Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.TartratesAntimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.TartratesDirectories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Bahrain: An independent state, an archipelago in the western Persian Gulf, northwest of Qatar. It comprises low-lying islands of Bahrain (the largest), Muharraq, Sitra, and several islets. It has extensive oil fields. The name comes from the Arabic al-bahrayn, "the two seas", with reference to its lying in the middle of a bay with its "two seas" east and west of it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p107 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.TartratesFat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.IndiaDrug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.

Effect of cysteine on the hepatic toxicity and antischistosomal activity of antimonyl potassium tartrate. (1/15)

Cysteine produced a significant and progressive reduction in the toxicity of antimonyl potassium tartrate (APT) when the two substances were injected into mice and rabbits in ratios of APT to cysteine ranging from 1:1 to 1:3. The reduction in toxicity was highest with the 1:3 ratio. However, the combination of the two substances, especially in the ratio of 1:3, appreciably reduced the antischistosomal activity of APT both in vivo and in vitro.  (+info)

Interaction of antimony tartrate with the tripeptide glutathione implication for its mode of action. (2/15)

The tripeptide glutathione (gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys-Gly, GSH) is thought to play an important role in the biological processing of antimony drugs. We have studied the complexation of the antileishmanial drug potassium antimony(III) tartrate to GSH in both aqueous solution and intact red blood cells by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The deprotonated thiol group of the cysteine residue is shown to be the only binding site for Sb(III), and a complex with the stoichiometry [Sb(GS)3] is formed. The stability constant for [Sb(GS)3] was determined to be log K 25 (I = 0.1 M, 298 K) based on a competition reaction between tartrate and GSH at different pH* values. In spite of being highly thermodynamically stable, the complex is kinetically labile. The rate of exchange of GSH between its free and Sb-bound form is pH-dependent, ranging from slow exchange on the 1H-NMR timescale at low pH (2 s-1 at pH 3.2) to relatively rapid exchange at biological pH (> 440 s-1). Such facile exchange may be important in the transport of Sb(III) in various biofluids and tissues in vivo. Our spin-echo 1H-NMR data show that Sb(III) rapidly entered red blood cell walls and was complexed by intracellular glutathione.  (+info)

Arsenic induces expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) gene in primary rat and human hepatocytes. (3/15)

Metals, such as arsenic or cadmium, have recently been demonstrated to interact with metabolic pathways, including phase I and phase II enzymes and the phase III efflux pump P-glycoprotein. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals and metalloids on the expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), a major hepatic transporter. Treatment of primary rat hepatocytes by sodium arsenite [As(III)], sodium arsenate and potassium antimony tartrate, but not cadmium chloride, was shown to markedly increase MRP2 mRNA and protein levels; As(III)-mediated induction was dose- and time-dependent and paralleled a strong increase in MRP2 amounts as assessed by Western blotting. As(III) was also demonstrated to markedly up-regulate MRP2 gene expression in primary human hepatocytes. MRP2 mRNA induction occurring in As(III)-treated rat hepatocytes was fully blocked by actinomycin D, indicating that it required active gene transcription. It was associated with an activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and with a reduction of cellular glutathione levels. Quercetin, a flavonoid compound known to block As(III)-related induction of P-glycoprotein, was also found to prevent up-regulation of MRP2 gene expression in rat hepatocytes exposed to As(III). Such an effect was unlikely to be due to alteration of JNK pathway since quercetin failed to abolish As(III)-induced JNK phosphorylation. It may rather be linked to the increase of cellular glutathione levels by quercetin, thus limiting the depleting effects of As(III) on glutathione amounts. Finally, these results confirm that some metals strongly regulate expression of detoxifying proteins, including biliary drug transporters.  (+info)

Sodium stibogluconate is a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases and augments cytokine responses in hemopoietic cell lines. (4/15)

Using in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) assays, we found that sodium stibogluconate, a drug used in treatment of leishmaniasis, is a potent inhibitor of PTPases Src homology PTPase1 (SHP-1), SHP-2, and PTP1B but not the dual-specificity phosphatase mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1. Sodium stibogluconate inhibited 99% of SHP-1 activity at 10 micrograms/ml, a therapeutic concentration of the drug for leishmaniasis. Similar degrees of inhibition of SHP-2 and PTP1B required 100 micrograms/ml sodium stibogluconate, demonstrating differential sensitivities of PTPases to the inhibitor. The drug appeared to target the SHP-1 domain because it showed similar in vitro inhibition of SHP-1 and a mutant protein containing the SHP-1 PTPase domain alone. Moreover, it forms a stable complex with the PTPase: in vitro inhibition of SHP-1 by the drug was not removed by a washing process effective in relieving the inhibition of SHP-1 by the reversible inhibitor suramin. The inhibition of cellular PTPases by the drug was suggested by its rapid induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins in Baf3 cells and its augmentation of IL-3-induced Janus family kinase 2/Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and proliferation of Baf3 cells. The augmentation of the opposite effects of GM-CSF and IFN-alpha on TF-1 cell growth by the drug indicated its broad activities in the signaling of various cytokines. These data represent the first evidence that sodium stibogluconate inhibits PTPases and augments cytokine responses. Our results provide novel insights into the pharmacological effects of the drug and suggest potential new therapeutic applications.  (+info)

Antimonial-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ through non-selective cation channels in the host and the parasite is responsible for apoptosis of intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes. (5/15)

The capability of the obligate intracellular parasites like Leishmania donovani to survive within the host cell parasitophorous vacuoles as nonmotile amastigotes determines disease pathogenesis, but the mechanism of elimination of the parasites from these vacuoles are not well understood. By using the anti-leishmanial drug potassium antimony tartrate, we demonstrate that, upon drug exposure, intracellular L. donovani amastigotes undergo apoptotic death characterized by nuclear DNA fragmentation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. Changes upstream of DNA fragmentation included generation of reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide that were primarily concentrated in the parasitophorous vacuoles. In the presence of antioxidants like N-acetylcysteine or Mn(III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, an inhibitor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, a diminution of reactive oxygen species generation and improvement of amastigote survival were observed, suggesting a close link between drug-induced oxidative stress and amastigote death. Changes downstream to reactive oxygen species increase involved elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in both the parasite and the host that was preventable by antioxidants. Flufenamic acid, a non-selective cation channel blocker, decreased the elevation of Ca2+ in both the cell types and reduced amastigote death, thus establishing a central role of Ca2+ in intracellular parasite clearance. This influx of Ca2+ was preceded by a fall in the amastigote mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, this study projects the importance of flufenamic acid-sensitive non-selective cation channels as important modulators of antimonial efficacy and lends credence to the suggestion that, within the host cell, apoptosis is the preferred mode of death for the parasites.  (+info)

Expression and regulation of the antimonite, arsenite, and arsenate resistance operon of Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267. (6/15)

The arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite resistance region of the Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267 was subcloned in Staphylococcus carnosus. The sequenced DNA region revealed three consecutive open reading frames, named arsR, arsB, and arsC. Expression studies in Escherichia coli with the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system yielded three polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 8,000, 35,000, and 15,000, which very likely correspond to ArsR, ArsB, and ArsC, respectively. ArsB was distinguished by its overall hydrophobic character, suggesting a membrane association. The arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite resistance was shown to be inducible by all three heavy metal ions. Inactivation of the first gene, arsR, resulted in constitutive expression of resistance. Similar results were obtained with transcriptional fusions of various portions of the ars genes with a lipase reporter gene, indicating a function of ArsR as a negative regulator of a putative promoter in front of arsR. The inactivation of arsR also resulted in reduction of resistance to arsenite and antimonite, while arsenate resistance was unaffected. The three ars genes conferred arsenite resistance in E. coli and arsenite as well as arsenate resistance in Bacillus subtilis.  (+info)

The heat shock protein HSP70 and heat shock cognate protein HSC70 contribute to antimony tolerance in the protozoan parasite leishmania. (7/15)

Antimony-containing drugs are still the drugs of choice in the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania. Resistance to antimony is now common in some parts of the world, and several mechanisms of resistance have been described. By transfecting cosmid banks and selecting with potassium antimonyl tartrate (SbIII), we have isolated a cosmid associated with resistance. This cosmid contains 2 copies of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 1 copy of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70). Several data linked HSP70 to antimony response and resistance. First, several Leishmania species, both as promastigotes and amastigotes, increased the expression of their HSP70 proteins when grown in the presence of 1 or 2 times the Effect Concentration 50% of SbIII. In several mutants selected for resistance to either SbIII or to the related metal arsenite, the HSP70 proteins were found to be overexpressed. This increase was also observed in revertant cells grown for several passages in the absence of SbIII, suggesting that this increased production of HSP70 is stable. Transfection of HSP70 or HSC70 in Leishmania cells does not confer resistance directly, though these transfectants were better able to tolerate a shock with SbIII. Our results are consistent with HSP70 and HSC70 being a first line of defense against SbIII until more specific and efficient resistance mechanisms take over.  (+info)

Lower nitric oxide susceptibility of trivalent antimony-resistant amastigotes of Leishmania infantum. (8/15)

We previously documented the induction of Leishmania amastigote apoptosis by trivalent antimony (SbIII) and nitric oxide (NO). We demonstrate here that SbIII-resistant amastigotes were resistant to NO toxicity when delivered extracellularly by NO donors or intracellularly via macrophage activation. Shared biochemical targets for SbIII and NO resistance in Leishmania are discussed.  (+info)

*Antimony potassium tartrate

... , also known as potassium antimonyl tartrate, potassium antimontarterate, or emetic tartar, has the ... Antimony potassium tartrate can be prepared by refluxing a solution of potassium hydrogen tartrate and antimony trioxide for 15 ... The treatment of leishmania with antimony potassium tartrate started in 1913. After the introduction of antimony (V) containing ... which contained trivalent antimony (antimony potassium tartrate) and is sold in Central America as an aversive treatment for ...

*United States v. 11 1/4 Dozen Packages of Articles Labeled in Part Mrs. Moffat's Shoo-Fly Powders for Drunkenness

The powder was tartar emetic, antimony potassium tartrate, which induces vomiting. By 1939, the product was considered a Mickey ... because antimony and potassium tartrate in the dosage of 3.2 grains (the average in the articles analyzed) is not a "cure, ...

*Potassium tartrate

Tartar emetic is produced when potassium tartrate is heated with antimony trioxide. Tartar emetic causes intense nausea, ... Potassium tartrate is produced by the reaction of tartaric acid with potassium sodium tartrate (rochelle salt), and potassium ... Potassium tartrate, dipotassium tartrate or argol has formula K2C4H4O6. It is the potassium salt of tartaric acid. It is often ... As a food additive, it shares the E number E336 with potassium bitartrate. ...

*John Brian Christopherson

He discovered that antimony potassium tartrate was an effective drug in the treatment of bilharzia. Although it had severe side ... The next generation of drugs also contained antimony and were in use until the 1970s. He was President of the tropical diseases ... Christopherson, J. B. (1918). "The Successful Use of Antimony in Bilharziosis". The Lancet. 192 (4958): 325. doi:10.1016/S0140- ... effects, this treatment, which involved the use of antimony derivates, was the state of the art until the 1950s. ...

*Elaeophora schneideri

A combination of tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate) and emetine hydrochloride healed the skin lesions. For elimination ... Kemper, H.E. and I.H. Roberts (1946) "Treatment of filarial dermatosis of sheep with antimony compounds." American Journal of ...

*1918 in science

September 7 - J. B. Christopherson publishes his discovery that antimony potassium tartrate is an effective cure for bilharzia ... Christopherson, J. B. (1918). "The Successful Use of Antimony in Bilharziosis". The Lancet. 192 (4958): 325. doi:10.1016/S0140- ...

*Mariano Moreno

... prepared with four grams of antimony potassium tartrate. Moreno had great convulsions as a consequence, and considered that in ...

*Antimony trioxide

When heated with potassium bitartrate, a complex salt potassium antimony tartrate, KSb(OH)2•C4H2O6 is formed. The structure of ... Antimony metal is oxidized to antimony(III) oxide in furnaces. The reaction is exothermic. Antimony(III) oxide is formed ... Antimony(III) oxide has suspected carcinogenic potential for humans. Its TLV is 0.5 mg/m3, as for most antimony compounds. No ... Antimony(III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Sb2O3. It is the most important commercial compound of antimony ...

*Bernard Fantus

Acetophenetidin Acetaminosalol Cocaine Heroin Aspirin Aconitine Anaesthesin Antimony potassium tartrate Antipyrine Apomorphine ...

*Epiglottitis

... requiring him to swallow mercurous chloride and antimony potassium tartrate, and applying wheat poultices to various parts of ...

*Antimony

... compounds are used as antiprotozoan drugs. Potassium antimonyl tartrate, or tartar emetic, was once used as an anti- ... Antimony is stable in air at room temperature, but reacts with oxygen if heated to produce antimony trioxide, Sb2O3. Antimony ... salt and potassium tartrate. This procedure produced antimony with a crystalline or starred surface. With the advent of ... not to exposure to antimony ions (OECD, 2008). Antimony chlorides are corrosive to skin. The effects of antimony are not ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D02.241.081.844.322.200 --- calcium gluconate MeSH D02.241.081.844.387 --- glyceric acids MeSH ... potassium acetate MeSH D02.241.081.038.208.025.800 --- sodium acetate MeSH D02.241.081.038.208.025.900 --- thioglycolates MeSH ... tartrates MeSH D02.241.081.844.821 --- tartronates MeSH D02.241.081.844.915 --- uronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.325 --- ... antimony sodium gluconate MeSH D02.241.511.902.322.200 --- calcium gluconate MeSH D02.241.511.902.387 --- glyceric acids MeSH ...

*List of extremely hazardous substances

Picrotoxin Piperidine Pirimifos-ethyl Plutonium Polonium-210 Potassium arsenite Potassium cyanide Potassium silver cyanide ... Antimony pentafluoride Antimycin A ANTU (Alpha-Naphthylthiourea) Arsenic pentoxide Arsenous oxide Arsenous trichloride Arsine ... phenylthiophosphonate Ergocalciferol Ergotamine tartrate Ethanesulfonyl chloride, 2-chloro- Ethanol, 1,2-dichloro-, acetate ...
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Abstract:. Introduction: Antimony potassium tartrate is a component of certain expectorants in homeopathic medicine, particularly in those classified as antihomotoxic remedies. Given that antihomotoxic products are prepared with different epistemological and methodological statuses, they should be tested to prevent eventual toxic effects. Methods: In this study, we evaluate the possibility of using continuous flow hydride generation (HG) coupled with Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for determining antimony concentration in antihomotoxic products containing antimony potassium tartrate. Results: The results showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated values for the liquid commercial samples, in the range from 0.5 μg/mL to 30 μg/mL, following the principle of decimal dilutions used in homeopathic medicine. Liquid samples were analyzed directly from the commercial container. Discussion: In the absence of regulatory standards for antihomotoxic products, the proposed ...
L-Antimony Potassium Tartrate 11071-15-1 Precursor and Downstream products, L-Antimony Potassium Tartrate Precursor products, L-Antimony Potassium Tartrate Downstream products ect.
INTRODUCTION. During 1945 there were admitted to Harmon General Hospital 488 patients with proved or suspected Schistosomiasis japonica acquired during the campaign on Leyte in the Philippines. These patients have been the subject of an intensive and detailed study.1. Because the drugs tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate) and fuadin (antimony pyrocatechin disulfonate of sodium) used in the treatment of this disease have been reported to cause serious cardiovascular reactions and even death,2 frequent electrocardiograms were taken during treatment to determine what changes might be expected. In a significant number of patients the changes in the electrocardiogram were striking and might ...
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The Rawitz method involves mordanting with tannic acid and potassium antimony tartrate, and staining with basic fuchsine. The mordanting causes basic fuchsine to act as though it were an acid dye (inversion staining).. A modification of the method is described in the present paper. This modification makes it possible to obtain the same results in a shorter time.. The chief substances stained by Rawitzs method are phospholipids, certain proteins, and certain polysaccharides.. Although the method cannot be regarded as a cytochemical test in the strict sense, yet it gives useful indications of chemical composition and in addition is valuable to the morphological cytologist as a technique for showing certain cytoplasmic inclusions (mitotic spindle, acrosome, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus of certain cells).. ...
The virus in the EB-3 cell line derived from a Burkitt lymphoma was partially purified by digestion with proteolytic enzyme and by density-gradient centrifugation on potassium tartrate. Electron microscope studies of both sectioned and negatively stained samples suggest that the virus belongs to the herpes-virus group, although the exact number of capsomeres was not unequivocally established. ...
Ingredients: Justines Protein Blend (34%) (Egg, Soy Protein Isolate, Calcium Caseinate (Milk), Almonds), Sweetener (Maltitol), Humectant (Vegetable Glycerol), No Added Sugar Dark Compound Choc-Type Chips (15%) (Sweetener (Maltitol), Vegetable Fat (Palm Oil That Contains Emulsifier [Sorbitan Tristearate]), Cocoa Solids, Soy Protein Isolate, Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Natural Flavour), Cocoa (4.5%), Canola Oil, Chocolate Flavour, Bulking Agent (Polydextrose), Coffee Powder, Baking Powder (Contains Raising Agents [Sodium Carbonate, Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, Sodium Aluminium Phosphate, Potassium Tartrate]), Sea Salt ...
Antimony (Sb) is a toxic, flaky, brittle element with the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. It does not react with air, but burns brightly when ignited. Since it is not a metal, antimony is a poor conductor of both heat and electricity. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, batteries, ceramics, enamels, as a hardener for lead and other metals, and in a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber. The ancient Egyptians used black stibnite as eye make-up. Antimony is a member of the "pnictogen" (group 15) of the periodic table. This is the area that has a metal near the bottom (bismuth) and some nonmetals near the top (nitrogen). Antimony in between-It is one of the few elements which is neither a metal or a non-metal. Antimony was known as an element at least as far back as the alchemists. It was first scientifically studied in 1707 by Nicolas Lemery. ...
A new process for one-step extraction of antimony in low temperature from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt, using iron oxide as sulfur-fixing agent, was presented. The influences of molten salt addition and composition, ferric oxide dosage, smelting temperature and duration on extraction efficiency of antimony were investigated in details, respectively. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: 1.0 time stoichiometric requirement (α) of mixed sodium salt (αsalt = 1.0), WNaCl:Wsalt = 40%, αFe2O3 = 1.0, Wcoke:Wstibnite = 40%, where W represents weight, smelting at 850 °C (1123 K) for 60 min. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of antimony can reach 91.48%, and crude antimony with a purity of 96.00% has been achieved. 95.31% of sulfur is fixed in form of FeS in the presence of iron oxide. Meanwhile, precious metals contained in stibnite concentrate are enriched and recovered comprehensively in crude antimony. In comparison to
Backup data for the analytical method for antimony (7440360) and antimony compounds are given the protocol for validation of a method for antimony consisted of the following experimental studies: analysis of 18 analytical samples prepared by addition of known amounts of antimony compounds; analysis of 18 samples collected from test atmospheres of particulate antimony; evaluation of a method for an
Definition of antimony in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antimony? Meaning of antimony as a legal term. What does antimony mean in law?
Principal Investigator:IMAMURA Mayumi, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Otorhinolaryngology
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Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC ® 29971™ Designation: KL 162 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain Food testing
Staphylococcus xylosus ATCC ® 29971™ Designation: KL 162 TypeStrain=True Application: Media testing Quality control strain Food testing
... IUPAC name Potassium sodium tartrate Other names E337 Identifiers CAS number 304-59-6 EINECS number
280914597 - EP 1848417 A1 2007-10-31 - FORMULATIONS OF LADOSTIGIL TARTRATE - [origin: US8022104B2] Disclosed are formulations of ladostigil tartrate, including pharmaceutical compositions, process for the manufacture, and use thereof.[origin: US8022104B2] Disclosed are formulations of ladostigil tartrate, including pharmaceutical compositions, process for the manufacture, and use thereof.
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The preceding description requires to be qualified, especially in cases of what is called tolerance. If the giving of antimony be commenced in fractional doses, and continued with very gradual incre...
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Rubyflame writes As noted on the Senseis Library resource for the ancient Chinese boardgame Go, Tartrate, a very strong and mysterious Go player, has recently returned to the Kiseido Go Server (KGS) after a long absence. The game records can be found here. Tartrate first appeared in March, and has...
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Article Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution. An Fe-Cu binary oxide was fabricated through a simple co-precipitation process, and was used to remove Sb(III) from...
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... a deep-yellow, water-insoluble powder, Sb 2 S 5 , used chiefly as a pigment in oil and water colors.
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The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations. ...
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Upadacitinib tartrate, an orally available, small-molecule selective inhibitor of JAK1, was recently approved in the U.S. as a treatment for
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Hu, X.; Kong, L.; He, M. Kinetics and Mechanism of Photopromoted Oxidative Dissolution of Antimony Trioxide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48 (24), 14266-14272.. Toledo, E. A.; Gushikem, Y.; de Castro, S. C. Antimony(III) Oxide Film on a Cellulose Fiber Surface: Preparation and Characterization of the Composite. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2000, 225 (2), 455-459.. Saito, T.; Kawakita, H.; Uezu, K.; Tsuneda, S.; Hirata, A.; Saito, K.; Tamada, M.; Sugo, T. Structure of polyol-ligand-containing polymer brush on the porous membrane for antimony(III) binding. J. Membr. Sci. 2004, 236 (1-2), 65-71.. ...
AUTHOR: ILO, ELOCHUKWU CAJETAN DEPARTMENT: APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BREWING AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA The rat sub-chronic toxicity study (dose-response relationship) and the assessment of Antimony concentration in Nigerian bottled water samples (exposure assessment) were the two complimentary studies that sought to estimate the Antimony risk in Nigeria via drinking water. The rat sub-chronic toxicity study…
There are substantial environmental concerns with the recycling of polyester right now. Most polyester contains antimony which is not a benign chemical - it is a likely carcinogen, among other issues. Recycling polyester releases encapsulated antimony, thus creating antimony trioxide, which has a toxicity profile less sanguine even than antimonys. If your green desire is to help stem the use of industrial chemicals and their pollution of the earth - and of people - this is a step you would choose to avoid. Thanks to the cradle to cradle people, antimony free polyester does exist. Antimony free polyester fabrics are available. Unfortunately, although antimony free polyester - that is, non-toxic polyester (and there is controversy about whether the antimony is a threat to humans during use and before end of life) - does exist, there is no viable program for recycling it and keeping it segregated from other types of polyester right now. In fact, there is no viable program for the recycling of ...
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Mineral Commodity Profiles: Antimony Pharos ProjectMineral Commodity Profiles.Antimony.By W.C.Butterman and J.F.Carlin,Jr.2004The most important ore minerals of antimony are the su
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Traditionally, quantification of protein-ligand affinity is performed using kinetic or equilibrium measurements. However, if the binding reaction proceeds via a stable covalent complex, these approaches are often limited. By exploiting the fact that the conformational stabilization of a protein is altered upon ligand binding due to specific interactions, and using an array of selectively chosen ligand analogs, one can quantify the contribution individual interactions have on specificity. We have used ligand-induced stability as a basis to dissect the interaction between glutaredoxin-3 (Grx3) and one of its native substrates, the tripeptide glutathione. Taking advantage of the fact that Grx3 can be trapped in a covalent mixed disulfide to glutathione or to selected synthetic glutathione analogs as part of the natural catalytic cycle, individual contributions to binding of specific molecular groups can be quantified by changes in ligand-induced stability. These changes in conformational stability ...
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China has approved an export quota of 40,672 tonnes of antimony and antimony products for the first half of next year, according to its Ministry of Commerce.
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Albany, NY (PRWEB) September 30, 2013 -- Since 2012, the global antimony price has been sluggish, mainly affected by the descending of antimony price in
... definition, the radioactive isotope of antimony having a mass number of 124 and a half-life of 60 days, used chiefly as a tracer. See more.
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Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Third paragraph, first bullet of release should read: A drop in the price of antimony for the year of $.59 per pound from $5.30 in 2013 to $4.71 in 20
antimony mining in harare. ... ZIMBABWE Current and projected land use It is important to note that significant land-use changes are taking place in Zimbabwe as a .... Get Price And Support » ...
Antimony is a pure element that comes in both metallic and non-metallic forms. It is used in everything from paint to rubber to...
Tartrates cooking information, facts and recipes. The harmless crystals that form in bottles of red and white wines. The crystals are actually potassium bitartrate created from the tartaric acid produced in grapes as they grow and mature.
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Antimony Trioxide is mainly produced via the smelting of stibnite ore.It can be readily oxidized to antimony pentoxide and related antimony (V) compounds.
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Related entry: Red Cinchona Bark. C38H46N4O6S,3H2O = 740.526.. Cinchonidine sulphate, (C19H22N2O)2,H2SO4,3H2O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. It is official in the U.S.P. It occurs in the form of colourless, shining, silky crystals, neutral to litmus, without odour, but with a strong, bitter taste. It may contain either three or six molecules of water of crystallisation. Melting-point (of the anhydrous salt), 205°, with darkening. The sulphate should not lose more than 8 per cent. of its weight on drying at 100°. It should only slightly tinge concentrated sulphuric acid. Not more than a slight fluorescence should be noticeable in a solution (1 in 1000) in dilute sulphuric acid (limit of quinine and quinidine). If 5 decigrams be shaken with 20 mils of water at 15° for some time, 5 decigrams of sodium potassium tartrate added, and the mixture left with frequent shaking for an hour, the filtrate should not show more than a faint opalescence on the addition of a drop of solution of ...
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Zolpidem tartrate, like other sedative-hypnotic drugs, has central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Co-administration with other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol) increases the risk of CNS depression. Dosage adjustments of zolpidem tartrate and of other concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when zolpidem tartrate is administered with such agents because of the potentially additive effects. The use of zolpidem tartrate with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment, including impaired driving, is increased if zolpidem tartrate is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7 to 8 hours); if a higher than the recommended dose is taken; if co-administered with other CNS depressants or alcohol; or if co-administered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of ...
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Primary analysis period (PAP): Eliglustat tartrate capsule 50 milligram (mg) twice daily (BID) orally from Day 1 to Week 4 followed by eliglustat tartrate 50 mg or 100 mg capsule BID up to Week 8, and then eliglustat tartrate 50 mg or 100 mg or 150 mg capsule BID up to Week 52. Dose adjustments after Week 4 and Week 8 were based on Genz-99067 (active moiety of eliglustat tartrate in plasma) trough plasma concentrations. If Genz-99067 trough plasma concentration was less than (,) 5 nanogram per milliliter [ng/mL] next higher dose was administered whereas if Genz-99067 trough plasma concentration was greater than or equal to (,=) 5 ng/mL same dose was continued. Pharmacokinetic (PK) assessment at Week 2 and 6 were used for dose adjustment after Week 4 and Week 8, respectively.. Long-term treatment period (LTTP): Participants originally randomized to eliglustat in PAP continued to receive eliglustat dose, based on their Genz 99067 plasma trough concentration at Week 6. ...
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Mediander Connects Antimony to 1. Bismuth, 2. Arsenic, 3. Stibnite, 4. Tellurium, 5. Tin, 6. Thallium, 7. Pnictogen, 8. Metalloid, 9. Beryllium, 10. Antimony trioxide, 11.
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Table of Content 1. Chapter - Report Methodology 1.1. Research Process 1.2. Primary Research 1.3. Secondary Research 1.4. Market Size Estimates 1.5. Data Triangulation 1.6. Forecast Model 1.7. USPs of Report 1.8. Report Description 2. Chapter - Global Antimony Market Overview: Qualitative Analysis 2.1. Market Introduction 2.2. Executive Summary 2.3. Global Antimony Market Classification 2.4. Market Drivers 2.5. Market Restraints 2.6. Market Opportunity 2.7. Antimony Market: Trends 2.8. Porters Five Forces Analysis 2.8.1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers 2.8.2. Bargaining Power of Consumers 2.8.3. Threat of New Entrants 2.8.4. Threat of Substitute Product and Services 2.8.5. Competitive Rivalry within the Industry 2.9. Market Attractiveness Analysis 2.9.1. Market Attractiveness Analysis by Segmentation 2.9.2. Market Attractiveness Analysis by Region 3. Chapter - Global Antimony Market Overview: Quantitative Analysis 3.1. Global Antimony Market Revenue (USD Million), Market Share (%) and Growth ...
Comprehensive information for the element Antimony - Sb is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions.
Each PerkinElmer Antimony (Sb) Pure Plus Grade Atomic Spectroscopy Calibration Standard is supplied with a comprehensive Certificate of Analysis.
Each PerkinElmer Antimony (Sb) Pure Grade Atomic Spectroscopy Calibration Standard is supplied with a comprehensive Certificate of Analysis.
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Canada and its perspectives on the global market for antimony oxides. The report will
The amorphous phases of antimony oxide at three different oxidation levels have been investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics calculations using a simulated melt-quench approach. The atomic and electronic structures of the amorphous phases are analyzed and compared to their crystalline counterparts. Th
In 1998, 7,479,444 pounds of antimony waste were managed; 4,625,143 pounds were recycled on-site; 713,940 pounds were recycled off-site; 30,405 pounds were used for energy recovery on-site; 66,732 pounds were used for energy recovery off-site; 308,925 pounds were treated on-site; 90,578 pounds were treated off-site; and 1,643,721 pounds were released on-and off-site ...
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Potassium acid tartrate, also known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, is according to NIST used as a primary reference standard for a pH buffer. Using an excess of the salt in water, a saturated solution is created with a pH of 3.557 at 25 °C. Upon dissolution in water, potassium bitartrate will dissociate into acid tartrate, tartrate, and potassium ions. Thus, a saturated solution creates a buffer with standard pH. Before use as a standard, it is recommended that the solution be filtered or decanted between 22 °C and 28 °C.[1]. ...
sodium stibogluconate 16037-91-5 NMR spectrum, sodium stibogluconate H-NMR spectral analysis, sodium stibogluconate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
The crystal structure of rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate crystallizes in space groupP21(#4) witha= 17.538 34(5),b= 8.326 89(2),c= 7.261 11(2) Å,β= 98.7999(2)°,V= 1047.929(4) Å3, andZ= 2. The un-ionized end of the hydrogen tartrate anions forms a very strong hydrogen bond with the ionized end of another anion to form a chain. The ammonium group of the rivastigmine cation forms a strong discrete hydrogen bond with the carbonyl oxygen atom of the un-ionized end of the tartrate anion. These hydrogen bonds form a corrugated network in thebc-plane. Both hydroxyl groups of the tartrate anion form intramolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds. Several C-H···O hydrogen bonds appear to contribute to the crystal energy. The powder pattern is included in the Powder Diffraction File™as entry 00-064-1501. ...
Define antimonite. antimonite synonyms, antimonite pronunciation, antimonite translation, English dictionary definition of antimonite. n an oxyanion of antimony or a salt containing an oxyanion of antimonya mineral from which antimony is obtained
Summary 1. In the vicinity of Jaffa, Palestine, about the River Auja and its tributaries, there exists an endemic focus of vesical bilharziasis of not insignificant range. Progress in intensive farming will make it of still greater importance. 2. Contrary to prevailing opinion, the diagnosis of light cases of vesical bilharziasis by means of microscopical urine tests, frequently presents serious difficulties. In many cases, also eosinophilia fails as a positive test. In those cases, complement fixation (according to Fairley) seems to acquire particular significance. 3. In no case did subcutaneous application of emetine lead to permanent cure. On the other hand intravenous application of antimony tartrate (Christopherson's method) produced not a single failure. Sumario 1. En la vecindad de Jaffa, Palestina y en los alrededores del río Auja y sus tributarios, existe un foco endémico de bilharziosis vesical cuyo alcance es de importancia. El cultivo intenso del terreno le dará mayor importancia
The ArsA ATPase is the catalytic subunit of the pump protein, coupling the hydrolysis of ATP to the movement of arsenicals and antimonials through the membrane-spanning ArsB protein. Previously, we have shown the binding and hydrolysis of MgATP to ArsA to be a multi-step process in which the rate-limiting step is an isomerization between different conformational forms of ArsA. This isomerization occurs after product release, at the end of the ATPase reaction, and involves the return of the ArsA to its original conformation, which can then bind MgATP. ArsA possesses an allosteric site for antimonite [Sb(III)], the binding of which elevates the steady-state ATPase activity. We have used a transient kinetics approach to investigate the kinetics of ternary complex formation that lead to an enhancement in the ATPase activity. These studies revealed that ArsA exists in at least two conformational forms that differ in their ligand binding affinities, and that ATP favours one form and Sb(III) the other. ...
Pentavalent antimonials have been the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis for decades. However, the development of resistance to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) has limited its use, especially for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The present work aims to optimize a cationic liposomal formulation of SSG for the treatment of both SSG-sensitive (AG83) and SSG-resistant (GE1F8R and CK1R) Leishmania donovani infections. Parasite killing was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained macrophages. Macrophage uptake studies were carried out by confocal microscopic imaging. Parasite-liposome interactions were visualized through transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity tests were performed using assay kits. Organ parasite burdens were determined by microscopic counting and limiting dilution assays. Cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and flow cytometry. Although all cationic ...

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Rare Refractory Metals Compounds Antimony potassium tartrate. Contact Supplier. Rare Refractory Metals Compounds Antimony ...
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Antimony potassium tartrate trihydrate, ACS, 99.0-103.0% Alfa Aesar. Synonym(s): Potassium antimonyl tartrate Formula: ... Antimony powder, -200 mesh, 99.999% (metals basis) Alfa Aesar. Purity: 99.999% (metals basis) CAS Number: 7440-36-0 UN Number: ...
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§ 310.545§ 310.545

Antimony potassium tartrate Beechwood creosote Benzoin preparations (compound tincture of benzoin, tincture of benzoin) ...
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Jual Potassium Antimony III Oxide tartrate trihydrate MERCK 1.08092.0250 - Jakarta Pusat - Medan Lab | TokopediaJual Potassium Antimony III Oxide tartrate trihydrate MERCK 1.08092.0250 - Jakarta Pusat - Medan Lab | Tokopedia

Jual Potassium Antimony III Oxide tartrate trihydrate MERCK 1.08092.0250 ,bahan kimia dengan harga Rp 1.200.000 dari toko ... Synonyms Antimony potassium tartrate, Potassium antimony tartrate, Tartar emetic. Product Information. CAS number 28300-74-5. ... Potassium Antimony III Oxide tartrate trihydrate MERCK 1.08092.0250 Ulasan Transaksi Sukses Dari Transaksi ...
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Identification of a Leishmania infantum gene mediating resistance to miltefosine and SbIII.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification of a Leishmania infantum gene mediating resistance to miltefosine and SbIII. - PubMed - NCBI

Antimony Potassium Tartrate. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Elsevier Science. Miscellaneous. *ANTIMONY POTASSIUM ...
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The Alternative-Doctor - HomotoxicologyThe Alternative-Doctor - Homotoxicology

Kalium stibyltartaricum (antimony potassium tartrate). Mercurius solubilis (mixture containing essentially mercuroamidonitrate) ...
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  • The New England Journal of Medicine reported a case study of a patient whose wife secretly gave him a dose of a product called "tartaro emetico" which contained trivalent antimony (antimony potassium tartrate) and is sold in Central America as an aversive treatment for alcohol abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hot mixture is then filtered and antimony potassium tartrate precipitates out as a colourless crystals. (wikipedia.org)
  • After British physician John Brian Christopherson's discovery in 1918 that antimony potassium tartrate could cure schistosomiasis, the antimonial drugs became widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the injection of antimony potassium tartrate had severe side effects such as Adams-Stokes syndrome and therefore alternative substances were under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimony therapy is often accompanied by local pain during intramuscular injection and by severe side effects that include cardiotoxicity, pancreatitis, hepatotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity ( 4 - 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The treatment of leishmania with antimony potassium tartrate started in 1913. (wikipedia.org)