolates were obtained from splenic aspiration smears of 24 patients in Bihar, India, who either did not respond (15) or did respond (9) to 1 or more full courses of treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). A strong correlation (P<.001) between clinical response and SAG sensitivity in vitro was observed only when strains were assayed as intracellular amastigotes: responsive isolates ED50=2.4+/-2.6, ED90=6.4+/-7.8 microgram SAG/mL; unresponsive isolates ED50=7.4+/-3.7 microgram SAG/mL, ED90=29.1+/-11.1 SAG/mL. No correlation with clinical response was found by use of extracellular promastigotes (ED50=48+/-22 vs. 52+/-29 microgram/mL). The emergence of antimony-resistant L. donovani strains appears to be a cause of treatment failures in India.  (+info)

Randomized, double-blind study of stibogluconate plus human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor versus stibogluconate alone in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (3/139)

The response to recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis was evaluated. Twenty patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who had lesions for 60 days were enrolled in a double-blind placebo trial of GM-CSF with standard parenteral sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg-1/day-1) for 20 days. Ten patients were randomized to receive intralesionally injected GM-CSF (200 microgram) at enrollment and 1 week after, and 10 patients received saline as placebo. GM-CSF- and antimony-treated patients healed faster than patients who received antimony alone (49+/-32.8 vs. 110+/-61.6 days, P<.05). Seven of 10 patients were healed of their lesions before 40 days after therapy in the GM-CSF group, compared with only 1 of 10 patients in the placebo group (relative risk, 7; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-47.00). Thus, GM-CSF plus antimony significantly increased the chance of lesion healing in 40 days.  (+info)

Out-patient parenteral antimicrobial therapy--a viable option for the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (4/139)

Cutaneous infection with Leishmania braziliensis complex requires treatment with parenteral pentavalent antimonials to prevent development of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients with imported disease are usually managed in hospital because of concerns over drug toxicity. This study describes the clinical features and outcome of infection treated in the UK in an out-patient setting. Thirteen marines (aged 19-35 years) who acquired leishmaniasis in Belize were studied prospectively. Three had at least two lesions (0. 6-3 cm diameter), eight had regional lymphadenopathy and one had localized painless lymphatic thickening. Histology for amastigotes and PCR for Leishmania braziliensis complex was positive in all. Culture was positive in six. Patients received 1.5-2 g (mean 1.7 g) (20 mg/kg) sodium stibogluconate intravenously daily for 20 days. All developed transient musculoskeletal symptoms and asymptomatic hepatitis. Eleven developed biochemical pancreatitis, and one thrombocytopenia. Three developed transient ECG changes and one herpes zoster. There were four device-related infections, two requiring hospitalization (one required surgical drainage of an abscess). All lesions re-epithelialized. A total of 250 bed-days were saved over a 67-day period. These results indicate that in selected patients, out-patient therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis with parenteral high-dose sodium stibogluconate may be appropriate, provided there is adequate monitoring of therapy.  (+info)

Differential decline in Leishmania membrane antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgE, and IgG subclass antibodies in Indian kala-azar patients after chemotherapy. (5/139)

Pathogenesis in kala-azar is associated with depressed cellular immunity and significant elevation of antileishmanial antibodies. Since these antibodies are present even after cure, analysis of the parasite-specific isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in kala-azar patients may shed new light on the immune responses during progression and resolution of infection. Using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts, we investigated the relative levels of specific IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses in Indian kala-azar patient sera during disease, drug resistance, and cure. Acute-phase sera showed strong stimulation of IgG, followed by IgE and IgM and lastly by IgA antibodies. IgG subclass analysis revealed expression of all of the subclasses, with a predominance of IgG1 during disease. Following sodium stibogluconate (SAG) resistance, the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and IgG4 remained constant, while there was a decrease in the titers of IgG2 and IgG3. In contrast, a significant (2.2-fold) increase in IgG1 was observed in these individuals. Cure, in both SAG-responsive and unresponsive patients, correlated with a decline in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and all of the IgG subclasses. The stimulation of IgG1 and the persistence, most importantly, of IgE and IgG4 following drug resistance, along with a decline in IgE, IgG4, and IgG1 with cure, demonstrate the potential of these isotypes as possible markers for monitoring effective treatment in kala-azar.  (+info)

A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan. (6/139)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of treatment of Sudanese kala-azar patients treated under field conditions with either branded sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (Pentostam GlaxoWellcome) or generic SSG (Albert David Ltd, Calcutta, supplied by International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam). METHOD: Randomised comparison. 271 patients were treated with Pentostam and 245 with generic SSG. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in cure rate or mortality were detected between Pentostam and generic SSG. No differences in side-effects between the two drugs were noted. The initial cure rate at the time of discharge was 93.7 and 97.6%, respectively; the death rate during treatment 5.9 and 2.4%. Six months follow up was achieved in 88.5% of the discharged patients. Two patients had died in the Pentostam group and two had died in the generic SSG group, giving a final death rate of 7.5 and 3.7%. The number of relapses in the Pentostam and generic SSG groups were 3 and 1, respectively. The final cure rates, calculated at 6 months after discharge, were 91.3% and 95.9%. CONCLUSION: No difference was observed in the performance of generic SSG compared to Pentostam for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. Generic SSG can be routinely and safely used for the treatment of kala-azar. Generic SSG costs only 1/14 of the price of Pentostam. The use of generic SSG may make treatment of kala-azar affordable for national governments in Africa.  (+info)

Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) potentiates oxidant production in murine visceral leishmaniasis and in human blood. (7/139)

Sodium stibogluconate (Sbb), a leishmanicidal drug, was studied for its in vivo effect on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by chemiluminescence (CL) in the whole blood of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. Stimulation of ROS formation induced ex vivo by zymosan particles or the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was reduced by approximately 25% (P < 0.05) after infection of mice. Treatment of infected mice with Sbb (50 to 400 mg/kg of body weight) enhanced the blood CL induced by zymosan and PMA (47 to 96%, P < 0.01). The drug potentiation effect also occurred in uninfected mice. In vitro treatment of normal human blood with Sbb (1, 10, or 100 microg/ml) for 1 h primed the CL response to PMA (29 to 54%). The priming effect of Sbb was also observed on the production of superoxide by isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated either by PMA and zymosan or by the chemoattractants N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and platelet-activating factor. These data provide the first evidence of priming of the phagocyte respiratory burst by Sbb. This novel property of Sbb may contribute to the drug's leishmanicidal effect.  (+info)

Deaths in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) during treatment. (8/139)

Twenty-seven out of five hundred and fifty three patients hospitalized for visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) died during treatment with sodium antimony gluconate. Data from these patients were evaluated to find out the cause of death. Eight patients had associated diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (3), severe malnutrition (1), acute gastroenteritis (1), spleenic infarction (1), acute renal failure (1) and atrial septal defect (1) which could be attributed to death. Twelve patients developed spontaneous haemorrhages from nose, gums and gastrointestinal tract and died, despite of adequate supportive measures. Seven other patients who were improving slowly with antimony therapy died unexpectedly. Though, cause of death could be explained in some patients with associated disease conditions, it could not be explained in others as significant clinical manifestations, haematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic alterations were not evident prior to death. Our impression is that mortality in Kala-azar patients during standard antimonial therapy is more related to the drug rather than the disease process.  (+info)

Antimony sodium gluconate is a chemical compound that contains antimony, sodium, and gluconic acid. It is used primarily as a medication to treat the parasitic infection known as leishmaniasis, which is caused by a protozoan parasite and is transmitted through the bite of certain sandflies.

The compound works by inhibiting the growth of the parasite within the host's body. Antimony sodium gluconate is administered intravenously or intramuscularly, depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's overall health status.

It is important to note that antimony sodium gluconate can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and muscle weakness. In some cases, it may also cause more serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias or kidney damage. Therefore, it should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Antimony is a toxic metallic element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It exists in several allotropic forms and can be found naturally as the mineral stibnite. Antimony has been used for centuries in various applications, including medicinal ones, although its use in medicine has largely fallen out of favor due to its toxicity.

In a medical context, antimony may still be encountered in certain medications used to treat parasitic infections, such as pentavalent antimony compounds (e.g., sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, these drugs can have significant side effects and their use is typically reserved for severe cases that cannot be treated with other medications.

It's important to note that exposure to antimony in high concentrations or over prolonged periods can lead to serious health issues, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and even neurological damage. Therefore, handling antimony-containing substances should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Gluconates are a group of salts and esters derived from gluconic acid, a weak organic acid that is naturally produced in the human body during the metabolism of carbohydrates. In medical contexts, gluconates are often used as a source of the essential mineral ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which are necessary for various bodily functions.

Gluconate salts are commonly used in pharmaceutical and nutritional supplements because they are highly soluble in water, making them easy to absorb and utilize by the body. For example, calcium gluconate is a common treatment for hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels), while magnesium gluconate is used to treat magnesium deficiency.

Gluconates may also be used as preservatives in some medical products, such as intravenous solutions and eye drops, due to their ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. Overall, gluconates are a versatile class of compounds with important applications in medicine and health.

Antimony potassium tartrate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula KSbC4H4O7. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and has been used historically in medical treatments, most notably in the treatment of leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease. However, due to its potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives, it is no longer commonly used in modern medicine.

Calcium gluconate is a medical compound that is used primarily as a medication to treat conditions related to low calcium levels in the body (hypocalcemia) or to prevent calcium deficiency. It is also used as an antidote for treating poisoning from certain chemicals, such as beta-blockers and fluoride.

Calcium gluconate is a form of calcium salt, which is combined with gluconic acid, a natural organic acid found in various fruits and honey. This compound has a high concentration of calcium, making it an effective supplement for increasing calcium levels in the body.

In medical settings, calcium gluconate can be administered orally as a tablet or liquid solution, or it can be given intravenously (directly into a vein) by a healthcare professional. The intravenous route is typically used in emergency situations to quickly raise calcium levels and treat symptoms of hypocalcemia, such as muscle cramps, spasms, or seizures.

It's important to note that while calcium gluconate can be beneficial for treating low calcium levels, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as improper use or overdose can lead to serious side effects, including kidney damage and heart problems.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Meglumine is not a medical condition but a medication. It is an anticholinergic drug that is used as a diagnostic aid in the form of meglumine iodide, which is used to test for kidney function and to visualize the urinary tract. Meglumine is an amino sugar that is used as a counterion to combine with iodine to make meglumine iodide. It works by increasing the excretion of iodine through the kidneys, which helps to enhance the visibility of the urinary tract during imaging studies.

'Leishmania donovani' is a species of protozoan parasite that causes a severe form of visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar. This disease primarily affects the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, leading to symptoms such as fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies. It's worth noting that this organism can also affect dogs and other animals, causing a disease known as canine leishmaniasis.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, is a systemic protozoan disease caused by the Leishmania donovani complex. It is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is characterized by fever, weight loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. If left untreated, it can be fatal in over 95% of cases within 2 years of onset of symptoms. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies (Phlebotomus spp. or Lutzomyia spp.). The parasites enter the skin and are taken up by macrophages, where they transform into amastigotes and spread to internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Diagnosis is typically made through demonstration of the parasite in tissue samples or through serological tests. Treatment options include antimonial drugs, amphotericin B, miltefosine, and paromomycin. Prevention measures include vector control, early detection and treatment, and protection against sandfly bites.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing lesions that can be disfiguring and stigmatizing. There are several clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including localized, disseminated, and mucocutaneous.

Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common form of the disease, characterized by the development of one or more nodular or ulcerative lesions at the site of the sandfly bite, typically appearing within a few weeks to several months after exposure. The lesions may vary in size and appearance, ranging from small papules to large plaques or ulcers, and can be painful or pruritic (itchy).

Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis is a more severe form of the disease, characterized by the widespread dissemination of lesions across the body. This form of the disease typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form of the disease, characterized by the spread of infection from the skin to the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and throat. This can result in extensive tissue destruction, disfigurement, and functional impairment.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as parasite detection using microscopy or molecular techniques, or serological tests to detect antibodies against the Leishmania parasites. Treatment options for cutaneous leishmaniasis include systemic or topical medications, such as antimonial drugs, miltefosine, or pentamidine, as well as physical treatments such as cryotherapy or thermotherapy. The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the species of Leishmania involved, the clinical form of the disease, and the patient's overall health status.

Sodium channels are specialized protein structures that are embedded in the membranes of excitable cells, such as nerve and muscle cells. They play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in these cells. Sodium channels are responsible for the rapid influx of sodium ions into the cell during the initial phase of an action potential, which is the electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a neuron or muscle fiber. This sudden influx of sodium ions causes the membrane potential to rapidly reverse, leading to the depolarization of the cell. After the action potential, the sodium channels close and become inactivated, preventing further entry of sodium ions and helping to restore the resting membrane potential.

Sodium channels are composed of a large alpha subunit and one or two smaller beta subunits. The alpha subunit forms the ion-conducting pore, while the beta subunits play a role in modulating the function and stability of the channel. Mutations in sodium channel genes have been associated with various inherited diseases, including certain forms of epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and muscle disorders.

Technetium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the radioactive technetium (Tc) element. Technetium is a naturally rare element and does not have any stable isotopes, making it only exist in trace amounts in the Earth's crust. However, it can be produced artificially in nuclear reactors.

Technetium compounds are widely used in medical imaging as radioactive tracers in diagnostic procedures. The most common technetium compound is Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which has a half-life of 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by external cameras. Tc-99m is often bound to various pharmaceuticals, such as methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or human serum albumin (HSA), to target specific organs or tissues in the body.

Technetium compounds are used in a variety of diagnostic procedures, including bone scans, lung perfusion scans, myocardial perfusion imaging, and brain scans. They provide valuable information about organ function, blood flow, and tissue metabolism, helping doctors diagnose various medical conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and bone fractures.

It is important to note that technetium compounds should only be used under the supervision of trained medical professionals due to their radioactive nature. Proper handling, administration, and disposal procedures must be followed to ensure safety and minimize radiation exposure.

Arsenic is a naturally occurring semi-metal element that can be found in the earth's crust. It has the symbol "As" and atomic number 33 on the periodic table. Arsenic can exist in several forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. In its pure form, arsenic is a steel-gray, shiny solid that is brittle and easily pulverized.

Arsenic is well known for its toxicity to living organisms, including humans. Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause various health problems, such as skin lesions, neurological damage, and an increased risk of cancer. Arsenic can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or air, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

In medicine, arsenic has been used historically in the treatment of various diseases, including syphilis and parasitic infections. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its toxicity. Today, arsenic trioxide is still used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a type of blood cancer. The drug works by inducing differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in APL cells, which contain a specific genetic abnormality. However, its use is closely monitored due to the potential for severe side effects and toxicity.

Tartrates are salts or esters of tartaric acid, a naturally occurring organic acid found in many fruits, particularly grapes. In a medical context, potassium bitartrate (also known as cream of tartar) is sometimes used as a mild laxative or to treat acidosis by helping to restore the body's normal pH balance. Additionally, sodium tartrate has been historically used as an antidote for lead poisoning. However, these uses are not common in modern medicine.

Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan parasites of the Leishmania species, which are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. The disease presents with a variety of clinical manifestations, depending upon the Leishmania species involved and the host's immune response.

There are three main forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar. CL typically presents with skin ulcers, while MCL is characterized by the destruction of mucous membranes in the nose, mouth, and throat. VL, the most severe form, affects internal organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, causing symptoms like fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlarged liver and spleen.

Leishmaniasis is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and southern Europe. The prevention strategies include using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and improving housing conditions to minimize exposure to sandflies. Effective treatment options are available for leishmaniasis, depending on the form and severity of the disease, geographical location, and the Leishmania species involved.

... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D09.811.308.200 - calcium gluconate MeSH D09.811.366.388 - diphosphoglyceric acids MeSH D09.811. ...
... gluconates MeSH D02.241.081.844.322.060 - antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D02.241.081.844.322.200 - calcium gluconate MeSH ... gluconates MeSH D02.241.511.902.322.060 - antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D02.241.511.902.322.200 - calcium gluconate MeSH ... sodium oxybate MeSH D02.241.511.459 - lactates MeSH D02.241.511.459.450 - lactic acid MeSH D02.241.511.459.800 - sodium lactate ... sodium dodecyl sulfate MeSH D02.886.645.600.055.050.755 - sodium tetradecyl sulfate MeSH D02.886.645.600.055.250 - hepes MeSH ...
Although zinc sulfate is a commonly used zinc form, zinc citrate, gluconate and picolinate may be valid options as well. These ... Ornaments made of alloys containing 80-90% zinc, with lead, iron, antimony, and other metals making up the remainder, have been ... or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas". Journal of Nutrition. 135 (5): 1102-5. doi: ... A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc ...
Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a mammalian poison in which two acetic acid hydrogens are replaced with fluorine and sodium ... The pentafluorides of phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony are more reactive than their respective trifluorides, with antimony ... Calcium gluconate is often applied next, providing calcium ions to bind with fluoride; skin burns can be treated with 2.5% ... Sodium monofluorophosphate and sometimes sodium or tin(II) fluoride are often found in fluoride toothpastes, first introduced ...
NaNO3 Sodium nitrite - NaNO2 Sodium nitroprusside - Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]·2H2O Sodium oxide - Na2O Sodium perborate - NaBO3·H2O Sodium ... 2 Antimony sulfate - Sb2(SO4)3 Antimony trichloride - SbCl3 Antimony trifluoride - SbF3 Antimony trioxide - Sb2O3 Antimony ... SrPO3F Strontium gluconate - Sr(HOCH2(CHOH)4CO2)2 Strontium hydride - SrH2 Strontium hydrogen phosphate - SrHPO4 Strontium ... 2H2O Sodium dioxide - NaO2 Sodium dithionite - Na2S2O4 Sodium ferrocyanide - Na4[Fe(CN)6] Sodium fluoride - NaF Sodium ...
Starting in the early 19th century and continuing into the 20th century, Fowler's solution, a toxic concoction of sodium ... The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro. This reaction ... Bentley, Ronald; Chasteen, TG (2002). "Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth". Microbiology and ... Li, J.H; Rossman, T.G (1991). "Comutagenesis of sodium arsenite with ultraviolet radiation in Chinese hamster V79 cells". ...
These lead-calcium alloys are also used in casting, replacing lead-antimony alloys. Calcium is also used to strengthen ... Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate. The intestine absorbs ... Sodium channel blockers, World Health Organization essential medicines, Chemical elements with face-centered cubic structure). ... calcium-lead alloys instead of the usual antimony-lead alloys leads to lower water loss and lower self-discharging. Due to the ...
... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D09.811.308.200 - calcium gluconate MeSH D09.811.366.388 - diphosphoglyceric acids MeSH D09.811. ...
use ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE to search ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES 1977-93. History Note:. 94; was ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES ... Antimony Gluconate Sodium. Antimony Gluconic Acid. Antimony Sodium Gluconates. Myostibin. Pentostam. Sodium Gluconates, ... Antimony Sodium Gluconate Entry term(s). Antimony Gluconate Sodium Sodium Stibogluconate Sodium, Stibogluconate Stibogluconate ... Gluconates (1970-1976). Public MeSH Note:. 94; was ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES 1991-93 (see under GLUCONATES 1977-90); SODIUM ...
Example sentences with the word antimony. The most voted sentence example for antimony is The most important of these are an ... Sodium antimony gluconate and pentamidine have been used as the first and second line drugs respectively. 0 0 ... Chinese antimony is exported in part as antimony crude (lumps of needle-like antimony sulphide), and in part as antimony ... One use of antimony, which is declining, is to make type metal for printing newspapers and magazines. Antimony 0 0 ...
The current control strategy for leishmaniasis relies on chemotherapy drugs such as sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and ...
D23.529.168.200 Antimony Potassium Tartrate D1.632.75 Antimony Sodium Gluconate D1.632.80 Antimycin A D4.345.349.75 ... D12.776.828.175 Gold Sodium Thiomalate D1.632.675.500 Granulomatosis, Orofacial C7.465.353 Groin A1.47.365 A1.923.47.365 H-2 ...
55331 SODIUM GLUCONATE 55040 QUINETHAZONE 55335 SODIUM GLUTAMATE 55045 QUINIDINE 55338 SODIUM GLYCERO- PHOSPHATE 55050 QUININE ... 50323 ANTIMONY POTASSIUM INHIBITOR TARTRATE 50110 ALPHAPRODINE 50325 ANTIPYRINE 50113 ALPRAZOLAM 50330 ANTIRABIES SERUM 50116 ... 56330 SODIUM STEARATE 55135 RUTIN 55400 SODIUM SUCCINATE 55140 SACCHARIN 55405 SODIUM SULFATE 55145 SAFFLOWER OIL 55410 SODIUM ... 55295 SODIUM BORATE 55005 PYRITHIONE 55300 SODIUM BROMIDE 55015 PYROGALLOL 55305 SODIUM CACODYLATE 55020 PYROXYLIN 55308 SODIUM ...
... hypertonic sodium chloride and pentavalent antimony compound against acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 1997;22: ... Giving zinc gluconate by mouth to infants seems to help heal diaper rash. Applying zinc oxide paste also seems to help. But it ... Effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate and zinc chloride mouthwashes in the treatment of oral mucositis and quality of life in ... Zinc gluconate lozenges for common cold. A double-blind clinical trial. Dan Med Bull 1990;37:279-81. View abstract. ...
1-Hydroxyethane 1,1-Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP) (1) Sodium Gluconate Ammoniumcitratedibasic Polyacrylaimde (PAM) (2) Activated ... Sodium Sulfate (2) Sodium Chlorate Antimony Arsenic * Stabilizer Calcium Carbonate Barium Carbonate Lead(II) Oxide Zinc Oxide ... Sodium Hypochlorite (3) Sodium Perborate Hydrogen Peroxide (1) Chlorine Ethanol (Ethylic Alcohol) More ... Sodium Hypochlorite (3) Sodium Perborate Hydrogen Peroxide (1) Chlorine Ethanol (Ethylic Alcohol) More ...
SODIUM ISETHIONATE, sodium hexameta phosphate, sodium dimethyl dithiocarbamate, sodium ethyl paraben, sodium gluconate, sodium ... Antimony Trioxide, Antioxidant, Anionic Polyacrylamide, Anionic Polyelectrolyte, ARBOCEL PWC 500, ARMOHIB 18, ARMOHIB 28, ... sodium chlorate, sodium alfa olefin sulfonate, sodium bromate, sodium bromide, sodium aluminate, sodium allyl sulfonate, sodium ... sodium sulfonate, sodium petroleum sulfonate, sodium stearate, sodium pyrithione,sodium propyl paraben, sodium omadine, sodium ...
Sodium Bromide. *Barium carbonate. *ALUMINIUM (metal) POWDER. *ANTIMONY (metal) LUMPS. *ANTIMONY (metal) POWDER ... CALCIUM GLUCONATE (monohydrate). *CALCIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE. *CALCIUM LACTATE (for soil test). *CALCIUM LACTOBIONATE ...
直鏈型烷基苯磺酸鈉(Linear alkylbenzene sodium sulfonates,LAS) ... 葡萄糖酸鈣(Calcium Gluconate). *蓋普丹(Captan). *蔗糖素
Sodium Gluconate * Salicylaldehyde * Salicylic Acid * Sodium Pyrophosphate * Sodium Azide * Sodium Benzoate Food Grade ...
Sodium antimony gluconate (Pentostam). *View full drug information. DOC for the treatment of leishmaniasis in United States. ...
Paromomycin can be used in combination with sodium antimony gluconate to reduce the total time of therapy, and it has better ... Interferon gamma-1b is administered with sodium antimony gluconate (probably ineffective alone). ... Sodium stibogluconate is available only from the CDC at 100 mg/mL. Dilute each mL in 10 mL of 5% dextrose water, and administer ... Pentavalent antimony is not marketed in the United States, but it can be obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate / administration & dosage* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Cumulative cardiac toxicity of sodium stibogluconate and amphotericin B in treatment of kala-azar. Maheshwari A, Seth A, Kaur S ... Clinical cases were treated with systemic sodium stibogluconate or amphotericin B and all were followed up at the leishmaniasis ...
Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis: successful treatment with sodium antimony gluconate.. Aram H; el-On J. Cutis; 1986 Mar; 37(3 ... Case 4-2005: sodium stibogluconate for cutaneous leishmaniasis.. Hartzell JD; Aronson N. N Engl J Med; 2005 May; 352(18):1929. ... Safety and efficacy of intravenous sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of leishmaniasis: recent U.S. military experience. ...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate / therapeutic use Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum. Soflaei S, Dalimi A, ...
D23.529.168.200 Antimony Potassium Tartrate D1.632.75 Antimony Sodium Gluconate D1.632.80 Antimycin A D4.345.349.75 ... D12.776.828.175 Gold Sodium Thiomalate D1.632.675.500 Granulomatosis, Orofacial C7.465.353 Groin A1.47.365 A1.923.47.365 H-2 ...
use ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE to search ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES 1977-93. History Note. 94; was ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES ... Antimony Gluconate Sodium Antimony Gluconic Acid Antimony Sodium Gluconates Myostibin Pentostam Sodium Stibogluconate ... Antimony Sodium Gluconates Broader Concept UI. M0001477. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Antimony Sodium Gluconates Preferred Term ... Gluconates (1970-1976). Public MeSH Note. 94; was ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES 1991-93 (see under GLUCONATES 1977-90); SODIUM ...
use ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE to search ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES 1977-93. History Note. 94; was ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES ... Antimony Gluconate Sodium Antimony Gluconic Acid Antimony Sodium Gluconates Myostibin Pentostam Sodium Stibogluconate ... Antimony Sodium Gluconates Broader Concept UI. M0001477. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Antimony Sodium Gluconates Preferred Term ... Gluconates (1970-1976). Public MeSH Note. 94; was ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATES 1991-93 (see under GLUCONATES 1977-90); SODIUM ...
Cationic Peptides N0000166272 Antimony N0000006951 Antimony Potassium Tartrate N0000168480 Antimony Sodium Gluconate ... Sodium Azide N0000006712 Sodium Benzoate N0000005741 Sodium Bicarbonate N0000179241 sodium bisulfite N0000006640 sodium borate ... Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate N0000007218 Sodium Fluoride N0000170280 Sodium Glutamate N0000178978 Sodium Heparin N0000179315 Sodium ... Sodium Iodide N0000178979 Sodium Iothalamate N0000166131 Sodium Isotopes N0000006559 Sodium Lactate N0000179702 sodium laureth ...
The current control strategy for leishmaniasis relies on chemotherapy drugs such as sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and ...
ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS ... ANTIPARASITIC AGENTS ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE ANTIPARASITIC AGENTS ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE ANTIPARASITIC AGENTS ... ANTHELMINTICS ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE ANTHELMINTICS ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE ANTHELMINTICS ANTINEMATODAL AGENTS ... ANTIPLATYHELMINTIC AGENTS ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE ANTIPLATYHELMINTIC AGENTS ANTIMONY SODIUM GLUCONATE ANTIPLATYHELMINTIC ...
D23.529.168.200 Antimony Potassium Tartrate D1.632.75 Antimony Sodium Gluconate D1.632.80 Antimycin A D4.345.349.75 ... D12.776.828.175 Gold Sodium Thiomalate D1.632.675.500 Granulomatosis, Orofacial C7.465.353 Groin A1.47.365 A1.923.47.365 H-2 ...
Antimony Potassium Tartrate [D02.121] * Antimony Sodium Gluconate [D02.125] * Arsenicals [D02.129] * Aza Compounds [D02.145] ...
Manganese Gluconate 6X, Phosphorus 6X, 8X,12X, 15X, Potassium Aspartate 6X, Sodium Molybdate 6X, Adenosinum Cyclophosphoricum ... ANTIMONY TRISULFIDE (UNII: F79059A38U) (ANTIMONY TRISULFIDE - UNII:F79059A38U) ANTIMONY TRISULFIDE. 12 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ... MANGANESE GLUCONATE (UNII: 9YY2F980SV) (MANGANESE CATION (2+) - UNII:H6EP7W5457) MANGANESE GLUCONATE. 6 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ... COBALTOUS GLUCONATE (UNII: 26SK597UWV) (COBALTOUS CATION - UNII:AI1MR454XG) COBALTOUS GLUCONATE. 6 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ...
Sodium antimonyl gluconate (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Sodium antimonyl gluconate (substance). ... Antimony compound with antiprotozoal mechanism of action (substance) {373740005 , SNOMED-CT } Substance with antischistosomal ...
Sodium Gluconate. *Sodium Lactate. *Strontium Carbonate. *Urea. *Zinc Chloride Powder. Neodymium Carbonate. Neodymium Carbonate ... Sodium Lactate. *Calcium Lactate. *Urea. *Metal Oxides *Aluminum Hydroxide (Dried). *Antimony Oxide ...
SODIUM SODIUM AZIDE see AZIDES SODIUM BICARBONATE see BICARBONATES SODIUM CHLORIDE xx CHLORIDES SODIUM CITRATE see CITRATES ... STIBAMINE see ANTIMONY STIBOPHEN see ANTIMONY STILBAMIDINES see STILBENES STILBENES see also DIETHYLSTILBESTROL x BENZESTROL x ... GLUCONATES x GLUCONIC ACID 106 CURRENT LIST of MEDICAL LITERATURE glycerophosphates GLUCONIC ACID see GLUCONATES GLUCOSAMINE ... SODIUM CYANATES see CYANATES SODIUM CYANIDE see CYANIDES SODIUM FLUORIDE see FLUORIDES SODIUM GENTISATE see GENTISATE SODIUM ...
Sodium Gluconate * Praseodymium Oxide Pr6O11 Powder * Lauramidopropyl hydroxy sulfobetaine 0 * Penetrating agent JFC-1 ... High Purity Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 Powder CAS 1314-87-0, 99.99%. HOT PRODUCTS June 26,2023 ...
... as Zinc Gluconate) 9 Mg Copper (as Copper Gluconate) 1 Mg Manganese (as Managnese Gluconate) 0. 3 Mg Chromium (as Chromium ... While Sodium Molydbate) 75 Mcg Sodium 15 Mg Potassium (as Potassium Aspartate) 100 Mg Choline Bitartfate 275 Mg Saw Palmetto ( ... Antimony, Barium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Boron, Bromine, Cadmium, Cerium, Cesium, Chloride, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper Gallium, ... Like Zinc Gluconate) 30 Mg Selenium (as L-elenomethionine) 200 Mcg Copper (as Copper Gluconate) 2 Mg Manganese (as Manganese ...
... ferrous gluconate, E0228520,Fluogen,influenza virus vaccine, E0228521,Fourneau 309,suramin sodium, E0228522,Furadantin, ... antimony lithium thiomalate, E0066092,Antistine,antazoline, E0066095,Avertin,chlortetracycline, E0066096,Banthine,methantheline ... sodium cromoglicate, E0301353,Nalcrom,sodium cromoglicate, E0301354,Nasalcrom,sodium cromoglicate, E0301355,Opticrom,sodium ... sodium fluoride, E0302337,Fusidin,fusidic acid, E0302339,Sanochrysine,gold sodium thiosulphate, E0302340,Sanocrisin,gold sodium ...
Adulteration of sodium citrate and sodium chloride solutions. U. S. v. 14 Cases of Sodium Citrate Solution (and 10 other ... U. S. v. 44 Bottles of Gum Arabic and 20 Bottles of Antimony Potassium Tartrate (and 1 other seizure action against antimony ... Adulteration of ampuls of calcium gluconate. U. S. v. 200 Ampuls of Calcium Gluconate. Default decree of condemnation and ... Adulteration of sodium cacodylate. U. S. v. 2 Packages of Sodium Cacodylate. Default decree of condemnation and destruction. ...
Antimony Tribromide. Minimum Order Quantity : 50. Product Type : Antimony Tribromide. Application : Industrial. Physical Form ... Potassium Gluconate. *Sodium Bromide. *Sodium Fluoride. *Sodium Lactate. *Sodium Propionate. *Succinic Acid ...
It is mainly used to make tartrates (tartaric acid salts), like antimony potassium tartrate, or potassium sodium tartrate. ... Ferrous Gluconate Shijiazhuang Yuanchem Imp. & Exp. Corp. Ltd. Ferrous Gluconate is a yellow and gray powder that is odorless ... Sodium Saccharin Shijiazhuang Yuanchem Imp. & Exp. Corp. Ltd. Sodium Saccharin is a white crystal. It is used as a sweetener in ... Sodium Benzoate Shijiazhuang Yuanchem Imp. & Exp. Corp. Ltd. Sodium Benzoate is a white granular or powder that is odorless ...
直鏈型烷基苯磺酸鈉(Linear alkylbenzene sodium sulfonates,LAS) ... 葡萄糖酸鈣(Calcium Gluconate). *蓋普丹(Captan). *蔗糖素
  • The current control strategy for leishmaniasis relies on chemotherapy drugs such as sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and meglumine antimoniate (MA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Sodium antimony gluconate and pentamidine have been used as the first and second line drugs respectively. (linguix.com)
  • Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. (bvsalud.org)
  • The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • tial course of pentavalent antimony drug treatment is generally around 10% in most areas, but this seems to be increasing [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT A longitudinal study was done in a leishmaniasis-endemic region in eastern Sudan during the period November 2001-February 2003 to determine the incidence of failure of sodium stibogluconate treat- ment. (who.int)
  • All were treated with sodium stibogluconate, 20 mg/kg body weight for at least 28 days. (who.int)
  • Six parasites showed in vitro resistance to sodium stibogluconate using murine J774 macrophage amastigote testing method. (who.int)
  • RESUME Une étude longitudinale a été réalisée dans une région d'endémie de la leishmaniose au Soudan oriental entre novembre 2001 et février 2003 afin de déterminer l'incidence de l'échec du traitement au stibogluconate de sodium. (who.int)
  • Tous les patients ont été traités par le stibogluconate de sodium à raison de 20 mg/kg pendant 28 jours au minimum. (who.int)
  • Six parasites ont montré une résistance in vitro au stibogluconate de sodium en utilisant le test de détection des amastigotes dans les macrophages J774 murins. (who.int)
  • Emergence of tance of L. donovani to this drug in the sodium stibogluconate-resistant strains of country. (who.int)
  • Our study aimed to determine the L. donovani in leishmaniasis-endemic areas incidence of resistance of L. donovani to in Asia and Africa is becoming a serious sodium stibogluconate in visceral leishma- health problem. (who.int)
  • Se emplea el gluconato pentavalente en la leishmaniasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Its chemical symbol, Sb, is derived from the Latin word stibium, which was the name of the most common antimony mineral, stibnite. (linguix.com)
  • Sucking on lozenges containing zinc gluconate or zinc acetate helps shorten the length of a cold in adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Giving zinc gluconate by mouth to infants seems to help heal diaper rash. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 400 Mcg Phosphorus (as Dicalcium Phosphate) 500 Mg Iodine (as Potassium Iodide) 75 Mcg Magnesium (as Magnesium Citrate) 150 Mg Zinc (as Zinc Gluconate) 9 Mg Copper (as Copper Gluconate) 1 Mg Manganese (as Managnese Gluconate) 0. (s1shop.com)
  • A variety o zinc compoonds are commonly uised, sic as zinc carbonate an zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti- fousk shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), an zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antiparasitic pentavalent antimonials, such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimonate, have been the mainstays of therapy for all forms of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Pentavalent antimony is not marketed in the United States, but it can be obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Drug Service (404-639-3670), under an Investigational New Drug (IND) approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and by the CDC'S Institutional Review Board (IRB). (medscape.com)
  • tial course of pentavalent antimony drug treatment is generally around 10% in most areas, but this seems to be increasing [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • 1 G Trans Fat 0 G Sodium (as Sodium Chloride) 290 Mg Potassium (as Potassium Chloride And Potasslum Iodide) 500 Mg Calcium (as Dicalcium Phosphate) 600 Mg Iron (as Ferrous Fumarate) 3 Mg Pantothenic Acid (While D-calcium Pantothenate) 5 Mg Isoflavones 17 Mg Suagrs 16 G Other Ingredients: Soy Protein Isolate? (s1shop.com)
  • Adulteration and misbranding of gum arable and antimony potassium tartrate. (nih.gov)
  • U. S. v. 44 Bottles of Gum Arabic and 20 Bottles of Antimony Potassium Tartrate (and 1 other seizure action against antimony potassium tartrate). (nih.gov)
  • o To what extent does transformation between trivalent form of antimony, Sb(III), and pentavalent form of antimony, Sb(V), occur in vivo ? (nih.gov)
  • Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. (bvsalud.org)
  • The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Are any other antimony compounds (excluding antimony trioxide) carcinogenic? (nih.gov)
  • Kassab, and Doka) in Gadaref state, east- valent antimony compounds has not al- ern Sudan. (who.int)
  • Adulteration of sodium citrate and sodium chloride solutions. (nih.gov)
  • [ 57 ] Until recently, sodium stibogluconate was the drug of choice in most areas and the only recommended treatment in the United States, but resistance is rising. (medscape.com)
  • Six parasites showed in vitro resistance to sodium stibogluconate using murine J774 macrophage amastigote testing method. (who.int)
  • Antimony trioxide is the most important antimony species in many aspects (production volume, use, general public potential exposure via inhalation, etc.), but antimony can transform in the environment and most biomonitoring data are for total antimony. (nih.gov)
  • The monograph will also assess relevant information (e.g., properties, metabolism, and mechanistic data) on other antimony species and will attempt to use (quantitative) structure activity relationship ([Q]SAR) and read-across approaches to evaluate their potential carcinogenicity. (nih.gov)
  • Emergence of tance of L. donovani to this drug in the sodium stibogluconate-resistant strains of country. (who.int)
  • U. S. v. 14 Cases of Sodium Citrate Solution (and 10 other seizure actions against the abovenamed products). (nih.gov)