Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.
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A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
A plant genus of the family STYRACACEAE. Sap of these Asian trees are a source of a balsam (BALSAMS). This styrax balsam is 3/4 coniferyl benzoate, 1/8 free BENZOIC ACID, along with benzyl cinnamate, vanillin, and TRITERPENES.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Range of activity and metabolic stability of synthetic antibacterial glycopeptides from insects. (1/2987)

Antibacterial glycopeptides isolated from insects are exciting bio-oligomers because they represent a family of compounds in which the structural and functional effects of incorporating short O-linked sugars to protein fragments can be studied. Additionally, their high activity in vitro warrants detailed further drug development efforts. Due to the limited availability of the isolated material, we used synthetic glycopeptides and some analogs to investigate the range of activity of drosocin and pyrrhocoricin. While addition of the Gal-GalNAc disaccharide to the natural mid-chain position generally increased the antibacterial activity of drosocin, pyrrhocoricin lacking sugar appeared to be more potent, with an IC50 against Escherichia coli D22 of 150 nM. Although glycosylated drosocin was active against E. coli in the low microM range in vitro, this peptide was completely inactive when injected into mice. The lack of in vivo activity of drosocin could be explained by the unusually high degradation rate of the peptides in mammalian sera. The early degradation products were inactive in vitro. In contrast, the peptides were considerably more stable in insect hemolymph, where their natural activity is manifested.  (+info)

Biological properties of structurally related alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides. (2/2987)

A series of alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptide variants with small amino acid changes was designed. Alterations in the charge, hydrophobicity, or length of the variant peptides did not improve the antimicrobial activity, and there was no statistically significant correlation between any of these factors and the MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, or Salmonella typhimurium. Individual peptides demonstrated synergy with conventional antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. The peptides varied considerably in the ability to bind E. coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this correlated significantly with their antimicrobial activity and ability to block LPS-stimulated tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production. In general, the peptides studied here demonstrated a broad range of activities, including antimicrobial, antiendotoxin, and enhancer activities.  (+info)

Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides. (3/2987)

Positively charged antimicrobial peptides with membrane-damaging activity are produced by animals and humans as components of their innate immunity against bacterial infections and also by many bacteria to inhibit competing microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus xylosus, which tolerate high concentrations of several antimicrobial peptides, were mutagenized to identify genes responsible for this insensitivity. Several mutants with increased sensitivity were obtained, which exhibited an altered structure of teichoic acids, major components of the Gram-positive cell wall. The mutant teichoic acids lacked D-alanine, as a result of which the cells carried an increased negative surface charge. The mutant cells bound fewer anionic, but more positively charged proteins. They were sensitive to human defensin HNP1-3, animal-derived protegrins, tachyplesins, and magainin II, and to the bacteria-derived peptides gallidermin and nisin. The mutated genes shared sequence similarity with the dlt genes involved in the transfer of D-alanine into teichoic acids from other Gram-positive bacteria. Wild-type strains bearing additional copies of the dlt operon produced teichoic acids with higher amounts of D-alanine esters, bound cationic proteins less effectively and were less sensitive to antimicrobial peptides. We propose a role of the D-alanine-esterified teichoic acids which occur in many pathogenic bacteria in the protection against human and animal defense systems.  (+info)

Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in combination with sulfadiazine is active against Toxoplasma gondii. (4/2987)

The activity of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), alone or in combination with sulfadiazine, on the intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in vitro and in mice with acute toxoplasmosis. rBPI21 markedly inhibited the intracellular growth of T. gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Following 72 h of exposure, the 50% inhibitory concentration of rBPI21 for T. gondii was 2.6 micrograms/ml, whereas only slight cytotoxicity for HFF cells was observed at the concentrations tested. Subsequent mathematical analyses revealed that the combination of rBPI21 with sulfadiazine yielded slight to moderate synergistic effects against T. gondii in vitro. Infection of mice orally with C56 cysts or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with RH tachyzoites resulted in 100% mortality, whereas prolongation of the time to death or significant survival (P = 0.002) was noted for those animals treated with 5 to 20 mg of rBPI21 per kg of body weight per day. Treatment with rBPI21 in combination with sulfadiazine resulted in significant (P = 0.0001) survival of mice infected i.p. with tachyzoites but not of mice infected orally with T. gondii cysts. These results indicate that rBPI21 is active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii and that its activity is significantly enhanced when it is used in combination with sulfadiazine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the activity of rBPI21 against a protozoan parasite.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (5/2987)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

A gene encoding a hevein-like protein from elderberry fruits is homologous to PR-4 and class V chitinase genes. (6/2987)

We isolated SN-HLPf (Sambucus nigra hevein-like fruit protein), a hevein-like chitin-binding protein, from mature elderberry fruits. Cloning of the corresponding gene demonstrated that SN-HLPf is synthesized as a chimeric precursor consisting of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain corresponding to the mature elderberry protein and an unrelated C-terminal domain. Sequence comparisons indicated that the N-terminal domain of this precursor has high sequence similarity with the N-terminal domain of class I PR-4 (pathogenesis-related) proteins, whereas the C terminus is most closely related to that of class V chitinases. On the basis of these sequence homologies the gene encoding SN-HLPf can be considered a hybrid between a PR-4 and a class V chitinase gene.  (+info)

Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. (7/2987)

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking.  (+info)

Transfer of a cathelicidin peptide antibiotic gene restores bacterial killing in a cystic fibrosis xenograft model. (8/2987)

Recent studies suggest that the gene defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to a breach in innate immunity. We describe a novel genetic strategy for reversing the CF-specific defect of antimicrobial activity by transferring a gene encoding a secreted cathelicidin peptide antibiotic into the airway epithelium grown in a human bronchial xenograft model. The airway surface fluid (ASF) from CF xenografts failed to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Partial reconstitution of CF transmembrane conductance regulator expression after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer restored the antimicrobial activity of ASF from CF xenografts to normal levels. Exposure of CF xenografts to an adenovirus expressing the human cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 increased levels of this peptide in the ASF three- to fourfold above the normal concentrations, which were equivalent in ASF from CF and normal xenografts before gene transfer. The increase of LL-37 was sufficient to restore bacterial killing to normal levels. The data presented describe an alternative genetic approach to the treatment of CF based on enhanced expression of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide and provide strong evidence that expression of antimicrobial peptides indeed protects against bacterial infection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of outer membrane-permeabilizing and lipopolysaccharide- binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification. AU - Piers, K. L.. AU - Brown, M. H.. AU - Hancock, Robert. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. CEMA was produced by recombinant DNA procedures and is an analog of CEME with a modified C terminus resulting in two additional positive charges. All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the ...
114118PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 1Lys Asn Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Lys Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly218PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 2Lys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa1 5 10 15Xaa Xaa318PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 3Lys Arg Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa1 5 10 15Xaa Xaa418PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 4Lys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Arg Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa1 5 10 15Xaa Xaa518PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 5Lys Gly Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Lys Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly618PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 6Lys Gly Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Trp Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly718PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 7Lys Ile Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Lys Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly818PRTArtificial ...
This study conclusively demonstrates that endotoxin-induced inflammatory gene responses and cytokine secretion in monocytes were suppressed by low, physiological concentrations of LL-37, implicating LL-37 in the regulation and control of proinflammatory responses associated with pathogenic assault and, by extension, with homeostatic levels of TLR agonists secreted by commensals. This report further demonstrates that LL-37 can suppress LPS-induced NF-κB translocation and exert an anti-inflammatory effect that is not restricted to endotoxin-induced inflammation. In the human THP-1 monocytic cell line as well as in human PBMC, LL-37 suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS as well as other agonists of TLR2 (LTA, Pam3CSK4) and in part TLR9 (CpG), but selectively enhanced responses to the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. Selective enhancement of responses is consistent with the known complex interaction of LL-37 with cells (20, 38), including the induction of a ...
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Defensins and other antimicrobial peptides and proteins. AU - Lehrer, Robert I.. AU - Bevins, Charles L. AU - Ganz, Tomas. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Endogenous antimicrobial peptides are widely distributed among vertebrates. Most are amphiphilic, polycationic molecules with an α-helical, cystine-stabilized β-sheet, or proline-rich structure. Secreted and cell-associated antimicrobial peptides enable their hosts to resist incursions by potential pathogens. Such peptides present a series of barriers to the pathogens, to evade or overcome. In humans (and other mammals), defensins and cathelicidins are the principal antimicrobial peptides of neutrophils and epithelial cells. Many mucosal surfaces are bathed by antimicrobial proteins, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), and secretory phospholipase A2. All defensins have largely β-sheet structure and contain three intramolecular cystine disulfide bonds. The smallest, .-defensins, are circular ...
PURPOSE Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic host defense peptides with microbicidal and cell-signaling properties. They show promise as potential therapeutic agents. In the present study, a beta-defensin AMP gene was isolated from the ocular surface for the first time, and its expression was characterized in the presence of ocular inflammation and/or infection. METHODS Total RNA was obtained from impression cytology samples of the conjunctiva and cornea of normal patients and of those with bacterial, viral, acanthamoeba, or dry eye disease. The expression of the beta-defensin AMP DEFB-109 was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Relative quantification of the gene in the various groups was performed by means of real-time PCR. RESULTS DEFB-109 was constitutively expressed in all samples. The gene showed significantly decreased expression in the presence of all types of inflammation/infection. Reduced expression featured most prominently in acanthamoeba
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Disclosed are novel bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein products wherein cysteine residue number 132 or 135 is replaced by another amino acid residue, preferably an alanine or serine residue and/or wherein the leucine residue at position 193 is the carboxy terminal residue. Also disclosed are DNA sequences encoding methods for the production of the same in appropriate host cells, and stable homogeneous pharmaceutical compositions containing the analogs suitable for use treatment of gram negative bacterial infection and its sequelae.
Barlow, P. G., Li, Y., Wilkinson, T. S., Bowdish, D. M. E., Lau, Y. E., Cosseau, C., …Davidson, D. J. (2005). The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80, 509-520. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005560. ISSN 0741-5400. ...
Barlow, P. G., Li, Y., Wilkinson, T. S., Bowdish, D. M. E., Lau, Y. E., Cosseau, C., …Davidson, D. J. (2005). The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80, 509-520. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005560. ISSN 0741-5400. ...
Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are synthesized and secreted by immune and epithelial cells that are constantly exposed to environmental microbes. AMPs are essential for barrier defense and deficiencies lead to increased susceptibility to infection. In addition to their ability to disrupt the integrity of bacterial, viral and fungal membranes, AMPs bind lipopolysaccharides, act as chemoattractants for immune cells and bind to cellular receptors and modulate the expression of cytokines and chemokines. These additional biological activities may explain the role of AMPs in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Modulating the endogenous expression of AMPs offers potential therapeutic treatments for infection and disease. Methods: The present review examines published data from both in vitro and in vivo studies reporting effects of nutrients and byproducts of microbial metabolism on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in order to highlight an emerging appreciation for the role of ...
Yu HB, Kielczewska A, Rozek A, Takenaka S, Li Y, Thorson L, et al. Sequestosome-1/p62 is the key intracellular target of innate defense regulator peptide. J Biol Chem. 2009;284,36007-11.. Learn More ...
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like
1. SteinerH, HultmarkD, EngstromA, BennichH, BomanHG (1981) Sequence and specificity of two antibacterial proteins involved in insect immunity. Nature 292: 246-248.. 2. ZasloffM (1987) Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5449-5453.. 3. GanzT, SelstedME, LehrerRI (1990) Defensins. Eur J Haematol 44: 1-8.. 4. BrogdenKA (2005) Antimicrobial peptides: pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria? Nature Rev Microbiol 3: 238-250.. 5. HancockREW, SahlH-G (2006) Antimicrobial and host-defense peptides as new anti-infective therapeutic strategies. Nature Biotech 24: 1551-1557.. 6. PeschelA, SahlH-G (2006) The co-evolution of host cationic antimicrobial peptides and microbial resistance. Nature Rev Microbiol 4: 529-536.. 7. HaleJDF, HancockREW (2007) Alternative mechanisms of action of cationic antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ...
National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine Purpose - to determine the activity of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin LL-37 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in children with asthma. Materials and methods. We have comprehensively examined 200 children with asthma aged 6 to 17 years. The contents of 25(OH)D3 and cathelicidin LL-37 in serum were determined by ELISA according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results. The examination revealed that the total content of 25(OH)D3 in the serum of children with asthma differs from the values of healthy children and characterized by a significant decrease of its level (p,0.01). Concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in patients with asthma was significantly higher (p,0.001), than in the group of healthy children. The positive correlation between the cathelicidin LL-37, interleukin 1 (rxy=0.398 (p=0.02)) and interleukin 6 (rxy=0.178 (p=0.034)) in children with asthma was determined. The concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in ...
There has been increasing concern regarding the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. The resistance develops when pathogens, especially bacteria, are frequently exposed to conventional antibiotics, as they are heavily used in both human and livestock. This is due to the high target specificity of conventional antibiotics, which places pathogens in high selective pressures and eventually results in drug resistant by mutations. To address this issue, global actions and cooperation are needed. At the same time, new technologies and strategies need to be developed. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are widely found in the innate immune system. They show both direct antimicrobial properties and immunomodulatory activities. The multifaceted functions of HPDs make them less likely to promote antimicrobial resistance. Thus, they are promising as new therapeutics to treat multi-drug resistant infections. In fact, several drug candidates derived from HDPs have entered the clinical trial, but none of them got
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs.. ...
Donald J Davidsons lab studies the role of cationic host defence peptides (antimicrobial peptides) as modulators of cell death, inflammation and immunity in infectious and inflammatory lung diseases, and innate immune signalling.
Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides (HDPs) are produced by virtually all organisms and have an important role in protection against microbial infections. Some naturally occurring peptides such as the human cathelicidin LL-37 and the bovine peptide indolicidin have been shown to inhibit bacterial b …
This comprehensive database for antimicrobial peptides is manually curated based on a set of data-collection criteria. There are 139 human host defense peptides, 305 from mammals annotated, 1087 active peptides from amphibians (1018 from frogs), 134 fish peptides, 45 reptile peptides, 42 from birds, 559 from arthropods, [310 from insects, 69 from crustaceans, 7 from myriapods, 171 from chelicerata, (43 from spiders, 88 from scorpions)], 45 from molluscs, 6 AMPs from protozoa, and more. Of the 428 unique NMR/X-ray diffracted 3D structures annotated for host defense peptides in the APD, 301 with coordinates deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) can be directly rotated, zoomed, and viewed. Top left: Amphibian α-helical magainin II; Top right: bovine β-sheet lactoferricin; Bottom left: plant αβ-PsD1; Bottom right: bovine non-αβ indolicidin. This original database consists of a pipeline of search functions for innate immune peptides. You can search for peptide information using APD ID, ...
This comprehensive database for antimicrobial peptides is manually curated based on a set of data-collection criteria. There are 141 human host defense peptides, 328 from mammals annotated, 1117 active peptides from amphibians (1037 from frogs and 76 from toads), 136 fish peptides, 45 reptile peptides, 43 from birds, 577 from arthropods, [323 from insects, 71 from crustaceans, 8 from myriapods, 175 from chelicerata, (43 from spiders, 88 from scorpions)], 47 from molluscs, 6 AMPs from protozoa, and more. Of the 443 unique NMR/X-ray diffracted 3D structures annotated for host defense peptides in the APD, 316 with coordinates deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) can be directly rotated, zoomed, and viewed. Top left: Amphibian α-helical magainin II; Top right: bovine β-sheet lactoferricin; Bottom left: plant αβ-PsD1; Bottom right: bovine non-αβ indolicidin. This original database consists of a pipeline of search functions for innate immune peptides. You can search for peptide information ...
Zhu SY,Gao B. Positive Selection in Cathelicidin Host Defense Peptides: Adaptation to Exogenous Pathogens or Endogenous Receptors?[J]. Heredity,2017,118(5):453-465 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Host defence peptides (HDPs) are polypeptide sequences found ubiquitously in nature that have garnered significant attention as alternatives to antibiotics. Originally appreciated for their direct antibacterial effect, recent work has revealed that many HDPs possess antibiofilm activity, anticancer activity and/or the ability to modulate the immune response of the host.
Eduardo R. Cobo Scientific laboratory (University of Calgary) studying innate immune functions of epithelial cells and leukocytes contributed by host defense peptides.
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Indolicidin Targets Duplex DNA: Structural and Mechanistic Insight through a Combination of Spectroscopy and Microscopy.. Ghosh A, Kar RK, Jana J, Saha A, Jana B, Krishnamoorthy J, Kumar D, Ghosh S, Chatterjee S, Bhunia A, ChemMedChem, 2014, 9, 2052-8.. Indolicidin (IR13), a 13-residue antimicrobial peptide from the cathelicidin family, is known to exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. This peptide inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis resulting in cell filamentation. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear and requires further investigation. The central PWWP motif of IR13 provides a unique structural element that can wrap around, and thus stabilize, duplex B-type DNA structures. Replacements of the central Trp-Trp pair with Ala-Ala, His-His, or Phe-Phe residues in the PxxP motif significantly affects the ability of the peptide to stabilize duplex DNA. Results of microscopy studies in conjunction with spectroscopic data confirm that the DNA duplex ...
Antimicrobial peptides, Cationic antimicrobial peptides, Cathelicidins, Defensins, Host defence peptides, Microbicidal cationic proteins. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand.
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for disease-resistance breeding. We evaluated whether polymorphisms in exons 4 and 10 of the BPI gene are associated with immune indices [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, interferon-b (IFN-b), IL-10, and IL-12]. In this study, we identified one mutation (C522T) in the BPI exon 4 site and two mutations (A1060G and T1151G) in the BPI exon 10 site.
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a cationic protein isolated from human neutrophils, binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), kills gram-negative bacteria, and neutralizes many of the effects of LPS in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that a recombinant 23-kDa NH2-terminal fragment of BPI (BPI23) would reduce acute lung injury in endotoxemic pigs. At -18 h, pigs received an intravenous priming dose of LPS (20 micrograms/kg). Anesthetized ventilated swine were randomized to receive 1) no further treatment (n = 4); 2) LPS (250 micrograms/kg over 50 min) and BPI23 (3-mg/kg bolus and 3 mg/kg over 60 min) (n = 6); or 3) LPS and thaumatin, a cationic protein devoid of LPS neutralizing activity that has a molecular mass and isoelectric point that are similar to that of BPI23 (n = 7). BPI23 treatment significantly ameliorated LPS-induced hypoxemia, functional upregulation of opsonin receptors on circulating phagocytes, and alveolitis but had no effect on the elaboration of tumor necrosis ...
CUONG, Ng.V. et al. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with meat quality and disease resistance in indigenous and exotic pig breeds of Vietnam. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.3, pp.221-231. ISSN 2221-4062.. The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds. For this purpose, 340 pigs from four indigenous and two exotic breeds were included in the analysis of the polymorphisms of the heart fatty-acid-binding protein (H-FABP), alpha 1 fucosyltransferase (FUT1), and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) genes by the sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. For H-FABP, 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in indigenous pig breeds by direct sequencing of a fragment at intron 2 of the H-FABP gene. The mutation T1556C created a new restriction site for the enzyme MspI, which gave rise ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a wide range of antimicrobial and antifungal activity and have attracted significant interest as potential antibiotics. However, the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is still poorly understood and, from experimental data, different membrane disruption structural models have been proposed for linear α-helical peptides (the barrel-stave and the toroidal pore models).. We investigate the mechanisms of AMPs in action at different levels of detail: from atomistic [1, 2] to coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [3, 4] and even at mixed detail between the two [5]. We proposed a new mechanism for membrane poration by linear antimicrobial peptides: the disordered toroidal pore [1, 2]. Besides, we were able to provide detailed insight on the mechanism of pore-forming cyclic peptides in an effort that brought together simulation results and in vitro measurements of peptide activity [6].. [1] H. Leontiadou, A.E. Mark, S.J. Marrink. ...
This application is in response to PA-09-164 (NIH Exploratory Developmental Research Grant Program). Given the high rate of hospital-acquired infection in criti...
Sandrine Ménard, Valentina Förster, Michael Lotz, Dominique Gütle, Claudia U. Duerr, Richard L. Gallo, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Katrin Pütsep, Mats Andersson, Erik O. Glocker, Mathias W. Hornef ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Versatile interactions of the antimicrobial peptide novispirin with detergents and lipids. AU - Wimmer, Reinhard. AU - Andersen, Kell. AU - Davidsen, Mads. AU - Mølgaard, Søren. AU - Nesgaard, Lise. AU - Kristensen, Hans Henrik. AU - Vad, Brian. AU - Otzen, Daniel. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Paper without publisher/journal. Y2 - 20 August 2006 through 26 August 2006. ER - ...
Studies of the regulation of antimicrobial peptide synthesis in Drosophila have been particularly fruitful, providing new directions for the analysis of mammalian host defense HN2. Although antimicrobial peptides display a variety of shapes and amino acid compositions, many of those found in vertebrates are defensins HN3, 3- to 6-kD β-sheet Cited by:
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: The presence of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) biosynthetic genes srfAA (surfactin), bacA (bacylisin), fenD (fengycin), bmyB (bacyllomicin), spaS (subtilin), and ituC (iturin) was examined in 184 isolates of Bacillus spp. obtained from plant environments (aerial, rhizosphere, soil) in the Mediterranean land area of Spain. Most strains had between two and four AMP genes whereas strains with five genes were seldom detected and none of the strains had six genes. The most frequent AMP gene markers were srfAA, bacA, bmyB, and fenD, and the most frequent genotypes srfAA-bacA-bmyB and srfAAbacA-bmyB-fenD. The dominance of these particular genes in Bacillus strains associated with plants reinforces the competitive role of surfactin, bacyllomicin, fengycin, and bacilysin in the fitness of strains in natural environments. The use of these AMP gene markers may assist in the selection of putative biological control agents of plant pathogens
A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides a
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture.
Background Although most of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), being relatively short, are produced by chemical synthesis, several AMPs have been produced using recombinant technology. However, AMPs could be cytotoxic to the producer cell, and if small they can be easily degraded. The objective of this study was to produce a multidomain antimicrobial protein based on recombinant protein nanoclusters to increase the yield, stability and effectivity. Results A single antimicrobial polypeptide JAMF1 that combines three functional domains based on human α-defensin-5, human XII-A secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), and a gelsolin-based bacterial-binding domain along with two aggregation-seeding domains based on leucine zippers was successfully produced with no toxic effects for the producer cell and mainly in a nanocluster structure. Both, the nanocluster and solubilized format of the protein showed a clear antimicrobial effect against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, ...
Hepcidin (Liver Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide 1 or Putative Liver Tumor Regressor or HAMP) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 Hepcidin (Liver Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide 1 or - Market research report and industry analysis - 10290125
abstract = {The production of antimicrobial peptides is an important aspect of host defense in multicellular organisms. In Drosophila, seven antimicrobial peptides with different spectra of activities are synthesized by the fat body during the immune response and secreted into the hemolymph. Using GFP reporter transgenes, we show here that all seven Drosophila antimicrobial peptides can be induced in surface epithelia in a tissue-specific manner. The imd gene plays a critical role in the activation of this local response to infection. In particular, drosomycin expression, which is regulated by the Toll pathway during the systemic response, is regulated by imd in the respiratory tract, thus demonstrating the existence of distinct regulatory mechanisms for local and systemic induction of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila ...
Azurocidin, also known as cationic antimicrobial protein 37 kDa (CAP37) or heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inactive homolog of serine proteinases residing in granulocytes. The ability to cleave peptide bond was lost due to replacement of two of the three residues from the conserved catalytic triad characteristic for serine proteinases. Azurocidin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. It is also recognized as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator for its contracting effects on endothelial cells causing an increase of vascular permeability, capacity to bind endotoxin and ability to attract monocytes to inflammation sites ...
Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial and cytolytic properties of the frog skin peptide, kassinatuerin-1 and its L- and D-lysine-substituted derivatives. AU - Conlon, J. Michael. AU - Abraham, Bency. AU - Galadari, Sehamuddin. AU - Knoop, Floyd C.. AU - Sonnevend, Agnes. AU - Pál, Tibor. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Kassinatuerin-1, a 21-amino-acid C-terminally α-amidated peptide first isolated from the skin of the African frog Kassina senegalensis, adopts an amphipathic α-helical conformation in a membrane-mimetic solvent (50% trifluoroethanol) and shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, its therapeutic potential is limited by its relatively high cytolytic activity against mammalian cells. The antimicrobial and cytolytic properties of a peptide are determined by an interaction between cationicity, hydrophobicity, α-helicity and amphipathicity. Replacement of the C-terminal α-amide group in kassinatuerin-1 by carboxylic acid decreased both cationicity and α-helicity, ...
சளிப்படலம் போன்ற ஒரு வண்ணமயமான திரவத்தினை சுரக்கும் தவளையானது (ஹைட்ரோஃபிளாஸ் பேஹுவிஸ்தாரா)( Hudrophylax bahuvistara) கேளராவில் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. தவளையின் தோலிலிருந்து வெளிப்படும் பிசுப்பிசுப்பான திரவத்தினை ஆய்வு செய்ததில் host defence peptides இருப்பது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. இந்த புதிய பெப்டைட்களுக்கு உருமின் என்று கேரளாவின் உறுமி வாளை நினைவுபடுத்தும் வகையில் பெயர்
The effectiveness of antimicrobial compounds can be easily screened, however their mechanism of action is much more difficult to determine. Many compounds act by compromising the mechanical integrity of the bacterial cell envelope, and our study introduces an AFM-based creep deformation technique to evaluate Interaction of nano-objects with lipid membranes
abstract = {The antimicrobial defence of Drosophila relies largely on the challenge-induced synthesis of an array of potent antimicrobial peptides by the fat body. The defence against Gram-positive bacteria and natural fungal infections is mediated by the Toll signalling pathway, whereas defence against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections. The link between microbial infections and activation of these two pathways has remained elusive. The Toll pathway is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA). PGRPs appear to be highly conserved from insects to mammals, and the Drosophila genome contains 13 members. Here we report a mutation in a gene coding for a putative transmembrane protein, PGRP-LC, which reduces survival to Gram-negative sepsis but has no effect on the response to Gram-positive bacteria or ...
The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic α-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitrostudies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivoactivities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Chlamydial plasmid-encoded virulence factor Pgp3 neutralizes the antichlamydial activity of human cathelicidin LL-37. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Biomatik CorporationHuman Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide (CAMP) ELISA Kit, 96 tests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is decreased in pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study. AU - van Santen, Susanne. AU - Kroot, Joyce J. C.. AU - Zijderveld, Gerard. AU - Wiegerinck, Erwin T.. AU - Spaanderman, Marc E. A.. AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. KW - hepcidin. KW - iron homeostasis. KW - physiology. KW - pregnancy. U2 - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. DO - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. M3 - Article. C2 - 23241678. VL - 51. SP - 1395. EP - 1401. JO - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. JF - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. SN - 1434-6621. IS - 7. ER - ...
Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional in innate immunity and wound repair of multicellular organisms. We were the first to discover that histatins, a family of salivary antimicrobial peptides, enhance epithelial cell migration, suggesting a role in oral wound healing. It is unknown whether histatins display innate-immunity activities, similar to other antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37. Therefore, we compared the effect of Histatin-2 and LL-37 on several activities within the context of wound healing and innate immunity. We found that Histatin-2 enhances fibroblast migration, but only weakly induces proliferation. LL-37 enhances both fibroblast migration and proliferation, but only at a narrow concentration optimum (approximately 1 μm). At higher concentrations LL-37 causes cell death, whereas Histatin-2 is not cytotoxic. Both peptides do not alter fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Histatin-2 does not alter interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elevated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 on surfaces presenting carboxylate anions. AU - Qin, G. T.. AU - Lopez, A.. AU - Santos, C.. AU - McDermott, Alison. AU - Cai, C. Z.. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the immune system in a wide range of organisms. They generally carry positive charges under physiological conditions, allowing them to accumulate on the negatively charged bacterial membrane as the first step of bactericidal action. The concentration range of AMPs necessary for rapid killing of bacteria tested in vitro is much higher than levels found at epithelial surfaces and body fluids in vivo, and close to the a level that is toxic to the host cells. It is likely that AMPs in vivo are localized and act cooperatively to enhance antimicrobial activity, while the global concentration is low thus demonstrating low toxicity to host cells. Herein we employed well-defined mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to localize LL-37, one of the most ...
The production of antimicrobial peptides is essential for protection against a wide variety of microbial pathogens and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The mechanisms responsible for expression of antimicrobial peptides are incompletely understood, but a role for vitamin D as a transcriptional inducer of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin has been proposed. We show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) acts together with parathyroid hormone (PTH), or the shared amino-terminal domain of PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), to synergistically increase cathelicidin and immune defense. Administration of PTH to mouse skin decreased susceptibility to skin infection by group A Streptococcus. Mice on dietary vitamin D3 restriction that responded with an elevation in PTH have an increased risk of infection if they lack 1,25-D3. These results identify PTH/PTHrP as a variable that serves to compensate for inadequate vitamin D during activation of antimicrobial peptide ...
Growth factors, comprising diverse protein and peptide families, are involved in a multitude of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Here we show that peptides derived from HB-EGF, amphiregulin, hepatocyte growth factor, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, as well as various FGFs are antimicrobial, demonstrating a previously unknown activity of growth factor-derived peptides. The peptides killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Several peptides were also active against the Gram-positive S. aureus. Electron microscopy analysis of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the classical human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Furthermore, HB-EGF was antibacterial per se, and its epitope GKRKKKGKGLGKKRDPCLRKYK retained ...
Gombart AF , Borregaard N , Koeffler HP . Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected] The innate immune system of mammals provides a rapid response to repel assaults from numerous infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. A major component of this system is a diverse combination of cationic antimicrobial peptides that include the alpha- and beta-defensins and cathelicidins. In this study, we show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and three of its analogs induced expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene. This induction was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), immortalized keratinocyte, and colon cancer cell lines, as well as normal human bone marrow (BM) -derived macrophages and fresh BM cells from two normal individuals and one AML patient. The induction occurred via a consensus vitamin D response ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid sequence divergence in mammalian beta-defensins by adaptive evolution. AU - Maxwell, A I. AU - Morrison, G M. AU - Dorin, J R. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - beta-Defensin genes encode broad spectrum antimicrobial cationic peptides. We have analysed the largest murine and human clusters of these genes, which localise to mouse and human chromosome 8. Using hidden Markov models, we identified novel mouse and human beta-defensin genes. We subsequently found full-length expressed transcripts for these novel genes. Expression in the mouse was high in brain and reproductive tissues. Fourteen murine beta-defensins could be grouped into two clear sub-groups by virtue of their position and high signal sequence (exon 1 encoded) identity. In contrast, there was a very low level of sequence conservation in the exon 2 region encoding the mature antimicrobial peptide. Evolutionary analysis revealed strong evidence that following gene duplication, exon 1 and surrounding non-coding DNA show ...
Peptides , Antimicrobial and Related Peptides , LL17-32; This peptide is an active segment of LL-37, a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. It has been reported that the LL17-32 peptide exhibits reversal effect on ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cell lines.; FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV; H-Phe-Lys-Arg-Ile-Val-Gln-Arg-Ile-Lys-Asp-Phe-Leu-Arg-Asn-Leu-Val-OH
en] Animals are colonized by coevolved bacterial communities, which contribute to the hosts health. This commensal microbiota is often highly specific to its host-species, inferring strong selective pressures on the associated microbes. Several factors, including diet, mucus composition, and the immune system have been proposed as putative determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we report that species-specific antimicrobial peptides account for different bacterial communities associated with closely related species of the cnidarian Hydra. Gene family extensions for potent antimicrobial peptides, the arminins, were detected in four Hydra species, with each species possessing a unique composition and expression profile of arminins. For functional analysis, we inoculated arminin-deficient and control polyps with bacterial consortia characteristic for different Hydra species and compared their selective preferences by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial microbiota. In contrast ...
Human CAMP ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.
We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, ...
The Gift for Life® Exclusive all natural Feline product is designed for cellular rejuvenation, vitality and longevity. TGFL offers numerous supportive properties for all dog breeds that have been spayed or neutered or are over the age of 7. It is formulated to address the Endocrine issues that cause our pets disease, joint pain and decreased energy and activity. This formula activates the adrenal cortex to start producing 24 life giving hormones lost from elective surgeries or aging. Through our inclusion of naturally occurring Cationic Host Defense Peptides (CHDPs), your pets Viral Shield will be supported by broad-spectrum anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal immunomodulatory activity.. The Gift for Life® has been called the fountain of Youth for pets! This is a fast acting and very effective product. Many owners will see a difference within days. TGFL is a chewable treat and is given twice a day. One in the morning and one in the evening.. The Gift for Life® Feline ingredients ...
The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is a transient commensal of the human nasopharynx, but occasionally causes life-threatening disease. During colonisation of its niche, N. meningitidis has to overcome innate immune defences, including the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Meningococcal resistance to the host defence peptide LL-37 was investigated in Papers I and II. The polysaccharide capsule and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were found to increase LL-37 resistance by inhibiting peptide binding to the bacteria. Further, N. meningitidis responded to sub-lethal doses of LL-37 by an increase in capsule biosynthesis. Intriguingly, adhesion to epithelial cells and tissues protected N. meningitidis from physiological concentrations of LL-37 and two other helical peptides. The protective effect was mediated by RhoA- and Cdc42-dependent host cell signalling and cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. The host epithelium thus seems to play an active role in AMP ...
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.[5][6] LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4.[7] The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. Studies in mice suggest that the encoded protein is necessary for the rapid acute-phase response to LPS but not for the clearance of LPS from circulation. This protein is part of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including BPI, plasma ...
The ability of epithelial cells to sense the external environment and communicate this information to the local immune system, thereby initiating appropriate responses, is essential for the maintenance of health and prevention of the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Our studies have shown that an oral probiotic commensal strain of S. salivarius is able to inhibit inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells by downregulating the NF-κB pathway. This is consistent with an emerging paradigm that indicates the downregulation of epithelial immune responses by commensal bacteria (8, 13, 24, 38, 48). Not only did S. salivarius K12 inhibit baseline synthesis of IL-8, but it also suppressed IL-8 secretion when cells were stimulated with pathogenic P. aeruginosa, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium flagellin, or the immunomodulatory host defense peptide LL-37. Most previous studies have focused on IL-8 and IL-6 responses, but here it was demonstrated that this commensal bacterium ...
Principal Investigator:KOMATSUZAWA Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):2007 - 2008, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
Targeting the BMP pathway: as the BMP pathway plays a key role in stimulating hepcidin transcription, sequestration of BMP ligands could decrease hepcidin expression. Heparin, a glycosaminoglycan widely used as an anticoagulant, has long been known to bind BMPs.68 Poli and colleagues demonstrated that heparin inhibited hepcidin expression in hepatic cell lines as well as in mice.69 Daily injections in mice for seven days (50 mg/kg/d) decreased hepcidin mRNA expression and SMAD phosphorylation, increased serum iron and reduced spleen iron concentration. In 5 patients treated with low molecular weight heparin to prevent deep vein thrombosis, serum hepcidin concentration decreased by 80-85% within 2-5 days after the start of the treatment. Concurrently, increased serum iron levels and transferrin saturation were noted in all 5 patients. Although the safety profile of heparin is well understood, its anticoagulant activity hinders its wider application to iron-restricted disorders. To address this, ...
This resistance is adaptive in that it depends on the biofilm growth state and although many explanations have been provided to explain it, it is likely that changes in gene and/or protein expression in the biofilm state explain why organisms become resistant.. Intriguingly despite this problem, not a single antibiotic has been developed for treating biofilms. We have started to address this using as templates the cationic host defence (antimicrobial) peptides, which are produced by virtually all organisms as a major part of their innate defences against infection. They are a key component of innate immunity and have multiple mechanisms that enable them to deal with infections and inflammation, including selective modulation of innate immunity, activity against bacterial biofilms (the cause of 65% of all human infections) and direct antimicrobial activity. We made the breakthrough observation that human peptide LL-37 was able to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at one sixteenth of its MIC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides at the Ocular Surface. AU - McDermott, Alison. PY - 2009/1. Y1 - 2009/1. N2 - Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins and cathelicidins are small peptides with broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, several AMPs modulate mammalian cell behaviours including migration, proliferation and cytokine production. This review describes findings from recent studies showing the presence of various AMPs at the human ocular surface and discusses their mechanism of antimicrobial action and potential non-microbicidal roles. Corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells produce β-defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37, whereas neutrophils, infiltrating in response to a specific stimulus, supply additional LL-37 as well as α-defensins. In vitro studies suggest that LL-37 and human β-defensin-3 are the most likely to have significant independent antimicrobial activity, while other AMPs may act synergistically to help ...
Multicellular organisms fight bacterial and fungal infections by producing peptide-derived broad-spectrum antibiotics. These host-defense peptides compromise the integrity of microbial cell membranes and thus evade pathways by which bacteria develop rapid antibiotic resistance. Although more than 1,700 host-defense peptides have been identified, the structural and mechanistic basis of their action remains speculative. This impedes the desired rational development of these agents into next-generation antibiotics. We present the X-ray crystal structure as well as solid-state NMR spectroscopy, electrophysiology, and MD simulations of human dermcidin in membranes that reveal the antibiotic mechanism of this major human antimicrobial, found to suppress Staphylococcus aureus growth on the epidermal surface. Dermcidin forms an architecture of high-conductance transmembrane channels, composed of zinc-connected trimers of antiparallel helix pairs. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the unusual ...
Moreover the human α-Defensin human neutrophil peptide 1 was revealed to show anti-HIV activity. HNP-one inhibits the binding of the virus to its coreceptor , the endocytosis of the virus into the target cell as well as the release of the HIV-genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. Even so HNP-one did not inhibit the endocytosis of Influenza A virus displaying some selectivity of the AMPs in their tropism. These final results evidently demonstrate that defensins not only screen antimicrobial activity but in addition are lively from viruses as nicely.Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein belongs to the class of AMPs. In distinction to the over mentioned defensins BPI owing to the 55 kDa molecular measurement of the protein is structurally significantly a lot more intricate than the peptides, which are in the selection of 3-five kDa. The BPI protein loved ones contains of far more than ten associates but only BPI alone displays a powerful antimicrobial exercise. BPI functions ...
Using our CAMP discovery process and only 100 μl of alligator plasma, we have previously identified five novel antimicrobial peptides from A. mississippiensis that exhibit antibacterial activity [8]. Our bioprospecting-based process provides a unique access to the antimicrobial peptidome, and is a significant advance in the effort to identify novel antimicrobial peptides in nature. In this study, we present detailed characterization of the structure and function of three alligator plasma-derived peptides: Apo5, Apo6, and A1P. We demonstrated that Apo5, Apo6, and A1P are potent antimicrobial peptides that extend their efficacy against multi-drug resistant and clinically relevant pathogens, such as A. baumannii. The two peptides Apo5 and Apo6 are both derived from a predicted apolipoprotein C-1 in A. mississippiensis. Apolipoproteins bind lipids; apolipoprotein C-1 in particular is known to bind phospholipids and is a marker of apoptosis [11, 12, 43, 44]. Apo6 is a smaller derivative of Apo5; ...
Cumulatively, CIPPS researchers have published over 1800 publications, books and book chapters in the past 10 years. 310,000 Citations. CIPPS researchers have been cited over 310,000 times. ...
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain. In white blood cells and hyperchromatin, staining imparts a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known for containing azurophils loaded with a wide variety of anti-microbial defensins that fuse with phagocytic vacuoles. Azurophils may contain myeloperoxidase, phospholipase A2, acid hydrolases, elastase, defensins, neutral serine proteases, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, lysozyme, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, and proteoglycans. Azurophil granules are also known as primary granules. Furthermore, the term azurophils may refer to a unique type of cells, identified only in reptiles. These cells are similar in size to so-called heterophils with abundant cytoplasm that is finely to coarsely granular and may sometimes contain vacuoles. Granules may impart a purplish hue to the cytoplasm, particularly to the outer region. Occasionally, azurophils are observed with vacuolated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The antimicrobial peptide Tachyplesin III coated alone and in combination with intraperitoneal piperacillin-tazobactam prevents ureteral stent Pseudomonas infection in a rat subcutaneous pouch model. AU - Minardi, Daniele. AU - Ghiselli, Roberto. AU - Cirioni, Oscar. AU - Giacometti, Andrea. AU - Kamysz, Wojciech. AU - Orlando, Fiorenza. AU - Silvestri, Carmela. AU - Parri, Gianni. AU - Kamysz, Elzbieta. AU - Scalise, Giorgio. AU - Saba, Vittorio. AU - Giovanni, Muzzonigro. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - We investigated the efficacy of Tachyplesin III alone or combined with piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) to prevent biofilm formation in vitro and in a rat model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ureteral stent infection. We have observed that in vitro TZP, in presence of Tachyplesin III, showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC)s twofold and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC)s eightfold lower. The in vivo study showed that rats that received intraperitoneal TZP showed the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of single D-amino acid substitutions on disruption of β-sheet structure and hydrophobicity in cyclic 14-residue antimicrobial peptide analogs related to gramicidin S. AU - Lee, D. L.. AU - Powers, J. P.S.. AU - Pflegerl, K.. AU - Vasil, M. L.. AU - Hancock, R. E.W.. AU - Hodges, R. S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Gramicidin S (GS) is a 10-residue cyclic β-sheet peptide with lytic activity against the membranes of both microbial and human cells, i.e. it possesses little to no biologic specificity for either cell type. Structure-activity studies of de novo-designed 14-residue cyclic peptides based on GS have previously shown that higher specificity against microbial membranes, i.e. a high therapeutic index (TI), can be achieved by the replacement of a single L-amino acid with its corresponding D-enantiomer [Kondejewski, L.H. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 13181]. The diastereomer with a D-Lys ...
The mean relative wall thickness (RWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were 0.38 and 42.0 g/m2.7, respectively. The mean ejection fraction (EF) and early diastolic mitral inflow to annulus velocity ratio (E/e²) were 64.1% and 9.9, respectively. Although EF and E/e² were not associated with high serum hepcidin, RWT and LVMI were significantly associated with high serum hepcidin levels in univariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for variables related to anemia, bone mineral metabolism, comorbidities, and inflammation, however, only each 0.1-unit increase in RWT was associated with increased odds of high serum hepcidin (odds ratio, 1.989; 95% confidence interval, 1.358-2.916; P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the independent relationship between RWT and high serum hepcidin level was valid only in women and patients with low transferrin saturation (TSAT ...
Title: Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptaibols, Substitutes for Conventional Antibiotics. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 28. Author(s):Herve Duclohier. Affiliation:Institut de Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires, UMR 6187 CNRS-Universite de Poitiers, 1 rue Geoges Bonnet, BP 633, 86022 Poitiers France.. Keywords:Antimicrobial peptides, peptaibols, alamethicin, planar lipid bilayers. Abstract: In this review, the antimicrobial properties of a number of peptides are described. We first deal with helical linear peptides such as the well-known gramicidin, magainins, melittin, and other less well-known or more recently discovered peptides. Then, betasheet peptides (defensins isolated from insects and also from mammalian tissues) and cyclic peptides like amphotericin B are described before the properties of peptaibols (containing the non-coded amino acid Aib) are discussed. Alamethicin remains the prototype of this class and its biophysical properties (mostly focussing on channel- or pore-formation in planar lipid ...
The study describes an elegant tool for what has been a frustrating problem. Of particular interest to us, this study shows that Aβ dimers have striking structural similarities to the dimeric forms of the antimicrobial peptides human NP2, horseshoe crab tachystatin B, and mouse α-defensin. We recently reported on the antimicrobial activity of Aβ, and our newest data suggest dimerization is a key event in turning relatively inactive Aβ monomers into forms that can attack bacteria. This is not a phenomenon restricted to Aβ. It has been known for some time that oligomerization has an important role in the action and targeting of a number of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), including the archetypal antimicrobial peptide LL-37 which can form oligomers, fibrils, and birefringent amyloid (albeit, LL-37 amyloid has only been observed in vitro to date). Oligomerization is also a key mechanism for antimicrobial protein-mediated agglutination and inactivation of viral particles.. Despite this central ...
Antimicrobial peptides represent the first-line host defence against microbial pathogens and an essential component of innate immunity. They have received growing interest because of their potential use as therapeutic antibiotics. Due to the fact that most antimicrobial peptides are toxic to prokaryotic host cells, they are currently often produced by chemical synthesis. However, this is too costly for them to be used when large quantities of antimicrobial peptides are required for investigations and clinical trials. Thus, the convenience and cost efficiencies of bacterial production of antimicrobial peptides have become a bottleneck problem.. As an important group of antimicrobial peptides human ß-defensins are cationic peptides with 38-47 amino acid residues showing three strands of anti-parallel β-sheets that provide a compact small structure [1,2]. We describe an optimized strategy for recombinant expression of hBD-1 and its mutants in Escherichia coli, to efficiently produce milligram ...
Three novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), named panurgines (PNGs), were isolated from the venom of the wild bee Panurgus calcaratus. The dodecapeptide of the sequence LNWGAILKHIIK-NH2 (PNG-1) belongs
We participate in the revolution in fluorescence microscopy of biological systems. It is now possible to measure the spatial distribution of proteins and DNA loci with 30-nm precision in live cells and to track their motion in real time. The result is an unprecedented, high resolution view of biological structure and activity. Areas of current interest include: (1) The motion and spatial distribution of GFP-labeled species in live E. coli cells. Species of interest include RNA polymerase, ribosomes, architectural proteins, and specific DNA loci. The transcription/translation machinery (ribosomes, the nucleoid, and RNAP) all exhibit a remarkable level of spatial organization. (2) The time-resolved attack of antimicrobial agents on single bacterial cell membranes. Examples include LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide, and synthetic random copolymers designed by the Gellman group. Simultaneous two-color imaging of the antimicrobial and cytoplasmic or periplasmic GFP yields unprecedented insight ...
Hepcidin, presumed to be a potential link in the mutual relationship between thyrometabolic and haematologic status, is a liver-derived protein encoded by the HAMP gene, responsible mainly for bodily Fe distribution (9). The mechanism of hepcidin response to inflammatory stimuli comprises two possible pathways: one through bone morphogenetic protein-mothers against decapentaplegic (BMP-SMAD) and more specifically via Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The latter axis is triggered by cytokines, mainly IL-6, which activates JAK2 and leads to phosphorylation of STAT3, enabling its translocation to the nucleus and upregulation of HAMP gene transcription. IL-6 also contributes to hepcidin regulation via the BMD pathway (14). Cross-talk between two presented pathways has been postulated (15). Stimulated hepcidin affects ferroportin, which is a cellular iron transporter, causing its internalization and degradation, thus retaining Fe absorption from a lumen of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Potential therapeutic applications of multifunctional host-defense peptides from frog skin as anti-cancer, anti-viral, immunomodulatory, and anti-diabetic agents. AU - Conlon, JM. AU - Mechkarska, M. AU - Lukic, ML. AU - Flatt, Peter. PY - 2014/5/2. Y1 - 2014/5/2. N2 - Frog skin constitutes a rich source of peptides with a wide range of biological properties. These include host-defense peptides with cytotoxic activities against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and mammalian cells. Several hundred such peptides from diverse species have been described. Although attention has been focused mainly on antimicrobial activity, the therapeutic potential of frog skin peptides as anti-infective agents remains to be realized and no compound based upon their structures has yet been adopted in clinical practice. Consequently, alternative applications are being explored. Certain naturally occurring frog skin peptides, and analogs with improved therapeutic properties, show selective ...
Data for ferroportin and ferritin expression in vitamin D-treated monocytes and hepatocytes are consistent with the actions of hepcidin in promoting post-transcriptional suppression of ferroportin protein.19 On the basis of data presented in this study, we speculate that 25D and 1,25D can act to oppose this response and maintain membrane expression of ferroportin (Figure 5). Hepcidin-mediated loss of membrane ferroportin is known to be associated with intracellular retention of iron, leading in turn to iron-restrictive anemia.5 This has immediate implications for the control of systemic iron homeostasis but will also influence host defense during acute infections. Iron is essential for the survival and growth of almost all organisms, and an important strategy for mammalian antimicrobial defense is based on depriving pathogens of this essential nutrient.20 Thus, another facet of hepcidin physiology is its contribution to host innate immune function.3,21 By targeting ferroportin and decreasing ...
Objectives High-dose vitamin D3increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function. Methods In a double blind, randomized controlled trial, critically ill ventilator-dependent adults (N = 30) received enteral vitamin D3(250,000 or 500,000 IU total over 5 d) or placebo. Plasma was obtained serially for ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial peptides extend lifespan in Drosophila. AU - Loch, Gerrit. AU - Zinke, Ingo. AU - Mori, Tetsushi. AU - Carrera, Pilar. AU - Schroer, Jonas. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. AU - Hoch, Michael. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 Loch et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important defense molecules of the innate immune system. High levels of AMPs are induced in response to infections to fight pathogens, whereas moderate levels induced by metabolic stress are thought to shape commensal microbial communities at barrier tissues. We expressed single AMPs in adult flies either ubiquitously or in the gut by using the inducible GeneSwitch system to tightly ...
Babitt, J.L. and Lin, H.Y. (2010) Molecular Mechanisms of Hepcidin Regulation Implications for the Anemia of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 55, 726-741.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Ontogeny and modulation after PAMPs stimulation of β-defensin, hepcidin, and piscidin antimicrobial peptides in meagre (,i,Argyrosomus regius,/i,) . Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chronic wounds are a growing clinical concern worldwide with only a few treatment options available to address the fundamental causes of non-healing wounds. There is increasing evidence that the...
The subjects received 4,000 IU vitamin D3 or placebo daily for one year. The investigators evaluated the subjects for respiratory tract infection symptoms, malaise, antibiotic consumption, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, microbiological findings and levels of antimicrobial peptides LL-37 and HNP1-3 in nasal fluid. The scientists used this data to calculate an overall infectious score ...
... is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide. It falls under the structural class: short cationic peptides. Since it is a short ... April 2014). "Small cationic antimicrobial peptides delocalize peripheral membrane proteins". Proceedings of the National ... MP196 can be used as the key structure in order to develop any potential antimicrobial peptides which could help in fighting ... as this cationic peptide prefers incorporating into membranes which have a higher negatively charged phospholipid ratio. ...
"Antibacterial Action of Structurally Diverse Cationic Peptides on Gram-Positive Bacteria". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
His research morphed into investigating small cationic peptides from nature, originally termed cationic antimicrobial peptides ... Currently Hancock and his lab's research interests include small cationic peptides as novel antimicrobials, broad-spectrum anti ... Hancock, R.E.W. (2001). "Cationic peptides: effectors in innate immunity and novel antimicrobials". The Lancet Infectious ... Hancock is "considered a world leader in his field" and is most known for his work on cationic host defence (antimicrobial) ...
It is also 29% identical to the amino acid residues of the frog antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin. Oxyopinins 2a, 2b, 2c, and ... They are the largest linear cationic amphipathic peptides detected in the venom of any spider. They are structurally α-helical ... The sixth peptide oxyopinin 4a (Oxt-4a) was reported in 2011 from Oxyopes takobius. It is composed of 77 amino acid residues, ... The first five peptides, namely oxyopinins 1, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d, were described in 2002 from Oxyopes kitabensis. Oxyopinin 1 ...
... is an amphipathic, cationic peptide with anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. It can be generated by the ... Théolier J, Fliss I, Jean J, Hammami R (2013). "MilkAMP: a comprehensive database of antimicrobial peptides of dairy origin" ( ... Gifford JL, Hunter HN, Vogel HJ (November 2005). "Lactoferricin: a lactoferrin-derived peptide with antimicrobial, antiviral, ... and sequences from within this fragment are also antimicrobial. The MilkAMP database contains a total of 111 peptides (natural ...
"Preparation and in Vitro Evaluation of New Composite Mesh Functionalized with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide". Materials. 12 ( ... As a drug delivery system, a hernia mesh can be used to deliver antibiotics, antiseptics, antimicrobials, antimicrobial ... FDA Approved Antimicrobial Hernia Meshes MycroMesh and DualMesh Plus by GORE XenMatrix Surgical Graft by BD Ventrio Hernia ... Are antimicrobial biomaterials the longed-for solution?". Biomaterials. 167: 15-31. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.03.017. hdl ...
Cationic Antimicrobial Proteins', 'Neutrophil peptides', 'Gamma thionins' amongst others. Proteins called 'defensins' are not ... From this point of view, defensins (as well as antimicrobial peptides in general) are of great interest. It was shown that ... In this sense, the intestinal production of antimicrobial peptides as hBD2 and hBD4 by trefoil from milk might play an ... Wang YP, Lai R (February 2010). "[Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation]". Dong Wu Xue Yan ...
The magainins are a class of antimicrobial peptides found in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). The peptides are ... cationic, generally lack a stable conformation in water but form amphipathic α-helix in membranes; their mechanism against ... "Host-defense peptides in skin secretions of African clawed frogs (Xenopodinae, Pipidae)". General and Comparative Endocrinology ...
Mor A (2000). "Peptide-based antibiotics: a potential answer to raging antimicrobial resistance". Drug Development Research. 50 ... Hancock RE, Falla T, Brown M (1995). "Cationic bactericidal peptides". Advances in Microbial Physiology. 37: 135-75. PMID ... After transient loading of the cells with the non-toxic dermaseptin S4 analogue K4-S4(1-13)a, the peptide is transported in the ... Antimicrobial resistance Amiche M, Seon AA, Pierre TN, Nicolas P (August 1999). "The dermaseptin precursors: a protein family ...
Other antimicrobial peptides are present in these granules, including lactoferrin, which sequesters iron to provide ... Oxygen-independent degradation depends on the release of granules, containing enzymes such as lysozymes, and cationic proteins ...
It is a synthetic cyclic beta hairpin peptidomimetic based on the cationic antimicrobial peptide protegrin I (PG-1) and the ... The host defense antimicrobial peptide protegrin I (PG-1), exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and good activity ... "Macrocyclic hairpin mimetics of the cationic antimicrobial peptide protegrin I: a new family of broad‐spectrum antibiotics". ... "Properties and structure-activity studies of cyclic β-hairpin peptidomimetics based on the cationic antimicrobial peptide ...
... that as a novel cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptide, known by CL 14-25. Cyanase is also important as an energy metabolizer ... "Antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of a novel cationic α-helical dodecapeptide, a partial sequence of cyanate lyase ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2012.12.015. PMID 23270672. S2CID 56770. Palatinszky M, Herbold C, Jehmlich N, Pogoda M, Han P, von ...
Antimicrobial peptide: Histones are conserved eukaryotic cationic proteins present in the cells and are involved in the ... Histone H2A variant is reported to be involved in host immune response by acting as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). H2A are α- ... "An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties ... amphipathic protein with hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues on opposing sides that enhances the antimicrobial activity of H2A ...
Azurocidin also known as cationic antimicrobial protein CAP37 or heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a protein that in humans is ... Pereira HA, Erdem I, Pohl J, Spitznagel JK (1993). "Synthetic bactericidal peptide based on CAP37: a 37-kDa human neutrophil ... "Entrez Gene: AZU1 azurocidin 1 (cationic antimicrobial protein 37)". Soehnlein, Oliver; Lindbom, Lennart (2009). "Neutrophil- ... granule-associated cationic antimicrobial protein chemotactic for monocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (10): 4733-7. ...
Common to many of them is that the hydrophobic face of the antimicrobial peptide forms pores in the plasma membrane after ... "Role of Cationic Side Chains in the Antimicrobial Activity of C18G". Molecules. 23 (2): 329. doi:10.3390/molecules23020329. PMC ... This pattern is especially common in antimicrobial peptides, and many models have been devised to describe how this relates to ... Toke, Orsolya (2005). "Antimicrobial peptides: new candidates in the fight against bacterial infections". Biopolymers. 80 (6): ...
Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is a cysteine-rich cationic low molecular weight antimicrobial peptide recently discovered in ... Beta-defensin 2 (BD-2) also known as skin-antimicrobial peptide 1 (SAP1) is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the DEFB4 ( ... Carothers DG, Graham SM, Jia HP, Ackermann MR, Tack BF, McCray PB (2001). "Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides ... Weinberg A, Krisanaprakornkit S, Dale BA (1999). "Epithelial antimicrobial peptides: review and significance for oral ...
... is a peptide derived from Pseudis paradoxa. Pseudins have some antimicrobial function. There are several different ... Its secondary/tertiary structure consists of one cationic amphipathic α-helix. Pseudin-2 was shown to have potent antibacterial ... Olson, L.; Soto, A. M.; Knoop, F. C.; Conlon, J. M. (2001-11-09). "Pseudin-2: an antimicrobial peptide with low hemolytic ... ISBN 0-85404-242-3. Rinaldi AC (2002). "Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin: an expanding scenario". Curr Opin Chem Biol ...
... is a potent inducer of hepcidin (a cationic peptide that has antimicrobial properties) in liver cells (hepatocytes) and ... GDF2 contains an N-terminal TGF-beta-like pro-peptide (prodomain) (residues 56-257) and a C-terminal transforming growth factor ...
"Tracheal antimicrobial peptide, a novel cysteine-rich peptide from mammalian tracheal mucosa: Peptide isolation and cloning of ... Making non-oxidative mechanisms, such as lysosomes and cationic peptides, even more important. β-defensins genes are found ... The first beta-defensin discovered was Tracheal Antimicrobial Peptide, found in the bovine airway in 1991. The first human beta ... When the receptors are activated a cascade reaction will take place and substances such as cytokines and antimicrobial peptides ...
CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide".. *^ a b c d e Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of ... "Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human ... antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide. • cytolysis by host of symbiont cells. ... The cathelicidin family of peptides are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The AMP family also includes the defensins ...
... antimicrobial therapeutic agents and is thought to also provide protection against host defense cationic antimicrobial peptides ... Antimicrobial therapy has been generally successful in treatment of infections, however, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics ... Although the current antimicrobials commonly used for treatment of S. schleiferi caused infections experimentally show ... Owners of dogs affected by deep pyoderma carried multiple anti-microbial resistant strains of S. intermedius which is thought ...
... the host releases antimicrobial peptides as part of the innate immune response. Since OmpT can break down these antimicrobials ... but OmpT easily degrades the cationic protamine peptides, thus enhancing the risk of infection. There is a genetic link between ... Once docked in this position, water is positioned to attack the peptide in the active site. The cleavage of peptide bonds by ... "Identification of OmpT as the protease that hydrolyzes the antimicrobial peptide protamine before it enters growing cells of ...
Defensins are a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides (antimicrobial peptides; AMP) that are involved in host defense, ... Defensins are small cationic peptides linked via three intra-molecular disulfide bridges, and contain six intra-molecular ... Bevins CL, Salzman NH (May 2011). "Paneth cells, antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis". Nature ... implications for antimicrobial peptides in host defense of the human bowel". FEBS Letters. 315 (2): 187-92. doi:10.1016/0014- ...
These organelles contain a myriad of degradative enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that are released into the phagolysosome, ... and on the synthesis of toxic cationic polypeptides. Macrophages possess a repertoire of antimicrobial molecules packaged ... Normally mature TGFβ is secreted as a latent complex with its N-terminal fragment, latency-associated peptide (LAP), which ... such as proteases, nucleases, phosphatases, esterases, lipases, and highly basic peptides. Moreover, macrophages possess a ...
It includes the alpha enterocins and lactococcin G peptides. These peptides have some antimicrobial properties; they inhibit ... This cationic N-terminal beta-sheet domain mediates binding of the class IIa bacteriocin to the target cell membrane. The C- ... Fimland G, Nissen-Meyer J, Johnsen L (2005). "The C-terminal domain of pediocin-like antimicrobial peptides (class IIa ... Dalhus B, Fimland G, Nissen-Meyer J, Johnsen L (2005). "Pediocin-like antimicrobial peptides (class IIa bacteriocins) and their ...
Helical β-peptides mimic antimicrobial activities of host defense peptides.[62][63] [64][65] This feature requires the ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... "A Noncovalent Peptide-Based Strategy for Peptide and Short Interfering RNA Delivery". Handbook of Cell-Penetrating Peptides, ... Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that facilitate cellular intake/uptake of various molecular equipment (from ...
These peptides have organized pendant groups, making one side of the polymer hydrophobic and the other side cationic. This ... The two primary characteristics of contact-active antimicrobial polymers are cationic charge and hydrophobicity. Cationic ... which display exceptional antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity is a product of the peptides' structure, including ... Antimicrobial Polymer Technologies for Food Application Antimicrobial Materials Antimicrobial Polymer Surfaces. ...
There are some factors that are closely related to the selectivity property of antimicrobial peptides, among which the cationic ... A Database of Anti-Microbial peptides), APD (Antimicrobial Peptide Database), BioPD (Biologically active Peptide Database), ... including antimicrobial peptides, in a protein sequence PeptideRanker Bioactive peptide, including antimicrobial peptide, ... Recent work has painted a more complex picture of antimicrobial peptide activity. Antimicrobial peptides may also function as ...
Helical β-peptides mimic antimicrobial activities of host defense peptides. This feature requires the orientation of cationic - ... "Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection by cationic beta-peptides". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 52 (6): ... "A Noncovalent Peptide-Based Strategy for Peptide and Short Interfering RNA Delivery". Handbook of Cell-Penetrating Peptides, ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ...
Antimicrobial cationic peptides. *Cathelicidin. *Defensin. *Dermcidin. *Histatin (HTN1, HTN3). Other, human. *Perforin ... Histatins are antimicrobial proteins found in saliva.[1] Function[edit]. Histatins are antimicrobial and antifungal proteins, ...
... s, or cationic steroid antimicrobials (CSAs), are synthetically-produced, small-molecule chemical compounds consisting ... While CSAs have a mechanism of action that is also seen in antimicrobial peptides, which form part of the body's innate immune ... Origins of Cell Selectivity of Cationic Steroid Antibiotics J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(42), 13642 -13648, 2004. ... "Antibacterial properties of cationic steroid antibiotics". FEMS Microbiology Letters. Retrieved 2006-03-24 ...
Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found among all classes of life ... can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by acting as a cationic detergent.[2] Many acute-phase proteins of inflammation ... Several species of insect produce antimicrobial peptides known as defensins and cecropins. ... In addition, some of the products of the coagulation system are directly antimicrobial. For example, beta-lysine, a protein ...
Antimicrobial agents (Defensins and Eosinophil cationic protein). *Enzymes *Acid hydrolases: further digest bacteria ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... Neutrophils have three strategies for directly attacking micro-organisms: phagocytosis (ingestion), release of soluble anti- ... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin[13]);[17] receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ...
Antimicrobial peptides: Granulocyte granule contents. Azurophilic granules (1°). *Myeloperoxidase. *Defensins. *neutral serine ...
Cationic Antimicrobial Proteins', 'Neutrophil peptides', 'Gamma thionins' amongst others.[6] ... Wang YP, Lai R (February 2010). "[Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation]". Dong Wu Xue Yan ... From this point of view, defensins (as well as antimicrobial peptides in general) are of great interest. It was shown that ... In this sense, the intestinal production of antimicrobial peptides as hBD2 and hBD4 by trefoil from milk might play an ...
Toke, Orsolya (2005). "Antimicrobial peptides: new candidates in the fight against bacterial infections". Biopolymers. 80 (6): ... "Role of Cationic Side Chains in the Antimicrobial Activity of C18G". Molecules. 23 (2): 329. doi:10.3390/molecules23020329. PMC ... This pattern is especially common in antimicrobial peptides, and many models have been devised to describe how this relates to ... Common to many of them is that the hydrophobic face of the antimicrobial peptide forms pores in the plasma membrane after ...
Eosinophil Major basic protein Secretory pathway Peroxiredoxin Catalase Reactive oxygen species Antimicrobial peptides The ... One of the first aspects known of eosinophil peroxidase was that it was highly cationic, as indicated by its high isoelectric ... the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. The ...
antimicrobial humoral response. • antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide. • killing of cells ... 2006). "Cathepsin D is present in human eccrine sweat and involved in the postsecretory processing of the antimicrobial peptide ... 2005). "Deficiency of dermicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides in sweat of patients with atopic dermatitis correlates with an ... 2005). "Functional and structural characterization of recombinant dermicidin-1L, a human antimicrobial peptide". Biochem. ...
Antimicrobial peptides: Granulocyte granule contents. Azurophilic granules (1°). *Myeloperoxidase. *Defensins. *neutral serine ... 1989). "Eosinophil cationic protein cDNA. Comparison with other toxic cationic proteins and ribonucleases". J. Immunol. 143 (3 ... It is closely related to the eosinophil cationic protein (RNASE3) from which it diverged ~50 million years ago after the split ... 1998). "Localization of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein in neutrophilic leukocytes". J. Leukoc. ...
"NZ17074 - A Novel antimicrobial peptide showing potent in vitro activity against gram negative multi-resistant clinical ... Cationic residues on arenicin-3 interacts with negatively charged lipopolysaccharides on the outer membrane of Gram-negative ... Arenicins are a group of antimicrobial peptides being studied to combat Gram-negative bacteria. The arenicin family consists of ... a novel antimicrobial peptide from marine polychaeta Arenicola marina". FEBS Letters. 577 (1-2): 209-14. doi:10.1016/j.febslet. ...
LEAP2 is a cysteine-rich, and cationic protein. LEAP2 contains a core structure with two disulphide bonds formed by cysteine ... Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptides are a family of mammalian liver-expressed antimicrobial peptides (LEAP). The exact ... In contrast to smaller LEAP-2 variants, this peptide exhibits dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against selected microbial ... a novel blood peptide expressed in the liver". Protein Sci. 12 (1): 143-52. doi:10.1110/ps.0213603. PMC 2312392. PMID 12493837 ...
... and ETD Followed by in Silico and in Vitro Analyses for Antimicrobial Peptide Identification". J Proteome Res. 14 (6): 2649- ... that likely interacts with the cationic face of lacritin's C-terminal amphipathic alpha helix), and an N-terminal chondroitin ... Each peptide inserts rapidly into (O-acyl)-omega-hydroxy fatty acid (OAHFA) thought to reside at the aqueous lipid boundary in ... In both cases, stability is largely restored by spiking in synthetic lacritin peptides N-94 or N-94/C-6 as proxy C-terminal ...
Antimicrobial agents (Defensins and Eosinophil cationic protein) Enzymes Acid hydrolases: further digest bacteria Lysozyme: ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... Neutrophils have three strategies for directly attacking micro-organisms: phagocytosis (ingestion), release of soluble anti- ... Primary granules contain cationic proteins and defensins that are used to kill bacteria, proteolytic enzymes and cathepsin G to ...
Antimicrobial peptides are another class of amphiphilic molecules, a big data analysis showed that amphipathicity best ... Cationic. Examples: ammoniums: RNH3+. Polar, uncharged groups. Examples are alcohols with large R groups, such as diacyl ... of antimicrobial activities in relation to amphipathicity and charge reveals novel characterization of antimicrobial peptides ... Schubert, D; Behl, C; Lesley, R; Brack, A; Dargusch, R; Sagara, Y; Kimura, H (14 March 1995). "Amyloid peptides are toxic via a ...
Yeaman MR, Yount NY (March 2003). "Mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide action and resistance". Pharmacological Reviews. 55 (1 ... Its 33-amino acid structure contains many cationic and amphipathic amino acids. This makes it easier for it to interact with ... Oren Z, Shai Y (April 1996). "A class of highly potent antibacterial peptides derived from pardaxin, a pore-forming peptide ... This structure is common in peptides that act selectively on bacterial membranes and cytotoxic peptides that lyse mammalian and ...
doi:10.1016/0927-7765(94)01183-6. Mor, A. Peptide-based antibiotics: A potential answer to raging antimicrobial resistance. ... The pore-forming (ion channel) effect is characterized by the formation of cationic channels. It would require surfactin to ... The structure of the main congener consists of a peptide loop of seven amino acids (L-glutamic acid, L-leucine, D-leucine, L- ... ISBN 978-0-683-00603-2. Heerklotz H, Seelig J (September 2001). "Detergent-like action of the antibiotic peptide surfactin on ...
Cationic Silver Nanoclusters as Potent Antimicrobials against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria' ACS Omega, 2018. 'Metal ... Rational and combinatorial design of peptide capping ligands for gold nanoparticles' JACS, 2004. 'Emulsion-templated gold beads ... "Cationic Silver Nanoclusters as Potent Antimicrobials against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria". ACS Omega. 3 (12): 16721-16727. ... "Rational and Combinatorial Design of Peptide Capping Ligands for Gold Nanoparticles". Journal of the American Chemical Society ...
Acridine orange (AO) is a nucleic acid selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle determination. It is cell- ... Collagen Hybridizing Peptide (CHP) staining allows for an easy, direct way to stain denatured collagens of any type (Type I, II ... "Impact of Reporting Gram Stain Results From Blood Cultures on the Selection of Antimicrobial Agents". American Journal of ... Safranine (or Safranine O) is a red cationic dye. It binds to nuclei (DNA) and other tissue polyanions, including ...
They are chemically cationic α-helical peptides. They were isolated and identified in 2002 as a family of peptides called ... a new family of highly basic antimicrobial peptides in the venom of the spider Cupiennius salei (Ctenidae)". J Biol Chem. 277 ( ... These peptides are highly cationic, made up of similar amino acids, but different in the N- and C-terminal ends. The ... Cupiennin 1 family is the more well-known group, and consists of at least four peptides, such as cupiennin 1a, 1b, 1c, and 1d. ...
Butelase 1 is the fastest peptide ligase known capable of catalyzing peptide cyclization at an extraordinary efficiency. Nguyen ... At a concentration of 1 μM, cationic cliotides are capable of augmenting the secretion of various cytokines and chemokines in ... Cliotides display in vitro antimicrobial activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa and cytotoxicity against ... Cliotides are a group of related peptides that have been isolated from the heat-stable fraction of Clitoria ternatea (Cliotides ...
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are a novel type of antibiotic offering much potential in the treatment of microbial-related ... This article presents an updated review of how cationic antimicrobial peptides are able to affect bacterial killing, with a ... Alternative mechanisms of action of cationic antimicrobial peptides on bacteria.. Hale JD1, Hancock RE. ... While the dogma for the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides against bacteria is believed to be through pore formation ...
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) represent a conserved and highly effective component of innate immunity. During ... Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene expression by cationic antimicrobial peptides.. Bader MW1, Navarre WW, ... indicating that the PhoP/PhoQ system can sense sublethal concentrations of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Growth of S. ... We further demonstrate that growth of S. typhimurium in low doses of the alpha-helical peptide C18G induces resistance to CAMP ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. ... Antimicrobial Medicines Consumption (‎AMC)‎ Network. AMC data 2011-2014  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ... This report sets out and analyses data on antimicrobial medicines consumption (‎AMC)‎ collected from non-European Union ...
As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. ... molecule antibiotics with favorable physicochemical properties to CAMPs could be a promising strategy for enhancing peptide ... As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. ... peptide. ]. total. −. [. peptide. ]. PO4buffer. ). /. (. [. peptide. ]. PO4buffer. ). ). =. log. (. [. peptide. ]. octanol. /. ...
The effectiveness of antimicrobial compounds can be easily screened, however their mechanism of action is much more difficult ... Nanomechanical response of bacterial cells to cationic antimicrobial peptides Shun Lu,a Grant Walters,a Richard Parga and John ... Nanomechanical response of bacterial cells to cationic antimicrobial peptides S. Lu, G. Walters, R. Parg and J. R. Dutcher, ... unique insight into the kinetics and mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. ...
Antimicrobial Medicines Consumption (‎AMC)‎ Network. AMC data 2011-2014  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ... This report sets out and analyses data on antimicrobial medicines consumption (‎AMC)‎ collected from non-European Union ... "Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides"浏览Publications. 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cannot only kill MDR bacteria, but also can be used synergistically with conventional antibiotics ... Single amino acid substitutions within the peptides can have a very strong effect on the ability to synergize, making it ... A high number of combinations between peptides and polymyxin B, erythromycin, and tetracycline were found to be synergistic. ... A high number of combinations between peptides and Polymyxin B, Erythromycin and Tetracycline were found to be synergistic. ...
The PhoQ-Activating Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides Contributes to Antimicrobial Efficacy and Is Predictive of the ... Efficacy of the De Novo-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide WLBU2 against Oral Bacteria Karen F. Novak, William J. Diamond, Sreenatha ... Resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 to Direct Killing by Antimicrobial Peptides Is Protease Independent Gilad ... Cationic Peptides on Saccharomyces cerevisiae C. Oliver Morton, Andrew Hayes, Michael Wilson, Bharat M. Rash, Stephen G. Oliver ...
... identification of new alternatives has increased interest in diverse populations of potent cationic... ... Enterococcus faecalis pediocin PA-1 cationic antimicrobial peptides resistance permeability barrier This is a preview of ... Peschel A, Sahl HG (2006) The co-evolution of host cationic antimicrobial peptides and microbial resistance. Nat Rev Microbiol ... McBride SM, Sonenshein AL (2011) The dlt operon confers resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides in Clostridium difficile ...
Keywords: multidrug resistance, liposomes, antimicrobial peptide, epirubicin, apoptosis, autophagy ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been recently evaluated as a new generation of adjuvants in cancer chemotherapy. In this ... Cationic PEGylated liposomes incorporating an antimicrobial peptide tilapia hepcidin 2-3: an adjuvant of epirubicin to overcome ... Cationic PEGylated liposomes incorporating an antimicrobial peptide tilapia hepcidin 2-3: an adjuvant of epirubicin to overcome ...
Antiendotoxin activity of cationic peptide antimicrobial agents.. M Gough, R E Hancock, N M Kelly ... Antiendotoxin activity of cationic peptide antimicrobial agents. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We describe here two small cationic peptides, MBI-27 and MBI-28, which have both antiendotoxic and antibacterial activities in ... We had previously demonstrated that these peptides bind to LPS with an affinity equivalent to that of polymyxin B. Consistent ...
Strategies for Recombinant Expression of Small, Highly Disulphide- Bonded, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides. Author(s): A. L. ... Title: Strategies for Recombinant Expression of Small, Highly Disulphide- Bonded, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides ... Keywords:Disulphide bond, refolding, recombinant expression, antimicrobial peptide, inclusion body. Abstract: Expression of two ... Expression of two recombinant hepcidin homologues from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, characterization of their antimicrobial ...
... polymerization for the harvest of low-abundance cationic antimicrobial peptides ... New core-shell hydrogel particles for the separation and discovery of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). Y. Zhu, P. Russo ... polymerization for the harvest of low-abundance cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) from complex biological samples, such ... These core-shell hydrogel particles were able to pull down cationic peptides from alligator serum spiked with known CAMPs, ...
Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by ... The purpose of this review is to discuss antimicrobial innate immune elements within the respiratory tract of healthy and ... Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by ... Grubor, Branka; Meyerholz, David K.; and Ackermann, Mark R., "Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides of the respiratory ...
In this study, we designed a series of synthetic cationic hybrid antimicrobial peptides based on the peptide FV7 combined with ... In conclusion, we designed a series of synthetic cationic hybrid antimicrobial peptides based on the peptide FV7 combined with ... FV-LL Is the Optimal Hybrid Peptide Compared with the Parental Peptides and Other Peptides in the Antimicrobial Activities. The ... a series of effective hybrid cationic antimicrobial peptides were designed that combined the parental peptide FV7 with ...
... biophysical and structural investigations on how these peptides interact with membranes can still bear surprises and add new ... Smart M, Rajagopal A, Liu WK, Ha BY (2017) Opposing effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides and divalent cations on ... Hadley EB, Hancock RE (2010) Strategies for the discovery and advancement of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides. Curr Top ... Aisenbrey C., Marquette A., Bechinger B. (2019) The Mechanisms of Action of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Refined by Novel ...
De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ... De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ... De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ... De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ...
We recently reported that the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18, the precursor of the antimicrobial peptide called LL ... The Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein (hCAP18), a Peptide Antibiotic, Is Widely Expressed in Human Squamous Epithelia and ... The Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein (hCAP18), a Peptide Antibiotic, Is Widely Expressed in Human Squamous Epithelia and ... The Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein (hCAP18), a Peptide Antibiotic, Is Widely Expressed in Human Squamous Epithelia and ...
... amphipathic antimicrobial peptides and peptoids, Scientific Reports" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... "Intracellular biomass flocculation as a key mechanism of rapid bacterial killing by cationic, ... Mechanism of interaction of different classes of cationic antimicrobial peptides with planar bilayers and with the cytoplasmic ... The antimicrobial peptides lactoferricin B and magainin 2 cross over the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and reside in the ...
Linear cationic antimicrobial peptides are a diverse class of molecules that interact with a wide range of cell membranes. Many ... Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions underpin lytic activity of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides in membranes ... Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions underpin lytic activity of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides in membranes. ... We propose a topological model for linear antimicrobial peptide activity based on the increase in membrane strain caused by the ...
Modified MIC Method for Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides. Modified MIC Method for Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Categorized: ... Cationic peptides bind polystyrene (especially "tissue culture treated" polystyrene).. *Sterile tubes (16 X 125 mm) containing ... Add 11 µl of 10x test peptide each well from column 1 to column 10 (column 11 is a control for bacteria alone, with no peptide ... Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Peptides. This method is based on the classical microtitre broth dilution recommended by the ...
... and some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in the venom gland of scorpions. Therefore, the discovery of new anti- ... Scorpion venom is a source of bioactive peptides, ... Peptide Associated with Two Other New Cationic Antimicrobial ... Introduction: Scorpion venom is a source of bioactive peptides, and some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in the ... Results: MeuVAP-6 and meuAP-18-1 are non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides, while meuPep34 is a cysteine-rich defensin- ...
Investigation of a novel artificial antimicrobial peptide by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: An amphipathic cationic ... Investigation of a novel artificial antimicrobial peptide by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: An amphipathic cationic ... The identification of the amphipathic cationic pattern as the mediator of selectivity and antimicrobial activity could be a ... Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is used to study the interaction of a recently designed antimicrobial peptide, ...
The antimicrobial activity of these peptides has been studie... ... Many species of life contain cationic antimicrobial peptides as ... Such cationic antimicrobial peptides can also act in synergy with host molecules, such as other cationic peptides and proteins ... Many species of life contain cationic antimicrobial peptides as components of their immune systems. The antimicrobial activity ... Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Multifunctional Role in the Immune System. Monisha G. Scott Department of ...
Amphipathic Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides , Antimicrobial Peptides, Cationic , Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides , Cationic ... Antimicrobial Cationic , Peptides, Cationic Antimicrobial , Proteins, Microbicidal Cationic Definition Small cationic peptides ... Peptides, Antimicrobial , Cationic Proteins, Microbicidal , Microbicidal Cationic Proteins , Peptides, ... Chemicals ← Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ← PeptidesAntimicrobial Cationic Peptides Top ↑ Descendants Antimicrobial ...
... but is also surprisingly able to bind positively charged peptides. Understanding of how short cationic antimicrobial peptides ... The binding of a selection of short synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) to human albumin with binding affinities ... We suggest that albumin binding should be taken into careful consideration in antimicrobial peptide studies, as the systemic ... of albumin-peptide complexes reported here provide detailed insight into how albumin can bind short cationic peptides. The ...
Their amino acid composition, amphipathicity, cationic charge and size allow them to attach to and insert into membrane ... Although these models are helpful for defining mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity, their relevance to how peptides ... In this review the different models of antimicrobial-peptide-induced pore formation and cell killing are presented. ... In fact several observations suggest that translocated peptides can alter cytoplasmic membrane septum formation, inhibit cell- ...
Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. In: ACS Macro Letters. 2014 ; Vol. ... Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. ACS Macro Letters. 2014 Apr 15;3(4 ... Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. Katherine E.S. Locock, Thomas D. ... Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. / Locock, Katherine E.S.; Michl, ...
... Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Papanastasiou, ... As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. ... Covalent modification of a ten-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide with levofloxacin. Login ... molecule antibiotics with favorable physicochemical properties to CAMPs could be a promising strategy for enhancing peptide ...
Characterization of chemoselective surface attachment of the cationic peptide melimine and its effects on antimicrobial ... Characterization of chemoselective surface attachment of the cationic peptide melimine and its effects on antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising alternatives to current treatments for bacterial infections. However, our ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising alternatives to current treatments for bacterial infections. However, our ...
  • abstract = "This study describes a facile and high yielding route to two series of polymethacrylates inspired by the naturally occurring, tryptophan-rich cationic antimicrobial polymers. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • abstract = "Pardaxin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from Red Sea Moses sole. (elsevier.com)
  • This article presents an updated review of how cationic antimicrobial peptides are able to affect bacterial killing, with a focus on internal targets. (nih.gov)
  • These peptides are thought to exert their antibacterial effect via mechanisms that at some level involve the targeting of anionic bacterial membranes through non-specific electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many compounds act by compromising the mechanical integrity of the bacterial cell envelope, and our study introduces an AFM-based creep deformation technique to evaluate changes in the time-dependent mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 bacterial cells upon exposure to two different but structurally related antimicrobial peptides. (rsc.org)
  • We observed a distinctive signature for the loss of integrity of the bacterial cell envelope following exposure to the peptides. (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, fluorescent spectroscopy indicated that the hybrid peptide FV-LL exhibited marked membrane destruction by inducing outer and inner bacterial membrane permeabilization, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that FV-LL damaged membrane integrity by disrupting the bacterial membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacterial killing assays and circular dichroism analyses reveal a strong correlation between antibacterial activity, peptide length, and propensity to form a helix in solvent mimicking the environment of a membrane. (asm.org)
  • Despite these peptides high potency and ability to evade acquired bacterial drug resistance, there is a lack of knowledge on their selectivity and activity mechanisms. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In this paper, we use a high-throughput microfluidic platform as a quantitative screen to assess peptide activity and selectivity by precisely controlling exposure to vesicles with lipid compositions that mimic both bacterial and mammalian cell membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We also show the validity of the proposed model by investigating the activity of two prototypical linear cationic peptides: magainin 2 amide (which is selective for bacterial cells) and melittin (which targets both mammalian and bacterial cells indiscriminately). (gla.ac.uk)
  • It has been found that certain peptides are produced in large quantities at sites of infection/inflammation, and their expression can be induced by bacterial products such as endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (begellhouse.com)
  • These peptides often have a high affinity for bacterial products, such as LPS, allowing them to modulate the host response and reduce the inflammatory response in sepsis. (begellhouse.com)
  • These bacterial strategies counter mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide attachment, peptide insertion and membrane permeability. (nature.com)
  • The global health threat surrounding bacterial resistance has resulted in antibiotic researchers shifting their focus away from 'traditional' antibiotics and concentrating on other antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • The antimicrobial activity evaluation was done against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. (springer.com)
  • Some analogues of these nanoparticles cargoes showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and negative bacterial strains especially those cause brain infections with low MIC values. (springer.com)
  • The findings of this study revealed the improved antimicrobial activity of modified cationic TAT peptide nanoparticles against different bacterial strains. (springer.com)
  • This results show that FF/CAP18 is a potential antimicrobial agent for treating pan-drug-resistant bacterial infections. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Most AMPs display antimicrobial activity by disrupting the bacterial membrane. (nature.com)
  • The cationic charge of AMPs enables an electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged bacterial membrane. (nature.com)
  • AIM: To test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may cause time-dependent changes in gut bacterial density, autophagy genes, and antimicrobial protein/peptide gene expression. (bireme.br)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry results have shown that MP196 prefers incorporation into bacterial cell membranes over erythrocyte membranes, as this cationic peptide prefers incorporating into membranes which have a higher negatively charged phospholipid ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magainin 2 is pore-forming antimicrobial peptide on lipid matrix of bacterial membrane, secreted from the skin of the African clawed frog. (peptide.com)
  • Cyclic cystine-bridged peptides from the marine sponge Clathria basilana induce apoptosis in tumor cells and depolarize the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Evidence for the key role of cationic antimicrobial peptides in innate immunity includes mutations affecting the induction of antibacterial peptides which reduce survival in response to bacterial challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • By demonstrating that deletion of a single member of the NCR gene family can result in an ineffective symbiotic phenotype, we show that specific NCR peptides can have essential, non-redundant roles in controlling bacterial differentiation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. (pnas.org)
  • In the literature, there is clear evidence that cationic antimicrobial peptides target the membrane of bacterial pathogens where they induce defects that will eventually kill bacteria by creating an electrochemical gradient imbalance. (springer.com)
  • These peptides are small (2 to 4 kDa) cationic molecules of various structural classes that bind to and permeabilize bacterial membranes. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella resistance to antimicrobial peptides is frequently mediated by modifications to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the bacterial outer membrane. (asm.org)
  • While this has been effective for many bacterial infections, the current pandemic biotype is known to be resistant to these peptides, as compared to previous pandemic strains. (naturalnews.com)
  • The findings, announced online in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and funded by the National Institutes of Health, provide a needed boost to the field of antibiotic development, which has been limited in the last four decades and outpaced by the rise of drug-resistant bacterial strains. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The team tested the two leading eCAPs against a natural antimicrobial peptide (LL37) and a standard antibiotic (colistin), the latter being used as a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug resistant bacterial infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The natural human antimicrobial peptide LL37 and the colistin drug each inhibited growth of about 50 percent of the clinical isolates, indicating a high level of bacterial resistance to these drugs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Although the inherent antibacterial effect of the incorporated levofloxacin molecules did not appear to be substantially realized in this conjugate, these findings nevertheless suggest that covalent attachment of small molecule antibiotics with favorable physicochemical properties to CAMPs could be a promising strategy for enhancing peptide performance and overall therapeutic potential. (frontiersin.org)
  • The incorporation of small molecule antibiotics in CAMP-based conjugates presents a particularly intriguing strategy, as these compounds could influence peptide effectiveness not only via alteration of physicochemical properties, but also through their intrinsic antibacterial activities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cannot only kill MDR bacteria, but also can be used synergistically with conventional antibiotics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to innate and acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis against most antibiotics, identification of new alternatives has increased interest in diverse populations of potent cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) for treatment and natural food biopreservation. (springer.com)
  • Peptide antibiotics are widespread in nature and, by providing a rapid first line of defense, may be key players in the innate immune system. (asm.org)
  • Although epithelia are the main barriers shielding the internal environment from microorganisms, the role for peptide antibiotics in epithelial protection is unclear. (asm.org)
  • Peptide antibiotics may serve a key protective role in the host defense. (asm.org)
  • The first peptide antibiotics were discovered in the 1980s when cecropins were isolated from insects ( 25 ) and defensins were isolated from rabbit macrophages ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Numerous antimicrobial peptide antibiotics occur in nature, and over a dozen have been identified in humans, including several salivary histatins, lactoferricin, six α-defensins, two β-defensins, and the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18. (asm.org)
  • We suggest intracellular biomass flocculation is a key mechanism of killing for cationic, amphipathic AMPs, which may explain why most AMPs require micromolar concentrations for activity, show significant selectivity for killing bacteria over mammalian cells, and finally, why development of resistance to AMPs is less prevalent than developed resistance to conventional antibiotics. (deepdyve.com)
  • Such cationic antimicrobial peptides can also act in synergy with host molecules, such as other cationic peptides and proteins, lysozyme, and also conventional antibiotics, to kill microbes. (begellhouse.com)
  • Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides (CAMPs) are a valuable alternative to conventional antibiotics because they have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and low ability to induce the onset of resistant strains. (unina.it)
  • We previously reported, that in contrast to most of the classic antibiotics, cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) do not increase mutation rates in E. coli . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides have attracted attention as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. (nature.com)
  • Given that antimicrobial peptides similar to LL-37 are being discussed as promising leads for the development of new antibiotics, the scientists say their data "reinforce how important it is to consider the impact of current and novel treatments and the host immune response on evolution of microbial communities during chronic infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their antimicrobial properties alone make them highly attractive for clinical applications, particularly in the face of ever increasing microbial resistance to traditional antibiotics. (isciii.es)
  • Cationic antibiotics, such as polymyxin B, bind to and neutralize some types of lipopolysaccharide, but their use is limited by toxicity. (google.com)
  • Hancock REW, Lehrer R. Cationic peptides: a new source of antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • Reports on Metrowest Medical Center infectious disease specialist Stephen Hoffman's disclosure that the over-prescription of wide-spectrum antibiotics is the chief contributor to an increasing resistance to antimicrobial agents. (ebscohost.com)
  • Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by respiratory epithelia, which have integral roles in host defense and inflammation in the lung. (iastate.edu)
  • FV7 (FRIRVRV-NH 2 ), a consensus amphiphilic sequence was identified as being analogous to host defense peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our finding that hCAP18 is widely produced in squamous epithelia suggests a role for this peptide in epithelial antimicrobial defense. (asm.org)
  • Barron, Annelise 2017-12-01 00:00:00 Many organisms rely on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a first line of defense against pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • As part of the innate immune system in the skin, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) such as the β-defensins and cathelicidin contribute to host cutaneous defense, which prevents harmful microorganisms, like S. aureus , from crossing epithelial barriers. (mdpi.com)
  • We will discuss the peptides (defensins, cathelicidins, RNase7, dermcidin) and other mediators (toll-like receptor, IL-1 and IL-17) that comprise the host defense against S. aureus skin infection, as well as the various mechanisms by which S. aureus evades host defenses. (mdpi.com)
  • The antibacterial peptide LL-37, an 18-kDa peptide with 37 amino acid residues, is the only member of the cathelicidin family identified in humans, and it plays an important role in the first line of immune defense ( 9 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), known as host defense peptides, consist of short amino acid sequences containing both positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids 2 . (nature.com)
  • In the fruit fly Drosophila , peptides are recognized as the major form of defense against infection and are induced, in response to challenge by microbes or microbial signaling molecules like LPS, by a regulatory pathway similar to that used by the mammalian immune system (involving Toll receptors and the transcription factor NF-κB ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the release of antimicrobial proteins by neutrophils contribute to an early host defense against influenza virus infection in vitro as well as in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • The first evidence of antimicrobial defense engendered by leukotriene administration was presented by Demitsu et al. (jimmunol.org)
  • Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. (mdpi.com)
  • Host defense peptides (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides, constitute a large group of small peptides that have been discovered in virtually all forms of life [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • His lab studies staphylococcal biology with special interests in nasal colonization, teichoic acids, and evasion of antimicrobial defense mechanisms. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Mimicry of Host-Defense Peptides by Unnatural Oligomers: Antimicrobial Beta-Peptides, J. Am. Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are an essential aspect of host innate immune defense and are produced by macrophages, neutrophils, and mucosal epithelial cells ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The host launches an antimicrobial defense program upon infection. (pnas.org)
  • It notes that while antimicrobials are used to treat infections, they are not the first line of defense for treating foodborne illness. (ebscohost.com)
  • Alternative mechanisms of action of cationic antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • While the dogma for the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides against bacteria is believed to be through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, some peptides clearly act differently and other intracellular target sites have been identified. (nih.gov)
  • The AFM creep deformation measurement provides new, unique insight into the kinetics and mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. (rsc.org)
  • Among the most serious problems health care is facing is the increased number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can no longer be treated with previously active antimicrobial agents. (frontiersin.org)
  • The endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria consists of a molecule lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which can be shed by bacteria during antimicrobial therapy. (asm.org)
  • The results demonstrated that the synthetic hybrid peptides, in particular FV-LL, had potent antibacterial activities over a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with lower hemolytic activity than other peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thousands of AMPs that demonstrate potent antimicrobial activities are rapidly mobilized to neutralize a broad range of microbes, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi, isolated from comprehensive species such as sheep, cow, pig and even humans [ 10 , 11 , 12 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Add 11 µl of 10x test peptide each well from column 1 to column 10 (column 11 is a control for bacteria alone, with no peptide). (ubc.ca)
  • The antimicrobial activity of these peptides has been studied extensively, and many peptides have a broad spectrum of activity not only against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria but also against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. (begellhouse.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides: pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria? (nature.com)
  • MP196 can be used as the key structure in order to develop any potential antimicrobial peptides which could help in fighting back against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, the results demonstrate that an antimicrobial substance can, at low dose, function as a mutagen that makes bacteria more dangerous. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate host defenses of many species, have broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs,) such as defensins and cathelicidins, are small endogenously expressed molecules that have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria, fungi and some viruses. (isciii.es)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides are part of the innate immune system of several organisms and represent great hope to fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The ability of pathogenic bacteria to resist killing by host antimicrobial peptides present in different host niches may therefore contribute to their virulence. (asm.org)
  • Basis for selectivity of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides for Bacteria Versus Mammalian Membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to discuss antimicrobial innate immune elements within the respiratory tract of healthy and pneumonic lung with emphasis on hydrophilic surfactant proteins and β-defensins. (iastate.edu)
  • hCAP18 belongs to the cathelicidin family of proteins characterized by a conserved cathelin proregion and a variable antibacterial peptide in the C-terminal domain. (asm.org)
  • Cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to enhance the intracellular delivery of various types of cargoes, such as drugs and proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides and proteins have historically been ascribed roles in innate immunity that infer killing of microbial and viral pathogens and protection of the host. (mdpi.com)
  • Understanding how virally enhancing peptides and proteins act to promote sexual transmission of HIV-1 would be important for the design of topical microbicides, mucosal vaccines, and other preventative measures. (mdpi.com)
  • Encapsulation of peptides and proteins remains an obstacle in drug nanoformulations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we established an alternative method to encapsulate peptides and proteins into polymersomes (POs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicated that the preparation of POs encapsulated with gelatin could be employed as an effective loading method for ionic peptides and proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This response may be a host mechanism to detect and possibly correct dysbiosis by activating antimicrobial peptides/proteins that control the microbial load in the gut. (bireme.br)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to the preparation and use of certain mammalian cationic proteins for such treatment and diagnosis. (google.com)
  • This modification removes the positive charge on the N-terminal of peptides, thus mimicking natural proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In recent years, many antimicrobial proteins have been discovered in animals, insects, and plants. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These proteins are termed antimicrobial because they have an unusually broad spectrum of activity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous immune effectors of multicellular organisms. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas. (peptide.com)
  • Zasloff M. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. (aaem.pl)
  • Salmonella PgtE expression promoted resistance to alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides (α-CAMPs). (asm.org)
  • These peptides demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and are essential elements of innate immunity in higher organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antimicrobial N-substituted glycine (peptoid) oligomers ("ampetoids") are structural, functional and mechanistic analogs of helical, cationic AMPs, which offer broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and better therapeutic potential than peptides. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recognition that antimicrobial peptides induce transmembrane pores and have other intracellular targets that are capable of rapidly killing microorganisms will facilitate the development, design and synthesis of more efficient, broad-spectrum therapeutic antimicrobial peptides. (nature.com)
  • Two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides NH2-RIRIRWIIR-CONH2 (A1) and NH2-KRRVRWIIW-CONH2 (B1) were conjugated via a linker, producing A2 and B2, to individual fatty acids of C8, C10, C12 and C14 and in addition, A2 was conjugated to either glucose, N-acetyl glucosamine, galactose, mannose, lactose or polyethylene glycol (PEG). (sgul.ac.uk)
  • The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries. (hindawi.com)
  • The existences of such diverse structural forms of AMPs are highly essential for their broad spectrum antimicrobial activity [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides these properties, certain crucial factors such as size, charge, hydrophobicity, amphipathic stereo geometry, and peptide self-association to the biological membrane also attributes for their broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides have received increasing attention due to their broad spectrum activities and ability to combat multi drug resistant microbes. (springer.com)
  • Melectin showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but low cytotoxicity and no hemolytic activity. (nature.com)
  • Hybrid peptides integrating different functional domains of peptides have many advantages, such as remarkable antimicrobial activity, lower hemolysis and ideal cell selectivity, compared with natural antimicrobial peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the effects of length and helicity on antimicrobial activity and selectivity have not been objectively evaluated in the context of this motif. (asm.org)
  • Further, WLBU2 displayed the highest antibacterial selectivity of all peptides evaluated in the present study by using a coculture model of P. aeruginosa and primary human skin fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Dathe M, Meyer J, Beyermann M, Maul B, Hoischen C, Bienert M. General aspects of peptide selectivity towards lipid bilayers and cell membranes studied by variation of the structural parameters of amphipathic helical model peptides. (springer.com)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides are a novel type of antibiotic offering much potential in the treatment of microbial-related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The diversity of antimicrobial peptides is likely a consequence of each peptide evolving to function in a particular environment against a specific subset of microbial pathogens. (asm.org)
  • The antimicrobial specificity of AMPs towards the target cells was highly dependent on the preferential interaction of peptides with the microbial cells, which enable them to kill specific target cells without affecting the host cells [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to smaller LEAP-2 variants, this peptide exhibits dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against selected microbial model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014) Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Promote Microbial Mutagenesis and Pathoadaptation in Chronic Infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • Advantages put forth for CAPs include their mechanism of action, in which the positively charged peptide disrupts the negatively charged microbial membrane ultimately leading to cessation of replication/death of the organism. (isciii.es)
  • Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. (mdpi.com)
  • The coevolution of host cationic antimicrobial peptides and microbial resistance. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Even 30 years after the discovery of magainins, biophysical and structural investigations on how these peptides interact with membranes can still bear surprises and add new interesting detail to how these peptides exert their antimicrobial action. (springer.com)
  • Paterson, D. J. , Tassieri, M. , Reboud, J. , Wilson, R. and Cooper, J. M. (2017) Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions underpin lytic activity of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides in membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Linear cationic antimicrobial peptides are a diverse class of molecules that interact with a wide range of cell membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Assessing the interaction of antimicrobial peptides with phospholipids in model membranes provides some insight into their mechanisms of activity. (nature.com)
  • In addition, net charge and hydrophobicity of AMPs play a crucial role in cellular association of these peptides to selective target cellular membranes in exerting antimicrobial activity [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Most of them are cationic peptides, and only a few of them are anionic, which shared the ability to fold into amphipathic conformation upon interacting with the membranes [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this context, this chapter is devoted to present the most recent developments in the field of solid-state NMR for elucidating the conformation and membrane topology of these peptides reconstituted in lipid mimetic membranes. (springer.com)
  • Sitaram N, Nagaraj R. Interaction of antimicrobial peptides with biological and model membranes: structural and charge requirements for activity. (springer.com)
  • Dathe M, Wieprecht T. Structural features of helical antimicrobial peptides: their potential to modulate activity on model membranes and biological cells. (springer.com)
  • α- and β-defensins are small cationic peptides contained in the large granule subset of primary/azurophil granules (reviewed in Ref. 16 ) that exert antiviral activities against different enveloped viruses such as CMV, influenza, HSV-1 and -2, and vesicular stomatitis virus ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. (mdpi.com)
  • While CAMPs demonstrate extensive sequence and structural diversity, they are generally rich in cationic amino acids and adopt amphipathic structures that result in spatial partitioning of basic and hydrophobic residues. (frontiersin.org)
  • To address these structure-function issues, multimers of a 12-residue lytic base unit (LBU) peptide composed only of Arg and Val residues aligned to form idealized amphipathic helices were designed. (asm.org)
  • Thermodynamic and structural analysis revealed that the binding is exclusively driven by interactions with the hydrophobic moieties of the peptides, and is independent of the cationic residues that are vital for antimicrobial activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The families include anionic peptides, helical cationic peptides (which are short, lack cysteine residues and sometimes have a hinge or 'kink' in the middle), peptides rich in amino acids such as proline, arginine, phenylalanine or tryptophan, and anionic and cationic peptides, which contain cysteine, have disulphide bonds and form stable β-sheets. (nature.com)
  • The pre-proregion of cathelicidins provides 128-145 residues: a sign peptide with 29-30 residues and a proregion with 99-114 residues (Body 1). (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Moreover, it has been reported that the antimicrobial effect of LL-37 peptide can be enhanced by replacement with hydrophobic and cationic amino acid residues ( 13 , 14 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • It is a cationic amphipathic peptide that contains rich hydrophobic and basic amino acid residues and a proline. (nature.com)
  • Tolerance of Acyclic Residues in the Beta-Peptide 12-Helix: Access to Diverse Side-Chain Arrays for Biological Applications. (patentgenius.com)
  • Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered potential anti-infective agents primarily due to their antimicrobial or immunomodulatory properties [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The synthesis of hybrid peptides, which is a simple effective strategy to design novel AMPs, combined the advantages of different native peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Scorpion venom is a source of bioactive peptides, and some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in the venom gland of scorpions. (ac.ir)
  • Here, we describe three new cationic AMPs, including meuVAP-6, meuAP-18-1, and meuPep34 from the venom gland of the Iranian scorpion, Mesobuthus eupeus . (ac.ir)
  • The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. (hindawi.com)
  • The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biologically active molecules produced by wide variety of organisms as an essential component of their innate immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • The smaller size of AMPs facilitates the rapid diffusion and secretion of peptide outside the cells, which is required for eliciting immediate defence response against pathogenic microbes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, more than 2,000 AMPs have been reported in antimicrobial peptide database ( http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php/ ). (hindawi.com)
  • Besides antimicrobial function, AMPs also serve as drug delivery vectors, antitumor agents, mitogenic agents, contraceptive agents, and signalling molecules in signal transduction pathways [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This review provide insight into antimicrobials as well as multifunctional properties of AMPs that provides better understanding of versatile biological properties of AMPs for prophylactic and therapeutic application. (hindawi.com)
  • Human body fluid has a high salt concentration which interferes with the antimicrobial activity of AMPs 11 . (nature.com)
  • This book presents an overview of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), their mechanisms of antimicrobial action, other activities, and various problems that must still be overcome regarding their clinical application. (springer.com)
  • Divided into four major parts, the book begins with a general overview of AMPs (Part I), and subsequently discusses the various mechanisms of antimicrobial action and methods for researching them (Part 2). (springer.com)
  • It then addresses a range of activities other than antimicrobial action, such as cell penetration, antisepsis, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activities (Part 3), and explores the prospects of clinical application from various standpoints such as the selective toxicity, design, and discovery of AMPs (Part 4). (springer.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) seem to meet these expectations. (aaem.pl)
  • Glycosylation decreased antimicrobial activity by 2 to 16-fold in comparison to A1, respectively on the sugar-peptide combination. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • It is anticipated that greater understanding of these mechanisms will enable development of more sustainable antimicrobial compounds and new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of S. aureus skin infection and colonization. (mdpi.com)
  • It is becoming increasingly apparent that many of the cationic polypeptides present in the human genital or anorectal mucosa, or human semen, are capable of enhancing HIV-1 infection, often in addition to other reported roles as viral inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • We stress that the distinction between enhancing and inhibiting HIV-1 infection is not mutually exclusive to specific classes of cationic polypeptides. (mdpi.com)
  • We recently reported that a cationic peptide, T22 ([Tyr(5,12), Lys(7)]-polyphemusin II), specifically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection mediated by CXCR4 (T. Murakami et al. (mendeley.com)
  • The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is an antimicrobial protein secreted in response to infection, with a remarkable affinity for LPS. (csic.es)
  • Similarly, a group of HIV patients with lower salivary levels of histatin peptides showed a higher incidence of oral candidiasis and fungal infection ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Synthesized initially as precursors, HDPs are generally processed by host proteases to release mature peptides upon infection and inflammation [ 1 , 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Many different types of organisms use antimicrobial peptides, typically 20â€"40 amino acids in length, for defence against infection. (ebscohost.com)
  • Drug target validation: lethal infection blocked by inducible peptide. (aaem.pl)
  • Single amino acid substitutions within the peptides can have a very strong effect on the ability to synergize, making it possible to optimize future drugs toward synergistic interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The spectrum of different amino acid side chain chemical properties affords a variety of peptide sequences to present a cationic amphipathic helical peptide. (asm.org)
  • Their amino acid composition, amphipathicity, cationic charge and size allow them to attach to and insert into membrane bilayers to form pores by 'barrel-stave', 'carpet' or 'toroidal-pore' mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • These peptides are often divided into families on the basis of their unique amino acid compositions and structures. (nature.com)
  • Human being Neutrophil Peptides (HNP1-3) differ from each additional by LODENOSINE IC50 an In- airport terminal amino acid residue and were originally separated from azurophilic granules of neutrophils [12, 13]. (healthweeks.com)
  • The amino acid sequence of a Fluorescein labeled peptide for active site of (Na,K)-ATPase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Agerberth B, Gunne H, Odeberg J, Kogner P, Boman HG, Gudmundsson GH (1995) FALL-39, a putative human peptide antibiotic, is cysteine-free and expressed in bone marrow and testis. (springer.com)
  • Melectin can be useful as a new template for developing effective antibiotic peptides. (nature.com)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of antibiotic-induced disruption of the gut microbiome (dysbiosis) on autophagy gene expression and the expression of antimicrobial peptides/protein (AMP) over time. (bireme.br)
  • The orientation of the antibiotic peptide maculatin 1.1 in DMPG and DMPC lipid bilayers. (springer.com)
  • We were very impressed with the performance of the eCAPs when compared with some of the best existing drugs, including a natural antimicrobial peptide made by Mother Nature and an antibiotic of last resort," said Dr. Montelaro. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, despite the identification or synthetic production of thousands of such peptides, the mode of action remains elusive, except for a few examples. (nih.gov)
  • pheromones, antibodies, synthetic polymers, and small molecule drugs to yield peptide constructs with improved antibacterial activity relative to their respective unmodified parent peptide variants ( Devocelle, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Synthetic cationic hybrid peptides based on FV7 could provide new models for combining different functional domains and demonstrate effective avenues to screen for novel antimicrobial agents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The binding of a selection of short synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) to human albumin with binding affinities in the μM range is described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides are emerging as a promising class of compounds for antifungal treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the current study, five synthetic cationic antimicrobial tripeptides were evaluated as antifungal therapeutics against 24 pathogenic strains of fungi. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additionally, LbpB provides protection against host and synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides. (purdue.edu)
  • MP196 is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postinfection Activity of Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Against Stemphylium vesicarium in Pear. (peptide.com)
  • 2019. Synthetic lugdunin analogues reveal essential structural motifs for antimicrobial action and proton translocation capability. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Dr. Montelaro and his colleagues developed a synthetic and more efficient version of this sequence - called engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides, or "eCAPs"-that can be chemically synthesized in a laboratory setting. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We recently reported that the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18, the precursor of the antimicrobial peptide called LL-37, is not expressed by normal human keratinocytes but is induced in various inflammatory skin disorders. (asm.org)
  • As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such an understanding would provide an informative framework for rational design and could lead to potential antimicrobial therapeutic targets. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides A future therapeutic option? (isciii.es)
  • Factors confounding the development of the peptides for therapeutic use include inherent problems of working with peptides e.g. degradation and cost of manufacture and also problems of efficacy versus toxicity. (isciii.es)
  • The pseudins belong to the class of cationic, amphipathic-helical antimicrobial peptides [ PMID: 11689009 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Mechanisms for the modulation of membrane bilayer properties by amphipathic helical peptides. (springer.com)
  • As a result, hundreds of different natural cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with widely varying sequences have been described. (asm.org)
  • Many species of life contain cationic antimicrobial peptides as components of their immune systems. (begellhouse.com)
  • Our findings have implications for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defences, and shed new light on the dynamic of antimicrobial-resistance evolution. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this study, we identify the human cationic peptide LL-37, found in abundance at sites of inflammation, as a potent modifier of DC differentiation, bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Human cationic antibacterial peptide hCAP18/LL-37 is the only known cathelicidin, which is part of the innate immune system of humans. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) form an important part of the innate immune response in many organisms ranging from humans to amoebae. (asmscience.org)
  • A study published on April 24th in PLOS Pathogens demonstrates that an antimicrobial peptide produced by human immune cells can promote mutations in the bacterium that make it more lethal. (eurekalert.org)
  • Searching for factors of the human host that facilitate mucA mutation, the scientists found that specific immune system cells called polymorphonucleocytes (or neutrophils), which are present in large numbers in lung cells of patients with CF, can trigger Pseudomonas mucoid conversion, and that a specific antimicrobial factor produced by these cells called LL-37 plays a key role. (eurekalert.org)
  • The role of LL-37, a human cationic antimicrobial peptide, in the immune system is not yet clearly understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • It is a widely expressed peptide that can be up-regulated during an immune response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these results demonstrate the importance of neutrophils and the secretion of antimicrobial peptides during the early immune response mediated by LTB 4 against a viral pathogen. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, these peptides also have the ability to modulate the behaviour of a variety of mammalian cells, in particular epithelial cells and cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses. (isciii.es)
  • Preferential labeling of alpha-amino N-terminal groups in peptide by biotin: application to the detection of specific anti-peptide antibodies by enzyme immune assays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We further demonstrate that growth of S. typhimurium in low doses of the alpha-helical peptide C18G induces resistance to CAMP of different structural classes. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of two recombinant hepcidin homologues from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, characterization of their antimicrobial activity, and partial structural determination of the peptides is described. (eurekaselect.com)
  • These studies suggest that a peptide with these structural properties can be derived de novo by using only a few strategically positioned amino acids. (asm.org)
  • The biophysical and structural characterizations of albumin-peptide complexes reported here provide detailed insight into how albumin can bind short cationic peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular mass of peptides was confirmed by MALDI TOF-MS. The purified peptides were modified into self assembled nanoparticles (micelles) and structural characterization was done by a particle size analyzer and TEM. (springer.com)
  • It falls under the structural class: short cationic peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugation of CAMPs to small molecules with favorable physicochemical properties (such as hydrophobic and/or cationic functionalities) would provide a highly controlled means for augmenting peptide antibacterial performance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus lentiviral lytic peptide 1 with other host-derived peptides indicates that antimicrobial properties of membrane-active peptides are markedly influenced by their cationic, hydrophobic, and amphipathic properties. (asm.org)
  • Many common themes, such as Arg composition of the cationic face of an amphipathic helix and the importance of maintaining the hydrophobic face, have been deduced from these observations. (asm.org)
  • These peptides commonly adopt an amphipathic conformation in which positively charged and hydrophobic groups segregate onto opposing faces of an α-helix, a β-sheet, or some other tertiary structure ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Both of the hydrophobic moieties comprising the peptides were detected to interact with drug site II by NMR saturation transfer difference (STD) group epitope mapping (GEM) and INPHARMA experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hydrophobic elements of the peptides studied here are responsible for the main interaction with HSA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, cyclic polyarginine peptides containing hydrophobic moieties which have been previously used as transfection reagents also exhibited potent furin inhibition in vitro and also inhibited intracellular convertases. (nih.gov)
  • Our finding that cationic cell-penetrating peptides exert potent effects on cellular convertase activity should be taken into account when biological effects are assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Metabolic cleavage and translocation efficiency of selected cell penetrating peptides: a comparative study with epithelial cell cultures. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • MeuVAP-6 and meuAP-18-1 are non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides, while meuPep34 is a cysteine-rich defensin-like peptide. (ac.ir)
  • LEAP2 is a cysteine-rich, and cationic protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a cysteine-rich peptide with a highly. (peptide.com)
  • In Medicago truncatula , over 600 genes coding for nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides are expressed during nodule development and have been implicated in bacteroid differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene expression by cationic antimicrobial peptides. (nih.gov)
  • The survive better in macrophages from mice which usually do not exhibit the cathelicidin related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) the murine analog of LL-37 than from wild-type (WT) mice [62]. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Viral clearance in lungs was associated with up-regulated presence of antimicrobial peptides such as β-defensin-3, members of the mouse eosinophil-related RNase family, and the mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide. (jimmunol.org)
  • Viral loads in neutrophil-depleted mice were not diminished by LTB 4 administration, and a substantial reduction in the presence of murine cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide and the murine eosinophil-related RNase family in lung tissue was observed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antiendotoxin activity of cationic peptide antimicrobial agents. (asm.org)
  • Inhibiting biofilm formation assays also showed that FV-LL had similar anti-biofilm activity compared with the functional peptide sequence FV7. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, several concerns may weaken their development as antimicrobial agents ultimately, which include their potential cytotoxicity, poor antimicrobial activity based on peptide concentration and weak physiological stability [ 13 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Various modifications such as substitutions of specific amino acids [ 14 ] and truncation of parental peptides [ 15 ] have been employed to improve antimicrobial activity and physiological stability and reduce cytotoxic effects simultaneously. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Increasing peptide length beyond two LBUs (24-residue peptides) resulted in no appreciable increase in antimicrobial activity. (asm.org)
  • Like other membrane interactive peptides, LLP1 is predicted to have an amphipathic α-helical structure and may be involved in the pathogenicity of HIV-1 because of its calmodulin binding ( 18 , 28 , 35 ) and natural endogenous reverse transcriptase activity of HIV-1 ( 36 ). (asm.org)
  • We propose a topological model for linear antimicrobial peptide activity based on the increase in membrane strain caused by the continuous adsorption of peptides to the target vesicle coupled with the effects of both lipid-peptide charge and topographical interactions. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Although these models are helpful for defining mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide activity, their relevance to how peptides damage and kill microorganisms still need to be clarified. (nature.com)
  • In fact several observations suggest that translocated peptides can alter cytoplasmic membrane septum formation, inhibit cell-wall synthesis, inhibit nucleic-acid synthesis, inhibit protein synthesis or inhibit enzymatic activity. (nature.com)
  • In fact, translocated antimicrobial peptides can alter the cytoplasmic membrane septum formation, inhibit cell-wall synthesis, inhibit nucleic-acid synthesis, inhibit protein synthesis or inhibit enzymatic activity, all of which can rapidly kill microorganisms. (nature.com)
  • Figure 6: Mode of action for intracellular antimicrobial peptide activity. (nature.com)
  • Here, we report that both HIV-1 TAT47-57 peptide and the Chariot reagent are micromolar inhibitors of furin activity in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive strains (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)) and three Gram-negative strains (Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were determined. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • compared to the parental peptides, some combinations led to a 16-fold improvement whereas other combinations let to a 32-fold reduction in antimicrobial activity. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • Antimicrobial activity in the presence of 25% human serum of A1 and B1 was reduced 32-fold and 8-fold, respectively. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that finding the right lipid-peptide combination can lead to improved activity in the presence of serum and potentially more effective drug candidates for animal studies. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • Sequence of varied fragments of LL-37 and model representing the … Taking into consideration the conservation of the proregion ARL-15896 during progression it could play a significant biological function with regards to the maturation from the antimicrobial peptide which may be the [43] reported the fact that cathelin area acquired also potent antibacterial activity. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Guo Y, Wang L, Lei J, Xu J, Han L. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Human Cationic Antibacterial Peptide (LL-37) and Its Analogs Against Pan-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii , Jundishapur J Microbiol. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • The antimicrobial activity of LL-37 against multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been reported recently, however, whether LL-37 and its analogues (LL/CAP18 and FF/CAP18) have antimicrobial activity against pan-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (PDRAB) is still unknown. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • This study aims to clarify the antimicrobial activity of LL-37 and its analogues against PDRAB. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Melectin maintained its antimicrobial activity at physiological salt concentrations. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to develop a peptide that maintains its antimicrobial activity even at physiological salt concentration. (nature.com)
  • A hybrid cationic peptide exhibits salt-resistant antimicrobial activity. (peptide.com)
  • A hybrid cationic peptide composed of human beta-defensin-1 and humanized theta-defensin sequences exhibits salt-resistant antimicrobial activity. (peptide.com)
  • Antimicrobial activity of trout hepcidin. (peptide.com)
  • Pseudin-2: an antimicrobial peptide with low hemolytic activity from the skin of the paradoxical frog. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Schweizer, F. Investigating the antimicrobial peptide "window of activity" using cationic lipopeptides with hydrocarbon and fluorinated tails. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Antiviral activity and mode of action of a peptide isolated from Sorghum bicolor. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Antiviral activity and mode of action of a peptide isolated from Sorghum bicolor. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Berrocal-Lobo M, Molina A, Rodriguez-Palenzuela P, Garcia-Olmedo F, Rivas L. Leishmania donovani: Thionins, plant antimicrobial peptides with leishmanicidal activity. (aaem.pl)
  • The 24-residue WLBU2 peptide was active at physiologic NaCl concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus and mucoid and nonmucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • These changes include addition of aminoarabinose and palmitate to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ( 16 , 19 , 21 ), which promotes resistance to polymyxin ( 15 , 19 ), alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides, and protegrin, a β-sheet antimicrobial peptide ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Gamma-Peptides Forming More Stable Secondary Structures Than Alpha-Peptides: Synthetis and Helical NMR-Solution Structure of the Hexapeptide Analong of H-(Val-Ala-Leu)2-0H. (patentgenius.com)
  • De Novo Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Antimicrobial B-Peptides. (patentgenius.com)
  • Peptide Mass Fingerprinting for identification and characterization of peptides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Zasloff M. Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor. (aaem.pl)
  • We describe here two small cationic peptides, MBI-27 and MBI-28, which have both antiendotoxic and antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo in animal models. (asm.org)
  • Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. (ctdbase.org)
  • Mimicry of bioactive peptides via non-natural, sequence-specific peptidomimetic oligomers. (patentgenius.com)
  • Material and methods Solid phase peptide synthesis Chemical synthesis of HD-5 was carried out as explained [31]. (healthweeks.com)
  • The cationic TAT peptides were synthesized by Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis and were purified by semi preparative RP-HPLC. (springer.com)
  • Soluble Non-Crosslinked Poly(Norbornene) Supports for Peptide Synthesis with Minimal Reagents Nimmashetti Naganna and Nandita Madhavan, J. Org. (peptide.com)
  • Design and synthesis of short antimicrobial peptides for plant protection. (aaem.pl)
  • In this study, we designed a series of hybrid peptides FV7-LL-37 (17-29) (FV-LL), FV7-magainin 2 (9-21) (FV-MA) and FV7-cecropin A (1-8) (FV-CE) by combining the FV7 sequence with the small functional sequences LL-37 (17-29) (LL), magainin 2 (9-21) (MA) and cecropin A (1-8) (CE) which all come from well-described natural peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In a related manner, the investigation of dimeric antimicrobial peptide sequences has become an interesting topic of research which bears promise to refine our views how antimicrobial action occurs. (springer.com)
  • The cDNA sequences encoding all the three peptides were obtained from the cDNA library of scorpion venom gland and were deposited in the GenBank database. (ac.ir)
  • So far, more than 880 different antimicrobial peptides have been identified or predicted from their nucleic acid sequences. (nature.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are an abundant and diverse group of molecules that are produced by many tissues and cell types in a variety of invertebrate, plant and animal species. (nature.com)
  • 34] to spell it out molecules formulated with both a cathelin area and a C-terminal antimicrobial area. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. (hindawi.com)
  • The molecular shape concept has been introduced to explain the effects of lipids and peptides on membrane morphology, locally and globally, and in particular of cationic amphipathic helices that partition into the membrane interface. (springer.com)
  • Molecular models of the complexes between the peptides and albumin were constructed using docking experiments, and support the binding hypothesis and confirm the overall binding affinities of the CAPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular mass of the peptides was validated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as explained [31]. (healthweeks.com)
  • The HIV-1 transactivating transcriptor (TAT) peptide is one of the most widely used molecular beacons for drug delivery. (springer.com)
  • Of particular interest to the present invention, a cationic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 16.6 kD has been identified in rabbit granulocytes. (google.com)
  • Therefore, to design more potent and selective antimicrobial peptides that are viable on a pharmacological point of view, a better understanding of the molecular determinants involved in the membrane interactions is required. (springer.com)
  • These reagents are chemically similar to the multi-basic peptides that are known to be potent proprotein convertase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • We explore the complexity of the lipid-peptide interactions governing membrane-disruptive behaviors and establish a link between peptide pore formation and both lipid-peptide charge and topological interactions. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We suggest that albumin binding should be taken into careful consideration in antimicrobial peptide studies, as the systemic distribution can be significantly affected by HSA interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His primary research interest is in membrane biophysics, including peptide-membrane interactions and in-cell biophysics. (springer.com)
  • Exploiting the different NMR interactions, this technique has proven to be useful to provide information on the mutual interactions between membrane-active peptides and phospholipids with an atomic-scale resolution. (springer.com)
  • The present invention provides peptide compounds that regulate the complement system and methods of using these compounds. (patents.com)
  • Disclosed herein are acid addition salts of cationic steroidal antimicrobials ('CSAs' or 'ceragenins') and methods of making the same. (patents.com)
  • Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptides are a family of mammalian liver-expressed antimicrobial peptides (LEAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • CAPs were initially recognized for their antimicrobial properties with the observation that they manipulate mammalian cell function following on a few years later. (isciii.es)
  • Compositions include polypeptides which are identical or homologous to a certain cationic protein (CAP18) obtained from mammalian granulocytes, particularly including a reactive nitrogen inhibiting peptide (RNIP) fragment found at the carboxy-terminus of CAP18. (google.com)
  • In addition, mig - 14 is strongly induced by polymyxin B, protamine, and the mammalian antimicrobial peptide protegrin-1. (asm.org)
  • Fluorescent and biotinylated linear peptides as selective bifunctional ligands for V1a vasopressin receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We are studying the underlying principles of S. aureus nasal colonization, metabolic adaptation and fitness, and resistance to defensin-like antimicrobial peptides. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Three of the peptides displayed strong general antifungal properties at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations. (diva-portal.org)
  • The most promising peptide, compound 5, was selected and evaluated as an antifungal remedy for Candida albicans candidiasis in a human skin model and for the treatment of Trichophyton rubrum induced onychomycosis in an infected human nail model. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dual function of a bee (Apis cerana) inhibitor cysteine knot peptide that acts as an antifungal peptide and insecticidal venom toxin. (peptide.com)
  • Indeed mutations of the Toll pathway of Drosophila that lead to decreased antifungal peptide gene expression result in increased susceptibility to lethal fungal infections ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • PhoP in turn activates a number of genes, including those necessary for intracellular survival and antimicrobial peptide resistance ( 8 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Inducible resistance depends on the presence of PhoP, indicating that the PhoP/PhoQ system can sense sublethal concentrations of cationic antimicrobial peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Measurements performed before and after exposure, as well as time-resolved measurements and those performed at different concentrations, revealed large changes to the viscoelastic parameters that are consistent with differences in the membrane permeabilizing effects of the peptides. (rsc.org)
  • In this manner, the lipids can change their shape in the presence of low peptide concentrations, thereby maintaining the bilayer properties. (springer.com)
  • At higher peptide concentrations, phase transitions occur which lead to the formation of pores and membrane lytic processes. (springer.com)
  • then do serial doubling dilutions in 0.01% acetic acid, 0.2% BSA to get serial dilutions of peptides at 10 times the required test concentrations, eg. (ubc.ca)
  • Other evidence includes the inducibility of some peptides by infectious agents and the very high concentrations that have been recorded at sites of inflammation ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Binary vectors for Agrobacterium -mediated transformation were constructed to express the genes for antimicrobial peptides (APs) of the cectropin-melittin type under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter in plants. (springer.com)
  • These changes were concurrent with upregulation of autophagy genes and antimicrobial peptide/protein gene expression. (bireme.br)
  • Hydrogel particles with well-defined core-shell structures have been synthesized via aqueous reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization for the harvest of low-abundance cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) from complex biological samples, such as saliva, urine, blood plasma and serum. (techconnectworld.com)
  • These core-shell hydrogel particles were able to pull down cationic peptides from alligator serum spiked with known CAMPs, confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. (techconnectworld.com)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are a major component of innate immunity ( 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides, or CAMPs, are an example of last-line drugs. (naturalnews.com)
  • One untapped resource of novel antimicrobial agents, evolutionarily proven as anti-infectives, are the host-derived antimicrobial peptides ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, mig - 14 contributes to Salmonella resistance to antimicrobial peptides by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. (asm.org)
  • The authors consider the factors contributing to the resistance to antimicrobial agents. (ebscohost.com)
  • The rapid emergence of drug resistance intensified the search for new antimicrobial agents, leading to lots of novel derivatives obtained from 14- and 15-membered macrolides by chemical modifications. (ebscohost.com)
  • The emergence of resistance in microorganisms on a global scale has made it necessary to search for new antimicrobial factors. (aaem.pl)
  • We had previously demonstrated that these peptides bind to LPS with an affinity equivalent to that of polymyxin B. Consistent with this, the peptides blocked the ability of LPS and intact cells to induce the endotoxic shock mediator, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), upon incubation with the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. (asm.org)
  • NC-1900, a type of cationic peptide that can induce the gelatinization of deacetylated gellan gum (DGG), was selected as a model peptide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Susceptibility testing of Antimicrobials in liquid media. (ubc.ca)
  • They are included here in the hope that they will be used standardly by workers in the field for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to permit comparisons to be made between the data of different labs. (ubc.ca)
  • Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing breakpoints in Europe: implications for reporting intermediate susceptibility. (ebscohost.com)
  • The limitations in the use of peptides in the treatment of infections, such as susceptibility to proteolysis, and resistance of microorganisms to the peptides, are also discussed. (aaem.pl)
  • Cationic peptides bind polystyrene (especially "tissue culture treated" polystyrene). (ubc.ca)
  • HSA has a preference for accommodating neutral lipophilic and acidic drug-like ligands, but is also surprisingly able to bind positively charged peptides. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The peptides bind themselves to a bacterium's cell wall, allowing them to "break in" and, ultimately, destroy it. (naturalnews.com)
  • Mihajlovic M, Lazaridis T. Antimicrobial peptides bind more strongly to membrane pores. (aaem.pl)