Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Erythromycin Estolate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. It is the lauryl sulfate salt of the propionic ester of erythromycin. This erythromycin salt acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate: A macrolide antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces erythreus. This compound is an ester of erythromycin base and succinic acid. It acts primarily as a bacteriostatic agent. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Saccharopolyspora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria whose spores are round to oval and covered by a sheath.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Roxithromycin: Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Josamycin: A macrolide antibiotic from Streptomyces narbonensis. The drug has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of pathogens.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Lincosamides: A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.Miocamycin: A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oleandomycin: Antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces antibioticus.Motilin: A peptide of about 22-amino acids isolated from the DUODENUM. At low pH it inhibits gastric motor activity, whereas at high pH it has a stimulating effect.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Bacteria, AnaerobicTroleandomycin: A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Bacteria, AerobicOfloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.alpha-Defensins: DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Trimethoprim: A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sulfamethoxazole: A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)Viridans Streptococci: A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Spectinomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Streptogramins: A class of natural cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by certain subspecies of STREPTOMYCES. They include two structurally unrelated components, STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP A and STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP B, which generally act synergistically to inhibit bacterial growth.Aza CompoundsFeces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Legionnaires' Disease: An acute, sometimes fatal, pneumonia-like bacterial infection characterized by high fever, malaise, muscle aches, respiratory disorders and headache. It is named for an outbreak at the 1976 Philadelphia convention of the American Legion.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.NaphthyridinesPolymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.QuinolinesTransformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
  • Detection of antibiotic resistance toxigenic Clostridium difficile in processed retail lettuce Han, Yi;King, Joan;Janes, Marlene E 2018-03-01 00:00:00 Objectives: Clostridium difficile is the major cause of infectious diarrhoea in humans after antimicrobial treatment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although the CPC does not support the use of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) antimicrobials unless used under specific conditions, it is important to note that a regulatory amendment is coming into force May 17, 2018. (cpc-ccp.com)
  • Our ability to fully manipulate erythromycin A's biosynthetic pathway to expand molecular diversity and antibiotic activity help sets a precedent for producing other similarly complex and medicinally relevant natural products,' said lead researcher Blaine Pfeifer, PhD. assistant professor of chemical and biological engineering at Tufts. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Synergistic effect with FICI of 0.37 was observed for graveoline-erythromycin combination against S. aureus compared to FICI of 1.00 for ciprofloxacin-erythromycin additive effect. (ukm.my)
  • Graveoline was a potential candidate for antimicrobial combination agent especially against S. aureus. (ukm.my)
  • The class I synergisms also exhibited in methanol leaf extract of C. oppositifolia in combination with erythromycin and amoxyclave against S. aureus . (ijpsr.com)
  • The solvent fraction of ethyl acetate has increased the zone of inhibition of erythromycin from 4±0.3 to 11±0.2 mm and amoxyclave from 8±0.1 to 12±0.1 mm against S. aureus . (ijpsr.com)
  • The n- butanol fraction increases the zone of inhibition of erythromycin from 4±0.1 to 12±0.2 mm, whereas the zone of inhibition of amoxyclave was increased from 8±0.1mm to 13±0.1mm by against S. aureus . (ijpsr.com)
  • The overall results underline the necessity of microbiological sampling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and epidemiological typing as a rational basis for antimicrobial treatment of S. aureus infections, and infection control measures to limit the spread of multiresistant MRSA and epidemic MSSA clones. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The classes of antimicrobials (animal drugs given for the treatment, control, or prevention of confirmed bacterial disease and administered through feed, water, or injection) that are currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 1 for use in poultry are summarized in Tables 1 and 2 . (avma.org)