Antimony Sodium Gluconate: Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.GluconatesAntimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Technetium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)TartratesLeishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Diagnostic and prognostic potential of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leishmaniasis in India. (1/139)A Leishmania donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody (monoclonal antibody D2) was evaluated for its diagnostic and prognostic potential by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) in sera from Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and seven patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). These results were compared with those obtained by microscopy with Giemsa-stained tissue smears and a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) with crude parasite antigen. Of 121 patients with clinically diagnosed VL examined, 103 (85.1%) were positive and 11 (9.1%) were negative by all three methods. An additional 7 (5.8%) who were negative by microscopy were positive by both C-ELISA and direct ELISA. Seven PKDL patients were also examined and were found to be positive by all three methods. Analysis of the chemotherapeutic response to sodium antimony gluconate of these 110 serologically positive VL patients showed that 57 (51.8%) were drug responsive and 53 (48.2%) were drug resistant. The C-ELISA with sera from 20 longitudinally monitored VL patients before and after chemotherapy showed a significant decrease in percent inhibition of monoclonal antibody D2 in drug-responsive patients. However, in drug-unresponsive patients, the percent inhibition of D2 was unchanged or was slightly increased. Our results therefore indicate (i) the applicability of L. donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody D2 for sensitive and specific serodiagnosis by C-ELISA, (ii) that the C-ELISA is more sensitive than microscopy, especially for early diagnosis, (iii) that L. donovani is still the main causative agent of VL, irrespective of the chemotherapeutic response, and (iv) that the C-ELISA can be used to evaluate the success of drug treatment. (+info)
Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. (2/139)The possibility that the high frequency of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar might be due to infection with antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani has not been experimentally addressed. L. donovani isolates were obtained from splenic aspiration smears of 24 patients in Bihar, India, who either did not respond (15) or did respond (9) to 1 or more full courses of treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). A strong correlation (P<.001) between clinical response and SAG sensitivity in vitro was observed only when strains were assayed as intracellular amastigotes: responsive isolates ED50=2.4+/-2.6, ED90=6.4+/-7.8 microgram SAG/mL; unresponsive isolates ED50=7.4+/-3.7 microgram SAG/mL, ED90=29.1+/-11.1 SAG/mL. No correlation with clinical response was found by use of extracellular promastigotes (ED50=48+/-22 vs. 52+/-29 microgram/mL). The emergence of antimony-resistant L. donovani strains appears to be a cause of treatment failures in India. (+info)
Randomized, double-blind study of stibogluconate plus human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor versus stibogluconate alone in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (3/139)The response to recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis was evaluated. Twenty patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who had lesions for 60 days were enrolled in a double-blind placebo trial of GM-CSF with standard parenteral sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg-1/day-1) for 20 days. Ten patients were randomized to receive intralesionally injected GM-CSF (200 microgram) at enrollment and 1 week after, and 10 patients received saline as placebo. GM-CSF- and antimony-treated patients healed faster than patients who received antimony alone (49+/-32.8 vs. 110+/-61.6 days, P<.05). Seven of 10 patients were healed of their lesions before 40 days after therapy in the GM-CSF group, compared with only 1 of 10 patients in the placebo group (relative risk, 7; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-47.00). Thus, GM-CSF plus antimony significantly increased the chance of lesion healing in 40 days. (+info)
Out-patient parenteral antimicrobial therapy--a viable option for the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (4/139)Cutaneous infection with Leishmania braziliensis complex requires treatment with parenteral pentavalent antimonials to prevent development of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients with imported disease are usually managed in hospital because of concerns over drug toxicity. This study describes the clinical features and outcome of infection treated in the UK in an out-patient setting. Thirteen marines (aged 19-35 years) who acquired leishmaniasis in Belize were studied prospectively. Three had at least two lesions (0. 6-3 cm diameter), eight had regional lymphadenopathy and one had localized painless lymphatic thickening. Histology for amastigotes and PCR for Leishmania braziliensis complex was positive in all. Culture was positive in six. Patients received 1.5-2 g (mean 1.7 g) (20 mg/kg) sodium stibogluconate intravenously daily for 20 days. All developed transient musculoskeletal symptoms and asymptomatic hepatitis. Eleven developed biochemical pancreatitis, and one thrombocytopenia. Three developed transient ECG changes and one herpes zoster. There were four device-related infections, two requiring hospitalization (one required surgical drainage of an abscess). All lesions re-epithelialized. A total of 250 bed-days were saved over a 67-day period. These results indicate that in selected patients, out-patient therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis with parenteral high-dose sodium stibogluconate may be appropriate, provided there is adequate monitoring of therapy. (+info)
Differential decline in Leishmania membrane antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgE, and IgG subclass antibodies in Indian kala-azar patients after chemotherapy. (5/139)Pathogenesis in kala-azar is associated with depressed cellular immunity and significant elevation of antileishmanial antibodies. Since these antibodies are present even after cure, analysis of the parasite-specific isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in kala-azar patients may shed new light on the immune responses during progression and resolution of infection. Using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts, we investigated the relative levels of specific IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses in Indian kala-azar patient sera during disease, drug resistance, and cure. Acute-phase sera showed strong stimulation of IgG, followed by IgE and IgM and lastly by IgA antibodies. IgG subclass analysis revealed expression of all of the subclasses, with a predominance of IgG1 during disease. Following sodium stibogluconate (SAG) resistance, the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and IgG4 remained constant, while there was a decrease in the titers of IgG2 and IgG3. In contrast, a significant (2.2-fold) increase in IgG1 was observed in these individuals. Cure, in both SAG-responsive and unresponsive patients, correlated with a decline in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and all of the IgG subclasses. The stimulation of IgG1 and the persistence, most importantly, of IgE and IgG4 following drug resistance, along with a decline in IgE, IgG4, and IgG1 with cure, demonstrate the potential of these isotypes as possible markers for monitoring effective treatment in kala-azar. (+info)
A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan. (6/139)OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of treatment of Sudanese kala-azar patients treated under field conditions with either branded sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (Pentostam GlaxoWellcome) or generic SSG (Albert David Ltd, Calcutta, supplied by International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam). METHOD: Randomised comparison. 271 patients were treated with Pentostam and 245 with generic SSG. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in cure rate or mortality were detected between Pentostam and generic SSG. No differences in side-effects between the two drugs were noted. The initial cure rate at the time of discharge was 93.7 and 97.6%, respectively; the death rate during treatment 5.9 and 2.4%. Six months follow up was achieved in 88.5% of the discharged patients. Two patients had died in the Pentostam group and two had died in the generic SSG group, giving a final death rate of 7.5 and 3.7%. The number of relapses in the Pentostam and generic SSG groups were 3 and 1, respectively. The final cure rates, calculated at 6 months after discharge, were 91.3% and 95.9%. CONCLUSION: No difference was observed in the performance of generic SSG compared to Pentostam for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. Generic SSG can be routinely and safely used for the treatment of kala-azar. Generic SSG costs only 1/14 of the price of Pentostam. The use of generic SSG may make treatment of kala-azar affordable for national governments in Africa. (+info)
Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) potentiates oxidant production in murine visceral leishmaniasis and in human blood. (7/139)Sodium stibogluconate (Sbb), a leishmanicidal drug, was studied for its in vivo effect on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by chemiluminescence (CL) in the whole blood of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. Stimulation of ROS formation induced ex vivo by zymosan particles or the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was reduced by approximately 25% (P < 0.05) after infection of mice. Treatment of infected mice with Sbb (50 to 400 mg/kg of body weight) enhanced the blood CL induced by zymosan and PMA (47 to 96%, P < 0.01). The drug potentiation effect also occurred in uninfected mice. In vitro treatment of normal human blood with Sbb (1, 10, or 100 microg/ml) for 1 h primed the CL response to PMA (29 to 54%). The priming effect of Sbb was also observed on the production of superoxide by isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated either by PMA and zymosan or by the chemoattractants N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and platelet-activating factor. These data provide the first evidence of priming of the phagocyte respiratory burst by Sbb. This novel property of Sbb may contribute to the drug's leishmanicidal effect. (+info)
Deaths in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) during treatment. (8/139)Twenty-seven out of five hundred and fifty three patients hospitalized for visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) died during treatment with sodium antimony gluconate. Data from these patients were evaluated to find out the cause of death. Eight patients had associated diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (3), severe malnutrition (1), acute gastroenteritis (1), spleenic infarction (1), acute renal failure (1) and atrial septal defect (1) which could be attributed to death. Twelve patients developed spontaneous haemorrhages from nose, gums and gastrointestinal tract and died, despite of adequate supportive measures. Seven other patients who were improving slowly with antimony therapy died unexpectedly. Though, cause of death could be explained in some patients with associated disease conditions, it could not be explained in others as significant clinical manifestations, haematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic alterations were not evident prior to death. Our impression is that mortality in Kala-azar patients during standard antimonial therapy is more related to the drug rather than the disease process. (+info)
Starting in the early 19th century and continuing into the 20th century, Fowler's solution, a toxic concoction of sodium ... The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro. This reaction ... Bentley, Ronald; Chasteen, TG (2002). "Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth". Microbiology and ... Li, J.H; Rossman, T.G (1991). "Comutagenesis of sodium arsenite with ultraviolet radiation in Chinese hamster V79 cells". ...
List of MeSH codes (D09)
... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D09.811.308.200 --- calcium gluconate MeSH D09.811.366.388 --- diphosphoglyceric acids MeSH ...
List of MeSH codes (D02)
... gluconates MeSH D02.241.081.844.322.060 --- antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D02.241.081.844.322.200 --- calcium gluconate MeSH ... gluconates MeSH D02.241.511.902.322.060 --- antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D02.241.511.902.322.200 --- calcium gluconate MeSH ... sodium oxybate MeSH D02.241.511.459 --- lactates MeSH D02.241.511.459.450 --- lactic acid MeSH D02.241.511.459.800 --- sodium ... sodium dodecyl sulfate MeSH D02.886.645.600.055.050.755 --- sodium tetradecyl sulfate MeSH D02.886.645.600.055.250 --- hepes ...
Ornaments made of alloys containing 80-90% zinc, with lead, iron, antimony, and other metals making up the remainder, have been ... A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc ... or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas". Journal of Nutrition. 135 (5): 1102-5. PMID ... Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury, silver, ...
2000s commodities boom
A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc ... increased in price 3.5-fold in less than 1 year while producers of sodium hydroxide have declared force majeure due to flooding ... Antimony, Plastics. Metalprices.com. Retrieved 28 March 2011. "Standard Chartered ups 2010 lead price forecast". Reuters. 13 ...
Sodium Stibogluconate and IFNa-2b Followed By CDDP, VLB and DTIC Treating Pts.With Advanced Melanoma or Other Cancers - Full...
RATIONALE: Sodium stibogluconate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Interferon alfa-2b may interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow the growth of melanoma and other cancers. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving sodium stibogluconate and interferon alfa-2b together with combination chemotherapy may kill more tumor cells.. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects and best dose of sodium stibogluconate when given together with interferon alfa-2b, cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine in treating patients with advanced melanoma or other cancer. ...
sodium stibogluconate 16037-91-5 NMR spectrum, sodium stibogluconate H-NMR spectral analysis, sodium stibogluconate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Cationic liposomal sodium stibogluconate (SSG), a potent therapeutic tool for treatment of infection by SSG-sensitive and ...
Pentavalent antimonials have been the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis for decades. However, the development of resistance to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) has limited its use, especially for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The present work aims to optimize a cationic liposomal formulation of SSG for the treatment of both SSG-sensitive (AG83) and SSG-resistant (GE1F8R and CK1R) Leishmania donovani infections. Parasite killing was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained macrophages. Macrophage uptake studies were carried out by confocal microscopic imaging. Parasite-liposome interactions were visualized through transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity tests were performed using assay kits. Organ parasite burdens were determined by microscopic counting and limiting dilution assays. Cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and flow cytometry. Although all cationic ...
Phase I evaluation of sodium stibogluconate in combination with interferon alpha-2b followed by cisplatin, vinblastine and...
This trial investigateD the tolerability and efficacy of sodium stibogluconate + interferon alpha 2b [CDDP]+ cisplatin + vinblastine [VBL] + dacarbazine [DTIC]
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: a Comparison of Three Sodium...
Abstract Thirty-six patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomized to receive intravenous sodium stibogluconate for 10 days at a dose of 600 mg antimony (Sb) per day by one of three schedules: once daily by rapid infusion (A), by continuous 24 hr infusion (B), or in divided doses every eight hours by rapid infusion (C). Patients not cured after initial treatment were rerandomized to one of the other treatment schedules. An additional 19 patients who were not part of the randomized study received standard (STD) sodium stibogluconate treatment (600 mg Sb once daily by rapid infusion for 10 days, identical with schedule A). In the randomized study, the overall cure rate after the first course of treatment was 64%, but was higher for schedule A (100%) than for B (50%) or C (42%) (P < 0.01). Considering all courses of treatment, schedule A was more effective (94%) than B (53%) or C (43%) (P < 0.01). Paradoxically, patients in group A had a higher cure rate than patients in group STD (42
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Pentavalent Antimony-Mannan Conjugate Therapy of Experimental Visceral...
Abstract Pentavalent antimony-mannan (Sb[V]-mannan) was 10-fold more potent than sodium stibogluconate in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Liver antimony concentrations were six-fold higher after Sb[V]-mannan therapy compared with a dose of sodium stibogluconate that was equipotent in reducing liver parasite burdens. Murine toxicity of Sb[V]-mannan was variable, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) for one preparation that was well above the concentration that killed 90% of the parasites, and for another preparation was only modestly higher than the concentration that killed 90% of the parasites.
One hundred and twenty six patients with kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) were allocated at random to one of two groups for treatment with sodium stibogluconate. One group was treated for 20 days; in the other group the patients were assessed after 20 days treatment and treatment was continued if necessary. Both groups were followed up for six months. There was no significant difference in symptomatic outcome between the two groups at 20 days. At six months eight of the patients in the group treated for 20 days had relapsed and 54 were cured. Of the group given more than 20 days treatment if necessary, 62 were cured and none had relapsed (12 required more than 20 days treatment). This difference between the two groups was significant. One patient in each group did not respond to sodium stibogluconate, but both were were cured with pentamidine. Altogether 104 patients were cured after 20 days treatment; 20, including the eight who relapsed, were cured after more than 20 days treatment. ...
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Study to Evaluate Sodium Stibogluconate With Interferon Alpha-2b - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.gov
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
UKPID MONOGRAPH SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE WN Harrison PhD CChem MRSC SM Bradberry BSc MB MRCP JA Vale MD FRCP FRCPE FRCPG FFOM National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre), West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. The work was commissioned and funded by the UK Departments of Health, and was designed as a source of detailed information for use by poisons information centres. Peer review group: Directors of the UK National Poisons Information Service. SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE Toxbase summary Type of product Used in the treatment of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Toxicity Toxic effects have been reported following parenteral administration of antimony pharmaceuticals. Features There are no reports of ingestion, inhalation or topical exposure. However, effects similar to those reported for other antimony compounds may ...
UCSF Leishmaniasis Trial: Compassionate Use of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) for Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous New World...
Patients with biopsy proven new world cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis will be treated with sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam).. ...
Kala-azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis) Elimination in Bangladesh: Successes and Challenges | SpringerLink
Bangladesh initiated the elimination program in 2008 with the preparation of national VL elimination guidelines and a country-specific strategic plan for VL elimination by the national technical working group for VL elimination. This was approved by the national steering committee for VL elimination. Public health staff from the VL endemic sub-districts hospitals were trained in the diagnosis and management of VL patients. The program introduced the rapid diagnostic test (RDT rK39) and treatment with miltefosine for the management of VL at no cost for patients . After dependence for six decades on one drug, sodium stibogluconate, Bangladesh has adopted a number of drugs including miltefosine, amphotericin B, liposomoal amphotericin B, and paromomycin in its weaponry against VL and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The diagnosis for VL and PKDL was scaled up to all the endemic sub-districts (upazilas). Adequate training of physicians and nurses at different levels along with free ...
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Sodium antimony | Na3O4Sb | CID 25469 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Paromomycin is an aminoglycoside that is active against Gram-negative and many Gram-positive bacteria as well as some protozoa and cestodes. It is out of use as an antibiotic but was licensed in 2007 in India as an effective, well tolerated and affordable treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) at a dose of 11mg/kg (base) for 21 days. Currently, the non-profit group Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative is conducting studies on paromomycin (as monotherapy and in combination) in VL in Africa, and the Institute for OneWorld Health is conducting a Phase IV study in India. Paromomycin in combination with sodium stibogluconate has proven to be effective in African and Indian VL and improves survival in African VL. To prevent the emergence of drug-resistant leishmaniasis in areas of anthroponotic transmission (India and Africa), paromomycin should be used as part of combination therapy for VL. Further trials testing different combinations are much needed. In addition, the distribution of ...
This report studies the Sodium Gluconate market status and outlook of global and major regions, from angles of players, regions, product types and end industries; this report analyzes the top players in global and major regions, and splits the Sodium Gluconate market by product type and applications/end industries.. The global Sodium Gluconate market is valued at XX million USD in 2016 and is expected to reach XX million USD by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022.. Browse Full Report Visit :- http://www.acutemarketreports.com/report/sodium-gluconate-sales-market. The Asia-Pacific will occupy for more market share in following years, especially in China, also fast growing India and Southeast Asia regions.. North America, especially The United States, will still play an important role which cannot be ignored. Any changes from United States might affect the development trend of Sodium Gluconate.. Europe also play important roles in global market, with market size of xx ...
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Global Sodium Gluconate Market: Set to Grow Exponentially During the Forecast 2015-2021 | Oct 17, 2016 - ReleaseWire
Press Release issued Oct 17, 2016: Sodium gluconate is a salt of gluconic acid. It is a white powder, odorless and soluble in water. Sodium gluconate is used as chelating agent in various applications such as cement, alumina dyeing and plating industries. Sodium gluconate is also used as a surface cleaning agent. It is an effective sequestrant for magnesium, iron, aluminum, copper and calcium. It is used as a softener in water treatment.
Chemicals - Powders China, 98 Min Purity Sodium Gluconate, Purity 98%min sodium gluconate, white in crystalline granule or powder. CAS n° 527-07-1 EINECS : 208-407-7 Sodium glucon...
Sodium gluconate is a polyhydroxy carboxylate, also known as: gluconic acid salt. Formula: C6H11O7Na; molecular weight: 218.14; HS code: 2918160000;CAS: 527-07-1. The appearance is white or light yellow crystalline granules or powder, easily...
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Sodium Gluconate Applications: (1)Used as a cement admixture: after a certain amount of sodium gluconate is added into the cement, it can imp ...
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In earlier posts, we presented examples where we needed to write software to parse fasta formatted sequence files and output files from alignment programs. These parsers then called routines in the HDF I/O library to add data to the HDF5 file. During the import phase, we could set different compression levels and define the chunk size to compress our data and optimize access times. In these cases, we developed a simple data model based on the alignment output from programs like BWA, Bowtie, and MapReads. Most importantly, we were able to work with NGS data from multiple platforms efficiently, with software that required weeks of development rather than the months and years that would be needed if the system was built from scratch.. While HDF5 technology is powerful "out-of-the-box," a number of features can still be added to make it better for bioinformatics applications. The BioHDF project is about making such domain-specific extensions. These are expected to include modifications to the ...
Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis is principally predicated on antimonials. and 13e werent dangerous against fibroblasts, macrophages, or dendritic cells. Jointly, these results claim that the aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylates 13b and 13e are potential antileishmanial business lead substances with low toxicity against web host cells and selective antiparasitic results. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is situated generally on antimony substances, initially defined in 1912 by Vianna (42) in Brazil as trivalent antimonials [Sb(III)]. These substances display high toxicity and a small therapeutic window, conditions that led to the introduction of the pentavalent antimonium [Sb(V)] agencies sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), presented around 1940 (31, 38). Pentavalent antimonium substances display a wider healing window and therefore became the medications of preference against leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, their toxicity causes critical unwanted effects that PXD101 ...
Bhattacharya, Pradyot ; Ali, Nahid (2016) Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: anomalous pricing and distribution of AmBisome and emergence of an indigenous liposomal amphotericin B, FUNGISOME Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 40 (3). pp. 1094-1095. ISSN 0971-7196 Sinha, Roma ; Roychoudhury, Jayeeta ; Palit, Partha ; Ali, Nahid (2015) Cationic liposomal sodium stibogluconate (SSG), a potent therapeutic tool for treatment of infection by SSG-sensitive and -resistant Leishmania donovani Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 59 (1). pp. 344-355. ISSN 0066-4804 Das, Amrita ; Ali, Nahid (2014) Combining cationic liposomal delivery with MPL-TDM for cysteine protease cocktail vaccination against Leishmania donovani: evidence for antigen synergy and protection PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8 (8). Article ID e3091, 17 pages. ISSN 1935-2735 Asad, M. D. ; Ali, Nahid (2014) Dynamicity of immune regulation during visceral leishmaniasis Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 80 (2). pp. ...
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Antimony (Sb) is a toxic, flaky, brittle element with the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. It does not react with air, but burns brightly when ignited. Since it is not a metal, antimony is a poor conductor of both heat and electricity. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, batteries, ceramics, enamels, as a hardener for lead and other metals, and in a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber. The ancient Egyptians used black stibnite as eye make-up. Antimony is a member of the "pnictogen" (group 15) of the periodic table. This is the area that has a metal near the bottom (bismuth) and some nonmetals near the top (nitrogen). Antimony in between-It is one of the few elements which is neither a metal or a non-metal. Antimony was known as an element at least as far back as the alchemists. It was first scientifically studied in 1707 by Nicolas Lemery. ...
Metals | Free Full-Text | One-Step Extraction of Antimony in Low Temperature from Stibnite Concentrate Using Iron Oxide as...
A new process for one-step extraction of antimony in low temperature from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt, using iron oxide as sulfur-fixing agent, was presented. The influences of molten salt addition and composition, ferric oxide dosage, smelting temperature and duration on extraction efficiency of antimony were investigated in details, respectively. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: 1.0 time stoichiometric requirement (α) of mixed sodium salt (αsalt = 1.0), WNaCl:Wsalt = 40%, αFe2O3 = 1.0, Wcoke:Wstibnite = 40%, where W represents weight, smelting at 850 °C (1123 K) for 60 min. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of antimony can reach 91.48%, and crude antimony with a purity of 96.00% has been achieved. 95.31% of sulfur is fixed in form of FeS in the presence of iron oxide. Meanwhile, precious metals contained in stibnite concentrate are enriched and recovered comprehensively in crude antimony. In comparison to
Definition of antimony in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antimony? Meaning of antimony as a legal term. What does antimony mean in law?
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[108 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Antimony Oxide Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Antimony Oxide in Global market, especially in...
The preceding description requires to be qualified, especially in cases of what is called tolerance. If the giving of antimony be commenced in fractional doses, and continued with very gradual incre...
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Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution...
Article Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution. An Fe-Cu binary oxide was fabricated through a simple co-precipitation process, and was used to remove Sb(III) from...
... a deep-yellow, water-insoluble powder, Sb 2 S 5 , used chiefly as a pigment in oil and water colors.
Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-266604, Antimony for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
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(anti-neoplastic drugs are not included) Quinine/Quinidine group Quinine Quinidine Heparin Regular unfractionated heparin Low molecular weight heparin Gold salts Antimicrobials Antimony containing drugs Stibophen Sodium stibogluconate Cephalosporins Cephamandazole Cefotetan Ceftazidime Cephalothin Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin Fluconazole Fusidic acid Gentamicin Nilidixic acid Penicillins Ampicillin Apalcillin Methicillin Meziocillin Penicillin Piperacillin Pentamidine Rifampin Sulpha group Sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethoxypyridazine Sulfisoxazole Suramin Vancomycin…
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NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00076436 - NIOSH Analytical Method, Antimony and Compounds (as Sb) Backup Data Report S2, ...
Backup data for the analytical method for antimony (7440360) and antimony compounds are given the protocol for validation of a method for antimony consisted of the following experimental studies: analysis of 18 analytical samples prepared by addition of known amounts of antimony compounds; analysis of 18 samples collected from test atmospheres of particulate antimony; evaluation of a method for an
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool with its application in the field of biological sciences for identification of proteins, defining post-translational modifications, studying protein expression and protein interactions. This thesis presents MS analyses of proteins for defining modifications observed during sample preparation and identification of proteins isolated from clinical samples and microorganisms. The first part of the thesis includes proteomic analysis of antimony resistant L. tropica. The results clearly indicated that the generation of antimony resistance by parasites, either in host organism or in vitro, causes alteration of protein expression levels, and the mechanism of antimony resistance in host organism and in vitro conditions follow different strategies. In the second part of the study, proteomic analysis of Bence Jones proteins isolated from urine of multiple myeloma patients was performed. Gel electrophoresis and MS analysis revealed that the proteins from ...
TOXICITY STUDIES OF ANTIMONY IN MALE ALBINO RATS AND ANTIMONY LEVELS IN NIGERIAN BOTTLE WATER SAMPLES | Nnamdi Azikiwe...
AUTHOR: ILO, ELOCHUKWU CAJETAN DEPARTMENT: APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BREWING AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA The rat sub-chronic toxicity study (dose-response relationship) and the assessment of Antimony concentration in Nigerian bottled water samples (exposure assessment) were the two complimentary studies that sought to estimate the Antimony risk in Nigeria via drinking water. The rat sub-chronic toxicity study…
Hu, X.; Kong, L.; He, M. Kinetics and Mechanism of Photopromoted Oxidative Dissolution of Antimony Trioxide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48 (24), 14266-14272.. Toledo, E. A.; Gushikem, Y.; de Castro, S. C. Antimony(III) Oxide Film on a Cellulose Fiber Surface: Preparation and Characterization of the Composite. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2000, 225 (2), 455-459.. Saito, T.; Kawakita, H.; Uezu, K.; Tsuneda, S.; Hirata, A.; Saito, K.; Tamada, M.; Sugo, T. Structure of polyol-ligand-containing polymer brush on the porous membrane for antimony(III) binding. J. Membr. Sci. 2004, 236 (1-2), 65-71.. ...
There are substantial environmental concerns with the recycling of polyester right now. Most polyester contains antimony which is not a benign chemical - it is a likely carcinogen, among other issues. Recycling polyester releases encapsulated antimony, thus creating antimony trioxide, which has a toxicity profile less sanguine even than antimonys. If your green desire is to help stem the use of industrial chemicals and their pollution of the earth - and of people - this is a step you would choose to avoid. Thanks to the cradle to cradle people, antimony free polyester does exist. Antimony free polyester fabrics are available. Unfortunately, although antimony free polyester - that is, non-toxic polyester (and there is controversy about whether the antimony is a threat to humans during use and before end of life) - does exist, there is no viable program for recycling it and keeping it segregated from other types of polyester right now. In fact, there is no viable program for the recycling of ...
Mineral Commodity Profiles: Antimony Pharos ProjectMineral Commodity Profiles.Antimony.By W.C.Butterman and J.F.Carlin,Jr.2004The most important ore minerals of antimony are the su
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A Telomeric Cluster of Antimony Resistance Genes on Chromosome 34 of Leishmania infantum | Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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... definition, the radioactive isotope of antimony having a mass number of 124 and a half-life of 60 days, used chiefly as a tracer. See more.
China Antimony and Cosmetics Industry Report 2013-2015: Worldwide Industry Latest Market Share, Growth, Size, Trends, Strategy...
Albany, NY (PRWEB) September 30, 2013 -- Since 2012, the global antimony price has been sluggish, mainly affected by the descending of antimony price in
Indian researchers have identified a key protein that plays an important role in regulating the survival, infectivity and drug response of the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis - better known as kala-azar. Kala-azar is the most severe form of
Antimony (Sb) Lumina Hollow Cathode Lamp with Intensitron Cable from PerkinElmer. Diameter: 50mm (2in.). From our line of lamps with Lumina Adapter.
Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Third paragraph, first bullet of release should read: A drop in the price of antimony for the year of $.59 per pound from $5.30 in 2013 to $4.71 in 20
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Antimony Trioxide is mainly produced via the smelting of stibnite ore.It can be readily oxidized to antimony pentoxide and related antimony (V) compounds.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations. ...
Looking for online definition of antimony poisoning in the Medical Dictionary? antimony poisoning explanation free. What is antimony poisoning? Meaning of antimony poisoning medical term. What does antimony poisoning mean?
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Sodium Gluconate Applications:. Has apparent coordination effect, is applicable to various formulas such as molybdenum, silicon, phosphorus, tungsten and nitrite, and greatly improve corrosion inhibition effect due to the influence of coordination effect;. contact ...
Researchers are measuring antimony concentrations from water samples near the worlds largest antimony mine in Xikuangshan, China.
Mediander Connects Antimony to 1. Bismuth, 2. Arsenic, 3. Stibnite, 4. Tellurium, 5. Tin, 6. Thallium, 7. Pnictogen, 8. Metalloid, 9. Beryllium, 10. Antimony trioxide, 11.
China has approved an export quota of 40,672 tonnes of antimony and antimony products for the first half of next year, according to its Ministry of Commerce.
Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase attenuates Leishmania donovani infection in macrophages
Leishmania-induced macrophage dysfunctions have been correlated with altered signaling events. In this work, we report that SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated ..
Each PerkinElmer Antimony (Sb) Pure Grade Atomic Spectroscopy Calibration Standard is supplied with a comprehensive Certificate of Analysis.
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Comprehensive information for the element Antimony - Sb is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions.
The amorphous phases of antimony oxide at three different oxidation levels have been investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics calculations using a simulated melt-quench approach. The atomic and electronic structures of the amorphous phases are analyzed and compared to their crystalline counterparts. Th
In 1998, 7,479,444 pounds of antimony waste were managed; 4,625,143 pounds were recycled on-site; 713,940 pounds were recycled off-site; 30,405 pounds were used for energy recovery on-site; 66,732 pounds were used for energy recovery off-site; 308,925 pounds were treated on-site; 90,578 pounds were treated off-site; and 1,643,721 pounds were released on-and off-site ...
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Antimony is a pure element that comes in both metallic and non-metallic forms. It is used in everything from paint to rubber to...
antimony mining in harare. ... ZIMBABWE Current and projected land use It is important to note that significant land-use changes are taking place in Zimbabwe as a .... Get Price And Support » ...
REMEMBER THESE NAMES: JOHN CRUZ AND SSG. THIS IS A COMBINATION OF SUCCESS. BORN AND RAISED IN THE SOUTH BRONX, JOHN CRUZ WOULD BE THE OLDEST CHILD OUT OF SEVEN, FOUR BOYS AND THREE GIRLS. LIVING IN THE BRONX IF YOU WERENT BORN INTO A RICH FAMILY, THAN A HOUSEHOLD OF SEVEN IN THE HOOD MEANT WHEN YOU HAD IT, YOU HAD IT,AND WHEN YOU DIDNT IT WAS BAD. LIFE WAS TOUGH FOR A WOMAN TRYING TO MAINTAIN A HOUSEHOLD OF SEVEN CHILDREN, BUT MILAGROs CARRERO PROVIDED EVERYTHING SHE COULD FOR HER CHILDREN. AS A KID GROWING UP IN THE SOUTH BRONX, WHEN ALL YOU ARE GIVING OR SEE IS POVERTY AROUND YOU, ITS HARD TO MOTIVATE YOURSELF TO EVER BELIEVE OR WANT MORE THAN WHAT YOU ALREADY HAVE. MILAGROS CARRERO ALSO KNOW AS MILLY WAS JOHNS BACKBONE SHE WAS HIS MOTIVATION, HIS DRIVE, AND HIS LOVE. ALL HE WANTED WAS TO GIVE HIS FAMILY EVERYTHIN HE DIDNT HAVE AND MORE. THE STRESS OF BEING THE OLDEST AND HELPING OUT IN HIS HOUSEHOLD LEAD HIM TO SLANGING AND HUSTLING, NOT BECAUSE OF HIS PREFERENCE BUT BECAUSE IT WAS A WAY ...
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
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Axhausen, J.; Lux, K.; Kornath, A.Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014. 53, Early View. DOI:10.1002/anie.201308023 The homogeneous mixture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride aHF and antimony pentafluoride AsF5 is .... ...
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis | definition of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Medical Dictionary? post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis explanation free. What is post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis? Meaning of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis medical term. What does post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis mean?
Kala-azar in the Americas is very similar to that found in the Mediterranean basin. The habit of keeping dogs and other domestic animals inside the house is thought to promote human infection. The epidemiology of CL in the Americas is complex, with variations in transmission cycles, reservoir hosts, sandfly vectors, clinical manifestations and response to therapy, and multiple circulating Leishmania species in the same geographical area.. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). PKDL is a sequel of visceral leishmaniasis that appears as macular, papular or nodular rash usually on face, upper arms, trunks and other parts of the body. It occurs mainly in East Africa and on the Indian subcontinent, where up to 50% and 5-10% of patients with kala-azar, respectively, develop the condition. It usually appears 6 months to 1 or more years after kala-azar has apparently been cured, but can occur earlier. People with PKDL are considered to be a potential source of kala-azar infection.. Leishmania-HIV ...
Groups of 60 male and 60 female mice were exposed by whole body inhalation to antimony trioxide aerosol at concentrations of 0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/m3 for 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for up to 105 weeks. Additional groups of 25 tissue burden study female mice were exposed to the same concentrations of antimony trioxide for up to 79 weeks. Survival of 10 and 30 mg/m3 males and females was significantly less than that of the chamber control groups. Decreases in survival were attributed primarily to alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas and inflammation of the lung in males and malignant lymphoma and lung inflammation in females. Mean body weights of 30 mg/m3 males were 10% to 25% less than those of the chamber control group after week 73; mean body weights of 30 mg/m3 females were at least 10% less than those of the chamber control group after week 85. Exposure-related clinical findings included abnormal breathing and thinness in males and females. Lung weights were significantly ...
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Japan and its perspectives on the global market for antimony oxides. The report will
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Bulgaria and its perspectives on the global market for antimony oxides. The report
High-Tech Materials Alert. Development of Graphene for Gas Sensors; Bismuth Antimony Thin Film For Thermoelectric Devices;...
This issue profiles development of graphene for gas sensors, a bismuth antimony thin film for thermoelectric devices, and an innovative resorbable biomaterial for soft tissue regeneration.
Definition of flowers of antimony. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
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A third of Nepals population faces risk of suffering from Kala-azar - a chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera with figures going up from 5,616,489 in 2006
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
A metallic element, atomic no. 51, atomic wt. 121.757, valences 0, −3, +3, +5; used in alloys; toxic and irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. SYN: stibium. [G. anti + monos, not found alone] a. chloride SYN: a. trichloride. a. di
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Jan H. Kolaczinski, Dagemlidet Tesfaye Worku, François Chappuis, Richard Reithinger, Narcis Kabatereine, Ambrose Onapa, Simon Brooker Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007;13:507-509. Read more
Kala-azar and Post-Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis, Assam, India - Volume 20, Number 3-March 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease...
To the Editor: Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) is a fatal disease caused by a protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by the female sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes. In the state of Assam, India, kala-azar epidemics occurred during 1875-1950 and resulted in thousands of deaths in the districts of Kamrup, Garo Hills, Goalpara, and Nagaon (1,2). The disease gradually disappeared from Assam because of the extensive use of DDT in the national malaria elimination program, and results of later entomologic studies indicated that there were no P. argentipes sandflies in this region after DDT use (3). However, sporadic kala-azar cases appeared again in Assam in 2004 (4), and in 2008, we reported a kala-azar outbreak in Kamrup (5), where kala-azar epidemics had occurred during the 1870s (1).. At bimonthly intervals during 2012, we conducted house-to-house surveys in 4 villages in the district of Kamrup, 845 households and 4,376 persons. Residents are socioeconomically poor and depend on ...
Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Market Analysis and In-depth Research on Market Dynamics, Trends, Emerging Growth Factors and...
Purchase a copy of Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10360503. Further in the Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Market Industry Analysis report, the Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Market for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given.. Regions covered in the report:. • North America. • China. • Europe. • Japan. • India. • Southeast Asia. With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained.. Get Discount on Antimony Tin Oxide (ATO) Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-discount/10360503. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed ...
ATCvet code QP51 Antiprotozoals is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System for veterinary medicinal products, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products for veterinary use. Subgroup QP51 is part of the anatomical group QP Antiparasitic products, insecticides and repellents. National issues of the ATC classification may include additional codes not present in this list, which follows the WHO version. QP51AA01 Metronidazole QP51AA02 Tinidazole QP51AA03 Ornidazole QP51AA04 Azanidazole QP51AA05 Propenidazole QP51AA06 Nimorazole QP51AA07 Dimetridazole QP51AA08 Ronidazole QP51AA09 Carnidazole QP51AA10 Ipronidazole QP51AB01 Meglumine antimonate QP51AB02 Sodium stibogluconate QP51AC01 Nifurtimox QP51AC02 Nitrofural QP51AD01 Arsthinol QP51AD02 Difetarsone QP51AD03 Glycobiarsol QP51AD04 Melarsoprol QP51AD05 Acetarsol QP51AD06 Melarsamin QP51AD53 Glycobiarsol, combinations QP51AE01 Imidocarb ...
Introduction. Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects of the genus Lutzomyia sp. or Phlebotomus sp.1 There are more than 20 species of leishmanias causing clinical manifestations in humans, and the main syndromes are cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.2 This article reviews kidney involvement in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.. Cutaneous leishmaniasisKidney involvement in cutaneous leishmaniasis. There have been few studies showing renal dysfunction in American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), which is, in some cases, associated with the use of specific treatment with pentavalent antimonial drugs.3,4. In a recent study performed in our region, a total of 73 patients admitted with ACL were evaluated. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was observed in 17 cases (23.2%), and oliguria was seen in one case. Mean value of maximum serum creatinine ...
antimony sodium gluconates | EUdict | English...
... antimony sodium gluconates in English->Armenian dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 468 ... antimony. antimony potassium tartrate. antimony sodium gluconates. antinematodal agents. antineoplastic agents. antineoplastic ... antimony sodium gluconates being on one side, biased, bigger on one side, unfairly weighted jäik četiri 徵象 征象 agressão ... antimony sodium gluconates. English. Armenian. antimony sodium gluconates. ծարաքար նատրիում գլյուկոնատներ. antimony. ծարրաքար ( ...https://eudict.com/?lang=engarm&word=antimony%20sodium%20gluconates
Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and...
Pentavalent antimony complexes, such as sodium stibogluconate and sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), are still the first choice ... Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and ... Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and ... Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and ...https://aac.asm.org/content/50/5/1788?ijkey=c4996544d1d85e8a3e59547d160c496107e33690&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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Efficacy/Safety of Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) Versus Paromomycin (PM) and SSG/PM Combination to Treat V Leishmaniasis - Full...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Amebicides. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents ... Efficacy/Safety of Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) Versus Paromomycin (PM) and SSG/PM Combination to Treat V Leishmaniasis. The ... Drug: Sodium Stibogluconate Drug: Paromomycin sulphate Drug: SSG and Paromomycin sulphate Phase 3 ... Sodium Stibogluconate + Paromomycin Sulphate (17 days). Drug: SSG and Paromomycin sulphate SSG and Paromomycin Sulphate 17 days ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00255567
Use of Sodium Stibogluconate as a Treatment for Leishmaniasis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Schistosomicides. ... Use of Sodium Stibogluconate as a Treatment for Leishmaniasis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product that has been in use by the Department of Defense (DoD ... Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or Pentostam (Glaxo Smith Kline, United Kingdom) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product used ...https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00657618?show_desc=Y
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Mesh-terms: Animals; Antimony Sodium Gluconate :: chemistry; Antimony. Sodium Gluconate :: pharmacology; Antiprotozoal Agents ... Sodium stibogluconate, a pentavalent antimony derivative produced by. the reaction of stibonic and gluconic acids, is the drug ... We separated sodium stibogluconate into 12 fractions by anion-. exchange. chromatography.. One fraction accounted for virtually ... to remove m-chlorocresol, the IC50 of sodium stibogluconate was ,. 4,000 micrograms of Sb per ml.. In contrast, when L. ...https://www.badscience.net/2009/09/please-give-us-all-your-money/
Trivalent ion mediated abnormal growth of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals and their divergent emission properties.
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The ... pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis. ...https://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2340917/Trivalent-ion-mediated-abnormal-growth-of-all-inorganic-perovskite-nanocrystals-and-their.html
Chlorhexidine Gluconate Versus Povidone-Iodine as Vaginal Preparation Antiseptics Prior to Cesarean Delivery
... chlorhexidine gluconate antiseptic vaginal preparation is superior to povidone-iodine vaginal preparati... ... Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The ... Tolerance of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Vaginal Cleansing Solution. Conduct a randomized control study to compare the tolerance of ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate Versus Povidone-Iodine as Vaginal Preparation Antiseptics Prior to Cesarean Delivery. 2017-05-01 10:22: ...https://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/179952/Chlorhexidine-Gluconate-Versus-Povidone-Iodine-as-Vaginal-Preparation-Antiseptics-Prior-to-Cesarean.html
Sodium stibogluconate - DrugBank
Sodium stibogluconate is sold in the UK as Pentostam (manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline). Widespread resistance has limited the ... utility of sodium stibogluconate, and in many parts of the world, amphotericin or miltefosine are used instead. It is also ... Sodium stibogluconate is a medicine used to treat leishmaniasis and is only available for administration by injection. It ... Antimony (V) derivative of sodium gluconate. *Antimony sodium gluconate. *Estibogluconato sodico. *Myostibin ...https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB05630
Peptides (v.25, #11) | www.chemweb.com
Keywords: Human β-casein; Combination therapy; Sodium antimony gluconate; Macrophage migration index; Non-specific resistance; ... Similarly, the efficacy of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) in hamsters pretreated with compound 89/215 enhanced significantly ( ...https://chemweb.com/articles/01969781/00250011
Biochemistry of Lyme Disease: Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochete/Cyst
An example of an antimony-containing antibiotic is Pentostam (an antimonial, antimony sodium gluconate).27,28 A biological ... Both antimony and bismuth are also found in this column of the periodic table (Group V). 29,30 (See Chart 6) ... Following the success of Salvarsan as a treatment for syphilis, other compounds of antimony and bismuth were also prepared and ...http://www.samento.com.ec/sciencelib/4lyme/Biochemistryoflymedisease.htm
Acyclic Acids (Ethanoic Acids) < Carboxylic Acids << Organic Compounds (Organic Chemicals) <<< Compounds, Elements & more @...
Gluconates *Antimony Sodium Gluconate *Calcium Gluconate *Glyceric Acids *Diphosphoglyceric Acids *2,3-Diphosphoglycerate * ... sodium oxybate (4-hydroxybutyrate sodium) *Isobutyrates *aminoisobutyric acids *fibric acids *Bezafibrate *Clofenapate * ... Gold Sodium Thiomalate *Maleates *Maleimides *Ethylmaleimide *Malonates *Methylmalonic Acid *Phenylethylmalonamide *Oxalates * ... Gold Sodium Thiomalate *Maleates *Maleimides *Ethylmaleimide *Malonates *Methylmalonic Acid *Phenylethylmalonamide *Oxalates * ...http://wellnessadvocate.com/?uid=84521
Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, and efficacies of sodium stibogluconate formulations after intravenous administration in animals<...
... in plasma after intravenous administration of SSG and SSG-NIV in dogs showed that both formulations produced similar antimony ( ... N2 - The pharmacokinetics and toxicities of free sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and two vesicular formulations of this drug (a ... AB - The pharmacokinetics and toxicities of free sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and two vesicular formulations of this drug (a ... The pharmacokinetics and toxicities of free sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and two vesicular formulations of this drug (a nonionic ...https://pureportal.strath.ac.uk/en/publications/pharmacokinetics-toxicities-and-efficacies-of-sodium-stiboglucona
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Volume 44, Issue 4
Positive Response to Sodium Antimony Gluconate Administration in Visceral Leishmaniasis Seropositive Patients Authors: Shahjada ... Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) was successfully administered to 715 patients with parasitologically confirmed infection. In ... The patients were administered 20 mg antimony (in the form of Pentostam) per kg intravenously each day for 28 days. Ten ...http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/14761645/44/4
A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. en. dc.subject.mesh. Antiprotozoal Agents. en. dc.subject.mesh. Female. en. ... A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral ... A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral ... A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral ...https://fieldresearch.msf.org/handle/10144/17729?show=full
glycol in Mumbai,glycol Manufacturers and Suppliers from india
Deals in Propylene Glycol, Antimony Trioxide, Butyl Acrylate Monomer, Maleic Anhydride, SODIUM GLUCONATE, Adipic Acid ... Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate, Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate, Sodium Hypochlorite Solution, Isopropyl Alcohol, Glycerine, anhydrous ... Sodium Nitrate, Magnesium Nitrate, Benzoic Acid, Propionic Acid, Sodium Sulfide, Aluminum Sulfate, Hydrogen Proxide, Adipic ... Deals in 2-ethyl Hexyl Acrylate, Methyl Iodide, Xanthan Gum, Croscarmellose Sodium, Citric Acid Monohydrate, n butyl bromide, ...http://www.indianyellowpages.com/mumbai/glycol.htm
Chilean saltpeter | definition of Chilean saltpeter by Medical dictionary
sodium antimony gluconate, sodium stibogluconate. a pentavalent antimonial used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. ... sodium acid phosphate, sodium biphosphate. used as a dietary supplement of phosphorus for ruminants when only phosphorus is ... sodium. a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. See Table 6. Sodium is the major cation of the ... sodium chloride nutritional deficiency. not a common occurrence but is seen in grazing animals on sodium deficient pastures, ...http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Chilean+saltpeter
Biskra button | definition of Biskra button by Medical dictionary
Treatment options include infrared therapy and injection of ulcers with sodium antimony gluconate. Also called Aleppo boil, ... Two groups of compounds are recommended: pentavalent organic antimonials, such as sodium antimony gluconate, and aromatic ... Pentavalent antimonial compounds are useful in some forms, while others are antimony-resistant. The prognosis for a complete ...https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Biskra+button
Bioinformatic Analysis of Leishmania donovani Long-Chain Fatty Acid-CoA Ligase as a Novel Drug Target
Response to sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) treatment was evaluated by repeating splenic aspiration at day 30 of treatment. ... H. Kothari, P. Kumar, S. Sundar, and N. Singh, "Possibility of membrane modification as a mechanism of antimony resistance in ... N. Singh, R. Almeida, H. Kothari et al., "Differential gene expression analysis in antimony-unresponsive Indian kala azar ( ... sodium pyrophosphate, 0.2% SDS, and 50 μg/mL heparin) and incubated in a hybridization oven at 65°C for 2 h. Radioactive probe ...https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mbi/2011/278051/
Sodium stibogluconate (UK PID)
Substance name Sodium stibogluconate Origin of substance NIF Synonyms Antimony sodium gluconate Myostibin Pentostam ... Hypoplasia of bone marrow secondary to sodium antimony gluconate (letter). J Assoc Physicians India 1990; 38: 310-1. Mansour MM ... Renal dysfunction in patients of kala azar treated with sodium antimony gluconate. J Assoc Physicians India 1994a; 42: 383. Rai ... confirmation of antimony concentrations (see antimony monograph). MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE Sodium stibogluconate should not be ...http://www.inchem.org/documents/ukpids/ukpids/ukpid80.htm
Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances - Leishmania spp. - Canada.ca
DRUG RESISTANCE: Resistance against sodium antimony gluconate has been documented for all speciesFootnote 4. ... DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Susceptibility has been observed for systemic agents such as antimony-based drugs, amphotericin, ... When administering parenteral treatment such as sodium-stibogluconate, factors such as risk for mucosal leishmaniasis ... SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% TriGene, 70% ethanol, 0.1% hand soap, 2% ...https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/laboratory-biosafety-biosecurity/pathogen-safety-data-sheets-risk-assessment/leishmania.html
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Development of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) in...
Amphotericin B is superior to sodium antimony glucon-ate in the treatment of Indian post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Ann ... Magnitude of unresponsiveness to sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar. Natl Med J India 18 ...http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2009.80.336
Sodium stibogluconate (UK PID)
Substance name Sodium stibogluconate Origin of substance NIF Synonyms Antimony sodium gluconate Myostibin Pentostam ... Hypoplasia of bone marrow secondary to sodium antimony gluconate (letter). J Assoc Physicians India 1990; 38: 310-1. Mansour MM ... Renal dysfunction in patients of kala azar treated with sodium antimony gluconate. J Assoc Physicians India 1994a; 42: 383. Rai ... confirmation of antimony concentrations (see antimony monograph). MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE Sodium stibogluconate should not be ...http://www.intox.org/databank/documents/pharm/sodstib/ukpid80.htm
The Role of Proteomics in the Study of Drug Resistance | Springer for Research & Development
Proteome mapping of overexpressed membrane-enriched and cytosolic proteins in sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) resistant ... Selective determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in serum and urine and of total antimony in skin biopsies of patients ... Antimony uptake systems in the protozoan parasite Leishmania and accumulation differences in antimony-resistant parasites. ... Glutathione-induced conversion of pentavalent antimony to trivalent antimony in meglumine antimoniate. Antimicrob Agents ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-74186-4_10
- Pentavalent antimony complexes, such as sodium stibogluconate and sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), are still the first choice for chemotherapy against various forms of leishmaniasis, including visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar. (asm.org)
- Sb V chelated to an organic backbone), namely, sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), are still the first choice for treatment of leishmaniases ( 21 , 42 ), their mechanism of action is still largely unknown. (asm.org)
- Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or Pentostam (Glaxo Smith Kline, United Kingdom) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product used by the Department of Defense for over 20 years to treat cutaneous, mucosal and visceral leishmanias. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product that has been in use by the Department of Defense (DoD) for over 20 years for the treatment of cutaneous, mucosal and visceral leishmaniasis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Sodium stibogluconate is a medicine used to treat leishmaniasis and is only available for administration by injection. (drugbank.ca)
- Sodium stibogluconate is sold in the UK as Pentostam (manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline). (drugbank.ca)
- Widespread resistance has limited the utility of sodium stibogluconate, and in many parts of the world, amphotericin or miltefosine are used instead. (drugbank.ca)
- The mode of action of sodium stibogluconate is not clearly understood. (drugbank.ca)
- Sodium stibogluconate directly inhibits DNA topoisomerase I leading to inhibition of both DNA replication and transcription. (drugbank.ca)
- The pharmacokinetics and toxicities of free sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and two vesicular formulations of this drug (a nonionic surfactant vesicular formulation of SSG [SSG-NIV] and SSG-NIV-dextran) were determined after treatment with a single intravenous dose in healthy dogs and were related to their antileishmanial efficacies in mice. (strath.ac.uk)
- A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan. (msf.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of treatment of Sudanese kala-azar patients treated under field conditions with either branded sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (Pentostam GlaxoWellcome) or generic SSG (Albert David Ltd, Calcutta, supplied by International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam). (msf.org)
- UKPID MONOGRAPH SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE WN Harrison PhD CChem MRSC SM Bradberry BSc MB MRCP JA Vale MD FRCP FRCPE FRCPG FFOM National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre), West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. (inchem.org)
- SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE Toxbase summary Type of product Used in the treatment of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. (inchem.org)
- Hepatotoxicity of sodium stibogluconate in leishmaniasis. (inchem.org)
- Cardiac effects of sodium stibogluconate: myocardial, electrophysiological and biochemical studies. (inchem.org)
- Substance name Sodium stibogluconate Origin of substance NIF Synonyms Antimony sodium gluconate Myostibin Pentostam Solustibosan Solustin Solusurmin Solyusurmin Stibanate Stibanose Stibatin Stibinol (RTECS, 1997) Chemical group A pentavalent compound of antimony, a group V A element. (inchem.org)
- EEC No: NIF (CHIP2, 1994) INTRODUCTION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Sodium stibogluconate is a pentavalent antimony compound. (inchem.org)
- Pentostam, an aqueous solution of sodium stibogluconate, is the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis. (inchem.org)
- Magnitude of unresponsiveness to sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar. (ajtmh.org)
- The pentavalent antimony (Sb V ) compound urea stibamine first emerged as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against Indian kala-azar ( 6 ). (asm.org)
- Although different forms of pentavalent antimony complexes (chelates, i.e. (asm.org)
- Several studies have shown that endogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2) ( 34 ), IL-4 ( 1 , 43 ), and IL-12 ( 41 ) influence the effectiveness of chemotherapy with pentavalent antimony. (asm.org)
- SSG is a pentavalent antimony (Sb) complexed to a carbohydrate whose exact structure and mechanism of action are not known. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In vitro exposure of amastigotes to 500 mg pentavalent antimony/ml results in a greater than 50% decrease in parasite DNA, RNA protein and purine nucleoside triphosphate levels. (drugbank.ca)
- Adverse effects from pentavalent antimony drugs are reportedly less frequent and less severe than from trivalent antimony preparations (Reynolds, 1996). (inchem.org)
- In 1984, the World Health Organization recommended the daily dose of antimony in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis to be increased to 20 mg/kg/day. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. (bioportfolio.com)
- Amphotericin B is superior to sodium antimony glucon-ate in the treatment of Indian post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. (ajtmh.org)
- As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. (mdpi.com)
- Antimony compounds have been used as medicines since their introduction by the alchemist John of Rupescissa in the 14th century [ 4 ], mainly in the treatment of two parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. (mdpi.com)
- Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. (bioportfolio.com)
- The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis. (bioportfolio.com)
- Antimony occurs predominantly in the pentavalent state in aerobic fresh water and sea water and the trivalent state is more common under anaerobic conditions as well as a results of anthropogenic activities. (mdpi.com)
- However, effects similar to those reported for other antimony compounds may be expected (see antimony Toxbase entry). (inchem.org)
- Toxicity of antimony and its compounds. (inchem.org)
- MECHANISM OF TOXICITY The mechanism of toxicity of antimony compounds is unclear but may involve disruption of thiol proteins via binding to sulphydryl groups (de Wolff, 1995). (inchem.org)
- TOXICOKINETICS Absorption Antimony compounds may be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion, though gastrointestinal absorption in man is poor necessitating parenteral administration of antimony pharmaceuticals. (inchem.org)
- Pentavalent antimonial compounds are useful in some forms, while others are antimony-resistant. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Two groups of compounds are recommended: pentavalent organic antimonials, such as sodium antimony gluconate, and aromatic diamidines, such as pentamidine, if the antimonials are ineffective. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Antimony and its compounds are naturally present in the Earth's crust and are released into the environment by natural discharges such as windblown dust, volcanic eruptions, sea spray, forest fires, and biogenic sources. (mdpi.com)
- Toxicity Toxic effects have been reported following parenteral administration of antimony pharmaceuticals. (inchem.org)
- Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. (mdpi.com)
- Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. (mdpi.com)
- This review discusses antimony toxicity arising from occupational exposure and when it is used as a therapy. (mdpi.com)
- Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kalaazar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani . (springer.com)
- Abdo MG, Elamin WM, Khalil EA, Mukhtar MM. Antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan: incidence and in vitro correlation. (springer.com)
- The purpose of this study is to find out if chlorhexidine gluconate solution is better at reducing the rate of wound infection after cesarean section compared to povidone-iodine. (bioportfolio.com)
- Pre-Operative Skin Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Povidone-Iodine to Prevent Port-Site Infection in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study. (bioportfolio.com)
- A Prospective Comparative Study in Skin Antiseptic Solutions for Posterior Spine Surgeries: Chlorhexidine-Gluconate Ethanol Versus Povidone-Iodine. (bioportfolio.com)
- Analysis of the curves of the concentrations in plasma after intravenous administration of SSG and SSG-NIV in dogs showed that both formulations produced similar antimony (Sb) pharmacokinetics. (strath.ac.uk)
- Antimony oxide can be used in fire-retardant formulations for plastics, rubbers, textiles, paper and paints whereas antimony trisulfide is used in the production of explosives, pigments, antimony salts and ruby glass [ 1 - 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- 4. Collect urine and blood for antimony concentration measurements. (inchem.org)
- The concentration of antimony in air ranges from a nanogram per cubic meter (ng/m 3 ) to about 170 ng/m 3 . (mdpi.com)
- The concentration of antimony that is found dissolved in rivers and lakes is usually less than 5 parts of antimony in 1 billion parts of water (ppb) and it is found attached to particles of dirt. (mdpi.com)