Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
An inhibitor of nucleotide metabolism.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
Any surgical procedure for treatment of glaucoma by means of puncture or reshaping of the trabecular meshwork. It includes goniotomy, trabeculectomy, and laser perforation.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
Collections of related records treated as a unit; ordering of such files.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (1/1229)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the activation of heat shock factor 1 in ischemic-reperfused heart. (2/1229)

BACKGROUND: The myocardial protective role of heat shock protein (HSP) has been demonstrated. Recently, we reported that ischemia/reperfusion induced a significant activation of heat shock factor (HSF) 1 and an accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90. We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in the induction of stress response in the ischemic-reperfused heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat hearts were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer by the Langendorff method. Whole-cell extracts were prepared for gel mobility shift assay using oligonucleotides containing the heat shock element. Induction of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90 was examined by Northern blot analysis. Repetitive ischemia/reperfusion, which causes recurrent bursts of free radical generation, resulted in burst activation of HSF1, and this burst activation was significantly reduced with either allopurinol 1 mmol/L (an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase) or catalase 2x10(5) U/L (a scavenger of H2O2). Significant activation of HSF1 was observed on perfusion with buffer containing H2O2 150 micromol/L or xanthine 1 mmol/L plus xanthine oxidase 5 U/L. The accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 or HSP90 after repetitive ischemia/reperfusion was reduced with either allopurinol or catalase. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that ROSs play an important role in the activation of HSF1 and the accumulation of mRNA for HSP70 and HSP90 in the ischemic-reperfused heart.  (+info)

Effects of nucleoside analog incorporation on DNA binding to the DNA binding domain of the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. (3/1229)

We investigate here the effects of the incorporation of the nucleoside analogs araC (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) and ganciclovir (9-[(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl] guanine) into the DNA binding recognition sequence for the GATA-1 erythroid transcription factor. A 10-fold decrease in binding affinity was observed for the ganciclovir-substituted DNA complex in comparison to an unmodified DNA of the same sequence composition. AraC substitution did not result in any changes in binding affinity. 1H-15N HSQC and NOESY NMR experiments revealed a number of chemical shift changes in both DNA and protein in the ganciclovir-modified DNA-protein complex when compared to the unmodified DNA-protein complex. These changes in chemical shift and binding affinity suggest a change in the binding mode of the complex when ganciclovir is incorporated into the GATA DNA binding site.  (+info)

Suppression of replication of multidrug-resistant HIV type 1 variants by combinations of thymidylate synthase inhibitors with zidovudine or stavudine. (4/1229)

The replication of recombinant multidrug-resistant HIV-1 clones modeled on clinically derived resistant HIV-1 strains from patients receiving long-term combination therapy with zidovudine (AZT) plus 2',3'-dideoxycytidine was found to regain sensitivity to AZT and stavudine (D4T) as a consequence of a pharmacologically induced decrease in de novo dTMP synthesis. The host-cell system used was phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells; dTMP and dTTP depletion were induced by single exposures to a low level of the thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or its deoxynucleoside, 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine. The host-cell response to the latter was biphasic: a very rapid decrease in the rate of de novo dTMP formation and, consequently, in intracellular dTTP pools, followed by slower recovery in both indices over 3 to 24 h. With the additional presence of AZT or D4T, however, replication of the multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains remained inhibited, indicating dependence of HIV DNA chain termination by AZT-5'-monophosphate or 2',3'-didehydro-2', 3'-dideoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate in these resistant strains on simultaneous inhibition of host-cell de novo synthesis of thymidine nucleotides. No effect on viability of control (uninfected) phytohemagglutinin-stimulated/peripheral blood mononuclear cells was noted on 6-day exposures to 5-FU or 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine alone or in combination with AZT or D4T, even at drug levels severalfold higher than those used in the viral inhibition studies. These studies may provide useful information for the potential clinical use of AZT/5-FU or D4T/5-FU combinations for the prevention or reversal of multidrug resistance associated with long-term dideoxynucleoside combination therapy.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (5/1229)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and the InsP3-sensitive Ca2+ store in guinea-pig colonic smooth muscle. (6/1229)

1. Mitochondrial regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in guinea-pig single colonic myocytes has been examined, using whole-cell recording, flash photolysis of caged InsP3 and microfluorimetry. 2. Depolarization increased [Ca2+]c and triggered contraction. Resting [Ca2+]c was virtually restored some 4 s after the end of depolarization, a time when the muscle had shortened to 50 % of its fully relaxed length. The muscle then slowly relaxed (t = 17 s). 3. The decline in the Ca2+ transient was monophasic but often undershot or overshot resting levels, depending on resting [Ca2+]c. The extent of the overshoot or undershoot increased with increasing peak [Ca2+]c. 4. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP; 5 microM), which dissipates the mitochondrial proton electrochemical gradient and therefore prevents mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation, slowed Ca2+ removal at high ( > 300 nM) but not at lower [Ca2+]c and abolished [Ca2+]c overshoots. Oligomycin B (5 microM), which prevents mitchondrial ATP production, affected neither the rate of decline nor the magnitude of the overshoot. 5. During depolarization, the global rhod-2 signal (which represents the mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]m) rose slowly in a CCCP-sensitive manner during and for about 3 s after depolarization had ended. [Ca2+]m then slowly decreased over tens of seconds. 6. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake with thapsigargin (100 nM) reduced the undershoot and increased the overshoot. 7. Flash photolysis of caged InsP3 (20 microM) evoked reproducible increases in [Ca2+]c. CCCP (5 microM) reduced the magnitude of the [Ca2+]c transients evoked by flash photolysis of caged InsP3. Oligomycin B (5 microM) did not reduce the inhibition of the InsP3-induced Ca2+ transient by CCCP thus minimizing the possibility that CCCP lowered ATP levels by reversing the mitochondrial ATP synthase and so reducing SR Ca2+ refilling. 8. While CCCP reduced the magnitude of the InsP3-evoked Ca2+ signal, the internal Ca2+ store content, as assessed by the magnitude of ionomycin-evoked Ca2+ release, did not decrease significantly. 9. [Ca2+]c decline in smooth muscle, following depolarization, may involve mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Following InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release, mitochondrial uptake of Ca2+ may regulate the local [Ca2+]c near the InsP3 receptor so maintaining the sensitivity of the InsP3 receptor to release Ca2+ from the SR.  (+info)

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (7/1229)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Cooperative therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and ganciclovir therapy in experimental prostate cancer. (8/1229)

Adenovirus-mediated transduction of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) in conjunction with ganciclovir (GCV) has been shown to result in significant growth suppression and to enhance survival in a model of mouse prostate cancer. However, this therapeutic activity is not sustained, because in most cases tumors eventually regrow and ultimately cause the death of the host. Androgen ablation, an inducer of apoptosis in prostate cells which is used widely as palliative therapy in patients with prostate cancer, was combined with HSV-tk plus GCV using an androgen-sensitive mouse prostate cancer cell line. The combination of castration and HSV-tk plus GCV led to markedly enhanced tumor growth suppression in both subcutaneous and orthotopic models compared with either treatment alone and resulted in an enhanced survival in which combination-treated animals lived twice as long as controls in the subcutaneous model and over 50% longer than controls in the orthotopic model. Further analysis of apoptotic activity demonstrated high levels of apoptosis only in combined androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV-treated tumors after 14 days of growth in an androgen-depleted environment and 8 days after HSV-tk plus GCV therapy. At this time, the apoptotic index, but not the percent of necrotic tissue, was significantly higher for combination therapy-treated tumors relative to control-treated tumors or either treatment alone. These data indicate that the therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV are cooperative and that increased apoptosis may, in part, underlie these activities.  (+info)

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Antimetabolites A new perspective ScienceDirect - Novel Developments in the Use of Antimetabolites. Novel Developments in the Use of Antimetabolites, Nucleosides, least partially, explain the efficacy of TFT
A drug that is similar enough to a natural chemical to participate in a normal biochemical reaction in cells but different enough to interfere with the normal division and functions of cells. So named because the drug inhibits a normal metabolic process. Examples of antimetabolites include 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), methotrexate, and hydroxyurea. Anticancer drugs that closely resemble substances needed by cells for normal growth. The tumor cells uses the drug instead and starves for lack of proper substance. ...
Lindner, A and Kutham, T, Cytochemical effects of antimetabolites and steroids on ascites tumors, a histochemical study. Abstr. (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 690 ...
http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/immunomodulators-market. The entire immunomodulators market is bifurcated into immunosuppressants (antimetabolites, antibodies, interferon beta, glucocorticoids and calcineurin inhibitors) and immunostimulators (vaccines, interferon alpha and antibodies). Immunosuppressants have a broader spectrum for drugs in the pipeline such as antiproliferative drugs and antimetabolite drugs. Antimetabolites are expected to gain a wider share in the market as they inhibits induction of hypersensitivity which is a common skin disease. Immunostimulants are anticipated to register greater market share owing to its increased usage in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and increasing incidence rate of cancer and allergies.. Continuous research is going on with respect to immunomodulators in other medical conditions such as diabetes and Alzheimers disease. North America held the highest market share pertaining to factors such as favorable government policies and ...
I cant answer your question entirely but I can tell you how its processed. The liver processes the Imuran in to one of two things: 6MMP and 6TG. Now some people metabolize it entirely into 6MMP-- this is what causes Alkaline Phosphate levels to rise in the blood and causes most people to be taken off for too high liver counts. Some people metabolize it entirely into 6TG and 6TG is what is good for fighting Crohns, but it also lowers the white cells in the body (which is okay if they are being monitored and are at a decent level). 6TG is what controls the T-cells in the body. Most people metabolize Imuran into a mix of both ...
Using the Quick Order field, you can add a product to your shopping cart with just one click. All you have to do: enter the Cat.No. as shown in our catalog in the format xxxxx.yy and click the Go!-Button.. ...
Moleculin Biotech joins the ever-expanding list of coronavirus stocks as the company announced that a second round of independent laboratory testing has confirmed the antiviral activity of WP1122.
Many Chk1 inhibitors are at various stages of preclinical and clinical development in combination with a variety of anticancer DNA-damaging agents (1). Chk1 is required for cell-cycle arrest, recombination repair, and replication fork stability in damaged cells, hence it is believed that inhibiting Chk1 will enhance cell killing induced by DNA damage. Whether this is selective for the tumor remains to be established although it has been suggested that either p53 or p38mapk may selectively protect normal cells (5, 29, 30). In addition, previous experiments showed that human diploid fibroblasts were not sensitized to gemcitabine by SCH900776, nor were myelosuppressive effects of gemcitabine enhanced by SCH900776 in mouse models (9). The experiments reported here used both a p53-wildtype (MCF10A) and p53-defective cell line (MDA-MB-231), both of which were sensitive to antimetabolites when Chk1 was inhibited. We confirm that both UCN-01 and SCH900776 inhibit Chk1 but not Chk2 in cells. Previous ...
In this article you will know all of the Main drugs used in cancer treatment. Know about Mitotic Inhibitors, Antibiotics, Antimetabolites and Alkylating
Read Genetically modified fibroblasts induce angiogenesis in the 3×6 cm rat epigastric island flap, European Journal of Plastic Surgery on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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Looking for online definition of Antimetabolites, antineoplastic in the Medical Dictionary? Antimetabolites, antineoplastic explanation free. What is Antimetabolites, antineoplastic? Meaning of Antimetabolites, antineoplastic medical term. What does Antimetabolites, antineoplastic mean?
In this paper the results of the influence of various metabolic inhibitors on dif- ferent periods of the vernalization process in winter wheat are provided. It was found that the initial period of vernalization is very sensitive to respiratory inhibitors such as azide and 2, 4-nitrophenol. In the middle period, the inhibitor of nucleo-acid metabolism such as 2-thiouracil significantly prolongated the process of vernalization. At the third period the protein metabolic inhibitor such as chloromycetin strongly inhibited the vernalization process. Our experiments demonstrated that a remarkable replacement of metabolic patterns is existed in the course of vernalization of winter wheat. The relative metabolic processes during the time of vernalization not only car- ried on different in rate and in action model of inhibitors but also alternatively. There- fore, we assumed that vernalization process of winter wheat may be divided into several periods (sub-processes) with different metabolic patterns. On the
Furuno, I; Asami, K; and Matsudaira, H, Inhibition by x-irradiation and antimetabolites of dna synthesis without affecting camp elevation in isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid gland. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2001 ...
This trial will analyse retrospectively the efficacy and safety of late conversion of stable kidney transplant recipients from antimetabolites (MMF or
Antimetabolite A substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite. It competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; for example, ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.methotrexatefolic acidcancerCancercancercancer
Adrenaline on inside, at about 1: 100,000 - -.. _ _ _ _ _ -----,--~~ Control. . . . . . \Vhale neurohypophysealextract, on inside . . . . (1 mg. -------~~-- 4,5 3,5 Under atmospheric air. 3 161 158 Figures in individual experiments are for successive one·hour runs. with Na 24 ) proved always to exceed slightly the total current, as shown by the examples in Table VII. The Na+ efflux concurrently determined with Na 22 just about accounted for the difference between the two figures, so that the entire short-circuit current was attributable to active Na+ transport. HIOE 0:-;; 100 ~ 50 10 - b. 1( 0----0 QQ, 10 MOLU COHCEHTR ... TIOH OF IHHIBITOR Fig. 13. Elfect of metabolic inhibitors on K + accumulation and respiration, as in Fig. 12. In alI experiments, acetate was provided at 10 mM. (Courtesy of G. H. 5. AEBI (1953) compared a variety of lilammalian tissue slices in this type of experiment, and found the kidney by far the most active in accumulat- 39 Transport of Inorganic Cations Table VIII. ...
The field of tumor metabolism is one of the oldest in cancer biology, dating back to the seminal work of Otto Warburg in the 1920s. Clinical importance of tumor metabolism is well validated by the successes both of FDG-PET imaging and of antimetabolites as chemotherapeutic agents. The recognition that oncogenes both promote the Warburg effect and activate anabolic pathways has provided impetus for revitalized examination of tumor metabolism. This conference brings together leaders in tumor metabolism to discuss ongoing efforts to understand and target metabolism of proliferating cancer cells and their support network. This conference will address key questions regarding the metabolism of proliferating cells, the unique metabolic features of tumors in vivo, and the associated opportunities for therapeutic intervention, including at the interface between metabolism and immunotherapy. A few key scientific questions that conference session will cover include (1) which features of cancer cell ...
Gemzar: Gemcitabine belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as antimetabolites. Gemcitabine fights cancer by preventing the growth of cancer cells, which eventually results in their destruction. It is used to treat certain types of lung cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, and cancer of the pancreas.
Teva-Capecitabine: Capecitabine belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as antimetabolites. Capecitabine fights cancer by killing cancer cells and preventing their growth. Capecitabine may be used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain types of breast cancer and colorectal cancer.
The different types of chemotherapy treatment for cancer including plant alkaloids, antitumor antibiotics, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors and antineoplastics.
Baseline characteristics were balanced between the arms (E, n = 86; C, n = 88). In the protocol-specified analysis (data cut-off 11 April 2012), the hazard ratio (HR) for OS was 0.92 (95% CI 0.63-1.35, p = 0.68; median OS 22.9 vs 19.6 months for E vs C). When adjusted for baseline factors (age, gender, ECOG PS, smoking history and EGFR mutation type), the HR was 0.86 (95% CI 0.58-1.27). A total of 58% of patients received 2L PST (tyrosine-kinase inhibitors: 31% E, 58% C; platinum compounds: 44% E, 5% C; antimetabolites: 48% E, 19% C). Median time to initiation of 2L PST from time of disease progression (n = 102) was 0.85 months for E and 0.36 months for C. Using method 1, the HR was 0.68 (95% CI 0.37-1.25, p = 0.21; median OS was not reached with E vs 20.8 months with C). The adjusted HR was 0.63 (95% CI 0.34-1.19). Using method 2, the HR was 0.69 (95% CI 0.38-1.26), with an adjusted HR of 0.65 (95% CI 0.35-1.20). ...
Methotrexate, sold under the trade names Rheumatrex and Trexall, is classified as an antimetabolite medication. This means that it effectively interferes...
Proven and potential clinical benefits of washing red blood cells before transfusion: current perspectives Amy E Schmidt, Majed A Refaai, Scott A Kirkley, Neil Blumberg Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Red blood cells (RBCs) are washed for a variety of reasons such as to remove excess potassium, cytokines, and other allergen proteins from the supernatant and/or to mitigate the effects of the storage lesion. The storage lesion is a product of RBC aging and include leakage of potassium and chloride from the RBCs, depletion of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate, loss of phospholipids and cholesterol, exposure of phosphatidylserine, elaboration of lipid mediators, loss of glutathione, autoxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin contributing to decreased blood flow viscosity and adherence to endothelial cells, increased microparticle formation, and disruption of NO-mediated vasodilation. A
MeSH-minor] Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Gadolinium. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Orbit / pathology. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment ...
BACKGROUND: Infliximab withdrawal in patients with Crohns disease on concomitant antimetabolite therapy is considered to be superior if obtained after a maintenance therapy period compared to induction alone.. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of Crohns disease patients treated with infliximab and an antimetabolite after infliximab was withdrawn using induction alone or induction plus at least 1-year of maintenance therapy. The time to relapse was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The model was adjusted according to the period of infliximab withdrawal.. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included, 54 in the induction alone group. The patient characteristics were identical in the two groups except for the period of infliximab withdrawal. After a median follow-up period of 47.1 (interquartile range=4.4-110.2) months, 66 patients (72%) experienced a relapse. After a year-adjustment, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Based on ...
Mercaptopurine is one of a large series of purine analogues which interfere with nucleic acid biosynthesis and has been found active against human leukemias. It is an analogue of the purine bases adenine and hypoxanthine. It is not known exactly which of any one or more of the biochemical effects of mercaptopurine and its metabolites are directly or predominantly responsible for cell death ...
Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters are a large superfamily of transmembrane carriers involved in the regulated transport of metabolites, nutrients, ions and drugs across cellular membranes. A subset of these solute carriers play a significant role in the cellular uptake of many cancer therapeutics, ranging from chemotherapeutics such as antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, platinum-based drugs and taxanes to targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. SLC transporters are co-expressed in groups and patterns across normal tissues, suggesting they may comprise a coordinated regulatory circuit serving to mediate normal tissue functions. In cancer however, there are dramatic changes in expression patterns of SLC transporters. This frequently serves to feed the increased metabolic demands of the tumor cell for amino acids, nucleotides and other metabolites, but also presents a therapeutic opportunity, as increased transporter expression may serve to increase intracellular concentrations of
Appreciate it! Oddly, the Professional version of the drugs.com page on Symbicort does mention inhaled corticosteroids:. MONITOR: The administration of inactivated, killed, or otherwise noninfectious vaccines to immunosuppressed patients is generally safe but may be associated with a diminished or suboptimal immunologic response due to antibody inhibition. Such patients may include those who have recently received or are receiving immunosuppressive agents, antilymphocyte globulins, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, radiation, some antirheumatic agents, high dosages of corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic agents (e.g., greater than 10 mg/​day or 1 mg/​kg/​day of prednisone or equivalent for more than 2 weeks), or long-term topical or inhaled corticosteroids.. That said, a physician friend of mine responded to my similar post on FB by saying the following, so combined with the research you cite, Im inclined to think that Im fine: Theres a big difference between the dosage of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of CD4 Counts with Mycophenolate Mofetil versus Methotrexate from the First-line Antimetabolites as Steroid-sparing Treatment (FAST) Uveitis Trial. AU - Kong, Christina L.. AU - Kelly, Nicole K.. AU - Sundararajan, Miel. AU - Rathinam, S. R.. AU - Gonzales, John A.. AU - Thundikandy, Radhika. AU - Vedhanayaki, Rajesh. AU - Kanakath, Anuradha. AU - Murugan, Bala. AU - Doan, Thuy. AU - Goldstein, Debra. AU - Al-Dhibi, Hassan A.. AU - Acharya, Nisha R.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Purpose: Sub-analysis of the FAST Trial comparing change in CD4 (∆CD4) from baseline through 12 months in uveitis patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and methotrexate (MTX). Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to 1.5 g twice daily MMF or 25 mg weekly MTX. Individuals with CD4 counts at baseline, 6 months (or treatment failure prior), and 12 months (or treatment failure between 6 and 12 months) were included. The association between treatment and ∆CD4 (cells/μL) was ...
VACUETTE Glycolytic Inhibitor, Potassium Oxalate and Sodium Fluoride 4 ml, 13 x 75 mm case of 1200 for use in glucose and lactate determinations. Buy Now!
Specializing in Buying and selling widely in the areas of Childrens, Art, Scholarly, Photography, Sports, Bindings. Have been actively selling for over 25 years and, though were more generalists than specialists, we do place a particular focus on books and ephemera in the above areas. Will travel far and wide to look at interesting collections and always welcome inquiries. ...
Antimetabolites may also be antibiotics, such as sulfanilamide drugs, which inhibit dihydrofolate synthesis in bacteria by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA).[7] PABA is needed in enzymatic reactions that produce folic acid, which acts as a coenzyme in the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, the building-blocks of DNA. Mammals do not synthesize their own folic acid so they are unaffected by PABA inhibitors, which selectively kill bacteria. Sulfanilamide drugs are not like the antibiotics used to treat infections. Instead, they work by changing the DNA inside cancer cells to keep them from growing and multiplying. Antitumor antibiotics are a class of antimetabolite drugs that are cell cycle nonspecific. They act by binding with DNA molecules and preventing RNA (ribonucleic acid) synthesis, a key step in the creation of proteins, which are necessary for cancer cell survival.[8]. Anthracyclines are anti-tumor antibiotics that interfere with enzymes involved in copying DNA during the ...
Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic in a wide variety of plants, causing diseases with economic impacts. Pseudomonas syringae pathovars produce several toxins that can function as virulence factors and contribute to disease symptoms. These virulence factors include antimetabolite toxins, such as tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, which target enzymes in the pathways of amino acid metabolism. The antimetabolite toxins are generally located in gene clusters present in the flexible genomes of specific strains. These gene clusters are typically present in blocks of genes that appear to be integrated into specific sites in the P. syringae core genome. A general overview of the genetic organization and biosynthetic and regulatory functions of these genetic traits of the antimetabolite toxins will be given in the present work.
firm role in the growth development and heredity of living organisms (Nurse 2000). During this phase DNA is synthesised from the original DNA template (replication kratom tincture for sale richardson origins) to yield two DNA strands and duplication of chromosomes (sister chromatids) which Kratom Herb Store Cross involves protein synthesis and packaging of the DNA into chromosomes.. The effect of chloroform and MSE on clonogenicity 2. Chapter 2 2. Chapter 3 3. Effect of metabolic inhibitors on the cytotoxicity of MSE and MIT in metabolically competent MCL-5 cells Discussion Genotoxic potential of MSE and MIT Introduction Materials and methods 3. Cell line and conditions 3.. Cell lines and culture conditions 2. Resuscitation of frozen cells 2. Cell quantification and viability 2. Preparation and analysis of methanol-chloroform extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (MSE) 2.. A ridiculous waste of money. Wen you find it at head shops in Seattle it looks like loose-leaf tea or powder (sold either in a ...
Take this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. You may be told to take a higher dose to start, then reduce as your thyroid levels become normal, but your doctor will work out the best dose for you. Propylthiouracil should be taken with a glass of water. The total daily dose may be taken in divided doses over the day or as a single daily dose. Try to get into the habit of taking this medicine at the same times each day to avoid missing any doses. If you forget to take a dose, take it as soon as you remember. Do not take two doses together. If it is almost time to take the next dose, wait until then and then carry on as before. Treatment with propylthiouracil may continue for up to two years. If you suspect that you or someone else has taken an overdose of propylthiouracil contact your doctor or go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital at once. Always take the container with you if possible, even if it is empty. This medicine is for you. Never give it to others ...
Cancer drugs can be divided into two general classes: CELL CYCLE SPECIFIC DRUGS (CCS; esp. plant alkaloids and antimetabolites), and CELL CYCLE NON-SPECIFIC DRUGS (CCNS; esp. alkylating agents and some natural products). Antineoplastic agents can also be organized according to their chemical class, mechanism of action, therapeutic use or their toxicities ...
Gemcitabine for Injection by Accord Healthcare Inc.: Gemcitabine belongs to the group of cancer-fighting medications known as antineoplastics, and specifically to the group of antineoplastics known as antimetabolites. Gemcitabine fights cancer by preventing the growth of cancer cells, which eventually results in their destruction. It is used to treat certain types of lung cancer, bladder cancer, breast cancer, and cancer of the pancreas.
Research and Markets: Investigation Report on Chinas Pemetrexed Market, 2009-2018: A Multi-Targeted Antimetabolite Antitumor Drug
Nucleoside analouges belong to the fmalily of antimetablits that resemble the neleosieds for uptake and metaolism that inibitr dna sytnse and couase cain termination. It is a durg target for cacner and viral infcations. ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. D-cycloserine ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Raltitrexed (Tomudex, TDX, ZD 1694) is an antimetabolite drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, and is manufactured by AstraZeneca. Used in treatment of colorectal cancer since 1998. It may also be used in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Raltitrexed is chemically similar to folic acid and is in the class of chemotherapy drugs called folate antimetabolites, which inhibit one or more of three enzymes that use folate and derivatives as substrates: DHFR, GARFT and thymidylate synthase. Raltitrexed is fully active after polyglutamylation, which allows cellular retention of the drug. By inhibiting Thymidylate synthase (TS), thus formation of precursor pyrimidine nucleotides, raltitrexed prevents the formation of DNA and RNA, which are required for the growth and survival of both normal cells and cancer cells. Inhibition of L1210 cell growth in culture IC50 = 9 nM, is one of the strongest antimetabolites in use. Structure and phase I clinical trial of the ...
In order to understand antimetabolites and how they work, it is necessary to briefly discuss the processes that are being targeted by these agents. The term metabolism refers to the many chemical reactions that take place in our bodies. We are constantly breaking down food into usable components and using those components to build our proteins, DNA and other cellular structures. Metabolite is a general term for the organic compounds that are synthesized, recycled, or broken down in cells. Materials that provide us with key metabolites enter our body as food. These compounds can be broken down into simpler structures that can be re-used in our cells. Examples include vitamins and amino acids. Metabolites that are the end products of a process or pathway may be excreted by the body. An example is urea, the end product of protein metabolism, excreted by the body as a component of urine. ...
I found out that glyphosate is an aminophosphonic analogue of glycine. First question: How is it different? Is there a phosphate group added onto it? What does being an aminophosphonic analogue entail?Now, the analogues act as antimetabolites, which interefere, at least in this case, with the production of the plants amino acids. They compete with normal substrates at the active site, denaturing the enzyme, and making it useless for its original purpose. So here lies my second question: Is there a substrate that is non-competitive to do this same thing OR are there even allosteric sites on such enzymes?Many thanks ...
Looking for Antitumour antibiotic? Find out information about Antitumour antibiotic. any one of a group of synthetic or natural substances used in the treatment of malignant tumors. Antineoplastics include alkylating agents , antimetabolites... Explanation of Antitumour antibiotic
40829907: engineUpdate, opmode=0x8 40829935: EV_TXSTART 40829939: engineUpdate, opmode=0x888 40830013: TXMODE, freq=868300000, len=25, SF=11, BW=125, CR=4/5, IH=0 40944876: setupRx1 txrxFlags 0x22 --, 01 start single rx: now-rxtime: 5 40945013: RXMODE_SINGLE, freq=868300000, SF=11, BW=125, CR=4/5, IH=0 rxtimeout: entry: 40951170 rxtime: 40945001 entry-rxtime: 6169 now-entry: 5 rxtime-txend: 63524 41005584: setupRx2 txrxFlags 0x1 --, 02 start single rx: now-rxtime: 4 41005720: RXMODE_SINGLE, freq=869525000, SF=9, BW=125, CR=4/5, IH=0 41017003: process options (olen=0x5) 41017012: LinkAdrReq: p1:11 chmap:00ff chpage:00 uprt:01 ans:86 41017019: ??ack error ack=1 txCnt=0 41017073: decodeFrame txrxFlags 0x2 --, 22 41017312: Received downlink, window=RX2, port=-1, ack=1, txrxFlags=0x22 41017708: EV_TXCOMPLETE (includes waiting for RX windows) 41018027: engineUpdate, opmode=0x800 ...
In a small randomised, prospective study, OBrart and co-workers1 attempted to prove that trabeculectomy (n=25) provided better intraocular pressure (IOP) control than viscocanalostomy (n=23). However, we have serious concerns about the methodology of this study that need to be addressed.. Viscocanalostomy is characterised by the injection of viscoelastic into Schlemms canal.2 However, this was not performed in half of the patients randomised to this group. This would be as inappropriate as using an antimetabolite in only half the patients in the trabeculectomy group, and then comparing this entire group to the viscocanalostomy group. Although the authors do state that the subgroup of patients with intracanalicular viscoelastic injection was inferior to trabeculectomy, this cohort consisted only of 12 patients and it is not known how many had completed follow up after 18 months. Surely, these small numbers are insufficient to draw such conclusions.. We are also concerned that the use of ...
IKKbeta is the key kinase in the TNFalpha-NF-kB pathway that phosphorylates IkBalpha and targets it for polyubiquitination and degradation. As a result, NF-kB is released and moves into the nucleus, where it binds to the promoters of target genes and activates transcription that increases cell proliferation or prevents apoptosis. In the chapter two of this dissertation, a novel role for the TNFalpha-IKK-NF-kB signaling pathway in anti-cancer drug resistance is described. Contrary to its physiological function, TNFalpha induced G0-G1 cell cycle arrest through IKK in cancer cells, which provided a mechanism for developing drug resistance to the purine and pyrimidine antimetabolites. A specific IKKbeta inhibitor prevented TNFalpha-induced drug resistance. Thus IKK inhibitors can enhance the effectiveness of antimetabolites in chemotherapy.; Phosphorylation regulates the kinase activity of IKKbeta. In chapters three and four of this dissertation, mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods was ...
Trade Name: Xeloda®. For which conditions is this drug approved? Capecitabine is FDA approved for initial treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer, stage III colorectal cancer, treatment for metastatic breast cancer in addition to the chemotherapy agent docetaxel (Taxotere®) after cancer progression following anthracycline chemotherapy, and treatment for metastatic breast cancer in patients who have been treated with both anthracycline and paclitaxel (Taxol®) chemotherapy. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have the ability to prescribe medication for conditions other than those for which the drug has been approved by the FDA. Patients who have received a prescription of this drug for a condition other than which it is approved may wish to discuss this issue with their physician.. What is the mechanism of action? Capecitabine belongs to a group of drugs called antimetabolites. Antimetabolites produce their anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the ability of a cell to ...
Hearts isolated from 11- and 12-day rat embryos were incubated in a simple salt solution to which was added the metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate, malonate, 2, 4-dinitrophenol or trypan blue. Comparisons were made between the two age-groups and it was observed that both 11- and 12-day hearts exhibited depressed contractile activity with the glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate. Malonate did not depress contraction rate in the younger hearts but significantly depressed the rate in the older hearts. A greater inhibitory action on the older hearts as compared with the younger hearts was also produced by 2, 4-dinitrophenol. These results were interpreted as further evidence of a shift in dependence on pathways other than glycolysis between days 11 and 12 of development.. The teratogenic agent trypan blue was shown to depress contraction rate when added to the incubation medium. This effect could be reversed by adding glycolytic intermediates such as fructose-1, 6-diphosphate or alpha glycerophosphate. ...
Definition of tioguanine in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of tioguanine. What does tioguanine mean? Information and translations of tioguanine in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Fludarabine (NSC 118218) is a DNA synthesis inhibitor, which also inhibits phosphorylation of STAT1. Fludarabine, a pro-drug, is converted metabolically by dephosphorylation to the antimetabolite, F-ara-A. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Lanvis tablets contain a medicine called tioguanine. This belongs to a group of medicines called cytotoxics (also called chemotherapy).
Resistance to bacteriostasis by 2-thiazole alanine develops rapidly; however, such resistance is lost during growth in the absence of the analog. This induced resistance is accompanied by increased formation of an enzyme sensitive to 2-thiazole alanine. Maintenance of the elevated enzyme levels in growing cells, like resistance, requires the presence of the analog. ...
Analysis of turnover of Treg by BrdU incorporation. BALB/c mice were treated with BrdU administered continuously for 7 d using osmotic pumps. Then, peripheral L
Antimetabolites[edit]. Deoxycytidine (left) and two anti-metabolite drugs (center and right); gemcitabine and decitabine. The ... Main article: Antimetabolite. Anti-metabolites are a group of molecules that impede DNA and RNA synthesis. Many of them have a ... Subtypes of the anti-metabolites are the anti-folates, fluoropyrimidines, deoxynucleoside analogues and thiopurines.[32][37] ... Unlike alkylating agents, anti-metabolites are cell cycle dependent. This means that they only work during a specific part of ...
Antimetabolites[edit]. Antimetabolites interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. These include: *folic acid analogues, ...
Carmen AJ, Carlos M (2008). "Chapter 2 - Antimetabolites". Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer Drugs. pp. 9-52. doi:10.1016/B978- ...
antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (Aminopterin. *Methotrexate#. *Pemetrexed. * ...
Antimetabolites. *purine synthesis inhibitors *Azathioprine. *Mycophenolic acid. *pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors *Leflunomide ...
antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (Aminopterin. *Methotrexate#. *Pemetrexed. * ...
antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (Aminopterin. *Methotrexate#. *Pemetrexed. * ...
Antifolates, such as pralatrexate, are part of a group of compounds known as antimetabolites with structural similarity to ... the antimetabolites are most effective against actively dividing cells and are largely cell-cycle phase specific.[5] ... naturally occurring molecules involved in DNA synthesis.[5] Cancer cells mistake antimetabolites for normal metabolites[5] ...
antimetabolites. (S phase). Folic acid. *Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor (Aminopterin. *Methotrexate#. *Pemetrexed. * ...
... is in the thiopurine and antimetabolite family of medications.[3][2] ...
... an antimetabolite; (M)itoxantrone - a synthetic anthracycline analogue (an anthraquinone) that is able to intercalate DNA and ...
... an antimetabolite; (T)hioguanine - another antimetabolite. Randomized Comparison of DAT Versus ADE as Induction Chemotherapy in ...
... an antimetabolite; (C)yclophosphamide - an alkylating antineoplastic agent from the oxazafosforine group; (M)itoxantrone - a ...
It is an antimetabolite. It is used as one of a few experimental treatments for patients with deadly pancreatic cancer when the ...
... an antimetabolite; (Ox)aliplatin - a platinum-based alkylating antineoplastic agent. GEMOX-R regimen is a highly effective ...
Investigation of selected purine derivatives (antimetabolites) membrane transport. Determination of protein effects of the O2 ...
Anti-metabolites are a group of molecules that impede DNA and RNA synthesis. Many of them have a similar structure to the ... Unlike alkylating agents, anti-metabolites are cell cycle dependent. This means that they only work during a specific part of ... Pemetrexed is another anti-metabolite that affects purine and pyrimidine production, and therefore also inhibits DNA synthesis ... Subtypes of the anti-metabolites are the anti-folates, fluoropyrimidines, deoxynucleoside analogues and thiopurines. The anti- ...
Books by Woolley included A Study of Antimetabolites (1952), and The Biochemical Bases of Psychoses (1962). Woolley married ... Dilworth Wayne Woolley, A Study of Antimetabolites (Wiley 1952). Dilworth Wayne Woolley, The Biochemical Bases of Psychoses, or ...
Matera C, Gomila AM, Camarero N, Libergoli M, Soler C, Gorostiza P (November 2018). "Photoswitchable Antimetabolite for ...
Pemetrexed Pemetrexed functions as an antimetabolite. Pemetrexed inhibits thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and ...
... is an antimetabolite of the antifolate type. It is thought to affect cancer and rheumatoid arthritis by two ... Matera C, Gomila AM, Camarero N, Libergoli M, Soler C, Gorostiza P (November 2018). "Photoswitchable Antimetabolite for ...
Antimetabolite Biopesticide Plant defense against herbivory "Aa". Oxford dictionary of biochemistry and molecular biology. ...
... is an antimetabolite and methionine antagonist. It prevents amino acid incorporation into proteins and interferes ...
... s are antimetabolites which mimic the structure of metabolic pyrimidines. Nucleobase analogues Fluorouracil ... Parker, William B. (2009). "Enzymology of Purine and Pyrimidine Antimetabolites Used in the Treatment of Cancer". Chem Rev. 109 ... Gemcitabine Nucleotide analogues Pyrimidine Fluorouracil Floxuridine Gemcitabine Pyrimidine antimetabolites are commonly used ...
The antimetabolites azathioprine and mycophenolic acid have an intermediate risk profile. Diagnosis is confirmed via biopsy of ...
... s are antimetabolites that mimic the structure of metabolic purines. Nucleobase analogues Thiopurines such as ... Parker, William B. (2009). "Enzymology of Purine and Pyrimidine Antimetabolites Used in the Treatment of Cancer". Chem Rev. 109 ... Purine Mercaptopurine Thioguanine Fludarabine Purine antimetabolites are commonly used to treat cancer by interfering with DNA ...
... is in the antimetabolite family of medications. It is a purine analogue of guanine and works by disrupting DNA and ...
... , an antimetabolite of vitamin K". Arch. Mikrobiol. 65 (4): 303-17. doi:10.1007/BF00412210. PMID 4988744. S2CID ...
Mercaptopurine is a cytostatic drug that is an antimetabolite. The mercaptopurine molecule mimics purine, which is necessary ...
Infantile digital fibromatosis is a benign asymptomatic nodular proliferation of fibrous tissue occurring almost exclusively on the dorsal and lateral aspects of the fingers or the toes, as is shown in the image below. Reye first described infantile digital fibromatosis in 1965 as a recurring digital fibrous tumor.
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal ... Anti-metabolites also affect RNA synthesis. However, because thymidine is used in DNA but not in RNA (where uracil is used ... Antimetabolites can be used in cancer treatment, as they interfere with DNA production and therefore cell division and tumor ... Antimetabolite drugs are commonly used to treat leukemia, cancers of the breast, ovary, and the gastrointestinal tract, as well ...
Geometric Mean Titer (GMT) at 14 days post completion of four dose post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with PCECV in each of the malaria prophylaxis groups with control to determine if a fifth dose of PEP at that point would be of any added ...
An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal ... Antimetabolites can be used in cancer treatment,[3] as they interfere with DNA production and therefore cell division and tumor ... Anti-metabolites masquerade as a purine (azathioprine, mercaptopurine) or a pyrimidine, chemicals that become the building- ... Antimetabolites, particularly mitomycin C (MMC), are commonly used in America and Japan as an addition to trabeculectomy, a ...
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Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with ... Antimetabolites. Subscribe to New Research on Antimetabolites Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring ... dCyd antimetabolites in 13 human cancer cell lines. ". 01/01/1993 - "This study establishes that antimetabolites do have the ... and 46 antimetabolites which were specific to individual patients. ". 09/10/2007 - "Radiosensitization with antimetabolites has ...
WP1122 is just one compound in the companys broad portfolio of molecules in this class of antimetabolites. Moleculin is also ...
Resistance to bacteriostasis by 2-thiazole alanine develops rapidly; however, such resistance is lost during growth in the absence of the analog. This induced resistance is accompanied by increased formation of an enzyme sensitive to 2-thiazole alanine. Maintenance of the elevated enzyme levels in growing cells, like resistance, requires the presence of the analog. ...
Specializing in Buying and selling widely in the areas of Childrens, Art, Scholarly, Photography, Sports, Bindings. Have been actively selling for over 25 years and, though were more generalists than specialists, we do place a particular focus on books and ephemera in the above areas. Will travel far and wide to look at interesting collections and always welcome inquiries. ...
The mechanism of action of bacimethrin, a naturally occurring thiamin antimetabolite Reddick J.J.; Saha S.; Lee J.; Melnick J.S ... Combination chemotherapy of the taxanes and antimetabolites - its use and limitations Smorenburg C.H.; Sparreboom A.; Bontenbal ... Cell cycle effects of antifolate antimetabolites: implications for cytotoxicity and cytostasis Tonkinson J.L.; Marder Ph.; ... Discontinuation of immunosuppressive antimetabolite for parvovirus B19-associated anemia in kidney transplant patients ...
Autophagy-dependent metabolic reprogramming sensitizes TSC2-deficient cells to the antimetabolite 6-aminonicotinamide.. ... Autophagy-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Sensitizes TSC2-Deficient Cells to the Antimetabolite 6-Aminonicotinamide ... Autophagy-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Sensitizes TSC2-Deficient Cells to the Antimetabolite 6-Aminonicotinamide ... Autophagy-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Sensitizes TSC2-Deficient Cells to the Antimetabolite 6-Aminonicotinamide ...
Antimetabolite. Class Summary. Flucytosine is given occasionally in combination with amphotericin B for CNS infections. ...
What is Antimetabolites, antineoplastic? Meaning of Antimetabolites, antineoplastic medical term. What does Antimetabolites, ... Looking for online definition of Antimetabolites, antineoplastic in the Medical Dictionary? Antimetabolites, antineoplastic ... redirected from Antimetabolites, antineoplastic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. antimetabolite. [an″te-, ... To be useful, antimetabolites must be significantly more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells.. Antimetabolite. A drug ...
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a well-defined entity. Proliferation with hair cells, morphological aspects of hairy cells are easy… Expand ...
The antimetabolite toxins are generally located in gene clusters present in the flexible genomes of specific strains. These ... These virulence factors include antimetabolite toxins, such as tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, which target enzymes in ... overview of the genetic organization and biosynthetic and regulatory functions of these genetic traits of the antimetabolite ... Genes Involved in the Production of Antimetabolite Toxins by Pseudomonas syringae Pathovars. Eva Arrebola 1,* , Francisco M ...
Antimetabolites / pharmacology*. Antimycin A / pharmacology. Brugia pahangi / drug effects*, physiology. Culture Media. ... Several glutamine antimetabolites reduced motility of B. pahangi by 72 hr. This inhibition was prevented by 2 mM glutamine. ... 0/Antimetabolites; 0/Culture Media; 0/Isoxazoles; 0/Sulfonamides; 149542-96-1/JDRI 7B; 151-50-8/Potassium Cyanide; 19395-50-7/ ... The differential sensitivity seen among these organisms to mitochondrial toxins and glutamine antimetabolites may be related to ...
Antimetabolite; DMARDs, ImmunomodulatorsAntimetabolite antineoplastic agents interfere with cell functions by competing for its ... Immunosuppressants; Antineoplastics, Antimetabolite; DMARDs, Immunomodulators. Antimetabolite antineoplastic agents interfere ... Methotrexate is an antimetabolite that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for conversion of folate to ... encoded search term (Which medications in the drug class Immunosuppressants; Antineoplastics%2C Antimetabolite; DMARDs%2C ...
Pemetrexed, originally developed by Eli Lilly and Company, is a multi-targeted antimetabolite antitumor drug. This product is ... As a multi-targeted antimetabolite antitumor drug, pemetrexed can treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and ... Research and Markets: Investigation Report on Chinas Pemetrexed Market, 2009-2018: A Multi-Targeted Antimetabolite Antitumor ...
Sensitivity of Human KB Cells Expressing Platelet-derived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor to Pyrimidine Antimetabolites. Misako ... The sensitivity of transfected cells to the antimetabolites was compared with that of untransfected KB cells. The sensitivity ... Sensitivity of Human KB Cells Expressing Platelet-derived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor to Pyrimidine Antimetabolites ... Sensitivity of Human KB Cells Expressing Platelet-derived Endothelial Cell Growth Factor to Pyrimidine Antimetabolites ...
Definition of antimetabolite - a substance that interferes with the normal metabolic processes within cells, typically by ... Methotrexate is an antimetabolite that, apart from its use in malignant disorders, is taken orally in low doses for the control ... Clofarabine, a type of drug called a purine nucleoside antimetabolite, works by blocking the production and repair of DNA, the ... With the latter therapy, once patients are weaned from steroids, the purine antimetabolite is continued for an indefinite ...
Previous studies of antimetabolite therapy in Crohns disease has produced conflicting results ... In studies comparing antimetabolite treatment to active therapy, azathioprine was shown to be significantly inferior to ... The authors conclude that while antimetabolite therapy offers no advantage over placebo with regards to clinical remission or ... With regards to steroid sparing, a statistically significant difference was noted between the antimetabolites and placebo, with ...
The antifolate class of anti-metabolites:. *. ? Administration of agents from this class resulted in the first highly ...
Glaucoma Filtering Surgery (Trabeculectomy) and Use of Anti-Metabolites (Download in Spanish) Consentimiento Informado para la ...
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Preclinical Development of the Novel Chk1 Inhibitor SCH900776 in Combination with DNA-Damaging Agents and Antimetabolites. Ryan ... 3). We therefore assessed the impact of SCH900776 in combination with other antimetabolites. A 3- to 10-fold sensitization was ... It is interesting that SCH900776 did not induce the same extent of sensitization to several other antimetabolites. Hydroxyurea ... Preclinical Development of the Novel Chk1 Inhibitor SCH900776 in Combination with DNA-Damaging Agents and Antimetabolites ...
The Roles of Thymidylate Synthase and p53 in Regulating Fas-Mediated Apoptosis in Response to Antimetabolites. Daniel Broderick ... We also examined activation of Fas-mediated apoptosis in response to the antimetabolites in the p53-mutant H630 colon cancer ... We extended our studies into the role of p53 in regulating antimetabolite-induced Fas-mediated apoptosis by examining the ... Our findings raise the possibility of using antimetabolite drugs in combination with anti-Fas antibodies as a novel anticancer ...
PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME ANTIMETABOLITES OF SEROTONIN HAVING UNUSUALLY HIGH ACTIVITY ON ISOLATED TISSUES. E. Shaw and ... PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME ANTIMETABOLITES OF SEROTONIN HAVING UNUSUALLY HIGH ACTIVITY ON ISOLATED TISSUES. E. Shaw and ... PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME ANTIMETABOLITES OF SEROTONIN HAVING UNUSUALLY HIGH ACTIVITY ON ISOLATED TISSUES. E. Shaw and ... It had thus both pro- and anti-metabolite properties, depending on the concentration. The serotonin-like action of medmain on ...
We wonder what the results would have been had the use of intraoperative antimetabolites been used in all groups, or if none ... Trabeculectomy augmented with antimetabolites with a viscocanalostomy technique for the management of open angle glaucoma ... This would be as inappropriate as using an antimetabolite in only half the patients in the trabeculectomy group, and then ... Although they may have shown that trabeculectomy with the use of an antimetabolite is superior to a modified form of ...
Role of diamine oxidase during the treatment of tumour-bearing mice with combinations of polyamine anti-metabolites. A Kallio, ... Role of diamine oxidase during the treatment of tumour-bearing mice with combinations of polyamine anti-metabolites ... Role of diamine oxidase during the treatment of tumour-bearing mice with combinations of polyamine anti-metabolites ... Role of diamine oxidase during the treatment of tumour-bearing mice with combinations of polyamine anti-metabolites ...
It competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; for example, ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine. ... Antimetabolite A substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and ... Related to Antimetabolite: methotrexate The drug methotrexate (right) is an antimetabolite that interferes with the metabolism ... An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal ...
  • thus, competitive inhibition can occur, and the presence of antimetabolites can have toxic effects on cells, such as halting cell growth and cell division, so these compounds are used as chemotherapy for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Antimetabolites chemotherapy treatment is an effective chemotherapy treatment and in this treatment doctor uses such drugs, which are antimetabolites. (zeepedia.com)
  • This Antimetabolites chemo is a type of chemotherapy in which doctors use such drugs which alters the natural substance of cancerous cell. (zeepedia.com)
  • One way to find and kill the cancerous cells is by using antimetabolites drugs in chemotherapy. (zeepedia.com)
  • n chemotherapy antimetabolites chemo is the most effective treatment and there are cases when by using this treatment the cancer patients survive. (zeepedia.com)
  • These are the chemotherapy antimetabolites drugs , which doctors use to treat the cancer patients. (zeepedia.com)
  • Antimetabolites are types of chemotherapy treatments that are very similar to normal substances within the cell. (chemocare.com)
  • For instance, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used antimetabolite chemotherapy that interferes with pyrimidine biosynthesis by targeting the enzyme thymidylate synthetase (TYMS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antimetabolite class of chemotherapy includes We use cookies to help provide and, What are antimetabolites? (fourvantage.biz)
  • This medication is a form of antimetabolite chemotherapy, prescribed for leukemia in children and adolescents. (medindia.net)
  • Examples of cancer drug antimetabolites include, but are not limited to the following: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) Capecitabine (Xeloda®) Cytarabine (Ara-C®) Floxuridine Fludarabine Gemcitabine (Gemzar®) Hydroxycarbamide Methotrexate Pemetrexed (Alimta®) Phototrexate Anti-metabolites masquerade as a purine (azathioprine, mercaptopurine) or a pyrimidine, chemicals that become the building-blocks of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug methotrexate (right) is an antimetabolite that interferes with the metabolism of folic acid (left). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the antimetabolites used as antineoplastic agents are the folic acid analog methotrexate and the pyrimidine analog fluorouracil. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methotrexate is an antimetabolite that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for conversion of folate to biologically active tetrahydrofolate. (medscape.com)
  • Methotrexate is an antimetabolite that, apart from its use in malignant disorders, is taken orally in low doses for the control of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Patients will receive induction therapy with antimetabolite agents (methotrexate, leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil) for four cycles. (knowcancer.com)
  • Systemic medications such as methotrexate are antimetabolites which prevent excessive skin cell growth in psoriasis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Examples of antimetabolites include 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), methotrexate, and hydroxyurea. (lymphedemapeople.com)
  • Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between antimetabolite toxicity and pharmacogenetics in patients with severe clinical toxicity or alanine transaminase (ALT) elevation after fluorouracil (5FU), capecitabine or methotrexate administration. (cdc.gov)
  • Methotrexate (MTX, Amethopterin) is an antimetabolite and antifolate drug. (sideeffectanswers.com)
  • Antimetabolites like methotrexate are structurally similar to important metabolites and can be incorporated into DNA or damage DNA in other ways. (greek.doctor)
  • Antimetabolite drugs are commonly used to treat leukemia, cancers of the breast, ovary, and the gastrointestinal tract, as well as other types of cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System antimetabolite cancer drugs are classified under L01B. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimetabolites may also be antibiotics, such as sulfanilamide drugs, which inhibit dihydrofolate synthesis in bacteria by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antitumor antibiotics are a class of antimetabolite drugs that are cell cycle nonspecific. (wikipedia.org)
  • The class of anticancer drugs that has been developed to interfere with aspects of nucleotide metabolism is known as the antimetabolites. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the role of Fas-mediated apoptosis in mediating cell death in response to the antimetabolite drugs 5-FU, RTX, and MTA and to assess the effect of TS induction and p53 status on drug-induced activation of this pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is the purpose of using Antimetabolites drugs . (zeepedia.com)
  • Antimetabolites drugs prevent the cancerous cells to divide by incorporating the change in the cell mechanism. (zeepedia.com)
  • We provide evidence against the common notion about non-specific cytotoxic functions of antimetabolite drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This drug panel included a number of antimetabolite chemotherapies together with a number of other agents grouped as "cytotoxic drugs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 6-Thioguanine belongs to the thiopurine family of drugs that also include mercaptopurine and azathioprine, which are examples of antimetabolites, and is a purine analogue of the nucleobase guanine. (csnpharm.cn)
  • Tame Inflammation: 10 Immunosuppressive Drugs to Tame Inflammation: 10 Immunosuppressive Drugs to when antimetabolites have failed. (fourvantage.biz)
  • Furthermore, the use of MBsto facilitate delivery of O2 as well as the sensitiser/antimetabolite, combined with the possibility toactivate the sensitiser using externally applied ultrasound, provides a more targeted approach withimproved efficacy and reduced side effects when compared with conventional systemic administrationof antimetabolite drugs alone. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Immunosuppressant drugs include antimetabolites, alkylating agents , some antibiotics and specific adjuvants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The work Anticancer drugs : antimetabolite metabolism and natural anticancer agents represents a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Missouri Libraries . (missouri.edu)
  • The classes of drugs are ever expanding and include corticosteroids, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, T-cell and calcineurin agents, biologic agents, and interferons. (hindawi.com)
  • With the latter therapy, once patients are weaned from steroids, the purine antimetabolite is continued for an indefinite period while the physician monitors white blood cell count and liver enzymes. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • 6-Mercaptopurine-9-β-D-ribofuranoside is a purine antimetabolite, acts as an anti-adipogenesis agent, downregulates mRNA levels of PPAR γ and C/EBPα, as well as PPAR γ target protein such as LPL, CD36, aP2, and LXRα[1][2]. (csnpharm.cn)
  • Purine Antimetabolite, ClinCalc DrugStats Database, Version 18.0. (clincalc.com)
  • Since many cancer tissues contain high dThdPase activity compared with normal tissues, these transfected and untransfected KB cells are useful for studying the role of dThdPase in the activation of pyrimidine antimetabolites and also in angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Kinetic and biochemical modulation of pyrimidine antimetabolites in th" by M Blumenreich, M Andreeff et al. (jax.org)
  • Kinetic and biochemical modulation of pyrimidine antimetabolites in therapy of acute leukemia. (jax.org)
  • An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • A purine analog antimetabolite that inhibits DNA synthesis. (drugbank.com)
  • Talking about antimetabolites, it is a chemical, which inhibits the cancerous cells and tumor . (zeepedia.com)
  • An antimetabolite if taken literally is a chemical that inhibits or prevents the use of metabolite. (sideeffectanswers.com)
  • The Measles vaccine is not recommended (contraindicated) for persons with congenital immunodeficiency, HIV infection, leukaemia, lymphoma or generalised malignancy or those who are currently receiving alkylating agents , antimetabolites, radiation or large doses of corticosteroids, in addition to pregnant women. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Besides corticosteroids, long-term treatment options for the treatment of JIA-associated uveitis include antimetabolites, alkylating agents and biologic agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antimetabolite antineoplastic agents interfere with cell functions by competing for its receptors or enzymes involved in the synthesis of DNA. (medscape.com)
  • Many antimetabolites such as cytarabine and gemcitabine inhibit synthesis of DNA by inhibiting either DNA polymerase or ribonucleotide reductase, respectively, but they are also incorporated into DNA in which they terminate strand synthesis ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antimetabolites interfere with the synthesis of nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clofarabine, a type of drug called a purine nucleoside antimetabolite, works by blocking the production and repair of DNA, the building blocks of genes. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • Antimetabolites can be used in cancer treatment, as they interfere with DNA production and therefore cell division and tumor growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this mode of action, most antimetabolites have high cell cycle specificity and can target arrest of cancer cell DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be useful, antimetabolites must be significantly more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a multi-targeted antimetabolite antitumor drug, pemetrexed can treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer with little side effect. (tmcnet.com)
  • Antimetabolites mimic the building blocks of DNA or RNA that cancer cells need to survive and grow. (lls.org)
  • When the cancer cell uses an antimetabolite instead of the natural substances, it can't produce normal DNA or RNA and the cell dies. (lls.org)
  • Once an Antimetabolite chemical or substance is present in the cancerous cells then the cancer cells cannot grow in their presence. (zeepedia.com)
  • Despite of the fact that antimetabolites chemo has Side Affects doctors use it to treat the cancer patients. (zeepedia.com)
  • Antimetabolites may cause severe toxicity and even toxic death in cancer patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancer patients with severe antimetabolite toxicity were evaluated for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C667T, thymidilate synthase (TS) gene 5' UTR variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), dihydroprymidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene IVS14+1G/A, Xeroderma pigmentosum (XPD) gene Lys751Gln and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene Arg399Gln polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimetabolite chemotherapeutic agents that target cellular metabolism are widely used in the clinic and are thought to exert their anti-cancer effects mainly through non-specific cytotoxic effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many of the antimetabolites used in the treatment of cancer interfere with the production of the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA. (cancerquest.org)
  • Magnetically responsive microbubbles (MagMBs), consisting of an oxygen gas core and a phospholipid coating functionalised with Rose Bengal (RB) and/or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), were assessed as a delivery vehicle for the targeted treatment of pancreatic cancer using combined antimetabolite and sonodynamic therapy (SDT). (anglia.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest MagMBs have considerable potential as a platform to enable the targeted delivery of combined sonodynamic / antimetabolite therapy in pancreatic cancer. (anglia.ac.uk)
  • A statistically significant reduction in cell viabilitywas observed when three different pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1),cultured in an anaerobic cabinet, were treated with both SDT and antimetabolite therapy compared toeither therapy alone. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • These results illustrate not only the potential ofcombined SDT/antimetabolite therapy as a stand alone treatment option in pancreatic cancer, but alsothe capability of O2-loaded MBs to deliver O2 to the tumour microenvironment in order to enhance theefficacy of therapies that depend on O2 to mediate their therapeutic effect. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • anal cancer and belongs to the drug class antimetabolites . (drugs.com)
  • Examples of anthracyclines include: Daunorubicin Doxorubicin (Adriamycin®) Epirubicin Idarubicin Anti-tumor antibiotics that are not anthracyclines include: Actinomycin-D Bleomycin Mitomycin-C Mitoxantrone Phototrexate Antimetabolites, particularly mitomycin C (MMC), are commonly used in America and Japan as an addition to trabeculectomy, a surgical procedure to treat glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercaptopurine (6-MP) belongs to the group of medicines known as antimetabolites. (drugs.com)
  • These virulence factors include antimetabolite toxins, such as tabtoxin, phaseolotoxin and mangotoxin, which target enzymes in the pathways of amino acid metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • Intraoperative antimetabolite application, namely mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is currently being tested for its effectiveness of managing pterygium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antimetabolites, particularly mitomycin C (MMC), are commonly used in America and Japan as an addition to trabeculectomy , a surgical procedure to treat glaucoma . (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of novel approaches have been proposed to overcome antimetabolite resistance and to improve the selectivity of these agents, including the use of guanosine nucleotides, leucovorin and allopurines as biochemical modulators of 5-FU. (nebraska.edu)
  • Furthermore, we characterize a set of 17 antimetabolite agents in various contexts to investigate determinants of sensitivity to these agents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study comprehensively evaluated thousands of molecular features in their ability to act as predictive markers of sensitivity and found the TP53 mutational status as the most dominant marker for antimetabolite agents such as 5-FU and Gemcitabine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It remains to be investigated whether any differences among antimetabolite agents can be captured in gene expression signatures of response and whether such gene expression signatures can add to our power of distinguishing subtypes with heterogeneous therapeutic outcome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antimetabolite agents are effective as Antimetabolites. (fourvantage.biz)
  • In order to understand antimetabolites and how they work, it is necessary to briefly discuss the processes that are being targeted by these agents. (cancerquest.org)
  • Gemcitabine elaidate is a lipophilic, unsaturated fatty acid ester derivative of gemcitabine (dFdC), an antimetabolite deoxynucleoside analogue, with potential antineoplastic activity. (csnpharm.cn)
  • Pemetrexed, originally developed by Eli Lilly and Company, is a multi-targeted antimetabolite antitumor drug. (tmcnet.com)
  • Antimetabolites are classified according to the substances with which they interfere. (chemocare.com)
  • We are also concerned that the use of intraoperative antimetabolites in the trabeculectomy group added a major confounding variable in this study. (bmj.com)
  • We wonder what the results would have been had the use of intraoperative antimetabolites been used in all groups, or if none was used at all. (bmj.com)
  • It should be mentioned that quite often we do rely on subconjunctival filtration in non-penetrating procedures (that is, deep sclerectomy) but advocate the use of a collagen wick 5 or hyaluronic acid 6 implant with an intraoperative antimetabolite in higher risk cases to obtain optimal IOP control. (bmj.com)
  • Previous studies involving the use of antimetabolite therapy for Crohn's disease has produced conflicting and sometimes controversial results. (empr.com)
  • The authors conclude that while antimetabolite therapy offers no advantage over placebo with regards to clinical remission or improvement, it could allow Crohn's disease patients to reduce their use of steroids. (empr.com)
  • Crohn's Disease Forum » Treatment » Imuran/Azathioprine/6-MP » How does the body react to immunosuppressive antimetabolites? (crohnsforum.com)
  • How does the body react to immunosuppressive antimetabolites? (crohnsforum.com)
  • Same as guadecitabine, is a dinucleotide antimetabolite of a decitabine linked via phosphodiester bond to a guanosine, with potential antineoplastic activity. (csnpharm.cn)
  • O2MB were prepared with either the sensitiser Rose Bengal (O2MB-RB) or the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (O2MB-5FU) attached to the microbubble (MB) surface. (ulster.ac.uk)
  • Fludarabine, a pro-drug, is converted metabolically by dephosphorylation to the antimetabolite, F-ara-A. (medchemexpress.com)
  • This would be as inappropriate as using an antimetabolite in only half the patients in the trabeculectomy group, and then comparing this entire group to the viscocanalostomy group. (bmj.com)
  • 4 Certainly in higher risk cases, we feel that there is a role for antimetabolites in non-penetrating surgery, and have found it to be safer than when used with trabeculectomy. (bmj.com)
  • We have recently been adding trypan blue to antimetabolites to delineate treatment area during trabeculectomy. (arvojournals.org)
  • There are several different cellular targets for antimetabolites. (cancerquest.org)
  • Serious potential side effects of antimetabolites An “antimetabolite” is drug the results will be reviewed with you in detail and will help Learn antimetabolites with free interactive flashcards. (fourvantage.biz)
  • Choose from 500 different sets of antimetabolites flashcards on Quizlet. (fourvantage.biz)
  • Antimetabolites, specifically: Folate analog b. (fourvantage.biz)
  • A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. (rcsb.org)
  • Cytochemical effects of antimetabolites and steroids on ascites tumors, a histochemical study. (jax.org)
  • Read "Mechanism of Action of Antimetabolites, Include any more information that will help us locate the issue and fix it faster for you. (fourvantage.biz)
  • Autophagy-dependent metabolic reprogramming sensitizes TSC2-deficient cells to the antimetabolite 6-aminonicotinamide. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, we find that metabolic pathways targeted by each of these antimetabolites are specifically enriched in its expression signatures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antimetabolites generally impair DNA replication machinery, either by incorporation of chemically altered nucleotides or by depleting the supply of deoxynucleotides needed for DNA replication and cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With regards to steroid sparing, a statistically significant difference was noted between the antimetabolites and placebo, with 64% of azathioprine patients reducing their prednisone dose to less than 10mg/day compared to 46% of patients in the placebo group (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.77). (empr.com)
  • Antimetabolites are cell-cycle specific. (chemocare.com)
  • Lecture 10 Antimetabolites cell cycle specific (S-phase) Compare antimetabolites. (fourvantage.biz)
  • In the cell, antimetabolites are mistaken for the metabolites they resemble, and are processed in the cell in a manner analogous to the normal compounds. (cancerquest.org)
  • range, 46-67 years) with uveitic glaucoma resistant to medical therapy underwent deep sclerectomy without antimetabolites between 1994 and 2001. (curehunter.com)
  • Estos medicamentos se usan en combinación con otros agentes preoperatorios, operatorios y postoperatorios diseñados para aumentar la tasa de éxito en las operaciones de glaucoma. (omic.com)
  • Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)