Antimony Potassium Tartrate
Effect of cysteine on the hepatic toxicity and antischistosomal activity of antimonyl potassium tartrate. (1/15)Cysteine produced a significant and progressive reduction in the toxicity of antimonyl potassium tartrate (APT) when the two substances were injected into mice and rabbits in ratios of APT to cysteine ranging from 1:1 to 1:3. The reduction in toxicity was highest with the 1:3 ratio. However, the combination of the two substances, especially in the ratio of 1:3, appreciably reduced the antischistosomal activity of APT both in vivo and in vitro. (+info)
Interaction of antimony tartrate with the tripeptide glutathione implication for its mode of action. (2/15)The tripeptide glutathione (gamma-L-Glu-L-Cys-Gly, GSH) is thought to play an important role in the biological processing of antimony drugs. We have studied the complexation of the antileishmanial drug potassium antimony(III) tartrate to GSH in both aqueous solution and intact red blood cells by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The deprotonated thiol group of the cysteine residue is shown to be the only binding site for Sb(III), and a complex with the stoichiometry [Sb(GS)3] is formed. The stability constant for [Sb(GS)3] was determined to be log K 25 (I = 0.1 M, 298 K) based on a competition reaction between tartrate and GSH at different pH* values. In spite of being highly thermodynamically stable, the complex is kinetically labile. The rate of exchange of GSH between its free and Sb-bound form is pH-dependent, ranging from slow exchange on the 1H-NMR timescale at low pH (2 s-1 at pH 3.2) to relatively rapid exchange at biological pH (> 440 s-1). Such facile exchange may be important in the transport of Sb(III) in various biofluids and tissues in vivo. Our spin-echo 1H-NMR data show that Sb(III) rapidly entered red blood cell walls and was complexed by intracellular glutathione. (+info)
Arsenic induces expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) gene in primary rat and human hepatocytes. (3/15)Metals, such as arsenic or cadmium, have recently been demonstrated to interact with metabolic pathways, including phase I and phase II enzymes and the phase III efflux pump P-glycoprotein. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals and metalloids on the expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), a major hepatic transporter. Treatment of primary rat hepatocytes by sodium arsenite [As(III)], sodium arsenate and potassium antimony tartrate, but not cadmium chloride, was shown to markedly increase MRP2 mRNA and protein levels; As(III)-mediated induction was dose- and time-dependent and paralleled a strong increase in MRP2 amounts as assessed by Western blotting. As(III) was also demonstrated to markedly up-regulate MRP2 gene expression in primary human hepatocytes. MRP2 mRNA induction occurring in As(III)-treated rat hepatocytes was fully blocked by actinomycin D, indicating that it required active gene transcription. It was associated with an activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and with a reduction of cellular glutathione levels. Quercetin, a flavonoid compound known to block As(III)-related induction of P-glycoprotein, was also found to prevent up-regulation of MRP2 gene expression in rat hepatocytes exposed to As(III). Such an effect was unlikely to be due to alteration of JNK pathway since quercetin failed to abolish As(III)-induced JNK phosphorylation. It may rather be linked to the increase of cellular glutathione levels by quercetin, thus limiting the depleting effects of As(III) on glutathione amounts. Finally, these results confirm that some metals strongly regulate expression of detoxifying proteins, including biliary drug transporters. (+info)
Sodium stibogluconate is a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases and augments cytokine responses in hemopoietic cell lines. (4/15)Using in vitro protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) assays, we found that sodium stibogluconate, a drug used in treatment of leishmaniasis, is a potent inhibitor of PTPases Src homology PTPase1 (SHP-1), SHP-2, and PTP1B but not the dual-specificity phosphatase mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1. Sodium stibogluconate inhibited 99% of SHP-1 activity at 10 micrograms/ml, a therapeutic concentration of the drug for leishmaniasis. Similar degrees of inhibition of SHP-2 and PTP1B required 100 micrograms/ml sodium stibogluconate, demonstrating differential sensitivities of PTPases to the inhibitor. The drug appeared to target the SHP-1 domain because it showed similar in vitro inhibition of SHP-1 and a mutant protein containing the SHP-1 PTPase domain alone. Moreover, it forms a stable complex with the PTPase: in vitro inhibition of SHP-1 by the drug was not removed by a washing process effective in relieving the inhibition of SHP-1 by the reversible inhibitor suramin. The inhibition of cellular PTPases by the drug was suggested by its rapid induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins in Baf3 cells and its augmentation of IL-3-induced Janus family kinase 2/Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation and proliferation of Baf3 cells. The augmentation of the opposite effects of GM-CSF and IFN-alpha on TF-1 cell growth by the drug indicated its broad activities in the signaling of various cytokines. These data represent the first evidence that sodium stibogluconate inhibits PTPases and augments cytokine responses. Our results provide novel insights into the pharmacological effects of the drug and suggest potential new therapeutic applications. (+info)
Antimonial-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ through non-selective cation channels in the host and the parasite is responsible for apoptosis of intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes. (5/15)The capability of the obligate intracellular parasites like Leishmania donovani to survive within the host cell parasitophorous vacuoles as nonmotile amastigotes determines disease pathogenesis, but the mechanism of elimination of the parasites from these vacuoles are not well understood. By using the anti-leishmanial drug potassium antimony tartrate, we demonstrate that, upon drug exposure, intracellular L. donovani amastigotes undergo apoptotic death characterized by nuclear DNA fragmentation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. Changes upstream of DNA fragmentation included generation of reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide that were primarily concentrated in the parasitophorous vacuoles. In the presence of antioxidants like N-acetylcysteine or Mn(III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, an inhibitor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, a diminution of reactive oxygen species generation and improvement of amastigote survival were observed, suggesting a close link between drug-induced oxidative stress and amastigote death. Changes downstream to reactive oxygen species increase involved elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in both the parasite and the host that was preventable by antioxidants. Flufenamic acid, a non-selective cation channel blocker, decreased the elevation of Ca2+ in both the cell types and reduced amastigote death, thus establishing a central role of Ca2+ in intracellular parasite clearance. This influx of Ca2+ was preceded by a fall in the amastigote mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, this study projects the importance of flufenamic acid-sensitive non-selective cation channels as important modulators of antimonial efficacy and lends credence to the suggestion that, within the host cell, apoptosis is the preferred mode of death for the parasites. (+info)
Expression and regulation of the antimonite, arsenite, and arsenate resistance operon of Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267. (6/15)The arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite resistance region of the Staphylococcus xylosus plasmid pSX267 was subcloned in Staphylococcus carnosus. The sequenced DNA region revealed three consecutive open reading frames, named arsR, arsB, and arsC. Expression studies in Escherichia coli with the bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-promoter system yielded three polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 8,000, 35,000, and 15,000, which very likely correspond to ArsR, ArsB, and ArsC, respectively. ArsB was distinguished by its overall hydrophobic character, suggesting a membrane association. The arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite resistance was shown to be inducible by all three heavy metal ions. Inactivation of the first gene, arsR, resulted in constitutive expression of resistance. Similar results were obtained with transcriptional fusions of various portions of the ars genes with a lipase reporter gene, indicating a function of ArsR as a negative regulator of a putative promoter in front of arsR. The inactivation of arsR also resulted in reduction of resistance to arsenite and antimonite, while arsenate resistance was unaffected. The three ars genes conferred arsenite resistance in E. coli and arsenite as well as arsenate resistance in Bacillus subtilis. (+info)
The heat shock protein HSP70 and heat shock cognate protein HSC70 contribute to antimony tolerance in the protozoan parasite leishmania. (7/15)Antimony-containing drugs are still the drugs of choice in the treatment of infections caused by the parasite Leishmania. Resistance to antimony is now common in some parts of the world, and several mechanisms of resistance have been described. By transfecting cosmid banks and selecting with potassium antimonyl tartrate (SbIII), we have isolated a cosmid associated with resistance. This cosmid contains 2 copies of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and 1 copy of the heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70). Several data linked HSP70 to antimony response and resistance. First, several Leishmania species, both as promastigotes and amastigotes, increased the expression of their HSP70 proteins when grown in the presence of 1 or 2 times the Effect Concentration 50% of SbIII. In several mutants selected for resistance to either SbIII or to the related metal arsenite, the HSP70 proteins were found to be overexpressed. This increase was also observed in revertant cells grown for several passages in the absence of SbIII, suggesting that this increased production of HSP70 is stable. Transfection of HSP70 or HSC70 in Leishmania cells does not confer resistance directly, though these transfectants were better able to tolerate a shock with SbIII. Our results are consistent with HSP70 and HSC70 being a first line of defense against SbIII until more specific and efficient resistance mechanisms take over. (+info)
Lower nitric oxide susceptibility of trivalent antimony-resistant amastigotes of Leishmania infantum. (8/15)We previously documented the induction of Leishmania amastigote apoptosis by trivalent antimony (SbIII) and nitric oxide (NO). We demonstrate here that SbIII-resistant amastigotes were resistant to NO toxicity when delivered extracellularly by NO donors or intracellularly via macrophage activation. Shared biochemical targets for SbIII and NO resistance in Leishmania are discussed. (+info)
There are two main types of schistosomiasis:
1. Schistosoma haematobium: This type is most commonly found in Africa and the Middle East, and affects the urinary tract, causing bleeding, kidney damage, and bladder problems.
2. Schistosoma japonicum: This type is found in Asia, and affects the intestines, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
3. Schistosoma mansoni: This type is found in sub-Saharan Africa, and affects both the intestines and the liver, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and liver damage.
Symptoms of schistosomiasis can include:
* Bloody urine
* Abdominal pain
* Rectal bleeding
* Weight loss
If left untreated, schistosomiasis can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility.
Treatment of schistosomiasis typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against all species of Schistosoma. In addition to treatment, preventive measures such as avoiding contact with contaminated water and using protective clothing when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common can help reduce the risk of infection.
Preventive measures for schistosomiasis include:
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water
* Using protective clothing such as long sleeves and pants when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common
* Avoiding activities that involve exposure to water, such as swimming or fishing, in areas where the disease is common
* Using clean water for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene
* Implementing sanitation measures such as building latrines and improving sewage systems in areas where the disease is common
It is important to note that schistosomiasis is a preventable and treatable disease, but it requires awareness and action from individuals, communities, and governments to control and eliminate the disease.
The infection occurs when the parasitic worm enters the body through the skin, usually during contact with infected water. The schistosomes migrate to the liver and intestines, where they cause inflammation and damage to the host tissues.
Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as anemia, liver and kidney damage, and even death.
Diagnosis is based on the presence of schistosome eggs in the urine or stool, and treatment typically involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs and supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water and using snail-killing agents to reduce the number of intermediate hosts.
Schistosomiasis haematobia is a parasitic disease caused by the blood fluke worm Schistosoma haematobium. It is one of the two main types of schistosomiasis, with the other being schistosomiasis mansoni. The disease is most commonly found in Africa and the Middle East, where it affects millions of people each year.
The symptoms of schistosomiasis haematobia can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. Some common symptoms include:
* Blood in the urine
* Abdominal pain
* Vaginal bleeding in women
* Rectal bleeding in men
* Weakness and fatigue
If left untreated, schistosomiasis haematobia can lead to complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility. In severe cases, it can be fatal.
The diagnosis of schistosomiasis haematobia is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or urine tests. Treatment typically involves the use of praziquantel, a drug that is effective against all species of Schistosoma worms.
Prevention measures for schistosomiasis haematobia include avoiding contact with contaminated water and using appropriate sanitation and hygiene practices, such as washing hands after using the bathroom or before handling food. In areas where the disease is common, snail control measures can also be effective in reducing the risk of infection.
Overall, schistosomiasis haematobia is a serious and debilitating disease that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to take preventive measures to avoid infection and to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Schistosomiasis japonica is caused by the Schistosoma japonicum parasite, which is transmitted through contact with infected freshwater snails. Once infected, individuals can experience a range of symptoms including abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage and bladder cancer.
The diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and the identification of the parasite in stool samples or tissue biopsies. Treatment typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against schistosomiasis japonica.
Preventive measures for schistosomiasis japonica include avoiding contact with infected freshwater snails and wearing protective clothing when working or playing in areas where the parasite is present. In endemic regions, community-based interventions such as snail control programs and health education campaigns can also help reduce the risk of infection.
Overall, schistosomiasis japonica is a significant public health problem in many parts of Asia, and continues to be an important focus of research and control efforts globally.
Antimony potassium tartrate
Ernest Black Struthers
Mickey Finn (drugs)
John Brian Christopherson
1918 in science
List of inorganic compounds
List of MeSH codes (D02)
EPA list of extremely hazardous substances
Antimony potassium tartrate (28300-74-5) | Chemical Effects in Biological Systems
Biomonitoring Summary | CDC
Sher, Franklin Alan 2021 - Office of NIH History and Stetten Museum
Etymologia: Antimony - Volume 24, Number 8-August 2018 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1994
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine
Issue Dates: June 1945 - FDA Notices of Judgment Collection, 1908-1966 Search Results
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
Target Organs and Levels of Evidence for TR-590
IARC Publications Website - Cobalt, Antimony Compounds, and Weapons-grade Tungsten Alloy
Sterling Lab - Manufacturing
ABORTIFACIENT AGENTS ABORTIFACIENT AGENTS
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
Newton and Flamel
Potassium Chromate Manufacturer, Supplier, Exporter
Levels of antimony4
- Antimony can be measured in blood, ToxGuideTM levels of antimony from ingestion of absorption is strongly influenced by the hair, urine and feces. (cdc.gov)
- Biomonitoring studies on levels of urinary antimony can provide physicians and public health officials with reference values so that they can determine whether people have been exposed to higher levels of antimony than are found in the general population. (cdc.gov)
- The general public is potentially exposed to low levels of antimony trioxide from breathing contaminated air released from antimony industries (outdoor air) or from consumer products (indoor air). (nih.gov)
- Some studies have reported that low levels of antimony in urine or cord blood have been associated with adverse non-cancer health outcomes although these studies are not specific for antimony trioxide. (nih.gov)
- Urinary excretion appears to be greater for pentavalent antimony than for trivalent compounds (Elinder and Friberg, 1986). (cdc.gov)
- Other notable antimony species include antimony trioxide (trivalent) and medicinal antimonials - pentavalent antimonials used to treat leishmaniasis and antimony potassium tartrate (trivalent) formerly used to treat schistosomiasis (OEHHA 2016). (nih.gov)
- This volume of the IARC Monographs provides evaluations of the carcinogenicity of nine agents: cobalt metal (without tungsten carbide or other metal alloys), soluble cobalt(II) salts, cobalt(II) oxide, cobalt(II,III) oxide, cobalt(II) sulfide, other cobalt(II) compounds, trivalent antimony, pentavalent antimony, and weapons-grade tungsten (with nickel and cobalt) alloy. (who.int)
- Dermal exposure may Poorly soluble compounds such as for also occur through skin contact with soil, Environmental Levels antimony trioxide are slowly cleared from water, or other substances containing the lungs (measured in weeks) compared Air antimony. (cdc.gov)
- Antimony compounds are used medical y tract is estimated at approximately 1% for Antimony is natural y present in the to treat parasitic diseases such as antimony trioxide and 10% for antimony earth's crust at levels of about 0.2-0.3 leishmaniasis. (cdc.gov)
- Profile for Antimony and Compounds. (cdc.gov)
- Two antimony compounds (sodium stibogluconate and antimony potassium tartrate) have been used as antiparasitic medications. (cdc.gov)
- Some pentavalent antimony compounds are used to treat leishmaniasis. (who.int)
- Cobalt(II,III) oxide, cobalt(II) sulfide, other cobalt(II) compounds, and pentavalent antimony were each evaluated as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3) . (who.int)
Incinerators that process or release1
- Workplace exposures can occur at smelters, coal-fired plants, and refuse incinerators that process or release antimony. (cdc.gov)
- Antimony had been previously used against visceral leishmaniasis, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense , and yaws. (cdc.gov)
- Antimony is found in ores or other minerals, often combined with oxygen to form antimony trioxide or with sulfur to form stibnite. (cdc.gov)
- Antimony trioxide is rated by IARC as a possible human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
- RoC) based on the potential for widespread occupational exposure and an adequate database of cancer studies in experimental animals, including the recently completed NTP inhalation studies of antimony trioxide in mice and rats. (nih.gov)
- In the United States, roughly 70 million pounds of antimony trioxide are used as a synergist for halogenated flame-retardants in plastics, rubber, and textiles, a catalyst in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) production, and as an additive in optical and art glass, pigments, paints, and ceramics. (nih.gov)
- Up to 273 antimony trioxide companies were identified in EPA's Toxics Release Inventory Program. (nih.gov)
- Thus, workers in many companies that produced a variety of consumer or industrial goods are potentially exposed to antimony trioxide. (nih.gov)
- In addition, 11,635 lbs/yr of antimony are released into the air from antimony trioxide plants and antimony is persistent in the environment. (nih.gov)
- Antimony trioxide is the most commercially significant form of antimony, accounting for approximately 80% of antimony use in the United States (EPA 2014, NTP 2016). (nih.gov)
- approximately 87% of the roughly 70 million pounds of antimony trioxide consumed in the United States between 2007 and 2011 was imported (EPA 2014). (nih.gov)
- The single predominant use of antimony trioxide (36% of antimony market share) is as a synergist for halogenated flame-retardants in plastics (including but not limited to polyvinyl chloride (PVC)), rubber, and textiles, which are used in a diversity of plastics and other products (see Figure 1). (nih.gov)
- Although antimony trioxide is not a flame retardant itself, it decreases the amount of halogen needed for flame resistance by interacting with bromine or chlorine to form antimony halogens. (nih.gov)
- Antimony trioxide can also be used as a catalyst in PET production (16% of antimony market share), as an additive in glass manufacture and in pigments, and as an additive in paints and ceramics (12% of antimony market share). (nih.gov)
- occupational monitoring data specific for exposure to antimony trioxide were reported by the European Union Risk Assessment (EU 2008). (nih.gov)
- The highest inhalation and dermal exposure levels are for antimony trioxide production (without personal protection equipment), followed by flame retardant (formulation stage) industries. (nih.gov)
- Finding a measurable amount of antimony in urine does not imply that the level of antimony causes an adverse health effect. (cdc.gov)
- pentavalent Antimony levels can be much higher in Agency for Toxic Substances antimony is primarily excreted in the geothermal water. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Antimony Potassium Tartrate in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
- Dermal contact with soil, water, or other substances containing antimony is another means of exposure. (cdc.gov)
- To the alchemists , however, antimony was not the metal itself but stibnite, the lead-gray ore from which it was extracted by heating it with charcoal or some other mild reducing agent. (themystica.com)
- The metallic antimony sinks to the bottom, and this (our element) is what the alchemists called the regulus of antimony. (themystica.com)
- The incubation mixture contained diluted tissue homogenates, sodium- chloride (7647145), potassium-chloride (7447407), calcium-chloride (10043524), and magnesium-chloride (7786303) in various concentrations. (cdc.gov)
- Sodium and potassium by themselves or in combination did not stimulate the enzyme unless calcium or magnesium were present. (cdc.gov)
- Ouabain produced a maximum inhibition of 17 percent of schistosomal ATPase under optimal ionic conditions for sodium, potassium and magnesium induced ATPase activity. (cdc.gov)
- The last two paragraphs speak of a reducing agent [this should be done in a furnace in a crucible] saltpeter or potassium sodium nitrate acts as a fluxing agent and iron and eventually silver will act as the reducing agents. (themystica.com)
- LPN has shown that it's necessary to separate the free sulfur from the stibnite by heating the broken up antimony ore in a heat resistant tube where it's melted and dropped as small pellets into distilled water to obtain the desired material for regulus. (themystica.com)
- We know antimony as a metallic element, a hard, extremely brittle, glistening, silver-white, crystalline material used in a wide variety of alloys. (themystica.com)
- Christianson here speaks as the chemists of our time do by using the term alloys to employ the use of antimony [sulfide] i.e. the ore Sb2S3. (themystica.com)
- One hundred years ago, John Brian Christopherson (1868-1955) discovered that antimony potassium tartrate ( Figure ) was an effective treatment against schistosomiasis. (cdc.gov)
- Antimony potassium tartrate remained the treatment of choice for schistosomiasis until the development of praziquantel in the 1980s. (cdc.gov)
- Acute inhalation of antimony has been associated with irritation of the respiratory tract and impaired pulmonary function (Renes, 1953). (cdc.gov)
- Sb2S3) and to a lesser extent in antimony trioxides (Sb2O3,) such as in the minerals valentinite and senarmontite (ATSDR 1992). (nih.gov)
- Inorganic antimony salts irritate the mucous membranes, skin, and eyes. (cdc.gov)
- The absorption, distribution, and excretion of antimony vary depending on its oxidation state. (cdc.gov)
- The invention relates to a process for the production of anthraquinone by catalytic oxidation of indans or diphenylmethane derivatives with oxygen in the presence of a vanadium (V) compound with or without one or more than one compund of potassium, boron, thallium, antimony and/or caesium. (justia.com)
- U. S. v. 44 Bottles of Gum Arabic and 20 Bottles of Antimony Potassium Tartrate (and 1 other seizure action against antimony potassium tartrate). (nih.gov)
- Levels of urinary antimony reflect recent exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Levels of urinary antimony in infants appeared to be similar to those reported by CDC (2012) for young children (Cullen et al. (cdc.gov)
- 1997). Urinary antimony was not associated with locally elevated soil levels in a study of more than 200 German residents (Gebel et al. (cdc.gov)
- 1998). Several investigations of airborne antimony exposures in workers have found urinary levels that are many times higher than those seen in NHANES 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004, even when exposure levels were below workplace air standards (Bailly et al. (cdc.gov)
- Human health effects from antimony at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. (cdc.gov)
- 3) is a gaseous antimony decreases in antimony lung clearance compound. (cdc.gov)
- In animals, accumulation of antimony common are Sb(III) and Sb(V). ingestion of antimony in food and to a particles in the lungs caused increases in alveolar/intra-alveolar macrophages, lesser extent through drinking water. (cdc.gov)
- food and drinking water and by antimony compound. (cdc.gov)
- Stibine is a metal hydride form of antimony used in the semiconductor industry. (cdc.gov)
- Occupational exposure may occur at Absorbed antimony is widely distributed of 0.48 ppm (µg/g). facilities that produce antimony al oys or with the highest concentrations in the antimony containing products. (cdc.gov)
- Antimony metal is stable under ordinary route of occupational exposure. (cdc.gov)
- Workplace standards and recommendations for air exposure to antimony have been established by OSHA and ACGIH, respectively, and a drinking water standard has been established by the U.S. EPA. (cdc.gov)
- OSHA's current permissible exposure limit for antimony is based on non-cancer health outcomes. (nih.gov)
- Antimony can exist in one of four valences in its various chemical and physical forms: -3, 0, +3, and +5. (cdc.gov)
- Potassium chromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) is a yellow chemical indicator used for identifying concentrations of chloride ions in a salt solution with silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ). (powderpackchem.com)
- Because the regulus of antimony combines readily with gold (the king of metals) it became important to the process of refining the precious metal and an object of considerable experimental interest to seventeenth-century adepts. (themystica.com)
- Antimony enters the environment from natural sources and from its use in industry. (cdc.gov)
- The general population may also be antimony trichloride, which are cleared about 1 ng/m3 but can be higher in urban exposed to antimony in polyethylene from the lungs in days. (cdc.gov)
- Principally, the quotations are from the early to late 1670s, focussing specifically on making regulus of iron and antimony to further produce a philosophic double mercury that was animated by several distillations and subsequently caused swelling and putrefaction in gold. (themystica.com)
- Antimony is a natural constituent of soil. (cdc.gov)