Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.
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A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
A plant genus of the family STYRACACEAE. Sap of these Asian trees are a source of a balsam (BALSAMS). This styrax balsam is 3/4 coniferyl benzoate, 1/8 free BENZOIC ACID, along with benzyl cinnamate, vanillin, and TRITERPENES.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Range of activity and metabolic stability of synthetic antibacterial glycopeptides from insects. (1/2987)

Antibacterial glycopeptides isolated from insects are exciting bio-oligomers because they represent a family of compounds in which the structural and functional effects of incorporating short O-linked sugars to protein fragments can be studied. Additionally, their high activity in vitro warrants detailed further drug development efforts. Due to the limited availability of the isolated material, we used synthetic glycopeptides and some analogs to investigate the range of activity of drosocin and pyrrhocoricin. While addition of the Gal-GalNAc disaccharide to the natural mid-chain position generally increased the antibacterial activity of drosocin, pyrrhocoricin lacking sugar appeared to be more potent, with an IC50 against Escherichia coli D22 of 150 nM. Although glycosylated drosocin was active against E. coli in the low microM range in vitro, this peptide was completely inactive when injected into mice. The lack of in vivo activity of drosocin could be explained by the unusually high degradation rate of the peptides in mammalian sera. The early degradation products were inactive in vitro. In contrast, the peptides were considerably more stable in insect hemolymph, where their natural activity is manifested.  (+info)

Biological properties of structurally related alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides. (2/2987)

A series of alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptide variants with small amino acid changes was designed. Alterations in the charge, hydrophobicity, or length of the variant peptides did not improve the antimicrobial activity, and there was no statistically significant correlation between any of these factors and the MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, or Salmonella typhimurium. Individual peptides demonstrated synergy with conventional antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. The peptides varied considerably in the ability to bind E. coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this correlated significantly with their antimicrobial activity and ability to block LPS-stimulated tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production. In general, the peptides studied here demonstrated a broad range of activities, including antimicrobial, antiendotoxin, and enhancer activities.  (+info)

Inactivation of the dlt operon in Staphylococcus aureus confers sensitivity to defensins, protegrins, and other antimicrobial peptides. (3/2987)

Positively charged antimicrobial peptides with membrane-damaging activity are produced by animals and humans as components of their innate immunity against bacterial infections and also by many bacteria to inhibit competing microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus xylosus, which tolerate high concentrations of several antimicrobial peptides, were mutagenized to identify genes responsible for this insensitivity. Several mutants with increased sensitivity were obtained, which exhibited an altered structure of teichoic acids, major components of the Gram-positive cell wall. The mutant teichoic acids lacked D-alanine, as a result of which the cells carried an increased negative surface charge. The mutant cells bound fewer anionic, but more positively charged proteins. They were sensitive to human defensin HNP1-3, animal-derived protegrins, tachyplesins, and magainin II, and to the bacteria-derived peptides gallidermin and nisin. The mutated genes shared sequence similarity with the dlt genes involved in the transfer of D-alanine into teichoic acids from other Gram-positive bacteria. Wild-type strains bearing additional copies of the dlt operon produced teichoic acids with higher amounts of D-alanine esters, bound cationic proteins less effectively and were less sensitive to antimicrobial peptides. We propose a role of the D-alanine-esterified teichoic acids which occur in many pathogenic bacteria in the protection against human and animal defense systems.  (+info)

Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in combination with sulfadiazine is active against Toxoplasma gondii. (4/2987)

The activity of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), alone or in combination with sulfadiazine, on the intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in vitro and in mice with acute toxoplasmosis. rBPI21 markedly inhibited the intracellular growth of T. gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Following 72 h of exposure, the 50% inhibitory concentration of rBPI21 for T. gondii was 2.6 micrograms/ml, whereas only slight cytotoxicity for HFF cells was observed at the concentrations tested. Subsequent mathematical analyses revealed that the combination of rBPI21 with sulfadiazine yielded slight to moderate synergistic effects against T. gondii in vitro. Infection of mice orally with C56 cysts or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with RH tachyzoites resulted in 100% mortality, whereas prolongation of the time to death or significant survival (P = 0.002) was noted for those animals treated with 5 to 20 mg of rBPI21 per kg of body weight per day. Treatment with rBPI21 in combination with sulfadiazine resulted in significant (P = 0.0001) survival of mice infected i.p. with tachyzoites but not of mice infected orally with T. gondii cysts. These results indicate that rBPI21 is active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii and that its activity is significantly enhanced when it is used in combination with sulfadiazine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the activity of rBPI21 against a protozoan parasite.  (+info)

In vitro antibacterial properties of pexiganan, an analog of magainin. (5/2987)

Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 micrograms/ml or less for Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacterium spp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 10(6) organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 micrograms of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.  (+info)

A gene encoding a hevein-like protein from elderberry fruits is homologous to PR-4 and class V chitinase genes. (6/2987)

We isolated SN-HLPf (Sambucus nigra hevein-like fruit protein), a hevein-like chitin-binding protein, from mature elderberry fruits. Cloning of the corresponding gene demonstrated that SN-HLPf is synthesized as a chimeric precursor consisting of an N-terminal chitin-binding domain corresponding to the mature elderberry protein and an unrelated C-terminal domain. Sequence comparisons indicated that the N-terminal domain of this precursor has high sequence similarity with the N-terminal domain of class I PR-4 (pathogenesis-related) proteins, whereas the C terminus is most closely related to that of class V chitinases. On the basis of these sequence homologies the gene encoding SN-HLPf can be considered a hybrid between a PR-4 and a class V chitinase gene.  (+info)

Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. (7/2987)

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as CAP37, is a proteolytically inactive serine protease homologue that is released from activated granulocytes. However, HBP is not a biologically inactive molecule but rather a multifunctional protein with properties that include the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production from monocytes. We have previously demonstrated that HBP is internalized in monocytes. In the current study, we hypothesize that HBP is internalized in monocytes via endocytosis, and this internalization is an important mechanism by which HBP enhances LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Using whole blood from healthy donors and flow cytometry, we found that colchicine (0.1-10 mM), cytochalasin D (1000 microM), NH4Cl (10-50 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (0.1-3 microM) significantly reduced the affinity of FITC-HBP for CD14-positive monocytes. Using isolated human monocytes and ELISA, we found that colchicine (0.1 mM), cytochalasin D (30 and 300 microM), NH4Cl (30 mM), and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) significantly reduced the effect of HBP (10 microg/ml) to enhance LPS (10 ng/ml)-induced TNF-alpha release after 24 h. These findings demonstrate that internalization of HBP in monocytes is essential for the enhancement of LPS-induced TNF-alpha release. Transport of HBP to an activating compartment depends on intact F-actin polymerization and endosomal acidification, an important mechanism for endosomal protein sorting and trafficking.  (+info)

Transfer of a cathelicidin peptide antibiotic gene restores bacterial killing in a cystic fibrosis xenograft model. (8/2987)

Recent studies suggest that the gene defect in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to a breach in innate immunity. We describe a novel genetic strategy for reversing the CF-specific defect of antimicrobial activity by transferring a gene encoding a secreted cathelicidin peptide antibiotic into the airway epithelium grown in a human bronchial xenograft model. The airway surface fluid (ASF) from CF xenografts failed to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Partial reconstitution of CF transmembrane conductance regulator expression after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer restored the antimicrobial activity of ASF from CF xenografts to normal levels. Exposure of CF xenografts to an adenovirus expressing the human cathelicidin LL-37/hCAP-18 increased levels of this peptide in the ASF three- to fourfold above the normal concentrations, which were equivalent in ASF from CF and normal xenografts before gene transfer. The increase of LL-37 was sufficient to restore bacterial killing to normal levels. The data presented describe an alternative genetic approach to the treatment of CF based on enhanced expression of an endogenous antimicrobial peptide and provide strong evidence that expression of antimicrobial peptides indeed protects against bacterial infection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of outer membrane-permeabilizing and lipopolysaccharide- binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification. AU - Piers, K. L.. AU - Brown, M. H.. AU - Hancock, Robert. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. CEMA was produced by recombinant DNA procedures and is an analog of CEME with a modified C terminus resulting in two additional positive charges. All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the ...
114118PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 1Lys Asn Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Lys Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly218PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 2Lys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa1 5 10 15Xaa Xaa318PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 3Lys Arg Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa1 5 10 15Xaa Xaa418PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 4Lys Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa Arg Xaa Xaa Xaa Xaa1 5 10 15Xaa Xaa518PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 5Lys Gly Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Lys Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly618PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 6Lys Gly Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Trp Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly718PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic antimicrobial polypeptide 7Lys Ile Leu Arg Arg Ile Ile Arg Lys Gly Ile His Ile Ile Lys Lys1 5 10 15Tyr Gly818PRTArtificial ...
This study conclusively demonstrates that endotoxin-induced inflammatory gene responses and cytokine secretion in monocytes were suppressed by low, physiological concentrations of LL-37, implicating LL-37 in the regulation and control of proinflammatory responses associated with pathogenic assault and, by extension, with homeostatic levels of TLR agonists secreted by commensals. This report further demonstrates that LL-37 can suppress LPS-induced NF-κB translocation and exert an anti-inflammatory effect that is not restricted to endotoxin-induced inflammation. In the human THP-1 monocytic cell line as well as in human PBMC, LL-37 suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production induced by LPS as well as other agonists of TLR2 (LTA, Pam3CSK4) and in part TLR9 (CpG), but selectively enhanced responses to the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. Selective enhancement of responses is consistent with the known complex interaction of LL-37 with cells (20, 38), including the induction of a ...
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PURPOSE Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic host defense peptides with microbicidal and cell-signaling properties. They show promise as potential therapeutic agents. In the present study, a beta-defensin AMP gene was isolated from the ocular surface for the first time, and its expression was characterized in the presence of ocular inflammation and/or infection. METHODS Total RNA was obtained from impression cytology samples of the conjunctiva and cornea of normal patients and of those with bacterial, viral, acanthamoeba, or dry eye disease. The expression of the beta-defensin AMP DEFB-109 was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Relative quantification of the gene in the various groups was performed by means of real-time PCR. RESULTS DEFB-109 was constitutively expressed in all samples. The gene showed significantly decreased expression in the presence of all types of inflammation/infection. Reduced expression featured most prominently in acanthamoeba
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Disclosed are novel bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein products wherein cysteine residue number 132 or 135 is replaced by another amino acid residue, preferably an alanine or serine residue and/or wherein the leucine residue at position 193 is the carboxy terminal residue. Also disclosed are DNA sequences encoding methods for the production of the same in appropriate host cells, and stable homogeneous pharmaceutical compositions containing the analogs suitable for use treatment of gram negative bacterial infection and its sequelae.
Barlow, P. G., Li, Y., Wilkinson, T. S., Bowdish, D. M. E., Lau, Y. E., Cosseau, C., …Davidson, D. J. (2005). The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80, 509-520. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005560. ISSN 0741-5400. ...
Barlow, P. G., Li, Y., Wilkinson, T. S., Bowdish, D. M. E., Lau, Y. E., Cosseau, C., …Davidson, D. J. (2005). The human cationic host defense peptide LL-37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 80, 509-520. doi:10.1189/jlb.1005560. ISSN 0741-5400. ...
Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are synthesized and secreted by immune and epithelial cells that are constantly exposed to environmental microbes. AMPs are essential for barrier defense and deficiencies lead to increased susceptibility to infection. In addition to their ability to disrupt the integrity of bacterial, viral and fungal membranes, AMPs bind lipopolysaccharides, act as chemoattractants for immune cells and bind to cellular receptors and modulate the expression of cytokines and chemokines. These additional biological activities may explain the role of AMPs in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Modulating the endogenous expression of AMPs offers potential therapeutic treatments for infection and disease. Methods: The present review examines published data from both in vitro and in vivo studies reporting effects of nutrients and byproducts of microbial metabolism on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in order to highlight an emerging appreciation for the role of ...
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial membranes or host immune cells, HDPs pose a low risk of triggering microbial resistance and therefore, are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two major families of HDPs in avian species. More than a dozen HDPs exist in birds, with the genes in each HDP family clustered in a single chromosomal segment, apparently as a result of gene duplication and diversification. In contrast to their mammalian counterparts that adopt various spatial conformations, mature avian cathelicidins are mostly α-helical. Avian β-defensins, on the other hand, adopt triple-stranded β-sheet structures similar to their mammalian relatives. Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. Like
1. SteinerH, HultmarkD, EngstromA, BennichH, BomanHG (1981) Sequence and specificity of two antibacterial proteins involved in insect immunity. Nature 292: 246-248.. 2. ZasloffM (1987) Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5449-5453.. 3. GanzT, SelstedME, LehrerRI (1990) Defensins. Eur J Haematol 44: 1-8.. 4. BrogdenKA (2005) Antimicrobial peptides: pore formers or metabolic inhibitors in bacteria? Nature Rev Microbiol 3: 238-250.. 5. HancockREW, SahlH-G (2006) Antimicrobial and host-defense peptides as new anti-infective therapeutic strategies. Nature Biotech 24: 1551-1557.. 6. PeschelA, SahlH-G (2006) The co-evolution of host cationic antimicrobial peptides and microbial resistance. Nature Rev Microbiol 4: 529-536.. 7. HaleJDF, HancockREW (2007) Alternative mechanisms of action of cationic antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ...
National Pirogov Memorial Medical University, Vinnytsya, Ukraine Purpose - to determine the activity of antimicrobial peptides, such as cathelicidin LL-37 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in children with asthma. Materials and methods. We have comprehensively examined 200 children with asthma aged 6 to 17 years. The contents of 25(OH)D3 and cathelicidin LL-37 in serum were determined by ELISA according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Results. The examination revealed that the total content of 25(OH)D3 in the serum of children with asthma differs from the values of healthy children and characterized by a significant decrease of its level (p,0.01). Concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in patients with asthma was significantly higher (p,0.001), than in the group of healthy children. The positive correlation between the cathelicidin LL-37, interleukin 1 (rxy=0.398 (p=0.02)) and interleukin 6 (rxy=0.178 (p=0.034)) in children with asthma was determined. The concentration of cathelicidin LL-37 in ...
There has been increasing concern regarding the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. The resistance develops when pathogens, especially bacteria, are frequently exposed to conventional antibiotics, as they are heavily used in both human and livestock. This is due to the high target specificity of conventional antibiotics, which places pathogens in high selective pressures and eventually results in drug resistant by mutations. To address this issue, global actions and cooperation are needed. At the same time, new technologies and strategies need to be developed. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are widely found in the innate immune system. They show both direct antimicrobial properties and immunomodulatory activities. The multifaceted functions of HPDs make them less likely to promote antimicrobial resistance. Thus, they are promising as new therapeutics to treat multi-drug resistant infections. In fact, several drug candidates derived from HDPs have entered the clinical trial, but none of them got
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are positively-charged and amphipathic components of the innate immune system that have demonstrated great potential to become the next generation of broad spectrum therapeutic agents effective against a vast array of pathogens and tumor. As such, many approaches have been taken to improve the therapeutic efficacy of HDPs. Amongst these methods, the incorporation of d-amino acids (d-AA) is an approach that has demonstrated consistent success in improving HDPs. Although, virtually all HDP review articles briefly mentioned about the role of d-AA, however it is rather surprising that no systematic review specifically dedicated to this topic exists. Given the impact that d-AA incorporation has on HDPs, this review aims to fill that void with a systematic discussion of the impact of d-AA on HDPs.. ...
Donald J Davidsons lab studies the role of cationic host defence peptides (antimicrobial peptides) as modulators of cell death, inflammation and immunity in infectious and inflammatory lung diseases, and innate immune signalling.
Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides (HDPs) are produced by virtually all organisms and have an important role in protection against microbial infections. Some naturally occurring peptides such as the human cathelicidin LL-37 and the bovine peptide indolicidin have been shown to inhibit bacterial b …
This comprehensive database for antimicrobial peptides is manually curated based on a set of data-collection criteria. There are 139 human host defense peptides, 305 from mammals annotated, 1087 active peptides from amphibians (1018 from frogs), 134 fish peptides, 45 reptile peptides, 42 from birds, 559 from arthropods, [310 from insects, 69 from crustaceans, 7 from myriapods, 171 from chelicerata, (43 from spiders, 88 from scorpions)], 45 from molluscs, 6 AMPs from protozoa, and more. Of the 428 unique NMR/X-ray diffracted 3D structures annotated for host defense peptides in the APD, 301 with coordinates deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) can be directly rotated, zoomed, and viewed. Top left: Amphibian α-helical magainin II; Top right: bovine β-sheet lactoferricin; Bottom left: plant αβ-PsD1; Bottom right: bovine non-αβ indolicidin. This original database consists of a pipeline of search functions for innate immune peptides. You can search for peptide information using APD ID, ...
This comprehensive database for antimicrobial peptides is manually curated based on a set of data-collection criteria. There are 141 human host defense peptides, 328 from mammals annotated, 1117 active peptides from amphibians (1037 from frogs and 76 from toads), 136 fish peptides, 45 reptile peptides, 43 from birds, 577 from arthropods, [323 from insects, 71 from crustaceans, 8 from myriapods, 175 from chelicerata, (43 from spiders, 88 from scorpions)], 47 from molluscs, 6 AMPs from protozoa, and more. Of the 443 unique NMR/X-ray diffracted 3D structures annotated for host defense peptides in the APD, 316 with coordinates deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) can be directly rotated, zoomed, and viewed. Top left: Amphibian α-helical magainin II; Top right: bovine β-sheet lactoferricin; Bottom left: plant αβ-PsD1; Bottom right: bovine non-αβ indolicidin. This original database consists of a pipeline of search functions for innate immune peptides. You can search for peptide information ...
Zhu SY,Gao B. Positive Selection in Cathelicidin Host Defense Peptides: Adaptation to Exogenous Pathogens or Endogenous Receptors?[J]. Heredity,2017,118(5):453-465 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Host defence peptides (HDPs) are polypeptide sequences found ubiquitously in nature that have garnered significant attention as alternatives to antibiotics. Originally appreciated for their direct antibacterial effect, recent work has revealed that many HDPs possess antibiofilm activity, anticancer activity and/or the ability to modulate the immune response of the host.
Eduardo R. Cobo Scientific laboratory (University of Calgary) studying innate immune functions of epithelial cells and leukocytes contributed by host defense peptides.
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Indolicidin Targets Duplex DNA: Structural and Mechanistic Insight through a Combination of Spectroscopy and Microscopy.. Ghosh A, Kar RK, Jana J, Saha A, Jana B, Krishnamoorthy J, Kumar D, Ghosh S, Chatterjee S, Bhunia A, ChemMedChem, 2014, 9, 2052-8.. Indolicidin (IR13), a 13-residue antimicrobial peptide from the cathelicidin family, is known to exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. This peptide inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis resulting in cell filamentation. However, the precise mechanism remains unclear and requires further investigation. The central PWWP motif of IR13 provides a unique structural element that can wrap around, and thus stabilize, duplex B-type DNA structures. Replacements of the central Trp-Trp pair with Ala-Ala, His-His, or Phe-Phe residues in the PxxP motif significantly affects the ability of the peptide to stabilize duplex DNA. Results of microscopy studies in conjunction with spectroscopic data confirm that the DNA duplex ...
Antimicrobial peptides, Cationic antimicrobial peptides, Cathelicidins, Defensins, Host defence peptides, Microbicidal cationic proteins. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand.
The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for disease-resistance breeding. We evaluated whether polymorphisms in exons 4 and 10 of the BPI gene are associated with immune indices [interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, interferon-b (IFN-b), IL-10, and IL-12]. In this study, we identified one mutation (C522T) in the BPI exon 4 site and two mutations (A1060G and T1151G) in the BPI exon 10 site.
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a cationic protein isolated from human neutrophils, binds lipopolysaccharide (LPS), kills gram-negative bacteria, and neutralizes many of the effects of LPS in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that a recombinant 23-kDa NH2-terminal fragment of BPI (BPI23) would reduce acute lung injury in endotoxemic pigs. At -18 h, pigs received an intravenous priming dose of LPS (20 micrograms/kg). Anesthetized ventilated swine were randomized to receive 1) no further treatment (n = 4); 2) LPS (250 micrograms/kg over 50 min) and BPI23 (3-mg/kg bolus and 3 mg/kg over 60 min) (n = 6); or 3) LPS and thaumatin, a cationic protein devoid of LPS neutralizing activity that has a molecular mass and isoelectric point that are similar to that of BPI23 (n = 7). BPI23 treatment significantly ameliorated LPS-induced hypoxemia, functional upregulation of opsonin receptors on circulating phagocytes, and alveolitis but had no effect on the elaboration of tumor necrosis ...
CUONG, Ng.V. et al. Polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with meat quality and disease resistance in indigenous and exotic pig breeds of Vietnam. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.3, pp.221-231. ISSN 2221-4062.. The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds. For this purpose, 340 pigs from four indigenous and two exotic breeds were included in the analysis of the polymorphisms of the heart fatty-acid-binding protein (H-FABP), alpha 1 fucosyltransferase (FUT1), and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) genes by the sequencing and PCR-RFLP methods. For H-FABP, 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in indigenous pig breeds by direct sequencing of a fragment at intron 2 of the H-FABP gene. The mutation T1556C created a new restriction site for the enzyme MspI, which gave rise ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a wide range of antimicrobial and antifungal activity and have attracted significant interest as potential antibiotics. However, the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides is still poorly understood and, from experimental data, different membrane disruption structural models have been proposed for linear α-helical peptides (the barrel-stave and the toroidal pore models).. We investigate the mechanisms of AMPs in action at different levels of detail: from atomistic [1, 2] to coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [3, 4] and even at mixed detail between the two [5]. We proposed a new mechanism for membrane poration by linear antimicrobial peptides: the disordered toroidal pore [1, 2]. Besides, we were able to provide detailed insight on the mechanism of pore-forming cyclic peptides in an effort that brought together simulation results and in vitro measurements of peptide activity [6].. [1] H. Leontiadou, A.E. Mark, S.J. Marrink. ...
This application is in response to PA-09-164 (NIH Exploratory Developmental Research Grant Program). Given the high rate of hospital-acquired infection in criti...
Sandrine Ménard, Valentina Förster, Michael Lotz, Dominique Gütle, Claudia U. Duerr, Richard L. Gallo, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Katrin Pütsep, Mats Andersson, Erik O. Glocker, Mathias W. Hornef ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Versatile interactions of the antimicrobial peptide novispirin with detergents and lipids. AU - Wimmer, Reinhard. AU - Andersen, Kell. AU - Davidsen, Mads. AU - Mølgaard, Søren. AU - Nesgaard, Lise. AU - Kristensen, Hans Henrik. AU - Vad, Brian. AU - Otzen, Daniel. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Paper without publisher/journal. Y2 - 20 August 2006 through 26 August 2006. ER - ...
DUGi: Viewing Item from repository Recercat: The presence of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) biosynthetic genes srfAA (surfactin), bacA (bacylisin), fenD (fengycin), bmyB (bacyllomicin), spaS (subtilin), and ituC (iturin) was examined in 184 isolates of Bacillus spp. obtained from plant environments (aerial, rhizosphere, soil) in the Mediterranean land area of Spain. Most strains had between two and four AMP genes whereas strains with five genes were seldom detected and none of the strains had six genes. The most frequent AMP gene markers were srfAA, bacA, bmyB, and fenD, and the most frequent genotypes srfAA-bacA-bmyB and srfAAbacA-bmyB-fenD. The dominance of these particular genes in Bacillus strains associated with plants reinforces the competitive role of surfactin, bacyllomicin, fengycin, and bacilysin in the fitness of strains in natural environments. The use of these AMP gene markers may assist in the selection of putative biological control agents of plant pathogens
A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides a
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture.
Hepcidin (Liver Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide 1 or Putative Liver Tumor Regressor or HAMP) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016 Hepcidin (Liver Expressed Antimicrobial Peptide 1 or - Market research report and industry analysis - 10290125
abstract = {The production of antimicrobial peptides is an important aspect of host defense in multicellular organisms. In Drosophila, seven antimicrobial peptides with different spectra of activities are synthesized by the fat body during the immune response and secreted into the hemolymph. Using GFP reporter transgenes, we show here that all seven Drosophila antimicrobial peptides can be induced in surface epithelia in a tissue-specific manner. The imd gene plays a critical role in the activation of this local response to infection. In particular, drosomycin expression, which is regulated by the Toll pathway during the systemic response, is regulated by imd in the respiratory tract, thus demonstrating the existence of distinct regulatory mechanisms for local and systemic induction of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila ...
Azurocidin, also known as cationic antimicrobial protein 37 kDa (CAP37) or heparin-binding protein (HBP) is an inactive homolog of serine proteinases residing in granulocytes. The ability to cleave peptide bond was lost due to replacement of two of the three residues from the conserved catalytic triad characteristic for serine proteinases. Azurocidin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, mainly against Gram-negative bacteria. It is also recognized as a multifunctional inflammatory mediator for its contracting effects on endothelial cells causing an increase of vascular permeability, capacity to bind endotoxin and ability to attract monocytes to inflammation sites ...
Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial and cytolytic properties of the frog skin peptide, kassinatuerin-1 and its L- and D-lysine-substituted derivatives. AU - Conlon, J. Michael. AU - Abraham, Bency. AU - Galadari, Sehamuddin. AU - Knoop, Floyd C.. AU - Sonnevend, Agnes. AU - Pál, Tibor. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Kassinatuerin-1, a 21-amino-acid C-terminally α-amidated peptide first isolated from the skin of the African frog Kassina senegalensis, adopts an amphipathic α-helical conformation in a membrane-mimetic solvent (50% trifluoroethanol) and shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, its therapeutic potential is limited by its relatively high cytolytic activity against mammalian cells. The antimicrobial and cytolytic properties of a peptide are determined by an interaction between cationicity, hydrophobicity, α-helicity and amphipathicity. Replacement of the C-terminal α-amide group in kassinatuerin-1 by carboxylic acid decreased both cationicity and α-helicity, ...
சளிப்படலம் போன்ற ஒரு வண்ணமயமான திரவத்தினை சுரக்கும் தவளையானது (ஹைட்ரோஃபிளாஸ் பேஹுவிஸ்தாரா)( Hudrophylax bahuvistara) கேளராவில் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. தவளையின் தோலிலிருந்து வெளிப்படும் பிசுப்பிசுப்பான திரவத்தினை ஆய்வு செய்ததில் host defence peptides இருப்பது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. இந்த புதிய பெப்டைட்களுக்கு உருமின் என்று கேரளாவின் உறுமி வாளை நினைவுபடுத்தும் வகையில் பெயர்
The effectiveness of antimicrobial compounds can be easily screened, however their mechanism of action is much more difficult to determine. Many compounds act by compromising the mechanical integrity of the bacterial cell envelope, and our study introduces an AFM-based creep deformation technique to evaluate Interaction of nano-objects with lipid membranes
abstract = {The antimicrobial defence of Drosophila relies largely on the challenge-induced synthesis of an array of potent antimicrobial peptides by the fat body. The defence against Gram-positive bacteria and natural fungal infections is mediated by the Toll signalling pathway, whereas defence against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections. The link between microbial infections and activation of these two pathways has remained elusive. The Toll pathway is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA). PGRPs appear to be highly conserved from insects to mammals, and the Drosophila genome contains 13 members. Here we report a mutation in a gene coding for a putative transmembrane protein, PGRP-LC, which reduces survival to Gram-negative sepsis but has no effect on the response to Gram-positive bacteria or ...
abstract = {The antimicrobial defence of Drosophila relies largely on the challenge-induced synthesis of an array of potent antimicrobial peptides by the fat body. The defence against Gram-positive bacteria and natural fungal infections is mediated by the Toll signalling pathway, whereas defence against Gram-negative bacteria is dependent on the Immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. Loss-of-function mutations in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections. The link between microbial infections and activation of these two pathways has remained elusive. The Toll pathway is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA). PGRPs appear to be highly conserved from insects to mammals, and the Drosophila genome contains 13 members. Here we report a mutation in a gene coding for a putative transmembrane protein, PGRP-LC, which reduces survival to Gram-negative sepsis but has no effect on the response to Gram-positive bacteria or ...
Over the last decade, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promising alternative for treatment of various infections. A large variety of AMPs have been identified and isolated from plants, animals and humans. The benefits of using AMPs are that they act by disrupting the bacteria membranes, a mechanism that is fast and non-specific. Therefore bacteria are not prone to develop high level resistance towards these compounds in the same extent as towards conventional antibiotics. AMPs are in general rather small (10-40 amino acid residues), cationic and amphiphilic compounds with a diversity in secondary structure which can be altered to different extent upon membrane interaction. Their structure has been developed for millenia during evolution and is today well preserved.. AMPs have been assessed, analyzed and modified in order to increase their function and efficiency for future drug delivery applications. In humans, AMPs are naturally present in high concentrations in tissues ...
The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic α-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitrostudies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivoactivities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers ...
Mechanical ventilation (MV) of patients can cause damage to bronchoalveolar epithelium, leading to a sterile inflammatory response, infection and in severe cases sepsis. Limited knowledge is available on the effects of MV on the innate immune defense system in the human lung. In this study, we demonstrate that cyclic stretch of the human bronchial epithelial cell lines VA10 and BCi NS 1.1 leads to down-regulation of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene expression. We show that treatment of VA10 cells with vitamin D3 and/or 4-phenyl butyric acid counteracted cyclic stretch mediated down-regulation of CAMP mRNA and protein expression (LL-37). Further, we observed an increase in pro-inflammatory responses in the VA10 cell line subjected to cyclic stretch. The mRNA expression of the genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β was increased after cyclic stretching, where as a decrease in gene expression of chemokines IP-10 and RANTES was observed. Cyclic stretch enhanced oxidative
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Biomatik CorporationHuman Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide (CAMP) ELISA Kit, 96 tests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is decreased in pregnancy: a prospective longitudinal study. AU - van Santen, Susanne. AU - Kroot, Joyce J. C.. AU - Zijderveld, Gerard. AU - Wiegerinck, Erwin T.. AU - Spaanderman, Marc E. A.. AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.. PY - 2013/7. Y1 - 2013/7. KW - hepcidin. KW - iron homeostasis. KW - physiology. KW - pregnancy. U2 - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. DO - 10.1515/cclm-2012-0576. M3 - Article. C2 - 23241678. VL - 51. SP - 1395. EP - 1401. JO - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. JF - Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. SN - 1434-6621. IS - 7. ER - ...
Antimicrobial peptides are multifunctional in innate immunity and wound repair of multicellular organisms. We were the first to discover that histatins, a family of salivary antimicrobial peptides, enhance epithelial cell migration, suggesting a role in oral wound healing. It is unknown whether histatins display innate-immunity activities, similar to other antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37. Therefore, we compared the effect of Histatin-2 and LL-37 on several activities within the context of wound healing and innate immunity. We found that Histatin-2 enhances fibroblast migration, but only weakly induces proliferation. LL-37 enhances both fibroblast migration and proliferation, but only at a narrow concentration optimum (approximately 1 μm). At higher concentrations LL-37 causes cell death, whereas Histatin-2 is not cytotoxic. Both peptides do not alter fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Histatin-2 does not alter interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-elevated ...
The production of antimicrobial peptides is essential for protection against a wide variety of microbial pathogens and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The mechanisms responsible for expression of antimicrobial peptides are incompletely understood, but a role for vitamin D as a transcriptional inducer of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin has been proposed. We show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) acts together with parathyroid hormone (PTH), or the shared amino-terminal domain of PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), to synergistically increase cathelicidin and immune defense. Administration of PTH to mouse skin decreased susceptibility to skin infection by group A Streptococcus. Mice on dietary vitamin D3 restriction that responded with an elevation in PTH have an increased risk of infection if they lack 1,25-D3. These results identify PTH/PTHrP as a variable that serves to compensate for inadequate vitamin D during activation of antimicrobial peptide ...
Growth factors, comprising diverse protein and peptide families, are involved in a multitude of developmental processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Here we show that peptides derived from HB-EGF, amphiregulin, hepatocyte growth factor, PDGF-A and PDGF-B, as well as various FGFs are antimicrobial, demonstrating a previously unknown activity of growth factor-derived peptides. The peptides killed the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, as well as the fungus Candida albicans. Several peptides were also active against the Gram-positive S. aureus. Electron microscopy analysis of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen after treatment with the classical human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Furthermore, HB-EGF was antibacterial per se, and its epitope GKRKKKGKGLGKKRDPCLRKYK retained ...
Gombart AF , Borregaard N , Koeffler HP . Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA. [email protected] The innate immune system of mammals provides a rapid response to repel assaults from numerous infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. A major component of this system is a diverse combination of cationic antimicrobial peptides that include the alpha- and beta-defensins and cathelicidins. In this study, we show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and three of its analogs induced expression of the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene. This induction was observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), immortalized keratinocyte, and colon cancer cell lines, as well as normal human bone marrow (BM) -derived macrophages and fresh BM cells from two normal individuals and one AML patient. The induction occurred via a consensus vitamin D response ...
Peptides , Antimicrobial and Related Peptides , LL17-32; This peptide is an active segment of LL-37, a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. It has been reported that the LL17-32 peptide exhibits reversal effect on ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cell lines.; FKRIVQRIKDFLRNLV; H-Phe-Lys-Arg-Ile-Val-Gln-Arg-Ile-Lys-Asp-Phe-Leu-Arg-Asn-Leu-Val-OH
en] Animals are colonized by coevolved bacterial communities, which contribute to the hosts health. This commensal microbiota is often highly specific to its host-species, inferring strong selective pressures on the associated microbes. Several factors, including diet, mucus composition, and the immune system have been proposed as putative determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we report that species-specific antimicrobial peptides account for different bacterial communities associated with closely related species of the cnidarian Hydra. Gene family extensions for potent antimicrobial peptides, the arminins, were detected in four Hydra species, with each species possessing a unique composition and expression profile of arminins. For functional analysis, we inoculated arminin-deficient and control polyps with bacterial consortia characteristic for different Hydra species and compared their selective preferences by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial microbiota. In contrast ...
Human CAMP ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids.
We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, ...
The Gift for Life® Exclusive all natural Feline product is designed for cellular rejuvenation, vitality and longevity. TGFL offers numerous supportive properties for all dog breeds that have been spayed or neutered or are over the age of 7. It is formulated to address the Endocrine issues that cause our pets disease, joint pain and decreased energy and activity. This formula activates the adrenal cortex to start producing 24 life giving hormones lost from elective surgeries or aging. Through our inclusion of naturally occurring Cationic Host Defense Peptides (CHDPs), your pets Viral Shield will be supported by broad-spectrum anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal immunomodulatory activity.. The Gift for Life® has been called the fountain of Youth for pets! This is a fast acting and very effective product. Many owners will see a difference within days. TGFL is a chewable treat and is given twice a day. One in the morning and one in the evening.. The Gift for Life® Feline ingredients ...
The Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is a transient commensal of the human nasopharynx, but occasionally causes life-threatening disease. During colonisation of its niche, N. meningitidis has to overcome innate immune defences, including the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Meningococcal resistance to the host defence peptide LL-37 was investigated in Papers I and II. The polysaccharide capsule and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were found to increase LL-37 resistance by inhibiting peptide binding to the bacteria. Further, N. meningitidis responded to sub-lethal doses of LL-37 by an increase in capsule biosynthesis. Intriguingly, adhesion to epithelial cells and tissues protected N. meningitidis from physiological concentrations of LL-37 and two other helical peptides. The protective effect was mediated by RhoA- and Cdc42-dependent host cell signalling and cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. The host epithelium thus seems to play an active role in AMP ...
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LBP gene.[5][6] LBP is a soluble acute-phase protein that binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or LPS) to elicit immune responses by presenting the LPS to important cell surface pattern recognition receptors called CD14 and TLR4.[7] The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to gram-negative bacterial infections. Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. Together with bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the encoded protein binds LPS and interacts with the CD14 receptor, probably playing a role in regulating LPS-dependent monocyte responses. Studies in mice suggest that the encoded protein is necessary for the rapid acute-phase response to LPS but not for the clearance of LPS from circulation. This protein is part of a family of structurally and functionally related proteins, including BPI, plasma ...
The ability of epithelial cells to sense the external environment and communicate this information to the local immune system, thereby initiating appropriate responses, is essential for the maintenance of health and prevention of the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Our studies have shown that an oral probiotic commensal strain of S. salivarius is able to inhibit inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells by downregulating the NF-κB pathway. This is consistent with an emerging paradigm that indicates the downregulation of epithelial immune responses by commensal bacteria (8, 13, 24, 38, 48). Not only did S. salivarius K12 inhibit baseline synthesis of IL-8, but it also suppressed IL-8 secretion when cells were stimulated with pathogenic P. aeruginosa, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium flagellin, or the immunomodulatory host defense peptide LL-37. Most previous studies have focused on IL-8 and IL-6 responses, but here it was demonstrated that this commensal bacterium ...
Principal Investigator:KOMATSUZAWA Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):2007 - 2008, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
Targeting the BMP pathway: as the BMP pathway plays a key role in stimulating hepcidin transcription, sequestration of BMP ligands could decrease hepcidin expression. Heparin, a glycosaminoglycan widely used as an anticoagulant, has long been known to bind BMPs.68 Poli and colleagues demonstrated that heparin inhibited hepcidin expression in hepatic cell lines as well as in mice.69 Daily injections in mice for seven days (50 mg/kg/d) decreased hepcidin mRNA expression and SMAD phosphorylation, increased serum iron and reduced spleen iron concentration. In 5 patients treated with low molecular weight heparin to prevent deep vein thrombosis, serum hepcidin concentration decreased by 80-85% within 2-5 days after the start of the treatment. Concurrently, increased serum iron levels and transferrin saturation were noted in all 5 patients. Although the safety profile of heparin is well understood, its anticoagulant activity hinders its wider application to iron-restricted disorders. To address this, ...
This resistance is adaptive in that it depends on the biofilm growth state and although many explanations have been provided to explain it, it is likely that changes in gene and/or protein expression in the biofilm state explain why organisms become resistant.. Intriguingly despite this problem, not a single antibiotic has been developed for treating biofilms. We have started to address this using as templates the cationic host defence (antimicrobial) peptides, which are produced by virtually all organisms as a major part of their innate defences against infection. They are a key component of innate immunity and have multiple mechanisms that enable them to deal with infections and inflammation, including selective modulation of innate immunity, activity against bacterial biofilms (the cause of 65% of all human infections) and direct antimicrobial activity. We made the breakthrough observation that human peptide LL-37 was able to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at one sixteenth of its MIC ...
Moreover the human α-Defensin human neutrophil peptide 1 was revealed to show anti-HIV activity. HNP-one inhibits the binding of the virus to its coreceptor , the endocytosis of the virus into the target cell as well as the release of the HIV-genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. Even so HNP-one did not inhibit the endocytosis of Influenza A virus displaying some selectivity of the AMPs in their tropism. These final results evidently demonstrate that defensins not only screen antimicrobial activity but in addition are lively from viruses as nicely.Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein belongs to the class of AMPs. In distinction to the over mentioned defensins BPI owing to the 55 kDa molecular measurement of the protein is structurally significantly a lot more intricate than the peptides, which are in the selection of 3-five kDa. The BPI protein loved ones contains of far more than ten associates but only BPI alone displays a powerful antimicrobial exercise. BPI functions ...
Using our CAMP discovery process and only 100 μl of alligator plasma, we have previously identified five novel antimicrobial peptides from A. mississippiensis that exhibit antibacterial activity [8]. Our bioprospecting-based process provides a unique access to the antimicrobial peptidome, and is a significant advance in the effort to identify novel antimicrobial peptides in nature. In this study, we present detailed characterization of the structure and function of three alligator plasma-derived peptides: Apo5, Apo6, and A1P. We demonstrated that Apo5, Apo6, and A1P are potent antimicrobial peptides that extend their efficacy against multi-drug resistant and clinically relevant pathogens, such as A. baumannii. The two peptides Apo5 and Apo6 are both derived from a predicted apolipoprotein C-1 in A. mississippiensis. Apolipoproteins bind lipids; apolipoprotein C-1 in particular is known to bind phospholipids and is a marker of apoptosis [11, 12, 43, 44]. Apo6 is a smaller derivative of Apo5; ...
Cumulatively, CIPPS researchers have published over 1800 publications, books and book chapters in the past 10 years. 310,000 Citations. CIPPS researchers have been cited over 310,000 times. ...
An azurophilic granule is a cellular object readily stainable with a Romanowsky stain. In white blood cells and hyperchromatin, staining imparts a burgundy or merlot coloration. Neutrophils in particular are known for containing azurophils loaded with a wide variety of anti-microbial defensins that fuse with phagocytic vacuoles. Azurophils may contain myeloperoxidase, phospholipase A2, acid hydrolases, elastase, defensins, neutral serine proteases, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, lysozyme, cathepsin G, proteinase 3, and proteoglycans. Azurophil granules are also known as primary granules. Furthermore, the term azurophils may refer to a unique type of cells, identified only in reptiles. These cells are similar in size to so-called heterophils with abundant cytoplasm that is finely to coarsely granular and may sometimes contain vacuoles. Granules may impart a purplish hue to the cytoplasm, particularly to the outer region. Occasionally, azurophils are observed with vacuolated ...
Title: Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptaibols, Substitutes for Conventional Antibiotics. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 28. Author(s):Herve Duclohier. Affiliation:Institut de Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires, UMR 6187 CNRS-Universite de Poitiers, 1 rue Geoges Bonnet, BP 633, 86022 Poitiers France.. Keywords:Antimicrobial peptides, peptaibols, alamethicin, planar lipid bilayers. Abstract: In this review, the antimicrobial properties of a number of peptides are described. We first deal with helical linear peptides such as the well-known gramicidin, magainins, melittin, and other less well-known or more recently discovered peptides. Then, betasheet peptides (defensins isolated from insects and also from mammalian tissues) and cyclic peptides like amphotericin B are described before the properties of peptaibols (containing the non-coded amino acid Aib) are discussed. Alamethicin remains the prototype of this class and its biophysical properties (mostly focussing on channel- or pore-formation in planar lipid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. AU - Locock, Katherine E.S.. AU - Michl, Thomas D.. AU - Stevens, Natalie. AU - Hayball, John D.. AU - Vasilev, Krasimir. AU - Postma, Almar. AU - Griesser, Hans J.. AU - Meagher, Laurence. AU - Haeussler, Matthias. PY - 2014/4/15. Y1 - 2014/4/15. N2 - This study describes a facile and high yielding route to two series of polymethacrylates inspired by the naturally occurring, tryptophan-rich cationic antimicrobial polymers. Appropriate optimization of indole content within each gave rise to polymers with high potency against Staphylococcus epidermidis (e.g., PGI-3 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 12 μg/mL) and the methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., PGI-3 MIC = 47 μg/mL) with minimal toxicity toward human red blood cells. Future work will be directed toward understanding the cooperative roles that the cationic and indole pendant groups have for the ...
The study describes an elegant tool for what has been a frustrating problem. Of particular interest to us, this study shows that Aβ dimers have striking structural similarities to the dimeric forms of the antimicrobial peptides human NP2, horseshoe crab tachystatin B, and mouse α-defensin. We recently reported on the antimicrobial activity of Aβ, and our newest data suggest dimerization is a key event in turning relatively inactive Aβ monomers into forms that can attack bacteria. This is not a phenomenon restricted to Aβ. It has been known for some time that oligomerization has an important role in the action and targeting of a number of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs), including the archetypal antimicrobial peptide LL-37 which can form oligomers, fibrils, and birefringent amyloid (albeit, LL-37 amyloid has only been observed in vitro to date). Oligomerization is also a key mechanism for antimicrobial protein-mediated agglutination and inactivation of viral particles.. Despite this central ...
Antimicrobial peptides represent the first-line host defence against microbial pathogens and an essential component of innate immunity. They have received growing interest because of their potential use as therapeutic antibiotics. Due to the fact that most antimicrobial peptides are toxic to prokaryotic host cells, they are currently often produced by chemical synthesis. However, this is too costly for them to be used when large quantities of antimicrobial peptides are required for investigations and clinical trials. Thus, the convenience and cost efficiencies of bacterial production of antimicrobial peptides have become a bottleneck problem.. As an important group of antimicrobial peptides human ß-defensins are cationic peptides with 38-47 amino acid residues showing three strands of anti-parallel β-sheets that provide a compact small structure [1,2]. We describe an optimized strategy for recombinant expression of hBD-1 and its mutants in Escherichia coli, to efficiently produce milligram ...
Three novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), named panurgines (PNGs), were isolated from the venom of the wild bee Panurgus calcaratus. The dodecapeptide of the sequence LNWGAILKHIIK-NH2 (PNG-1) belongs
We participate in the revolution in fluorescence microscopy of biological systems. It is now possible to measure the spatial distribution of proteins and DNA loci with 30-nm precision in live cells and to track their motion in real time. The result is an unprecedented, high resolution view of biological structure and activity. Areas of current interest include: (1) The motion and spatial distribution of GFP-labeled species in live E. coli cells. Species of interest include RNA polymerase, ribosomes, architectural proteins, and specific DNA loci. The transcription/translation machinery (ribosomes, the nucleoid, and RNAP) all exhibit a remarkable level of spatial organization. (2) The time-resolved attack of antimicrobial agents on single bacterial cell membranes. Examples include LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide, and synthetic random copolymers designed by the Gellman group. Simultaneous two-color imaging of the antimicrobial and cytoplasmic or periplasmic GFP yields unprecedented insight ...
Hepcidin, presumed to be a potential link in the mutual relationship between thyrometabolic and haematologic status, is a liver-derived protein encoded by the HAMP gene, responsible mainly for bodily Fe distribution (9). The mechanism of hepcidin response to inflammatory stimuli comprises two possible pathways: one through bone morphogenetic protein-mothers against decapentaplegic (BMP-SMAD) and more specifically via Janus kinase (JAK) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The latter axis is triggered by cytokines, mainly IL-6, which activates JAK2 and leads to phosphorylation of STAT3, enabling its translocation to the nucleus and upregulation of HAMP gene transcription. IL-6 also contributes to hepcidin regulation via the BMD pathway (14). Cross-talk between two presented pathways has been postulated (15). Stimulated hepcidin affects ferroportin, which is a cellular iron transporter, causing its internalization and degradation, thus retaining Fe absorption from a lumen of ...
Objectives High-dose vitamin D3increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function. Methods In a double blind, randomized controlled trial, critically ill ventilator-dependent adults (N = 30) received enteral vitamin D3(250,000 or 500,000 IU total over 5 d) or placebo. Plasma was obtained serially for ...
Creative Peptides offers Esculentin-2-MG1 antimicrobial peptide precursor for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Babitt, J.L. and Lin, H.Y. (2010) Molecular Mechanisms of Hepcidin Regulation Implications for the Anemia of CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 55, 726-741.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Ontogeny and modulation after PAMPs stimulation of β-defensin, hepcidin, and piscidin antimicrobial peptides in meagre (,i,Argyrosomus regius,/i,) . Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Chronic wounds are a growing clinical concern worldwide with only a few treatment options available to address the fundamental causes of non-healing wounds. There is increasing evidence that the...
Anti-microbial coatings and method of forming same on medical devices are provided. The coatings are preferably formed by depositing an anti-microbial, biocompatible metal by vapor deposition techniques to produce atomic disorder in the coating such that a sustained release of metal ions sufficient to produce an anti-microbial effect is achieved. Preferred deposition conditions to achieve atomic disorder include a lower than normal substrate temperature, and one or more of a higher than normal working gas pressure and a lower than normal angle of incidence of coating flux. Anti-microbial powders formed by vapor deposition or altered by mechanical working to produce atomic disorder are also provided. Novel anti-microbial silver materials are defined, characterized by having a positive rest potential, a T.sub.rec /T.sub.m less than 0.33, and a grain size less than 200 nm. Anti-microbial fine grain or nanocrystalline materials are provided, together with methods of preparation, wherein the anti-microbial
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute researchers have shown that a new class of anti-inflammatory agents, called IDR (innate defense regulator) peptides, could help to increase survival from severe clinical malaria when used in combination with antimalarial drugs.. A research team fronted by Dr Ariel Achtman and Dr Sandra Pilat-Carotta, and led by Professor Louis Schofield from the institutes Infection and Immunity division, published the study today in the journal Science Translational Medicine.. Dr Achtman said that many drugs that prevent malaria infections are not effective in sick patients at preventing tissue damage that arises from the inflammatory immune response. The most severe forms of malaria, such as cerebral malaria which causes brain damage, are actually the result of the immune system trying to fight infection and causing collateral damage, she said.. Dr Pilat-Carotta said the team used a treatment approach combining drugs that suppress potentially harmful inflammation with ...
TCS application on AD lesions does reduce Staphylococcus aureus bacterial load, likely via decreasing the inflammatory cytokines that inhibit antimicrobial peptide production. There is some worry that TCS may impair the process of wound healing and re-epithelialization, although excoriated and fissured lesions should be included in treatment given that the underlying inflammation and pruritus lead to these secondary changes. Allergic contact dermatitis/type IV hypersensitivity can develop to TCS or other ingredients in their formulations, such as propylene glycol and preservatives. This should be considered if lesions fail to respond as expected or worsen with application. Patch testing is needed to determine if the allergen is the steroid compound itself or a component of the vehicle. Development of tachyphylaxis is of concern for some practitioners, where the efficacy is thought to decrease with repeated use of the same agent, although data are lacking to suggest that this is a significant ...
Oreola Donini has more than 15 years experience in drug discovery and preclinical development with start-up biotechnology companies and has been instrumental in leading early stage development of several novel therapies into the clinic. Dr. Donini has worked previously with ESSA Pharma Inc., Inimex Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Kinetek Pharmaceuticals Inc., developing novel therapies for infectious disease, cancer and cancer supportive care. Dr. Donini is a co-inventor and leader of the SGX94 Innate Defense Regulator technology. She was responsible for overseeing the manufacturing and preclinical testing of SGX94, which demonstrated efficacy in combating bacterial infections and mitigating the effects of tissue damage due to trauma, infection, radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment. These preclinical studies culminated in a successful Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical studies demonstrating efficacy in reducing the duration of severe oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients (a function of a ...
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of the natural antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3), on the migration of a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro using microfabrication and soft-lithographic techniques. METHODS: TR146 cancer cells were seeded in Petri dishes with microfabricated wells for cell migration assays. Total 54 cell islands were used of various shape and size and experimental media type. Cell migration assays were analyzed in six group media: Dulbeccos modified medium (DMEM); DMEM with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Conditioned media of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 239) expressing hBD-3 via transfected cloned pcDNA3 as CM/hBD-3; CM/hBD-3+ VEGF; conditioned medium from non-transfected HEK 239 (not expressing hBD-3) as control (CM); and the last group was CM + VEGF ...
Polycationic hydrogel - an antimicrobial hydrogel based on dimethyldecylammonium chitosan-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, which was shown to have efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Fusarium solani. Proposed mechanism of the antimicrobial activity was by microbial membrane disruption caused by electrostatic interaction that allow sections of anionic microbial membrane to be distorted and drawn into the cationic internal nanopores of the hydrogel leading to microbial death.6 ...
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Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of small, cationic peptides that can inhibit the growth of a broad range of microbes. They can be found in plants as well as in animals and have been shown to play an important role in defense and innate immunity [1,2]. The stable ectopic expression of AMPs in plants allows for the use of plants as biofactories or in the protection of crops against a wide range of pathogens [3,4]. A universal method that could verify in planta AMP stability and accumulation would allow for the rapid screening of different candidates to find novel AMPs for plant protection.. One of the first animal-peptides heterologously expressed in plants was cecropin B, a small AMP from the giant silk moth Hyalophora cecropia. Attempts to detect the peptide in transgenic tobacco and potato plants failed, indicating in planta instability [5,6]. Cecropin B has been shown to be extremely susceptible to endogenous plant peptidases and even modified versions of the peptide had ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Marco Ieronimo, Sergii Afonin, Katja Koch, Marina Berditsch, Parvesh Wadhwani, Anne S Ulrich].
Hepcidin mRNA content in liver of control and phlebotomized mice as determined by Northern blot analysis. Twenty micrograms of total liver RNAs were electrophoresed, blotted, and hybridized with both hepcidin and 18S-labeled probes (as described in Methods). Autoradiography of a typical experiment ...
... is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide. It falls under the structural class: short cationic peptides. Since it is a short ... April 2014). "Small cationic antimicrobial peptides delocalize peripheral membrane proteins". Proceedings of the National ... MP196 can be used as the key structure in order to develop any potential antimicrobial peptides which could help in fighting ... as this cationic peptide prefers incorporating into membranes which have a higher negatively charged phospholipid ratio. ...
"Antibacterial Action of Structurally Diverse Cationic Peptides on Gram-Positive Bacteria". Antimicrobial Agents and ...
It is also 29% identical to the amino acid residues of the frog antimicrobial peptide dermaseptin. Oxyopinins 2a, 2b, 2c, and ... They are the largest linear cationic amphipathic peptides detected in the venom of any spider. They are structurally α-helical ... The sixth peptide oxyopinin 4a (Oxt-4a) was reported in 2011 from Oxyopes takobius. It is composed of 77 amino acid residues, ... The first five peptides, namely oxyopinins 1, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d, were described in 2002 from Oxyopes kitabensis. Oxyopinin 1 ...
"Preparation and in Vitro Evaluation of New Composite Mesh Functionalized with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide". Materials. 12 ( ... As a drug delivery system, a hernia mesh can be used to deliver antibiotics, antiseptics, antimicrobials, antimicrobial ... FDA Approved Antimicrobial Hernia Meshes MycroMesh and DualMesh Plus by GORE XenMatrix Surgical Graft by BD Ventrio Hernia ... Are antimicrobial biomaterials the longed-for solution?". Biomaterials. 167: 15-31. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.03.017. hdl ...
Cationic Antimicrobial Proteins', 'Neutrophil peptides', 'Gamma thionins' amongst others. Proteins called 'defensins' are not ... From this point of view, defensins (as well as antimicrobial peptides in general) are of great interest. It was shown that ... In this sense, the intestinal production of antimicrobial peptides as hBD2 and hBD4 by trefoil from milk might play an ... Wang YP, Lai R (February 2010). "[Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation]". Dong Wu Xue Yan ...
Antimicrobial peptide: Histones are conserved eukaryotic cationic proteins present in the cells and are involved in the ... Histone H2A variant is reported to be involved in host immune response by acting as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). H2A are α- ... "An unconventional antimicrobial protein histone from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: analysis of immune properties ... amphipathic protein with hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues on opposing sides that enhances the antimicrobial activity of H2A ...
Butelase 1 is the fastest peptide ligase known capable of catalyzing peptide cyclization at an extraordinary efficiency. Nguyen ... At a concentration of 1 μM, cationic cliotides are capable of augmenting the secretion of various cytokines and chemokines in ... Cliotides display in vitro antimicrobial activity against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa and cytotoxicity against ... Cliotides are a group of related peptides that have been isolated from the heat-stable fraction of Clitoria ternatea (Cliotides ...
... the host releases antimicrobial peptides as part of the innate immune response. Since OmpT can break down these antimicrobials ... but OmpT easily degrades the cationic protamine peptides, thus enhancing the risk of infection. There is a genetic link between ... Once docked in this position, water is positioned to attack the peptide in the active site. The cleavage of peptide bonds by ... "Identification of OmpT as the protease that hydrolyzes the antimicrobial peptide protamine before it enters growing cells of ...
Some antimicrobial peptides in the venom of Mesobuthus eupeus; meucin-13 and meucin-18 have extensive cytolytic effects on ... "Characterization of two linear cationic antimalarial peptides in the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus". Biochimie. 92 (4): 350-359. ... of two genetically related meucin peptides highlights evolutionary divergence and convergence in antimicrobial peptides". FASEB ... Short-chain scorpion toxins constitute the largest group of potassium (K+) channel-blocking peptides. An important ...
Toke, Orsolya (2005). "Antimicrobial peptides: new candidates in the fight against bacterial infections". Biopolymers. 80 (6): ... "Role of Cationic Side Chains in the Antimicrobial Activity of C18G". Molecules. 23 (2): 329. doi:10.3390/molecules23020329. PMC ... This pattern is especially common in antimicrobial peptides, and many models have been devised to describe how this relates to ... Common to many of them is that the hydrophobic face of the antimicrobial peptide forms pores in the plasma membrane after ...
CAMP cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide".. *^ a b c d e Zanetti M (January 2004). "Cathelicidins, multifunctional peptides of ... "Cell differentiation is a key determinant of cathelicidin LL-37/human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 expression by human ... antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide. • cytolysis by host of symbiont cells. ... The cathelicidin family of peptides are classified as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The AMP family also includes the defensins ...
Helical β-peptides mimic antimicrobial activities of host defense peptides.[62][63] [64][65] This feature requires the ... In the absence of linker, the cationic peptide can interact more efficient with the target cell and cellular uptake occurs ... "A Noncovalent Peptide-Based Strategy for Peptide and Short Interfering RNA Delivery". Handbook of Cell-Penetrating Peptides, ... Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that facilitate cellular intake/uptake of various molecular equipment (from ...
... s, or cationic steroid antimicrobials (CSAs), are synthetically-produced, small-molecule chemical compounds consisting ... While CSAs have a mechanism of action that is also seen in antimicrobial peptides, which form part of the body's innate immune ... Origins of Cell Selectivity of Cationic Steroid Antibiotics J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(42), 13642 -13648, 2004. ... "Antibacterial properties of cationic steroid antibiotics". FEMS Microbiology Letters. Retrieved 2006-03-24 ...
Using TAT-peptides, a cell-penetrating peptide, to functionalize the surface of cationic nanoparticles can further improve drug ... and endogenous antimicrobial properties. Silver cations released from silver nanoparticles can bind to the negatively charged ... Cationic nanoparticles (including cationic liposomes) are of interest for this mechanism, because their positive charges assist ... Lipoplexes can also be formed from cationic liposomes and DNA solutions, to yield transfection agents. Cationic liposomes cross ...
doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2012.11.004. PMID 23159562. Yeung AT, Gellatly SL, Hancock RE (July 2011). "Multifunctional cationic ... Esculentin-2CHa is a peptide that belongs to the Esculentin-2 family, which is known for its broad-spectrum of antimicrobial ... Simmaco M, Mignogna G, Barra D, Bossa F (April 1994). "Antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of Rana esculenta. Molecular ... Esculentin-2CHa (from Latin ēsculentus ("edible; nutritious; full of food")) is an antimicrobial peptide located outside the ...
Antimicrobial cationic peptides. *Cathelicidin. *Defensin. *Dermcidin. *Histatin (HTN1, HTN3). Other, human. *Perforin ... Histatins are antimicrobial proteins found in saliva.[1] Function[edit]. Histatins are antimicrobial and antifungal proteins, ...
antimicrobial humoral response. • antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide. • killing of cells ... 2006). "Cathepsin D is present in human eccrine sweat and involved in the postsecretory processing of the antimicrobial peptide ... 2005). "Deficiency of dermicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides in sweat of patients with atopic dermatitis correlates with an ... 2005). "Functional and structural characterization of recombinant dermicidin-1L, a human antimicrobial peptide". Biochem. ...
Cationic Silver Nanoclusters as Potent Antimicrobials against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria' ACS Omega, 2018. 'Metal ... Rational and combinatorial design of peptide capping ligands for gold nanoparticles' JACS, 2004. 'Emulsion-templated gold beads ... "Cationic Silver Nanoclusters as Potent Antimicrobials against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria". ACS Omega. 3 (12): 16721-16727. ... "Rational and Combinatorial Design of Peptide Capping Ligands for Gold Nanoparticles". Journal of the American Chemical Society ...
Pretreating cells with bafilomycin before administration of a cationic drug can alter the kinetics of the cationic compound. In ... Mayers D (2008). Antimicrobial drug resistance handbook. Volume 2, Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Totowa, N.J.: Humana. ... decreasing the number of antigenic peptides digested and displayed to the immune system. In Lupus patients, the autophagy ... Trapping of the cationic compound also draws water into the lysosome through an osmotic effect, which can sometimes lead to ...
Antimicrobial peptides: Granulocyte granule contents. Azurophilic granules (1°). *Myeloperoxidase. *Defensins. *neutral serine ...
Antimicrobial peptides: Granulocyte granule contents. Azurophilic granules (1°). *Myeloperoxidase. *Defensins. *neutral serine ... 1989). "Eosinophil cationic protein cDNA. Comparison with other toxic cationic proteins and ribonucleases". J. Immunol. 143 (3 ... It is closely related to the eosinophil cationic protein (RNASE3) from which it diverged ~50 million years ago after the split ... 1998). "Localization of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein in neutrophilic leukocytes". J. Leukoc. ...
... is a polycationic peptide and has both hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties.[citation needed] These cationic regions ... Pamp SJ, Gjermansen M, Johansen HK, Tolker-Nielsen T (2008). "Tolerance to the antimicrobial peptide colistin in Pseudomonas ... "Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 54 (1): 290-3. doi:10.1093/jac/dkh289. PMID 15190037.. ... The Société Française de Microbiologie [fr] uses a cut-off of 2 mg/l, whereas the British Society for Antimicrobial ...
Eosinophil Major basic protein Secretory pathway Peroxiredoxin Catalase Reactive oxygen species Antimicrobial peptides The ... One of the first aspects known of eosinophil peroxidase was that it was highly cationic, as indicated by its high isoelectric ... the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. The ...
Antimicrobial agents (Defensins and Eosinophil cationic protein) Enzymes Acid hydrolases: further digest bacteria Lysozyme: ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... Neutrophils have three strategies for directly attacking micro-organisms: phagocytosis (ingestion), release of soluble anti- ... Primary granules contain cationic proteins and defensins that are used to kill bacteria, proteolytic enzymes and cathepsin G to ...
Antimicrobial agents (Defensins and Eosinophil cationic protein). *Enzymes *Acid hydrolases: further digest bacteria ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... Neutrophils have three strategies for directly attacking micro-organisms: phagocytosis (ingestion), release of soluble anti- ... toxic basic protein and cationic protein (e.g., cathepsin[13]);[17] receptors that bind to IgE are used to help with this task. ...
Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found among all classes of life ... can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by acting as a cationic detergent.[2] Many acute-phase proteins of inflammation ... Several species of insect produce antimicrobial peptides known as defensins and cecropins. ... In addition, some of the products of the coagulation system are directly antimicrobial. For example, beta-lysine, a protein ...
Cationic Antimicrobial Proteins', 'Neutrophil peptides', 'Gamma thionins' amongst others.[6] ... Wang YP, Lai R (February 2010). "[Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation]". Dong Wu Xue Yan ... From this point of view, defensins (as well as antimicrobial peptides in general) are of great interest. It was shown that ... In this sense, the intestinal production of antimicrobial peptides as hBD2 and hBD4 by trefoil from milk might play an ...
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are a novel type of antibiotic offering much potential in the treatment of microbial-related ... This article presents an updated review of how cationic antimicrobial peptides are able to affect bacterial killing, with a ... Alternative mechanisms of action of cationic antimicrobial peptides on bacteria.. Hale JD1, Hancock RE. ... While the dogma for the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides against bacteria is believed to be through pore formation ...
The effectiveness of antimicrobial compounds can be easily screened, however their mechanism of action is much more difficult ... Nanomechanical response of bacterial cells to cationic antimicrobial peptides Shun Lu,a Grant Walters,a Richard Parga and John ... Nanomechanical response of bacterial cells to cationic antimicrobial peptides S. Lu, G. Walters, R. Parg and J. R. Dutcher, ... unique insight into the kinetics and mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. ...
... binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification",. abstract = "Antimicrobial cationic ... binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 38( ... binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification. In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. ... binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol ...
... studies with several avian HDPs have led to identification of the peptide analogs with potential for use as antimicrobials and ... Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a ... are being actively investigated as a novel class of antimicrobials and vaccine adjuvants. Cathelicidins and β-defensins are two ... are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. Because they act on the microbial ...
The peptides are non-glycosylated, less than about 100 amino acids in length, and include an amino acid sequence selected from ... Other antimicrobial peptides include the cyclic cationic peptides containing an intramolecular disulphide, for example ... A non-glycosylated, antimicrobial peptide conjugated to an acyl group, and wherein the peptide is selected from: a) a peptide ... as an antimicrobial peptide in Example 1.. B. Preparation of Antimicrobial Peptides from TCA-Soluble UF Whey Treated with ...
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) represent a conserved and highly effective component of innate immunity. During ... Regulation of Salmonella typhimurium virulence gene expression by cationic antimicrobial peptides.. Bader MW1, Navarre WW, ... indicating that the PhoP/PhoQ system can sense sublethal concentrations of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Growth of S. ... We further demonstrate that growth of S. typhimurium in low doses of the alpha-helical peptide C18G induces resistance to CAMP ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. ... Antimicrobial Medicines Consumption (‎AMC)‎ Network. AMC data 2011-2014  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ... This report sets out and analyses data on antimicrobial medicines consumption (‎AMC)‎ collected from non-European Union ...
As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. ... molecule antibiotics with favorable physicochemical properties to CAMPs could be a promising strategy for enhancing peptide ... As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. ... peptide. ]. total. −. [. peptide. ]. PO4buffer. ). /. (. [. peptide. ]. PO4buffer. ). ). =. log. (. [. peptide. ]. octanol. /. ...
Antimicrobial Medicines Consumption (‎AMC)‎ Network. AMC data 2011-2014  World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe ... This report sets out and analyses data on antimicrobial medicines consumption (‎AMC)‎ collected from non-European Union ... "Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides"浏览Publications. 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) cannot only kill MDR bacteria, but also can be used synergistically with conventional antibiotics ... Single amino acid substitutions within the peptides can have a very strong effect on the ability to synergize, making it ... A high number of combinations between peptides and polymyxin B, erythromycin, and tetracycline were found to be synergistic. ... A high number of combinations between peptides and Polymyxin B, Erythromycin and Tetracycline were found to be synergistic. ...
... identification of new alternatives has increased interest in diverse populations of potent cationic... ... Enterococcus faecalis pediocin PA-1 cationic antimicrobial peptides resistance permeability barrier This is a preview of ... Peschel A, Sahl HG (2006) The co-evolution of host cationic antimicrobial peptides and microbial resistance. Nat Rev Microbiol ... McBride SM, Sonenshein AL (2011) The dlt operon confers resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides in Clostridium difficile ...
Antiendotoxin activity of cationic peptide antimicrobial agents.. M Gough, R E Hancock, N M Kelly ... Antiendotoxin activity of cationic peptide antimicrobial agents. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We describe here two small cationic peptides, MBI-27 and MBI-28, which have both antiendotoxic and antibacterial activities in ... We had previously demonstrated that these peptides bind to LPS with an affinity equivalent to that of polymyxin B. Consistent ...
Strategies for Recombinant Expression of Small, Highly Disulphide- Bonded, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides. Author(s): A. L. ... Title: Strategies for Recombinant Expression of Small, Highly Disulphide- Bonded, Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides ... Keywords:Disulphide bond, refolding, recombinant expression, antimicrobial peptide, inclusion body. Abstract: Expression of two ... Expression of two recombinant hepcidin homologues from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, characterization of their antimicrobial ...
... polymerization for the harvest of low-abundance cationic antimicrobial peptides ... New core-shell hydrogel particles for the separation and discovery of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). Y. Zhu, P. Russo ... polymerization for the harvest of low-abundance cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) from complex biological samples, such ... These core-shell hydrogel particles were able to pull down cationic peptides from alligator serum spiked with known CAMPs, ...
Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by ... The purpose of this review is to discuss antimicrobial innate immune elements within the respiratory tract of healthy and ... Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by ... Grubor, Branka; Meyerholz, David K.; and Ackermann, Mark R., "Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides of the respiratory ...
In this study, we designed a series of synthetic cationic hybrid antimicrobial peptides based on the peptide FV7 combined with ... In conclusion, we designed a series of synthetic cationic hybrid antimicrobial peptides based on the peptide FV7 combined with ... FV-LL Is the Optimal Hybrid Peptide Compared with the Parental Peptides and Other Peptides in the Antimicrobial Activities. The ... a series of effective hybrid cationic antimicrobial peptides were designed that combined the parental peptide FV7 with ...
... biophysical and structural investigations on how these peptides interact with membranes can still bear surprises and add new ... Smart M, Rajagopal A, Liu WK, Ha BY (2017) Opposing effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides and divalent cations on ... Hadley EB, Hancock RE (2010) Strategies for the discovery and advancement of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides. Curr Top ... Aisenbrey C., Marquette A., Bechinger B. (2019) The Mechanisms of Action of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Refined by Novel ...
De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ... De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ... De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ... De Novo Generation of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides: Influence of Length and Tryptophan Substitution on Antimicrobial ...
We recently reported that the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18, the precursor of the antimicrobial peptide called LL ... The Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein (hCAP18), a Peptide Antibiotic, Is Widely Expressed in Human Squamous Epithelia and ... The Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein (hCAP18), a Peptide Antibiotic, Is Widely Expressed in Human Squamous Epithelia and ... The Human Cationic Antimicrobial Protein (hCAP18), a Peptide Antibiotic, Is Widely Expressed in Human Squamous Epithelia and ...
... amphipathic antimicrobial peptides and peptoids, Scientific Reports" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for ... "Intracellular biomass flocculation as a key mechanism of rapid bacterial killing by cationic, ... Mechanism of interaction of different classes of cationic antimicrobial peptides with planar bilayers and with the cytoplasmic ... The antimicrobial peptides lactoferricin B and magainin 2 cross over the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and reside in the ...
Linear cationic antimicrobial peptides are a diverse class of molecules that interact with a wide range of cell membranes. Many ... Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions underpin lytic activity of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides in membranes ... Lipid topology and electrostatic interactions underpin lytic activity of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides in membranes. ... We propose a topological model for linear antimicrobial peptide activity based on the increase in membrane strain caused by the ...
Modified MIC Method for Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides. Modified MIC Method for Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Categorized: ... Cationic peptides bind polystyrene (especially "tissue culture treated" polystyrene).. *Sterile tubes (16 X 125 mm) containing ... Add 11 µl of 10x test peptide each well from column 1 to column 10 (column 11 is a control for bacteria alone, with no peptide ... Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Peptides. This method is based on the classical microtitre broth dilution recommended by the ...
... and some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in the venom gland of scorpions. Therefore, the discovery of new anti- ... Scorpion venom is a source of bioactive peptides, ... Peptide Associated with Two Other New Cationic Antimicrobial ... Introduction: Scorpion venom is a source of bioactive peptides, and some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in the ... Results: MeuVAP-6 and meuAP-18-1 are non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides, while meuPep34 is a cysteine-rich defensin- ...
Investigation of a novel artificial antimicrobial peptide by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: An amphipathic cationic ... Investigation of a novel artificial antimicrobial peptide by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: An amphipathic cationic ... The identification of the amphipathic cationic pattern as the mediator of selectivity and antimicrobial activity could be a ... Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is used to study the interaction of a recently designed antimicrobial peptide, ...
The antimicrobial activity of these peptides has been studie... ... Many species of life contain cationic antimicrobial peptides as ... Such cationic antimicrobial peptides can also act in synergy with host molecules, such as other cationic peptides and proteins ... Many species of life contain cationic antimicrobial peptides as components of their immune systems. The antimicrobial activity ... Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Multifunctional Role in the Immune System. Monisha G. Scott Department of ...
Amphipathic Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides , Antimicrobial Peptides, Cationic , Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides , Cationic ... Antimicrobial Cationic , Peptides, Cationic Antimicrobial , Proteins, Microbicidal Cationic Definition Small cationic peptides ... Peptides, Antimicrobial , Cationic Proteins, Microbicidal , Microbicidal Cationic Proteins , Peptides, ... Chemicals ← Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins ← PeptidesAntimicrobial Cationic Peptides Top ↑ Descendants Antimicrobial ...
... but is also surprisingly able to bind positively charged peptides. Understanding of how short cationic antimicrobial peptides ... The binding of a selection of short synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) to human albumin with binding affinities ... We suggest that albumin binding should be taken into careful consideration in antimicrobial peptide studies, as the systemic ... of albumin-peptide complexes reported here provide detailed insight into how albumin can bind short cationic peptides. The ...
Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. In: ACS Macro Letters. 2014 ; Vol. ... Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. ACS Macro Letters. 2014 Apr 15;3(4 ... Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. Katherine E.S. Locock, Thomas D. ... Antimicrobial polymethacrylates synthesized as mimics of tryptophan-rich cationic peptides. / Locock, Katherine E.S.; Michl, ...
... Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Papanastasiou, ... As such, there has been growing interest in cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) and their therapeutic applications. ... Covalent modification of a ten-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide with levofloxacin. Login ... molecule antibiotics with favorable physicochemical properties to CAMPs could be a promising strategy for enhancing peptide ...
Characterization of chemoselective surface attachment of the cationic peptide melimine and its effects on antimicrobial ... Characterization of chemoselective surface attachment of the cationic peptide melimine and its effects on antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising alternatives to current treatments for bacterial infections. However, our ... Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising alternatives to current treatments for bacterial infections. However, our ...
MP196 is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide. It falls under the structural class: short cationic peptides. Since it is a short ... April 2014). "Small cationic antimicrobial peptides delocalize peripheral membrane proteins". Proceedings of the National ... MP196 can be used as the key structure in order to develop any potential antimicrobial peptides which could help in fighting ... as this cationic peptide prefers incorporating into membranes which have a higher negatively charged phospholipid ratio. ...
Some naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides are lipidated and/or glycosylated and almost all antimicrobial peptides in ... 2020) The effect of lipidation and glycosylation on short cationic antimicrobial peptides. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... The effect of lipidation and glycosylation on short cationic antimicrobial peptides More search options... ... View statistics for "The effect of lipidation and glycosylation on short cationic antimicrobial peptides" ...
These reagents are chemically similar to the multi-basic peptides that are known to be potent proprotein convertase inhibitors ... Cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to enhance the intracellular delivery of various types of cargoes, ... Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / administration & dosage * Cell Line, Tumor * Cell Movement / drug effects ... Cationic Cell-Penetrating Peptides Are Potent Furin Inhibitors PLoS One. 2015 Jun 25;10(6):e0130417. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. ...
  • Alternative mechanisms of action of cationic antimicrobial peptides on bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • While the dogma for the mechanism of action of antimicrobial peptides against bacteria is believed to be through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, some peptides clearly act differently and other intracellular target sites have been identified. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of actions of melittin and two synthetic peptides, CEME (a cecropin-melittin hybrid) and CEMA, against gram-negative bacteria. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • All three peptides showed good antimicrobial activity against four different gram-negative bacteria, but only CEMA was able to somewhat augment the activity of some conventional antibiotics in synergy studies. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the peptides all possessed the ability to permeabilize bacterial outer membranes to the hydrophobic fluorophor 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine and the protein lysozyme, with CEMA being the most active. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes worldwide and the urgent need of new antimicrobial agents have stimulated interest in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as new therapeutics for treatment of infectious diseases. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Our AMPs have excellent antimicrobial activity and have no toxicity as measured by the most stringent test for hemolysis of human red blood cells (18 hours at 37 o C and up to 1000 µg/ml of AMP). (magnusgroup.org)
  • Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , 38 (10), 2311-2316. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Piers, KL, Brown, MH & Hancock, R 1994, ' Improvement of outer membrane-permeabilizing and lipopolysaccharide- binding activities of an antimicrobial cationic peptide by C-terminal modification ', Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 2311-2316. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Our results show that these compounds are the next generation of antimicrobials and will replace existing antibiotics as new therapeutics. (magnusgroup.org)
  • For antimicrobial assays select the most recent bacterial strains that are resistant to key antibiotics and not a few standard strains. (magnusgroup.org)
  • The audience will learn the process for de novo design of peptide therapeutics, the importance of perfecting the biological assays before implementing structure-function studies. (magnusgroup.org)
  • These data collectively indicated that these peptides all cross the outer membrane by the self-promoted uptake pathway and that CEMA is the peptide most effective at accessing this pathway. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • This protective group shows good stability to the reaction conditions used in solid phase peptide synthesis and can be incorporated into the peptide as Fmoc-Trp(Boc-Sar-Sar)-OH. (avhandlingar.se)
  • MUC2 Mucin and Butyrate Contribute to the Synthesis of the Antimicrobial Peptide Cathelicidin in Response to Entamoeba histolytica- and Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis. (cobolab.com)
  • Circulating immune cells , particularly neutrophils , also produce antimicrobial peptides. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptide production is induced by growth factors and circulating immune cells. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Inhibiting antimicrobial peptide complex formation could reduce immune activation in psoriasis. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The only human cathelicidin is LL-37 and is also known as cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18 kDa or CAP-18. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The cathelicidin LL-37 is usually broken down into small peptides with more antimicrobial and less inflammatory effects. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Though nature is restricted to using the amino acids Arg and Lys, a synthetic peptide approach has much more freedom with the use of unusual amino acids for positively charged amino acids e.g. (magnusgroup.org)
  • Are highly conserved (ie, antimicrobial peptide genes are found in multiple animal and plant species through geological time). (dermnetnz.org)
  • For example, higher concentrations of the antimicrobial peptide, psoriasin (also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A7 or S100A7), are found on the hands, feet, armpits, and scalp. (dermnetnz.org)
  • He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the Vincent Du Vigneaud Award from the American Peptide Society for outstanding achievements in peptide/protein research and most recently the Bruce Merrifield Award for outstanding lifetime accomplishment in peptide research recognizing the highest level of scientific creativity in 2017. (magnusgroup.org)
  • Antimicrobial cationic peptides have been discovered in many different organisms and often possess a broad range of activity. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • Colonic MUC2 mucin regulates the expression and antimicrobial activity of β-defensin 2. (cobolab.com)
  • Vitamin D3 and enhanced antimicrobial peptide production on exposure to ultraviolet radiation could reduce infection and restore barrier function in atopic dermatitis . (dermnetnz.org)
  • The present thesis focuses on the vascular effects of antimicrobial peptides especially mechanisms involving the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), which is released from the blood vessel wall during inflammatory conditions such as sepsis. (avhandlingar.se)
  • He has a broad background in synthetic peptide chemistry having trained with Dr. Bruce Merrifield at Rockefeller University, a Nobel Laureate who developed solid-phase peptide chemistry. (magnusgroup.org)
  • Dr. Hodges has successfully used this technology to study the structure and function of peptides and proteins, the feasibility of developing antimicrobial peptides with specificity for Gram-negative pathogens to developing synthetic peptide vaccines to α-helical B-cell epitopes in Type 1 fusion proteins of emerging and re-emerging viruses. (magnusgroup.org)
  • Understanding the molecular elements of antimicrobial peptides might lead to a better understanding of inflammatory skin disease and new treatments. (dermnetnz.org)
  • This article presents an updated review of how cationic antimicrobial peptides are able to affect bacterial killing, with a focus on internal targets. (nih.gov)
  • These peptides are thought to exert their antibacterial effect via mechanisms that at some level involve the targeting of anionic bacterial membranes through non-specific electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many compounds act by compromising the mechanical integrity of the bacterial cell envelope, and our study introduces an AFM-based creep deformation technique to evaluate changes in the time-dependent mechanical properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 bacterial cells upon exposure to two different but structurally related antimicrobial peptides. (rsc.org)
  • We observed a distinctive signature for the loss of integrity of the bacterial cell envelope following exposure to the peptides. (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, fluorescent spectroscopy indicated that the hybrid peptide FV-LL exhibited marked membrane destruction by inducing outer and inner bacterial membrane permeabilization, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that FV-LL damaged membrane integrity by disrupting the bacterial membrane. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacterial killing assays and circular dichroism analyses reveal a strong correlation between antibacterial activity, peptide length, and propensity to form a helix in solvent mimicking the environment of a membrane. (asm.org)
  • Despite these peptides high potency and ability to evade acquired bacterial drug resistance, there is a lack of knowledge on their selectivity and activity mechanisms. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In this paper, we use a high-throughput microfluidic platform as a quantitative screen to assess peptide activity and selectivity by precisely controlling exposure to vesicles with lipid compositions that mimic both bacterial and mammalian cell membranes. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We also show the validity of the proposed model by investigating the activity of two prototypical linear cationic peptides: magainin 2 amide (which is selective for bacterial cells) and melittin (which targets both mammalian and bacterial cells indiscriminately). (gla.ac.uk)
  • It has been found that certain peptides are produced in large quantities at sites of infection/inflammation, and their expression can be induced by bacterial products such as endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). (begellhouse.com)
  • These peptides often have a high affinity for bacterial products, such as LPS, allowing them to modulate the host response and reduce the inflammatory response in sepsis. (begellhouse.com)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry results have shown that MP196 prefers incorporation into bacterial cell membranes over erythrocyte membranes, as this cationic peptide prefers incorporating into membranes which have a higher negatively charged phospholipid ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global health threat surrounding bacterial resistance has resulted in antibiotic researchers shifting their focus away from 'traditional' antibiotics and concentrating on other antimicrobial agents, including antimicrobial peptides. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • The antimicrobial activity evaluation was done against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. (springer.com)
  • Some analogues of these nanoparticles cargoes showed significant antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and negative bacterial strains especially those cause brain infections with low MIC values. (springer.com)
  • The findings of this study revealed the improved antimicrobial activity of modified cationic TAT peptide nanoparticles against different bacterial strains. (springer.com)
  • Studies using the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae showed that the peptides all possessed the ability to permeabilize bacterial outer membranes to the hydrophobic fluorophor 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine and the protein lysozyme, with CEMA being the most active. (sahmriresearch.org)
  • This results show that FF/CAP18 is a potential antimicrobial agent for treating pan-drug-resistant bacterial infections. (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Most AMPs display antimicrobial activity by disrupting the bacterial membrane. (nature.com)
  • The cationic charge of AMPs enables an electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged bacterial membrane. (nature.com)
  • Magainin 2 is pore-forming antimicrobial peptide on lipid matrix of bacterial membrane, secreted from the skin of the African clawed frog. (peptide.com)
  • Cyclic cystine-bridged peptides from the marine sponge Clathria basilana induce apoptosis in tumor cells and depolarize the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Evidence for the key role of cationic antimicrobial peptides in innate immunity includes mutations affecting the induction of antibacterial peptides which reduce survival in response to bacterial challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • We identify clinically relevant multidrug-resistance mutations that increase bacterial sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides. (nature.com)
  • Andersson, D. I., Hughes, D. & Kubicek-Sutherland, J. Z. Mechanisms and consequences of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides. (nature.com)
  • In the literature, there is clear evidence that cationic antimicrobial peptides target the membrane of bacterial pathogens where they induce defects that will eventually kill bacteria by creating an electrochemical gradient imbalance. (springer.com)
  • These peptides are small (2 to 4 kDa) cationic molecules of various structural classes that bind to and permeabilize bacterial membranes. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella resistance to antimicrobial peptides is frequently mediated by modifications to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the bacterial outer membrane. (asm.org)
  • While this has been effective for many bacterial infections, the current pandemic biotype is known to be resistant to these peptides, as compared to previous pandemic strains. (naturalnews.com)
  • The findings, announced online in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and funded by the National Institutes of Health, provide a needed boost to the field of antibiotic development, which has been limited in the last four decades and outpaced by the rise of drug-resistant bacterial strains. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The team tested the two leading eCAPs against a natural antimicrobial peptide (LL37) and a standard antibiotic (colistin), the latter being used as a last-resort antibiotic against multidrug resistant bacterial infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The natural human antimicrobial peptide LL37 and the colistin drug each inhibited growth of about 50 percent of the clinical isolates, indicating a high level of bacterial resistance to these drugs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by respiratory epithelia, which have integral roles in host defense and inflammation in the lung. (iastate.edu)
  • FV7 (FRIRVRV-NH 2 ), a consensus amphiphilic sequence was identified as being analogous to host defense peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our finding that hCAP18 is widely produced in squamous epithelia suggests a role for this peptide in epithelial antimicrobial defense. (asm.org)
  • Barron, Annelise 2017-12-01 00:00:00 Many organisms rely on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a first line of defense against pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • As part of the innate immune system in the skin, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) such as the β-defensins and cathelicidin contribute to host cutaneous defense, which prevents harmful microorganisms, like S. aureus , from crossing epithelial barriers. (mdpi.com)
  • We will discuss the peptides (defensins, cathelicidins, RNase7, dermcidin) and other mediators (toll-like receptor, IL-1 and IL-17) that comprise the host defense against S. aureus skin infection, as well as the various mechanisms by which S. aureus evades host defenses. (mdpi.com)
  • The antibacterial peptide LL-37, an 18-kDa peptide with 37 amino acid residues, is the only member of the cathelicidin family identified in humans, and it plays an important role in the first line of immune defense ( 9 ). (jjmicrobiol.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), known as host defense peptides, consist of short amino acid sequences containing both positively charged and hydrophobic amino acids 2 . (nature.com)
  • In the fruit fly Drosophila , peptides are recognized as the major form of defense against infection and are induced, in response to challenge by microbes or microbial signaling molecules like LPS, by a regulatory pathway similar to that used by the mammalian immune system (involving Toll receptors and the transcription factor NF-κB ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the release of antimicrobial proteins by neutrophils contribute to an early host defense against influenza virus infection in vitro as well as in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • The first evidence of antimicrobial defense engendered by leukotriene administration was presented by Demitsu et al. (jimmunol.org)
  • Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important first line of defense with antimicrobial and immunomoduatory properties. (mdpi.com)
  • Host defense peptides (HDPs), also known as antimicrobial peptides, constitute a large group of small peptides that have been discovered in virtually all forms of life [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cationic peptides produced by multicellular organisms are an evolutionarily ancient and rapidly mobilized primary defense against infections caused by a broad range of microbes ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Mimicry of Host-Defense Peptides by Unnatural Oligomers: Antimicrobial Beta-Peptides, J. Am. Chem. (patentgenius.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are an essential aspect of host innate immune defense and are produced by macrophages, neutrophils, and mucosal epithelial cells ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The host launches an antimicrobial defense program upon infection. (pnas.org)
  • It notes that while antimicrobials are used to treat infections, they are not the first line of defense for treating foodborne illness. (ebscohost.com)
  • These cationic peptides are considered to be the last line of defense for infections in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Adjuvant composition comprising a host defense peptide, an immunostimulatory sequence and a polyanionic polymer. (ubc.ca)
  • The purpose of this review is to discuss antimicrobial innate immune elements within the respiratory tract of healthy and pneumonic lung with emphasis on hydrophilic surfactant proteins and β-defensins. (iastate.edu)
  • α- and β-defensins are small cationic peptides contained in the large granule subset of primary/azurophil granules (reviewed in Ref. 16 ) that exert antiviral activities against different enveloped viruses such as CMV, influenza, HSV-1 and -2, and vesicular stomatitis virus ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Besides classical β-defensins, a group of avian-specific β-defensin-related peptides, namely ovodefensins, exist with a different six-cysteine motif. (mdpi.com)
  • Defensins are cationic, cysteine-rich peptides (Mr = 3500-4000) found in the cytoplasmic granules of neutrophils and macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • We report here that defensins form voltage-dependent, weakly anion-selective channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes, and we suggest that this channel-forming ability contributes to their antimicrobial properties observed in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • Salmonella PgtE expression promoted resistance to alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides (α-CAMPs). (asm.org)
  • However, despite the identification or synthetic production of thousands of such peptides, the mode of action remains elusive, except for a few examples. (nih.gov)
  • pheromones, antibodies, synthetic polymers, and small molecule drugs to yield peptide constructs with improved antibacterial activity relative to their respective unmodified parent peptide variants ( Devocelle, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Synthetic cationic hybrid peptides based on FV7 could provide new models for combining different functional domains and demonstrate effective avenues to screen for novel antimicrobial agents. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The binding of a selection of short synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) to human albumin with binding affinities in the μM range is described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MP196 is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides are emerging as a promising class of compounds for antifungal treatment. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the current study, five synthetic cationic antimicrobial tripeptides were evaluated as antifungal therapeutics against 24 pathogenic strains of fungi. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additionally, LbpB provides protection against host and synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides. (purdue.edu)
  • Postinfection Activity of Synthetic Antimicrobial Peptides Against Stemphylium vesicarium in Pear. (peptide.com)
  • 2019. Synthetic lugdunin analogues reveal essential structural motifs for antimicrobial action and proton translocation capability. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Dr. Montelaro and his colleagues developed a synthetic and more efficient version of this sequence - called engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides, or "eCAPs"-that can be chemically synthesized in a laboratory setting. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For this study, synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides were produced. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Hybrid peptides integrating different functional domains of peptides have many advantages, such as remarkable antimicrobial activity, lower hemolysis and ideal cell selectivity, compared with natural antimicrobial peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the effects of length and helicity on antimicrobial activity and selectivity have not been objectively evaluated in the context of this motif. (asm.org)
  • Further, WLBU2 displayed the highest antibacterial selectivity of all peptides evaluated in the present study by using a coculture model of P. aeruginosa and primary human skin fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Dathe M, Meyer J, Beyermann M, Maul B, Hoischen C, Bienert M. General aspects of peptide selectivity towards lipid bilayers and cell membranes studied by variation of the structural parameters of amphipathic helical model peptides. (springer.com)
  • Glycosylation decreased antimicrobial activity by 2 to 16-fold in comparison to A1, respectively on the sugar-peptide combination. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • hCAP18 belongs to the cathelicidin family of proteins characterized by a conserved cathelin proregion and a variable antibacterial peptide in the C-terminal domain. (asm.org)
  • Cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been widely used to enhance the intracellular delivery of various types of cargoes, such as drugs and proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides and proteins have historically been ascribed roles in innate immunity that infer killing of microbial and viral pathogens and protection of the host. (mdpi.com)
  • Understanding how virally enhancing peptides and proteins act to promote sexual transmission of HIV-1 would be important for the design of topical microbicides, mucosal vaccines, and other preventative measures. (mdpi.com)
  • Encapsulation of peptides and proteins remains an obstacle in drug nanoformulations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we established an alternative method to encapsulate peptides and proteins into polymersomes (POs). (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results indicated that the preparation of POs encapsulated with gelatin could be employed as an effective loading method for ionic peptides and proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention relates to the preparation and use of certain mammalian cationic proteins for such treatment and diagnosis. (google.com)
  • This modification removes the positive charge on the N-terminal of peptides, thus mimicking natural proteins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In recent years, many antimicrobial proteins have been discovered in animals, insects, and plants. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These proteins are termed antimicrobial because they have an unusually broad spectrum of activity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We recently reported that the human cationic antimicrobial protein hCAP18, the precursor of the antimicrobial peptide called LL-37, is not expressed by normal human keratinocytes but is induced in various inflammatory skin disorders. (asm.org)
  • The spectrum of different amino acid side chain chemical properties affords a variety of peptide sequences to present a cationic amphipathic helical peptide. (asm.org)
  • The pseudins belong to the class of cationic, amphipathic-helical antimicrobial peptides [ PMID: 11689009 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Mechanisms for the modulation of membrane bilayer properties by amphipathic helical peptides. (springer.com)
  • As a result, hundreds of different natural cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) with widely varying sequences have been described. (asm.org)
  • These peptides demonstrate broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and are essential elements of innate immunity in higher organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides NH2-RIRIRWIIR-CONH2 (A1) and NH2-KRRVRWIIW-CONH2 (B1) were conjugated via a linker, producing A2 and B2, to individual fatty acids of C8, C10, C12 and C14 and in addition, A2 was conjugated to either glucose, N-acetyl glucosamine, galactose, mannose, lactose or polyethylene glycol (PEG). (sgul.ac.uk)
  • Besides these properties, certain crucial factors such as size, charge, hydrophobicity, amphipathic stereo geometry, and peptide self-association to the biological membrane also attributes for their broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Cationic antimicrobial peptides have received increasing attention due to their broad spectrum activities and ability to combat multi drug resistant microbes. (springer.com)
  • Melectin showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity but low cytotoxicity and no hemolytic activity. (nature.com)
  • The 24-residue WLBU2 peptide was active at physiologic NaCl concentrations against Staphylococcus aureus and mucoid and nonmucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • Antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive strains (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE)) and three Gram-negative strains (Salmonella typhimurium, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were determined. (sgul.ac.uk)
  • We systematically addressed this question by studying the susceptibilities of a comprehensive set of 60 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains towards 24 antimicrobial peptides. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 2: Survival of collateral-sensitive antibiotic-resistant strains under lethal antimicrobial peptide stress. (nature.com)
  • We assessed all 3 strains for the presence of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene and identified 1 isolate as mcr-1 -positive and co-resistant to β-lactam, florfenicol, and fluoroquinolone antimicrobial compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Single amino acid substitutions within the peptides can have a very strong effect on the ability to synergize, making it possible to optimize future drugs toward synergistic interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human being Neutrophil Peptides (HNP1-3) differ from each additional by LODENOSINE IC50 an In- airport terminal amino acid residue and were originally separated from azurophilic granules of neutrophils [12, 13]. (healthweeks.com)
  • The amino acid sequence of a Fluorescein labeled peptide for active site of (Na,K)-ATPase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, mig - 14 contributes to Salmonella resistance to antimicrobial peptides by a mechanism that is not yet fully understood. (asm.org)
  • MeuVAP-6 and meuAP-18-1 are non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides, while meuPep34 is a cysteine-rich defensin-like peptide. (ac.ir)
  • It is a cysteine-rich peptide with a highly. (peptide.com)
  • We describe here two small cationic peptides, MBI-27 and MBI-28, which have both antiendotoxic and antibacterial activities in vitro and in vivo in animal models. (asm.org)
  • Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. (ctdbase.org)
  • We explore the complexity of the lipid-peptide interactions governing membrane-disruptive behaviors and establish a link between peptide pore formation and both lipid-peptide charge and topological interactions. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We suggest that albumin binding should be taken into careful consideration in antimicrobial peptide studies, as the systemic distribution can be significantly affected by HSA interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His primary research interest is in membrane biophysics, including peptide-membrane interactions and in-cell biophysics. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, to design more potent and selective antimicrobial peptides that are viable on a pharmacological point of view, a better understanding of the molecular determinants involved in the membrane interactions is required. (springer.com)
  • Exploiting the different NMR interactions, this technique has proven to be useful to provide information on the mutual interactions between membrane-active peptides and phospholipids with an atomic-scale resolution. (springer.com)
  • Model of peptide interactions with the lipid membrane compatible with data from oriented-sample solid-state NMR 31P spectra.The lipids are illustrated by circles with the radial line illustrating the orientation of the 31P head group. (nih.gov)
  • A high number of combinations between peptides and polymyxin B, erythromycin, and tetracycline were found to be synergistic. (frontiersin.org)
  • We had previously demonstrated that these peptides bind to LPS with an affinity equivalent to that of polymyxin B. Consistent with this, the peptides blocked the ability of LPS and intact cells to induce the endotoxic shock mediator, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), upon incubation with the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. (asm.org)
  • Some naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides are lipidated and/or glycosylated and almost all antimicrobial peptides in clinical use are either lipopeptides (Daptomycin and Polymyxin E and B) or glycopeptides (Vancomycin). (sgul.ac.uk)
  • These changes include addition of aminoarabinose and palmitate to the lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ( 16 , 19 , 21 ), which promotes resistance to polymyxin ( 15 , 19 ), alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides, and protegrin, a β-sheet antimicrobial peptide ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, mig - 14 is strongly induced by polymyxin B, protamine, and the mammalian antimicrobial peptide protegrin-1. (asm.org)
  • The molecular shape concept has been introduced to explain the effects of lipids and peptides on membrane morphology, locally and globally, and in particular of cationic amphipathic helices that partition into the membrane interface. (springer.com)
  • Molecular models of the complexes between the peptides and albumin were constructed using docking experiments, and support the binding hypothesis and confirm the overall binding affinities of the CAPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular mass of the peptides was validated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as explained [31]. (healthweeks.com)
  • The HIV-1 transactivating transcriptor (TAT) peptide is one of the most widely used molecular beacons for drug delivery. (springer.com)
  • Of particular interest to the present invention, a cationic protein having a molecular weight of approximately 16.6 kD has been identified in rabbit granulocytes. (google.com)
  • De Novo Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Antimicrobial B-Peptides. (patentgenius.com)
  • Peptide Mass Fingerprinting for identification and characterization of peptides. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Zasloff M. Magainins, a class of antimicrobial peptides from Xenopus skin: isolation, characterization of two active forms, and partial cDNA sequence of a precursor. (aaem.pl)
  • Gram-negative resistance to a variety of antimicrobial peptides has been correlated with modifications of lipopolysaccharide structure. (asm.org)
  • Susceptibility testing of Antimicrobials in liquid media. (ubc.ca)
  • They are included here in the hope that they will be used standardly by workers in the field for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to permit comparisons to be made between the data of different labs. (ubc.ca)
  • Indeed mutations of the Toll pathway of Drosophila that lead to decreased antifungal peptide gene expression result in increased susceptibility to lethal fungal infections ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing breakpoints in Europe: implications for reporting intermediate susceptibility. (ebscohost.com)
  • The limitations in the use of peptides in the treatment of infections, such as susceptibility to proteolysis, and resistance of microorganisms to the peptides, are also discussed. (aaem.pl)
  • 2 mg/L, which we interpreted as being colistin resistant based on breakpoint tables of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing ( 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Fluorescent and biotinylated linear peptides as selective bifunctional ligands for V1a vasopressin receptor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The most promising peptide, compound 5, was selected and evaluated as an antifungal remedy for Candida albicans candidiasis in a human skin model and for the treatment of Trichophyton rubrum induced onychomycosis in an infected human nail model. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dual function of a bee (Apis cerana) inhibitor cysteine knot peptide that acts as an antifungal peptide and insecticidal venom toxin. (peptide.com)
  • Material and methods Solid phase peptide synthesis Chemical synthesis of HD-5 was carried out as explained [31]. (healthweeks.com)
  • The cationic TAT peptides were synthesized by Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis and were purified by semi preparative RP-HPLC. (springer.com)
  • Soluble Non-Crosslinked Poly(Norbornene) Supports for Peptide Synthesis with Minimal Reagents Nimmashetti Naganna and Nandita Madhavan, J. Org. (peptide.com)
  • Design and synthesis of short antimicrobial peptides for plant protection. (aaem.pl)
  • The effectiveness of antimicrobial compounds can be easily screened, however their mechanism of action is much more difficult to determine. (rsc.org)
  • Advantages put forth for CAPs include their mechanism of action, in which the positively charged peptide disrupts the negatively charged microbial membrane ultimately leading to cessation of replication/death of the organism. (isciii.es)
  • In particular, the conformation of the peptides in addition to their location in the membrane is an important feature of the mechanism of action that needs to be addressed. (springer.com)
  • Figure 6 summarizes this interpretation of our observations in a sketch of the proposed mechanism of action of the two peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. (hindawi.com)
  • Disclosed herein are acid addition salts of cationic steroidal antimicrobials ('CSAs' or 'ceragenins') and methods of making the same. (patents.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides and methods of use. (ubc.ca)
  • Antimicrobial cationic peptides and methods of screening for the same. (ubc.ca)
  • One untapped resource of novel antimicrobial agents, evolutionarily proven as anti-infectives, are the host-derived antimicrobial peptides ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The rapid emergence of drug resistance intensified the search for new antimicrobial agents, leading to lots of novel derivatives obtained from 14- and 15-membered macrolides by chemical modifications. (ebscohost.com)
  • The emergence of resistance in microorganisms on a global scale has made it necessary to search for new antimicrobial factors. (aaem.pl)