Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Teleost hormones. A family of small peptides isolated from urophyses of bony fishes. They have many different physiological effects, including long-lasting hypotensive activity and have been proposed as antihypertensives. There are at least four different compounds: urotensin I, urotensin II, urotensin III, and urotensin IV.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Any agent that adds not only sweet taste but some energy value to food. They include natural sugars such as SUCROSE; FRUCTOSE; and GALACTOSE; and certain SUGAR ALCOHOLS.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Information or data used to ensure the safe handling and disposal of substances in the workplace. Such information includes physical properties (i.e. melting, boiling, flashing points), as well as data on toxicity, health effects, reactivity, storage, disposal, first-aid, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.

Diagnostic and prognostic potential of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leishmaniasis in India. (1/139)

A Leishmania donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody (monoclonal antibody D2) was evaluated for its diagnostic and prognostic potential by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) in sera from Indian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and seven patients with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). These results were compared with those obtained by microscopy with Giemsa-stained tissue smears and a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (direct ELISA) with crude parasite antigen. Of 121 patients with clinically diagnosed VL examined, 103 (85.1%) were positive and 11 (9.1%) were negative by all three methods. An additional 7 (5.8%) who were negative by microscopy were positive by both C-ELISA and direct ELISA. Seven PKDL patients were also examined and were found to be positive by all three methods. Analysis of the chemotherapeutic response to sodium antimony gluconate of these 110 serologically positive VL patients showed that 57 (51.8%) were drug responsive and 53 (48.2%) were drug resistant. The C-ELISA with sera from 20 longitudinally monitored VL patients before and after chemotherapy showed a significant decrease in percent inhibition of monoclonal antibody D2 in drug-responsive patients. However, in drug-unresponsive patients, the percent inhibition of D2 was unchanged or was slightly increased. Our results therefore indicate (i) the applicability of L. donovani species-specific monoclonal antibody D2 for sensitive and specific serodiagnosis by C-ELISA, (ii) that the C-ELISA is more sensitive than microscopy, especially for early diagnosis, (iii) that L. donovani is still the main causative agent of VL, irrespective of the chemotherapeutic response, and (iv) that the C-ELISA can be used to evaluate the success of drug treatment.  (+info)

Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. (2/139)

The possibility that the high frequency of treatment failures in Indian kala-azar might be due to infection with antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani has not been experimentally addressed. L. donovani isolates were obtained from splenic aspiration smears of 24 patients in Bihar, India, who either did not respond (15) or did respond (9) to 1 or more full courses of treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). A strong correlation (P<.001) between clinical response and SAG sensitivity in vitro was observed only when strains were assayed as intracellular amastigotes: responsive isolates ED50=2.4+/-2.6, ED90=6.4+/-7.8 microgram SAG/mL; unresponsive isolates ED50=7.4+/-3.7 microgram SAG/mL, ED90=29.1+/-11.1 SAG/mL. No correlation with clinical response was found by use of extracellular promastigotes (ED50=48+/-22 vs. 52+/-29 microgram/mL). The emergence of antimony-resistant L. donovani strains appears to be a cause of treatment failures in India.  (+info)

Randomized, double-blind study of stibogluconate plus human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor versus stibogluconate alone in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (3/139)

The response to recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis was evaluated. Twenty patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who had lesions for 60 days were enrolled in a double-blind placebo trial of GM-CSF with standard parenteral sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg-1/day-1) for 20 days. Ten patients were randomized to receive intralesionally injected GM-CSF (200 microgram) at enrollment and 1 week after, and 10 patients received saline as placebo. GM-CSF- and antimony-treated patients healed faster than patients who received antimony alone (49+/-32.8 vs. 110+/-61.6 days, P<.05). Seven of 10 patients were healed of their lesions before 40 days after therapy in the GM-CSF group, compared with only 1 of 10 patients in the placebo group (relative risk, 7; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-47.00). Thus, GM-CSF plus antimony significantly increased the chance of lesion healing in 40 days.  (+info)

Out-patient parenteral antimicrobial therapy--a viable option for the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (4/139)

Cutaneous infection with Leishmania braziliensis complex requires treatment with parenteral pentavalent antimonials to prevent development of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients with imported disease are usually managed in hospital because of concerns over drug toxicity. This study describes the clinical features and outcome of infection treated in the UK in an out-patient setting. Thirteen marines (aged 19-35 years) who acquired leishmaniasis in Belize were studied prospectively. Three had at least two lesions (0. 6-3 cm diameter), eight had regional lymphadenopathy and one had localized painless lymphatic thickening. Histology for amastigotes and PCR for Leishmania braziliensis complex was positive in all. Culture was positive in six. Patients received 1.5-2 g (mean 1.7 g) (20 mg/kg) sodium stibogluconate intravenously daily for 20 days. All developed transient musculoskeletal symptoms and asymptomatic hepatitis. Eleven developed biochemical pancreatitis, and one thrombocytopenia. Three developed transient ECG changes and one herpes zoster. There were four device-related infections, two requiring hospitalization (one required surgical drainage of an abscess). All lesions re-epithelialized. A total of 250 bed-days were saved over a 67-day period. These results indicate that in selected patients, out-patient therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis with parenteral high-dose sodium stibogluconate may be appropriate, provided there is adequate monitoring of therapy.  (+info)

Differential decline in Leishmania membrane antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgE, and IgG subclass antibodies in Indian kala-azar patients after chemotherapy. (5/139)

Pathogenesis in kala-azar is associated with depressed cellular immunity and significant elevation of antileishmanial antibodies. Since these antibodies are present even after cure, analysis of the parasite-specific isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in kala-azar patients may shed new light on the immune responses during progression and resolution of infection. Using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts, we investigated the relative levels of specific IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses in Indian kala-azar patient sera during disease, drug resistance, and cure. Acute-phase sera showed strong stimulation of IgG, followed by IgE and IgM and lastly by IgA antibodies. IgG subclass analysis revealed expression of all of the subclasses, with a predominance of IgG1 during disease. Following sodium stibogluconate (SAG) resistance, the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and IgG4 remained constant, while there was a decrease in the titers of IgG2 and IgG3. In contrast, a significant (2.2-fold) increase in IgG1 was observed in these individuals. Cure, in both SAG-responsive and unresponsive patients, correlated with a decline in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and all of the IgG subclasses. The stimulation of IgG1 and the persistence, most importantly, of IgE and IgG4 following drug resistance, along with a decline in IgE, IgG4, and IgG1 with cure, demonstrate the potential of these isotypes as possible markers for monitoring effective treatment in kala-azar.  (+info)

A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan. (6/139)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of treatment of Sudanese kala-azar patients treated under field conditions with either branded sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (Pentostam GlaxoWellcome) or generic SSG (Albert David Ltd, Calcutta, supplied by International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam). METHOD: Randomised comparison. 271 patients were treated with Pentostam and 245 with generic SSG. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in cure rate or mortality were detected between Pentostam and generic SSG. No differences in side-effects between the two drugs were noted. The initial cure rate at the time of discharge was 93.7 and 97.6%, respectively; the death rate during treatment 5.9 and 2.4%. Six months follow up was achieved in 88.5% of the discharged patients. Two patients had died in the Pentostam group and two had died in the generic SSG group, giving a final death rate of 7.5 and 3.7%. The number of relapses in the Pentostam and generic SSG groups were 3 and 1, respectively. The final cure rates, calculated at 6 months after discharge, were 91.3% and 95.9%. CONCLUSION: No difference was observed in the performance of generic SSG compared to Pentostam for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan. Generic SSG can be routinely and safely used for the treatment of kala-azar. Generic SSG costs only 1/14 of the price of Pentostam. The use of generic SSG may make treatment of kala-azar affordable for national governments in Africa.  (+info)

Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) potentiates oxidant production in murine visceral leishmaniasis and in human blood. (7/139)

Sodium stibogluconate (Sbb), a leishmanicidal drug, was studied for its in vivo effect on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assessed by chemiluminescence (CL) in the whole blood of mice infected with Leishmania infantum. Stimulation of ROS formation induced ex vivo by zymosan particles or the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was reduced by approximately 25% (P < 0.05) after infection of mice. Treatment of infected mice with Sbb (50 to 400 mg/kg of body weight) enhanced the blood CL induced by zymosan and PMA (47 to 96%, P < 0.01). The drug potentiation effect also occurred in uninfected mice. In vitro treatment of normal human blood with Sbb (1, 10, or 100 microg/ml) for 1 h primed the CL response to PMA (29 to 54%). The priming effect of Sbb was also observed on the production of superoxide by isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated either by PMA and zymosan or by the chemoattractants N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and platelet-activating factor. These data provide the first evidence of priming of the phagocyte respiratory burst by Sbb. This novel property of Sbb may contribute to the drug's leishmanicidal effect.  (+info)

Deaths in visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) during treatment. (8/139)

Twenty-seven out of five hundred and fifty three patients hospitalized for visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) died during treatment with sodium antimony gluconate. Data from these patients were evaluated to find out the cause of death. Eight patients had associated diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (3), severe malnutrition (1), acute gastroenteritis (1), spleenic infarction (1), acute renal failure (1) and atrial septal defect (1) which could be attributed to death. Twelve patients developed spontaneous haemorrhages from nose, gums and gastrointestinal tract and died, despite of adequate supportive measures. Seven other patients who were improving slowly with antimony therapy died unexpectedly. Though, cause of death could be explained in some patients with associated disease conditions, it could not be explained in others as significant clinical manifestations, haematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic alterations were not evident prior to death. Our impression is that mortality in Kala-azar patients during standard antimonial therapy is more related to the drug rather than the disease process.  (+info)

Pentostam injection contains the active ingredient sodium stibogluconate, which is an antimony compound used specifically in the treatment of a protozoal infection called leishmaniasis.
Pentavalent antimonials have been the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis for decades. However, the development of resistance to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) has limited its use, especially for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The present work aims to optimize a cationic liposomal formulation of SSG for the treatment of both SSG-sensitive (AG83) and SSG-resistant (GE1F8R and CK1R) Leishmania donovani infections. Parasite killing was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained macrophages. Macrophage uptake studies were carried out by confocal microscopic imaging. Parasite-liposome interactions were visualized through transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity tests were performed using assay kits. Organ parasite burdens were determined by microscopic counting and limiting dilution assays. Cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and flow cytometry. Although all cationic ...
This trial investigateD the tolerability and efficacy of sodium stibogluconate + interferon alpha 2b [CDDP]+ cisplatin + vinblastine [VBL] + dacarbazine [DTIC]
Abstract Thirty-six patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomized to receive intravenous sodium stibogluconate for 10 days at a dose of 600 mg antimony (Sb) per day by one of three schedules: once daily by rapid infusion (A), by continuous 24 hr infusion (B), or in divided doses every eight hours by rapid infusion (C). Patients not cured after initial treatment were rerandomized to one of the other treatment schedules. An additional 19 patients who were not part of the randomized study received standard (STD) sodium stibogluconate treatment (600 mg Sb once daily by rapid infusion for 10 days, identical with schedule A). In the randomized study, the overall cure rate after the first course of treatment was 64%, but was higher for schedule A (100%) than for B (50%) or C (42%) (P < 0.01). Considering all courses of treatment, schedule A was more effective (94%) than B (53%) or C (43%) (P < 0.01). Paradoxically, patients in group A had a higher cure rate than patients in group STD (42
Abstract Pentavalent antimony-mannan (Sb[V]-mannan) was 10-fold more potent than sodium stibogluconate in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. Liver antimony concentrations were six-fold higher after Sb[V]-mannan therapy compared with a dose of sodium stibogluconate that was equipotent in reducing liver parasite burdens. Murine toxicity of Sb[V]-mannan was variable, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) for one preparation that was well above the concentration that killed 90% of the parasites, and for another preparation was only modestly higher than the concentration that killed 90% of the parasites.
One hundred and twenty six patients with kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) were allocated at random to one of two groups for treatment with sodium stibogluconate. One group was treated for 20 days; in the other group the patients were assessed after 20 days treatment and treatment was continued if necessary. Both groups were followed up for six months. There was no significant difference in symptomatic outcome between the two groups at 20 days. At six months eight of the patients in the group treated for 20 days had relapsed and 54 were cured. Of the group given more than 20 days treatment if necessary, 62 were cured and none had relapsed (12 required more than 20 days treatment). This difference between the two groups was significant. One patient in each group did not respond to sodium stibogluconate, but both were were cured with pentamidine. Altogether 104 patients were cured after 20 days treatment; 20, including the eight who relapsed, were cured after more than 20 days treatment. ...
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UKPID MONOGRAPH SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE WN Harrison PhD CChem MRSC SM Bradberry BSc MB MRCP JA Vale MD FRCP FRCPE FRCPG FFOM National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre), West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. The work was commissioned and funded by the UK Departments of Health, and was designed as a source of detailed information for use by poisons information centres. Peer review group: Directors of the UK National Poisons Information Service. SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE Toxbase summary Type of product Used in the treatment of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Toxicity Toxic effects have been reported following parenteral administration of antimony pharmaceuticals. Features There are no reports of ingestion, inhalation or topical exposure. However, effects similar to those reported for other antimony compounds may ...
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Sodium antimony | Na3O4Sb | CID 25469 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Paromomycin is an aminoglycoside that is active against Gram-negative and many Gram-positive bacteria as well as some protozoa and cestodes. It is out of use as an antibiotic but was licensed in 2007 in India as an effective, well tolerated and affordable treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) at a dose of 11mg/kg (base) for 21 days. Currently, the non-profit group Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative is conducting studies on paromomycin (as monotherapy and in combination) in VL in Africa, and the Institute for OneWorld Health is conducting a Phase IV study in India. Paromomycin in combination with sodium stibogluconate has proven to be effective in African and Indian VL and improves survival in African VL. To prevent the emergence of drug-resistant leishmaniasis in areas of anthroponotic transmission (India and Africa), paromomycin should be used as part of combination therapy for VL. Further trials testing different combinations are much needed. In addition, the distribution of ...
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Soccer Movement Related SSG Passing and Receiving Objective: Developing practice above with team based small sided game. Detail: Increase area to 50 x 50. Split the players into 3 groups of 5 1 floater. Each team has a ball and plays at the same time. Teams transfer the ball around the area with the objective of the
In earlier posts, we presented examples where we needed to write software to parse fasta formatted sequence files and output files from alignment programs. These parsers then called routines in the HDF I/O library to add data to the HDF5 file. During the import phase, we could set different compression levels and define the chunk size to compress our data and optimize access times. In these cases, we developed a simple data model based on the alignment output from programs like BWA, Bowtie, and MapReads. Most importantly, we were able to work with NGS data from multiple platforms efficiently, with software that required weeks of development rather than the months and years that would be needed if the system was built from scratch.. While HDF5 technology is powerful out-of-the-box, a number of features can still be added to make it better for bioinformatics applications. The BioHDF project is about making such domain-specific extensions. These are expected to include modifications to the ...
BACKGROUND: Antimonials are the mainstay of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment in Africa. The increasing incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection requires alternative safe and effective drug regimens. Oral miltefosine has been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of Indian VL but has not been studied in Africa or in persons with HIV and VL coinfection. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of miltefosine and sodium stibogluconate (SSG) in the treatment of VL in persons in Ethiopia. A total of 580 men with parasitologically and/or serologically confirmed VL were randomized to receive either oral miltefosine (100 mg per day for 28 days) or intramuscular SSG (20 mg/kg per day for 30 days). RESULTS: The initial cure rate was 88% in both treatment groups. Mortality during treatment was 2% in the miltefosine group, compared with 10% in the SSG group. Initial treatment failure was 8% in the miltefosine group, compared with 1% in the SSG group. Among the 375 patients (65%) ...
Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis is principally predicated on antimonials. and 13e werent dangerous against fibroblasts, macrophages, or dendritic cells. Jointly, these results claim that the aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylates 13b and 13e are potential antileishmanial business lead substances with low toxicity against web host cells and selective antiparasitic results. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is situated generally on antimony substances, initially defined in 1912 by Vianna (42) in Brazil as trivalent antimonials [Sb(III)]. These substances display high toxicity and a small therapeutic window, conditions that led to the introduction of the pentavalent antimonium [Sb(V)] agencies sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), presented around 1940 (31, 38). Pentavalent antimonium substances display a wider healing window and therefore became the medications of preference against leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, their toxicity causes critical unwanted effects that PXD101 ...
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Definition of antimony in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antimony? Meaning of antimony as a legal term. What does antimony mean in law?
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[108 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Antimony Oxide Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Antimony Oxide in Global market, especially in...
The preceding description requires to be qualified, especially in cases of what is called tolerance. If the giving of antimony be commenced in fractional doses, and continued with very gradual incre...
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The scope of the Risk Assessment and Management SSG includes risks associated with Physical Asset or Asset Management System / Process Failures, and recognises the overlap and interaction of various risk families. (It excludes Corporate Risks such as FOREX or Commodity Risk and general occupational safety risks). This SSG is applicable to: asset intensive businesses, where significant expenditure, resources, performance dependency and/or risks are associated with the creation/acquisition, utilisation, maintenance or renewal/disposal of assets organisations that have, or intend to manage or invest in, a significant portfolio of assets, or where the performance of an asset system and the management of assets are central to the effective delivery of service, product or other business objectives organisations where there is a business or public accountability requirement to demonstrate best value in the safe management of assets and provision of associated services. ...
Article Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution. An Fe-Cu binary oxide was fabricated through a simple co-precipitation process, and was used to remove Sb(III) from...
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(anti-neoplastic drugs are not included) Quinine/Quinidine group Quinine Quinidine Heparin Regular unfractionated heparin Low molecular weight heparin Gold salts Antimicrobials Antimony containing drugs Stibophen Sodium stibogluconate Cephalosporins Cephamandazole Cefotetan Ceftazidime Cephalothin Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin Fluconazole Fusidic acid Gentamicin Nilidixic acid Penicillins Ampicillin Apalcillin Methicillin Meziocillin Penicillin Piperacillin Pentamidine Rifampin Sulpha group Sulfamethoxazole Sulfamethoxypyridazine Sulfisoxazole Suramin Vancomycin…
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Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical tool with its application in the field of biological sciences for identification of proteins, defining post-translational modifications, studying protein expression and protein interactions. This thesis presents MS analyses of proteins for defining modifications observed during sample preparation and identification of proteins isolated from clinical samples and microorganisms. The first part of the thesis includes proteomic analysis of antimony resistant L. tropica. The results clearly indicated that the generation of antimony resistance by parasites, either in host organism or in vitro, causes alteration of protein expression levels, and the mechanism of antimony resistance in host organism and in vitro conditions follow different strategies. In the second part of the study, proteomic analysis of Bence Jones proteins isolated from urine of multiple myeloma patients was performed. Gel electrophoresis and MS analysis revealed that the proteins from ...
AUTHOR: ILO, ELOCHUKWU CAJETAN DEPARTMENT: APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BREWING AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA The rat sub-chronic toxicity study (dose-response relationship) and the assessment of Antimony concentration in Nigerian bottled water samples (exposure assessment) were the two complimentary studies that sought to estimate the Antimony risk in Nigeria via drinking water. The rat sub-chronic toxicity study…
There are substantial environmental concerns with the recycling of polyester right now. Most polyester contains antimony which is not a benign chemical - it is a likely carcinogen, among other issues. Recycling polyester releases encapsulated antimony, thus creating antimony trioxide, which has a toxicity profile less sanguine even than antimonys. If your green desire is to help stem the use of industrial chemicals and their pollution of the earth - and of people - this is a step you would choose to avoid. Thanks to the cradle to cradle people, antimony free polyester does exist. Antimony free polyester fabrics are available. Unfortunately, although antimony free polyester - that is, non-toxic polyester (and there is controversy about whether the antimony is a threat to humans during use and before end of life) - does exist, there is no viable program for recycling it and keeping it segregated from other types of polyester right now. In fact, there is no viable program for the recycling of ...
Mineral Commodity Profiles: Antimony Pharos ProjectMineral Commodity Profiles.Antimony.By W.C.Butterman and J.F.Carlin,Jr.2004The most important ore minerals of antimony are the su
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Thank you for sharing this Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
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Albany, NY (PRWEB) September 30, 2013 -- Since 2012, the global antimony price has been sluggish, mainly affected by the descending of antimony price in
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Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
High purity antimony in a 50x50x50mm acrylic cube. As the sample is embedded in acrylic glass, it can be viewed safely. Start your collection of the 118 elements in decorative acrylic cubes now! Please consider, that this cube is labeled with the German name of the element. ...
Third paragraph, first bullet of release should read: A drop in the price of antimony for the year of $.59 per pound from $5.30 in 2013 to $4.71 in 20
We are dealing in these chemicals since last 8-10 years & some are procured since more than 20 years. The Sourcing mainly is based in Asian & European countries.. These chemicals are used in Paint, Varnish, Water Treatment Chemicals, Laminates, Optical Whiteners, Detergent Industries, Pharma & Agro applications etc ...
There are many kinds of chemical raw materials, and they are widely used. There are more than 500~700 chemicals in the world, more than 100 thousand are sold on the market, and more than 1000 new chem
Stibanilic acid definition is - an unstable acid NH2C6H4SbO(OH)2 containing antimony that is analogous to arsanilic acid and is used in making organic antimonial drugs; para-amino-benzene-stibonic acid.
Antimony Trioxide is mainly produced via the smelting of stibnite ore.It can be readily oxidized to antimony pentoxide and related antimony (V) compounds.
ஆண்டிமனி மூவயோடைடு ( Antimony triiodide) என்பது (SbI3) என்ற மூலக்கூற்று வாய்ப்பாடு கொண்ட ஒரு கனிம வேதியியல் சேர்மமாகும். மாணிக்கச் சிவப்பிலான இத்திண்மம் மட்டுமே ஆண்டிமனி தனிமத்தின் அடையாளப்படுத்தப்பட்ட ஒர் இரும அயோடைடு ஆகும். அதாவது முழு சேர்மமும் (SbxIy) என்ற வாய்ப்பாட்டுக்குள் தனிப்படுத்தப்படுகிறது. இது ஆண்டிமனியை +3 என்ற ஆக்சிசனேற்ற நிலையில் கொண்டுள்ளது. கனமான முதன்மைக்குழு ...
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations. ...
Antimony Single Crystal Sb bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts & credit cards/PayPal accepted.
Tadalista - Those who select antimony in consequence of its powerful antiphlogistic properties, will not of course care to substitute for it a remedy which is not thought to have (so far as we know) any other influence upon the disease, than that which results from its operation as an emetic.
www.mindat.org/gm/437 Avicennite in ragged arc-shaped swath on chert, with additional, less easily described, coverage of avicennite at upper left. Also in upper left area are numerous cream-colored splotches of hydrous antimony oxides, probably hydroxycalcioroméite (although it has not been analyzed), replacing parapierrotite crystals. Collected and photographed ... ...
... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D09.811.308.200 - calcium gluconate MeSH D09.811.366.388 - diphosphoglyceric acids MeSH D09.811. ...
Na2PFO3 Sodium nitrate - NaNO3 Sodium nitrite - NaNO2 Sodium nitroprusside - Na 2[Fe(CN) 5NO]·2H2O Sodium oxide - Na2O Sodium ... 2 Antimony sulfate - Sb2(SO4)3 Antimony trichloride -SbCl3 Antimony trifluoride - SbF3 Antimony trioxide - Sb2O3 Antimony ... SrPO3F Strontium gluconate - Sr(HOCH 2(CHOH) 4CO 2) 2 Strontium hydride - SrH2 Strontium hydrogen phosphate - SrHPO4 Strontium ... NaHSO3 Sodium borate - Na 2B 4O 7 Sodium borohydride - NaBH4 Sodium bromate - NaBrO3 Sodium bromide - NaBr Sodium bromite - ...
Sodium ferric gluconate complex. Blood substitutes and. perfusion solutions (B05). *Dextran. *Gelatin agents ... Antimony pentasulfide. *Creosote. *Guaiacolsulfonate. *Guaifenesin (+ oxomemazine). *Ipecacuanha (Syrup of ipecac). * ...
Sodium thiosulfate#. Hydrofluoric acid. *Calcium gluconate#. Methanol /. Ethylene glycol. poisoning. *Primary alcohols: Ethanol ... Antimony pentasulfide. *Creosote. *Guaiacolsulfonate. *Guaifenesin (+ oxomemazine). *Ipecacuanha (Syrup of ipecac). * ...
Li, J.H; Rossman, T.G (1991). "Comutagenesis of sodium arsenite with ultraviolet radiation in Chinese hamster V79 cells". ... The replacement of phosphate by arsenate is initiated when arsenate reacts with glucose and gluconate in vitro.[40] This ... "Microbial Methylation of Metalloids: Arsenic, Antimony, and Bismuth". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 66 (2): 250- ... a toxic concoction of sodium arsenite, was sold. The organoarsenic compound Salvarsan was the first synthetic chemotherapeutic ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium ... Zinc supplements (frequently zinc acetate or zinc gluconate lozenges) are a group of dietary supplements that are commonly used ... Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury, silver, ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium ... Calcium Forte)(Calcium Lactate Gluconate 2.94g +Calcium Carbonate 0.3 g) کاربرد کلسیم در کشاورزی(نقش در تغذیه گیاهی)[ویرایش]. ... These lead-calcium alloys are also used in casting, replacing lead-antimony alloys.[43] Calcium is also used to strengthen ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium ... Other calcium preparations include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate malate, and calcium gluconate.[5] The intestine absorbs ... These lead-calcium alloys are also used in casting, replacing lead-antimony alloys.[43] Calcium is also used to strengthen ...
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium ... Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium ... A variety o zinc compoonds are commonly uised, sic as zinc carbonate an zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride ...
... antimony sodium gluconates in English->Armenian dictionary. Search nearly 14 million words and phrases in more than 468 ... antimony. antimony potassium tartrate. antimony sodium gluconates. antinematodal agents. antineoplastic agents. antineoplastic ... antimony sodium gluconates being on one side, biased, bigger on one side, unfairly weighted jäik četiri 徵象 征象 agressão ... antimony sodium gluconates. English. Armenian. antimony sodium gluconates. ծարաքար նատրիում գլյուկոնատներ. antimony. ծարրաքար ( ...
Pentavalent antimony complexes, such as sodium stibogluconate and sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), are still the first choice ... Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and ... Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and ... Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and ...
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Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Amebicides. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents ... Efficacy/Safety of Sodium Stibogluconate (SSG) Versus Paromomycin (PM) and SSG/PM Combination to Treat V Leishmaniasis. The ... Drug: Sodium Stibogluconate Drug: Paromomycin sulphate Drug: SSG and Paromomycin sulphate Phase 3 ... Sodium Stibogluconate + Paromomycin Sulphate (17 days). Drug: SSG and Paromomycin sulphate SSG and Paromomycin Sulphate 17 days ...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Schistosomicides. ... Use of Sodium Stibogluconate as a Treatment for Leishmaniasis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product that has been in use by the Department of Defense (DoD ... Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or Pentostam (Glaxo Smith Kline, United Kingdom) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product used ...
Mesh-terms: Animals; Antimony Sodium Gluconate :: chemistry; Antimony. Sodium Gluconate :: pharmacology; Antiprotozoal Agents ... Sodium stibogluconate, a pentavalent antimony derivative produced by. the reaction of stibonic and gluconic acids, is the drug ... We separated sodium stibogluconate into 12 fractions by anion-. exchange. chromatography.. One fraction accounted for virtually ... to remove m-chlorocresol, the IC50 of sodium stibogluconate was ,. 4,000 micrograms of Sb per ml.. In contrast, when L. ...
Keywords: Human β-casein; Combination therapy; Sodium antimony gluconate; Macrophage migration index; Non-specific resistance; ... Similarly, the efficacy of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) in hamsters pretreated with compound 89/215 enhanced significantly ( ...
... chlorhexidine gluconate antiseptic vaginal preparation is superior to povidone-iodine vaginal preparati... ... Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The ... Tolerance of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Vaginal Cleansing Solution. Conduct a randomized control study to compare the tolerance of ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate Versus Povidone-Iodine as Vaginal Preparation Antiseptics Prior to Cesarean Delivery. 2017-05-01 10:22: ...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The ... pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis. ...
Sodium stibogluconate is sold in the UK as Pentostam (manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline). Widespread resistance has limited the ... utility of sodium stibogluconate, and in many parts of the world, amphotericin or miltefosine are used instead. It is also ... Sodium stibogluconate is a medicine used to treat leishmaniasis and is only available for administration by injection. It ... Antimony (V) derivative of sodium gluconate. *Antimony sodium gluconate. *Estibogluconato sodico. *Myostibin ...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate / pharmacology * Formazans* * Leishmania major / drug effects * Leishmania major / growth & ...
... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D09.811.308.200 - calcium gluconate MeSH D09.811.366.388 - diphosphoglyceric acids MeSH D09.811. ...
Antimony / pharmacology * Antimony Potassium Tartrate / pharmacology * Antimony Sodium Gluconate / pharmacology * Antiprotozoal ...
Positive Response to Sodium Antimony Gluconate Administration in Visceral Leishmaniasis Seropositive Patients Authors: Shahjada ... Sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) was successfully administered to 715 patients with parasitologically confirmed infection. In ... The patients were administered 20 mg antimony (in the form of Pentostam) per kg intravenously each day for 28 days. Ten ...
Matched Synonyms: … Antimony (V) derivative of sodium gluconate … Matched Description: … Widespread resistance has limited the ... When dissolved in water, sodium carbonate forms carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide. As a strong base, sodium hydroxide ... Matched Synonyms: … Sodium salt of carbonic acid … Matched Description: … Sodium Carbonate is the disodium salt of carbonic ... Sodium stibogluconate. Sodium stibogluconate is a medicine used to treat leishmaniasis and is only available for administration ...
Response to sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) treatment was evaluated by repeating splenic aspiration at day 30 of treatment. ... H. Kothari, P. Kumar, S. Sundar, and N. Singh, "Possibility of membrane modification as a mechanism of antimony resistance in ... N. Singh, R. Almeida, H. Kothari et al., "Differential gene expression analysis in antimony-unresponsive Indian kala azar ( ... sodium pyrophosphate, 0.2% SDS, and 50 μg/mL heparin) and incubated in a hybridization oven at 65°C for 2 h. Radioactive probe ...
As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side- ... In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased ... Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal ... Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. ...
sodium antimony gluconate, sodium stibogluconate. a pentavalent antimonial used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. ... sodium acid phosphate, sodium biphosphate. used as a dietary supplement of phosphorus for ruminants when only phosphorus is ... sodium. a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. See Table 6. Sodium is the major cation of the ... sodium chloride nutritional deficiency. not a common occurrence but is seen in grazing animals on sodium deficient pastures, ...
Amphotericin B is superior to sodium antimony glucon-ate in the treatment of Indian post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Ann ... Magnitude of unresponsiveness to sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar. Natl Med J India 18 ...
Comparison of treatment regimens of kala-azar based on culture & sensitivity of amastigotes to sodium antimony gluconate ... Dont mix with sodium chloride, other electrolytes, or bacteriostatic products.. • Flush I.V. line with 5% dextrose injection ...
Antimony Sodium Gluconate. en. dc.subject.mesh. Antiprotozoal Agents. en. dc.subject.mesh. Female. en. ... A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral ... A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral ... A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral ...
Deals in Propylene Glycol, Antimony Trioxide, Butyl Acrylate Monomer, Maleic Anhydride, SODIUM GLUCONATE, Adipic Acid ... Sodium Tri Poly Phosphate, Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate, Sodium Hypochlorite Solution, Isopropyl Alcohol, Glycerine, anhydrous ... Sodium Nitrate, Magnesium Nitrate, Benzoic Acid, Propionic Acid, Sodium Sulfide, Aluminum Sulfate, Hydrogen Proxide, Adipic ... Deals in 2-ethyl Hexyl Acrylate, Methyl Iodide, Xanthan Gum, Croscarmellose Sodium, Citric Acid Monohydrate, n butyl bromide, ...
DRUG RESISTANCE: Resistance against sodium antimony gluconate has been documented for all speciesFootnote 4. ... DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Susceptibility has been observed for systemic agents such as antimony-based drugs, amphotericin, ... When administering parenteral treatment such as sodium-stibogluconate, factors such as risk for mucosal leishmaniasis ... SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: Susceptible to 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% TriGene, 70% ethanol, 0.1% hand soap, 2% ...
An example of an antimony-containing antibiotic is Pentostam (an antimonial, antimony sodium gluconate).27,28 A biological ... Both antimony and bismuth are also found in this column of the periodic table (Group V). 29,30 (See Chart 6) ... Following the success of Salvarsan as a treatment for syphilis, other compounds of antimony and bismuth were also prepared and ...
... correlation with sodium antimony gluconate susceptibility and implications for treatment in areas of endemicity. Antimicrob. ... Resistance to antimony and treatment failure in human Leishmania (Viannia) infection. J. Infect. Dis. 193:1375-1383. ... Pharmacokinetics of antimony in children treated for leishmaniasis with meglumine antimoniate. J. Infect. Dis. 195:602-608. ... V.) panamensis (MHOM/COL/86/1166LUC) is sensitive to both antimony and miltefosine (14, 22). Drug-resistant lines derived from ...
Substance name Sodium stibogluconate Origin of substance NIF Synonyms Antimony sodium gluconate Myostibin Pentostam ... Hypoplasia of bone marrow secondary to sodium antimony gluconate (letter). J Assoc Physicians India 1990; 38: 310-1. Mansour MM ... Renal dysfunction in patients of kala azar treated with sodium antimony gluconate. J Assoc Physicians India 1994a; 42: 383. Rai ... confirmation of antimony concentrations (see antimony monograph). MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE Sodium stibogluconate should not be ...
In India, sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) is no longer useful as a drug because more than 64% of VL patients fail to respond or ... was added to the culture supernatant and the plates were incubated for 10 min at room temperature using sodium nitrite as a ... and the concentration of nitrite was calculated by a linear regression analysis using the standard curve generated with sodium ...
Leishmania donovani isolates with antimony-resistant but not -sensitive phenotype inhibit sodium antimony gluconate-induced ... Guha R, Das S, Ghosh J, Sundar S, Dujardin JC, Roy S. Antimony resistant Leishmania donovani but not sensitive ones drives ... In a study from Sudan a PKDL rate of 69 % was found in those treated with erratic doses of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) often of ... Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis: generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate are equivalent; HIV co-infected patients have a ...
... that amastigotes which are short and more stout measuring as big as 4.5 x 5 μm are resistant to sodium antimony gluconate (SAG ... 2.1.9.1 Antimony Compounds. 2.1.9.2 Amphotericin B. 2.1.9.3 Miltefosine. 2.1.9.4 Pentamidine. 2.1.9.5 Paromomycin. 2.1.9.6 ... Although pentavalent antimony compounds are still the expensive, standard, basic and first line of treatment in Yemen. The aim ... drug resistance and treatment failure have made pentavalent antimony compounds not favorable in the treatment of CL (Masmoudi ...
Proteome mapping of overexpressed membrane-enriched and cytosolic proteins in sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) resistant ... Selective determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in serum and urine and of total antimony in skin biopsies of patients ... Antimony uptake systems in the protozoan parasite Leishmania and accumulation differences in antimony-resistant parasites. ... Glutathione-induced conversion of pentavalent antimony to trivalent antimony in meglumine antimoniate. Antimicrob Agents ...
  • Pentavalent antimony complexes, such as sodium stibogluconate and sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), are still the first choice for chemotherapy against various forms of leishmaniasis, including visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar. (asm.org)
  • Sb V chelated to an organic backbone), namely, sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), are still the first choice for treatment of leishmaniases ( 21 , 42 ), their mechanism of action is still largely unknown. (asm.org)
  • Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or Pentostam (Glaxo Smith Kline, United Kingdom) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product used by the Department of Defense for over 20 years to treat cutaneous, mucosal and visceral leishmanias. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is an Investigational New Drug (IND) product that has been in use by the Department of Defense (DoD) for over 20 years for the treatment of cutaneous, mucosal and visceral leishmaniasis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sodium stibogluconate is a medicine used to treat leishmaniasis and is only available for administration by injection. (drugbank.ca)
  • Sodium stibogluconate is sold in the UK as Pentostam (manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline). (drugbank.ca)
  • Widespread resistance has limited the utility of sodium stibogluconate, and in many parts of the world, amphotericin or miltefosine are used instead. (drugbank.ca)
  • The mode of action of sodium stibogluconate is not clearly understood. (drugbank.ca)
  • Sodium stibogluconate directly inhibits DNA topoisomerase I leading to inhibition of both DNA replication and transcription. (drugbank.ca)
  • Magnitude of unresponsiveness to sodium stibogluconate in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar. (ajtmh.org)
  • A randomized comparison of branded sodium stibogluconate and generic sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan. (msf.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome of treatment of Sudanese kala-azar patients treated under field conditions with either branded sodium stibogluconate (SSG) (Pentostam GlaxoWellcome) or generic SSG (Albert David Ltd, Calcutta, supplied by International Dispensary Association, Amsterdam). (msf.org)
  • UKPID MONOGRAPH SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE WN Harrison PhD CChem MRSC SM Bradberry BSc MB MRCP JA Vale MD FRCP FRCPE FRCPG FFOM National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre), West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. (inchem.org)
  • SODIUM STIBOGLUCONATE Toxbase summary Type of product Used in the treatment of visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. (inchem.org)
  • Hepatotoxicity of sodium stibogluconate in leishmaniasis. (inchem.org)
  • Cardiac effects of sodium stibogluconate: myocardial, electrophysiological and biochemical studies. (inchem.org)
  • Substance name Sodium stibogluconate Origin of substance NIF Synonyms Antimony sodium gluconate Myostibin Pentostam Solustibosan Solustin Solusurmin Solyusurmin Stibanate Stibanose Stibatin Stibinol (RTECS, 1997) Chemical group A pentavalent compound of antimony, a group V A element. (inchem.org)
  • EEC No: NIF (CHIP2, 1994) INTRODUCTION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY Sodium stibogluconate is a pentavalent antimony compound. (inchem.org)
  • Pentostam, an aqueous solution of sodium stibogluconate, is the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis. (inchem.org)
  • The primary parenteral agents are the pentavalent antimony compounds: sodium antimony gluconate (stibogluconate or Pentostam) and N-methylglucamine antimoniate (meglumine antimoniate or Glucantime). (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • Successful treatment using a combination of sodium stibogluconate plus allopurinol. (nih.gov)
  • Five patients with long-standing visceral leishmaniasis who were unresponsive to sodium stibogluconate, 20 mg antimony/kg body-weight once or twice daily, were treated for 14 to 54 days with a combination of sodium stibogluconate at the same dose plus allopurinol at a dose of 20 mg/kg body-weight per day in three divided doses. (nih.gov)
  • Human IFN-γ) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients' sera were evaluated before treatment with sodium stibogluconate (pentostam) with 20-day intramuscular drug regimen. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intralesional sodium stibogluconate (SS-IL) was the most preferred treatment for initial therapy, as monotherapy and as part of combination therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sodium antimony gluconate (stibogluconate) has been the drug of choice for over past 50 yr. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aminosidine was also active against all but one of the Leishmania donovani strains tested and when combined with sodium stibogluconate, the drug showed marked potentiation against the amastigotes of L. donovani in vitro and an additive effect in experimentally infected BALB/c mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In 1984, the World Health Organization recommended the daily dose of antimony in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis to be increased to 20 mg/kg/day. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. (mdpi.com)
  • Antimony compounds have been used as medicines since their introduction by the alchemist John of Rupescissa in the 14th century [ 4 ], mainly in the treatment of two parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. (mdpi.com)
  • Amphotericin B is superior to sodium antimony glucon-ate in the treatment of Indian post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • At the beginning of the last century, Gaspar Vianna, pioneer researcher in the treatment of leishmaniasis, reported the efficacy of antimony(III) potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) for treatment of leishmaniasis ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The less toxic pentavalent antimony [Sb(V)] complexes, including meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime [Glu]), were introduced for the therapy of leishmaniasis from the 1940s. (asm.org)
  • These data suggest that NO resistance could be related to the nonresponsiveness to antimony therapy seen in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), recommended treatment is a prolonged course of pentavalent antimony compounds Pentoxifylline can be added to antimony compounds to modulate cytokine activity. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • Pentavalent Antimony has been investigated for the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (drugbank.com)
  • Antimony has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. (drugbank.com)
  • La Leishmaniasis es una enfermedad parasitaria catalogada como emer-gente y sin control debido al cambio en el perfil epidemiológico por el sur-gimiento de nuevos focos y urbanización del ciclo de transmisión. (bvsalud.org)
  • The patient presented ulcerated lesions, confir-ming the diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis through the histological study of the lesions, and starting intramuscular treatment with pentavalent antimony salts observing healing with a progressive and gradual resolution of the lesions and emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis, supervi-sed treatment, and monitoring to prevent complications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Clinical resistance to pentavalent antimonials, in the form of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), has become a major problem in the treatment of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in India. (bvsalud.org)
  • Host peroxisomal properties are not restored to normal after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with sodium antimony gluconate. (jove.com)
  • Antimony and its compounds are mainly used in the preparation of paints, flame-proofing materials, ceramic enamels, pottery, and glass as well as in the treatment of leishmaniasis. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • The antimony compounds have main pharmacological use in the treatment of the parasitic diseases, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • Since then, the antimony compounds have been used for the treatment of schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • Antimony and its compounds are naturally present in the Earth's crust and are released into the environment by natural discharges such as windblown dust, volcanic eruptions, sea spray, forest fires, and biogenic sources. (mdpi.com)
  • However, effects similar to those reported for other antimony compounds may be expected (see antimony Toxbase entry). (inchem.org)
  • Toxicity of antimony and its compounds. (inchem.org)
  • MECHANISM OF TOXICITY The mechanism of toxicity of antimony compounds is unclear but may involve disruption of thiol proteins via binding to sulphydryl groups (de Wolff, 1995). (inchem.org)
  • TOXICOKINETICS Absorption Antimony compounds may be absorbed by inhalation and ingestion, though gastrointestinal absorption in man is poor necessitating parenteral administration of antimony pharmaceuticals. (inchem.org)
  • Although pentavalent antimony compounds are still the expensive, standard, basic and first line of treatment in Yemen. (grin.com)
  • Most of the compounds displayed better in vitro activity compared to the existing antileishmanials, sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and miltefosine in respect to IC 50 and selectivity indices (SI). (omicsonline.org)
  • Parenteral amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B or pentamidine can be used in patients who do not tolerate the antimony compounds or when resistance has been documented. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • Conventional amphotericin B can also be used, as can pentavalent antimony compounds. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • However, pentavalent antimony compounds should not be used to treat VL from India or Nepal because of documented resistance. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • Skin contact with antimony compounds can cause papules and pustules around sweat and sebaceous glands. (rightanswerknowledge.com)
  • Antimony compounds are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. (rightanswerknowledge.com)
  • Trivalent and pentavalent antimony compounds have also been used as anthelmintic and antiprotozoal drug treatments. (rightanswerknowledge.com)
  • PRAZIQUANTEL, a less toxic oral agent, and other drugs have replaced these trivalent antimony compounds. (rightanswerknowledge.com)
  • Antimony (Sb) is a silvery white metal in appearance and its compounds are mainly used in the preparation of paints, flame-proofing materials, ceramic enamels, pottery, and glass. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • however, after that, the antimony compounds lost their value due to their toxic properties [2]. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • The examples of antimony compounds used in the treatment of schistosomiasis include sodium antimony dimercaptosuccinate, sodium antimony tartrate (astiban, stibocaptate), and sodium antimonyl gluconate, etc. [4,5]. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • Resistance is making the mainstay of treatment, agents based on pentavalent antimony, useless in northeastern India, where disease incidence is highest. (docplayer.net)
  • Evidence that the high incidence of treatment failures in Indian kalaazar is due to the emergence of antimony-resistant strains of Leishmania donovani . (springer.com)
  • Abdo MG, Elamin WM, Khalil EA, Mukhtar MM. Antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan: incidence and in vitro correlation. (springer.com)
  • In India, sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) is no longer useful as a drug because more than 64% of VL patients fail to respond or promptly relapse due to development of resistance in the parasites ( Sundar, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Sodium Carbonate is the disodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing property. (drugbank.ca)
  • When dissolved in water, sodium carbonate forms carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide. (drugbank.ca)
  • As a strong base, sodium hydroxide neutralizes gastric acid thereby acting as an antacid. (drugbank.ca)
  • Intracellular amastigotes are the target of treatment, are strikingly more susceptible to antimony than promastigotes ( 2 , 11 , 21 ), and importantly, are killed in vitro at clinically achievable drug concentrations. (asm.org)
  • Resistance to antimony and treatment failure in human Leishmania ( Viannia ) infection. (springer.com)
  • The band patterns of the immunoblots of sera from patients after treatment and clinical cure with sodium antimony gluconate revealed a decrease in the frequency of the bands. (asm.org)
  • Sodium antimony gluconate treatment was suggested for the treating in China. (recob-tlse.org)
  • Treatment with sodium antimony gluconate was successful in healing the infective lesions. (pianolarge.cf)
  • This study analyzes the effect of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of antimony in comparison to the untreated sample. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • The overall study indicated the reduced surface area, altered crystalline properties, and improved thermal stability of the antimony sample after the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treatment could be considered as a novel approach for generating a new polymorph of antimony that might help in improving its appearance, bioavailability, flowability, and thermal stability in comparison to the untreated sample. (lupinepublishers.com)
  • Adverse effects from pentavalent antimony drugs are reportedly less frequent and less severe than from trivalent antimony preparations (Reynolds, 1996). (inchem.org)
  • The mechanism of resistance is unclear in these clinical isolates although a lot of work has been carried out with Leishmania mutants selected in vitro by step-wise increasing drug concentration using the antimony related metal arsenic and more recently sodium antimony gluconate. (bvsalud.org)
  • In antimony refractory zones, pentavalent antimony has been largely replaced by amphotericin B deoxycholate, but prolonged hospitalization, toxic effects, and requirement for monitoring greatly hamper its widespread application in endemic regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nevertheless, certain studies have got used sodium antimony gluconate and amphotericin B in the treating relapse and refractory situations because of the advancement of scientific resistance (11,12). (recob-tlse.org)
  • Antimony oxide can be used in fire-retardant formulations for plastics, rubbers, textiles, paper and paints whereas antimony trisulfide is used in the production of explosives, pigments, antimony salts and ruby glass [ 1 - 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The pentavalent antimony (Sb V ) compound urea stibamine first emerged as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against Indian kala-azar ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • we conducted an analytic case-control study in kala-azar patients during sodium antimony gluconate (sag) therapy to assess the changes in serum copper. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Antimony Potassium Tartrate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Additionally, 5 to 11% of the patients did not respond to three or more antimony treatments" (refractory patients). (biomedcentral.com)
  • MARTINDALE, 1996) Autoignition temperature NIF Chemical interactions NIF Major products of combustion Antimony and sodium oxides. (inchem.org)
  • We for the first time, investigated the molecular aspect of drug resistance in clinically confirmed sodium antimony gluconate resistant field isolates and found that the parasite evaded cytotoxic effects of therapy by enhanced efflux of drugs through overexpressed membrane proteins belonging to the superfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. (bvsalud.org)
  • According to Alison Winter, a science historian at the University of Chicago, who has studied the origins and applications of truth serum, the term that was used to describe the use of certain drugs, most commonly barbiturates like sodium amytal and sodium pentothal, to try to extract truthful statements from people about their past experiences. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate if there is an association between the resistance of L. (V.) braziliensis to NO and nonresponsiveness to antimony therapy and cytokine production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Occupational exposure to antimony occurs mainly in workers involved in industries producing antimony and antimony trioxide, metal mining, smelting and refining, coal-fired power plants, refuse incineration, or those working in indoor firing ranges. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro exposure of amastigotes to 500 mg pentavalent antimony/ml results in a greater than 50% decrease in parasite DNA, RNA protein and purine nucleoside triphosphate levels. (drugbank.ca)
  • Antimony (symbol Sb from the latin stibium ) is a silvery white metal with atomic number 51, that is found in the earth's crust. (mdpi.com)
  • Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. (mdpi.com)
  • Several studies have shown that endogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2) ( 34 ), IL-4 ( 1 , 43 ), and IL-12 ( 41 ) influence the effectiveness of chemotherapy with pentavalent antimony. (asm.org)
  • Elemental antimony can be used for producing semiconductors, infrared detectors and diodes. (mdpi.com)