Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
An imprecise term which may refer to a sense of spatial disorientation, motion of the environment, or lightheadedness.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS; MEDICAL DEVICES; corrective LENSES; and a variety of other medical remedies.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians, and are qualified by special training and, frequently, by licensure to work in supporting roles in the health care field. These occupations include, but are not limited to, medical technology, physical therapy, physician assistant, etc.
Schools which offer training in the area of health.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.

Differential display PCR reveals novel targets for the mood-stabilizing drug valproate including the molecular chaperone GRP78. (1/380)

Differential display polymerase chain reaction was used to identify genes regulated by the mood-stabilizing drug valproate (VPA). Four differentially displayed valproate-regulated gene fragments were isolated in rat cerebral cortex after i.p. injection of sodium VPA (300 mg/kg) for 3 weeks, and their expression was confirmed by Northern and slot blot analysis in rat cerebral cortex and C6 glioma cells. Sequencing analysis revealed three previously unidentified cDNA fragments in addition to a sequence with 100% homology with a molecular chaperone, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). VPA treatment did not increase mRNA expression of 70-kDa heat shock protein, which is a related stress-induced molecular chaperone protein. All four candidate genes, including GRP78, showed similar VPA concentration-dependent increases in mRNA abundance. Another commonly prescribed mood-stabilizing anticonvulsant, carbamazepine, also increased GRP78 mRNA expression in C6 glioma cells, whereas lithium had no effect at doses up to 2 mM. Immunoblotting revealed that GRP78 protein levels were also increased in C6 glioma cells treated with VPA under the same conditions. Nuclear runoff analysis showed that VPA increased GRP78 gene transcription. Because GRP78 possesses molecular chaperone activity, binds Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum, and protects cells from the deleterious effects of damaged proteins, the present findings suggest that VPA (and possibly carbamazepine) treatment may target one or more of these processes.  (+info)

Carbamazepine-induced upregulation of adenosine A1-receptors in astrocyte cultures affects coupling to the phosphoinositol signaling pathway. (2/380)

The anticonvulsant and antibipolar drug carbamazepine (CBZ) is known to act as a specific antagonist at adenosine A1-receptors. After a 3-week application of CBZ, A1-receptors are upregulated in the rat brain. We have investigated the consequences of this upregulation for the A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in primary astrocyte cultures from different regions of the rat brain. CBZ treatment for 10 days had no effect on adenosine A1-receptor mRNA expression in cultures with high basal A1-receptor mRNA levels, but increased A1-receptor mRNA in cultures exhibiting low basal A1-receptor mRNA levels. This upregulation of A1-receptor mRNA was accompanied by an upregulation or induction of A1-receptor-mediated potentiation of PLC activity, a property that was not found in these cultures before CBZ treatment. Thus, CBZ treatment for 10 days induces a new quality of adenosine A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in cells that express low basal A1-receptor numbers.  (+info)

Pharmacogenetics of lithium response in bipolar disorder. (3/380)

Lithium is the first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. In the past, genetic studies have attempted to identify factors associated with positive treatment response or side effects. Several research groups have shown that familial factors, family history of primary bipolar disorder, and negative family history of schizophrenia in particular, correlate well with prophylactic lithium response. Conversely, studies of lithium responsive patients and their families can assist genetic research of bipolar disorder. Lithium responders appear to suffer from a form of bipolar disorder that is more genetically based and more homogeneous. In a series of family studies, the author and his colleagues have confirmed the differences in family histories of lithium responders and nonresponders and shown that the mode of inheritance in lithium responders is compatible with a major-gene model. Subsequently, they initiated an international collaborative study to map the gene(s) predisposing to the illness or treatment response, or both, using both linkage and association strategies. To date, a sample of 32 families, 138 unrelated patients and 163 control subjects has been studied. In these studies, they found support for the role of phospholipase C in lithium responsive bipolar disorder.  (+info)

Pharmacoeconomic and health outcome comparison of lithium and divalproex in a VA geriatric nursing home population: influence of drug-related morbidity on total cost of treatment. (4/380)

OBJECTIVE: Clinicians use mood stabilizers for treating agitation in older patients, but limited information is available regarding side effects and costs in clinical practice. Total costs of treatment were assessed for a subset of geriatric patients receiving either lithium carbonate or divalproex sodium for agitation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort examination of the medical records of 72 patients, 55 years of age or older, in a Veterans Administration long-term, skilled nursing care facility, with a diagnosis of dementia or bipolar affective disorder or both. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients treated with lithium or divalproex during the previous 4 years (1994-1997) were evaluated. Quantitative information was collected and compared regarding routine care, including cost of treatment and laboratory monitoring; and occurrence of adverse events and associated diagnostic and treatment measurements. RESULTS: Routine care costs for the 2 groups were similar. The lower annual acquisition cost per patient-year for lithium ($15 vs $339 for divalproex) was offset by higher laboratory monitoring costs associated with its administration ($278 vs $53 for divalproex). Examining the adverse events showed that the lithium group had more medication-related adverse events (32 total) than the divalproex group (10 total) and more severe occurrences, including 6 cases requiring medical intensive care unit (MICU) hospitalization. The total mean cost of treating drug-related mild-to-moderate morbidity was $3472 for lithium and $672 for divalproex. An additional cost per admission of $12,910 ($77,462 for all 6 cases) increased total morbidity-related expenditures in the lithium group to $80,934. CONCLUSIONS: Treating geriatric patients with lithium requires careful monitoring because of side effects. Staffing and resource limitations of a skilled nursing care facility may compromise optimal lithium monitoring in elderly patients. The collected data indicated that divalproex does not result in as many as or as severe adverse events and is, therefore, a safer treatment. The use of lithium was not only more expensive (on average $2875 more per patient) than treatment with divalproex but, more importantly, it was associated with poorer patient outcomes.  (+info)

Bipolar disorder in old age. (5/380)

OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential.  (+info)

Inhibition of the high affinity myo-inositol transport system: a common mechanism of action of antibipolar drugs? (6/380)

The mechanism of action of antibipolar drugs like lithium, carbamazepine, and valproate that are used in the treatment of manic-depressive illness, is unknown. Lithium is believed to act through uncompetitive inhibition of inositolmonophosphatase, which results in a depletion of neural cells of inositol and a concomitant modulation of phosphoinositol signaling. Here, we show that lithium ions, carbamazepine, and valproate, but not the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline, inhibit at therapeutically relevant concentrations and with a time course similar to their clinical actions the high affinity myo-inositol transport in astrocyte-like cells and downregulate the level of the respective mRNA. Inhibition of inositol uptake could thus represent an additional pathway for inositol depletion, which might be relevant in the mechanism of action of all three antibipolar drugs.  (+info)

Asthma precipitated by cessation of lithium treatment. (7/380)

We report symptomatic asthma, associated with objective and highly significant increases in both airway responsiveness and airflow limitation, presenting de novo in a male patient 6 weeks after suddenly discontinuing lithium carbonate therapy.  (+info)

Carbamazepine suppresses methamphetamine-induced Fos expression in a regionally specific manner in the rat brain. Possible neural substrates responsible for antimanic effects of mood stabilizers. (8/380)

Carbamazepine (CBZ) has been widely used for treatment of manic states. Because amphetamine produces effects in humans similar to those of idiopathic mania, acute methamphetamine administration could serve as a model of this condition. To elucidate the neurobiological substrates responsible for the antimanic effects of carbamazepine, this study investigated the effects of chronic carbamazepine administration on regional Fos protein expression induced by a single dose of methamphetamine (2mg/kg). Chronic treatment with CBZ (0.25% in food for 7 days, followed by 0.5% for 7 days; final mean serum carbamazepine concentration: 4.09 +/- 0.34 microg/ml) significantly attenuated the number of Fos-like immunoreactivity-positive nuclei induced by methamphetamine administration in the core of the nucleus accumbens and the caudate/putamen. The results indicate these brain regions are involved in the antimanic effects of carbamazepine.  (+info)

BACKGROUND Conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results for efficacy of pharmacological treatments for acute mania. We did a multiple-treatments meta-analysis, which accounted for both direct and indirect comparisons, to assess the effects of all antimanic drugs. METHODS We systematically reviewed 68 randomised controlled trials (16,073 participants) from Jan 1, 1980, to Nov 25, 2010, which compared any of the following pharmacological drugs at therapeutic dose range for the treatment of acute mania in adults: aripiprazole, asenapine, carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin, haloperidol, lamotrigine, lithium, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, topiramate, and ziprasidone. The main outcomes were the mean change on mania rating scales and the number of patients who dropped out of the allocated treatment at 3 weeks. Analysis was done by intention to treat. FINDINGS Haloperidol (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·56 [95% CI -0·69 to -0·43]), risperidone (-0·50 [-0·63 to -0·38),
Shudderer (Shu) is an X-linked dominant mutation in Drosophila melanogaster identified more than 40 years ago. A previous study showed that Shu caused spontaneous tremors and defects in reactive climbing behavior, and that these phenotypes were significantly suppressed when mutants were fed food containing lithium, a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Williamson, 1982). This unique observation suggested that the Shu mutation affects genes involved in lithium-responsive neurobiological processes. In the present study, we identified Shu as a novel mutant allele of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel gene paralytic (para). Given that hypomorphic para alleles and RNA interference-mediated para knockdown reduced the severity of Shu phenotypes, Shu was classified as a para hypermorphic allele. We also demonstrated that lithium could improve the behavioral abnormalities displayed by other Nav mutants, including a fly model of the human generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus.
Bipolar mood disorder (manic depression) is a major psychiatric disorder whose molecular origins are unknown. Mood stabilisers offer patients both acute and prophylactic treatment, and experimentally, they provide a means to probe the underlying biology of the disorder. Lithium and other mood stabilisers deplete intracellular inositol and it has been proposed that bipolar mood disorder arises from aberrant inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate [IP3, also known as Ins(1,4,5)P3] signalling. However, there is no definitive evidence to support this or any other proposed target; a problem exacerbated by a lack of good cellular models. Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PIP3, also known as PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a prominent intracellular signal molecule within the central nervous system (CNS) that regulates neuronal survival, connectivity and synaptic function. By using the genetically tractable organism Dictyostelium, we show that lithium suppresses PIP3-mediated signalling. These effects extend to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A randomized controlled trial of risperidone, lithium, or divalproex sodium for initial treatment of bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed phase, in children and adolescents. AU - Geller, Barbara. AU - Luby, Joan L.. AU - Joshi, Paramjit. AU - Wagner, Karen Dineen. AU - Emslie, Graham. AU - Walkup, John T.. AU - Axelson, David A.. AU - Bolhofner, Kristine. AU - Robb, Adelaide. AU - Wolf, Dwight V.. AU - Riddle, Mark A.. AU - Birmaher, Boris. AU - Nusrat, Nasima. AU - Ryan, Neal D.. AU - Vitiello, Benedetto. AU - Tillman, Rebecca. AU - Lavori, Philip. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Context: There was a paucity of comparative pharmacological research for initial treatment of bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed phase, in children and adolescents. Objective: To investigate which medication to administer first to antimanic medication-naive subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) study recruited 6-to 15-year-old children and adolescents with ...
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Anticonvulsant, antimanic agent. Epilepsy: Adults and children , 12 years - initially, 100-200 mg once or twice a day; increased in divided doses until best response obtained. Optimal daily dosage: 800-1200 mg. Rarely, …. ...
Anticonvulsant, antimanic agent. Epilepsy: Adults and children , 12 years - initially, 100-200 mg once or twice a day; increased in divided doses until best response obtained. Optimal daily dosage: 800-1200 mg. Rarely, …. ...
How to Treat Bipolar Disorder in Children. Bipolar disorder in children is marked by mood swings, irritability, trouble concentrating, and feelings of hopelessness or worthlessness. Left untreated, bipolar disorder can have poor effects on...
The study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial of pioglitazone, either as monotherapy or adjunctive to a mood stabilizer, for the acute relief of bipolar depression. The enrollment goal is 80 subjects (40 patients each in the pioglitazone treatment group and the placebo treatment group).. Screening Phase: Patients who have been prescribed a mood stabilizer for , 4 weeks and are on a therapeutic dose will proceed directly to the Screening Visit. For situations in which the patient prefers to be taking a mood stabilizer or where the treating psychiatrist feels it is clinically necessary, a mood stabilizer (lithium, divalproex, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone or lurasidone) will be initiated (see Mood Stabilizer Initiation section below). For this set of patients who do begin a mood stabilizer, the Screening Phase may last up to 8 weeks. Otherwise, subjects who do not come in on a mood stabilizer will proceed directly to ...
The concept of mood stability is attractive to both patients and clinicians alike, and hence the term mood stabilizer has widespread currency. However, its worldwide acceptance and use in clinical practice is at odds with the absence of official recognition by regulatory authorities. The ideal mood stabilizer is said to have efficacy in the treatment of acute manic and depressive episodes, and also be effective in the prevention of recurrences. However, in reality, few drugs with perhaps the exception of lithium, come close to this gold standard; yet many agents aspire to the title, and some have arguably achieved it prematurely. It is, therefore, important to reconsider the definition of a mood stabilizer and critically review which agents, if any, satisfy the necessary eligibility requirements by reference to reasonable criteria and comparator data. The term mood stabilizer is an important label. It needs to be applied judiciously because it confers clinical credibility and qualifies long-term use
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The goal of this table is to offer a guide for physician and pharmacist in combining mood stabilizers. The table should be clear, easy to use and contains the most important information. Therefore, the table only contains the most commonly used mood stabilizers ...
In a recently published study from Turkey, close to 50% of manic patients who took the drug Tamoxifen had fewer manic episodes during the three weeks of treatment, compared to just 5% of placebo-treated patients. About 25 percent of Tamoxifen-treated patients and none of the placebo-treated patients achieved remissions.
Read a comprehensive review of the effects of specific mood-stabilizing agents on fetuses and nursing infants, and the appropriate management guidelines to minimize these risks.
Read a comprehensive review of the effects of specific mood-stabilizing agents on fetuses and nursing infants, and the appropriate management guidelines to minimize these risks.
Lamictal is a remarkable anticonvulsant mood stabilizer. What makes it so remarkable is that it is very frequently effective in the depressed phase of
Important Information for Women Who Could Become Pregnant About the Use of DEPAKOTE® (divalproex sodium) Tablets. Please read this leaflet carefully before you take DEPAKOTE® (divalproex sodium) tablets. This leaflet provides a summary of important information about taking DEPAKOTE to women who could become pregnant. If you have any questions or concerns,or want more information about DEPAKOTE, contact your doctor or pharmacist.. Information For Women Who Could Become Pregnant. DEPAKOTE can be obtained only by prescription from your doctor. The decision to use DEPAKOTE is one that you and your doctor should make together, taking into account your individual needs and medical condition.. Before using DEPAKOTE, women who can become pregnant should consider the fact that DEPAKOTE has been associated with birth defects, in particular, with spina bifida and other defects related to failure of the spinal canal to close normally. Approximately 1 to 2% of children born to women with epilepsy taking ...
Important Information for Women Who Could Become Pregnant About the Use of DEPAKOTE® (divalproex sodium) Tablets. Please read this leaflet carefully before you take DEPAKOTE® (divalproex sodium) tablets. This leaflet provides a summary of important information about taking DEPAKOTE to women who could become pregnant. If you have any questions or concerns,or want more information about DEPAKOTE, contact your doctor or pharmacist.. Information For Women Who Could Become Pregnant. DEPAKOTE can be obtained only by prescription from your doctor. The decision to use DEPAKOTE is one that you and your doctor should make together, taking into account your individual needs and medical condition.. Before using DEPAKOTE, women who can become pregnant should consider the fact that DEPAKOTE has been associated with birth defects, in particular, with spina bifida and other defects related to failure of the spinal canal to close normally. Approximately 1 to 2% of children born to women with epilepsy taking ...
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013. It can be used alone or in combination with mood stabilizers such as lithium or valproate (e.g., Depakote ...
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013. It can be used alone or in combination with mood stabilizers such as lithium or valproate (e.g., Depakote ...
Medications for bipolar disorder include lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and ketamine. Learn about their side effects and benefits.
Medications for bipolar disorder include lithium, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and ketamine. Learn about their side effects and benefits.
Study Unit 4: Mood Disorders, Mood Stabilizers, and ADHD flashcards from Justin Holmes's University of Colorado Medical School class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Learn Antipsychotics, Mood Stabilizers, ADD Drugs facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
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has anyone been on a mood stabilizer drug ? if so did it worsen tinnitus?? my doctor might try this instead of antidepressant to see if it helps my...
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Nexium is a strong and powerful painkiller for the treatment of chronic pain. Many more of the people taking zyprexa would have benefited from other drugs, such as the mood stabilizer lithium.
Teva-Olanzapine: Olanzapine belongs to a group of medications known as antipsychotic/antimanic agents. Olanzapine is used to treat schizophrenia and related mental disorders, as well as bipolar disorder.
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Mood-stabilizing drugs slipped into the vocabulary of psychiatrists during the last 15 years without a proper discussion of their definition. Consequently, these medications have been used in ways that have no empirical justification.
When patients with classic mania and depression during mania are considered together, evidence suggests that acute treatment responses to lithium and divalproex
Valproate is under-used and greatly under-dosed in acute mania. Mono-therapy with high-dose valproate is the first-choice preference by a wide margin.. It has less side effects and a wider margin of safety than any of the other relevant drugs. It is much less expensive than almost any other option.. If adequately dosed, is almost certainly much more effective, despite the paucity of evidence for this from RCTs. That simply speaks to the fact that RCTs are frequently unhelpful, and as Parker has said (26), they produce clinically meaningless results.. It is therefore important for clinicians to develop and trust their clinical judgement, and stop deferring too readily and too often to the sometimes mis-informed conclusions promulgated by the committees that produce these guidelines - for a discussion of the extensive problems with guidelines see my recent commentary.. It reminds me of one of the factors that speeded my departure from the National Health Service in the UK many years ago. The ...
Buy Setinin Online! Setinin is an antipsychotic medicine. Setinin is used to treat bipolar disorder (manic depression) in adults and children who are at least 10 years old.
U.S. manufacturers, including major drugmakers, have legally released at least 271 million pounds of pharmaceuticals into waterways that often provide drinking water - contamination the federal government has consistently overlooked, according to an Associated Press investigation.. Hundreds of active pharmaceutical ingredients are used in a variety of manufacturing, including drugmaking: For example, lithium is used to make ceramics and treat bipolar disorder; nitroglycerin is a heart drug and also used in explosives; copper shows up in everything from pipes to contraceptives.. Federal and industry officials say they dont know the extent to which pharmaceuticals are released by U.S. manufacturers because no one tracks them - as drugs. But a close analysis of 20 years of federal records found that, in fact, the government unintentionally keeps data on a few, allowing a glimpse of the pharmaceuticals coming from factories.. As part of its ongoing PharmaWater investigation about trace ...
Background:Divalproex sodium has been reported to be better tolerated than valproic acid. To our knowledge, no study has examined whether significant differences in the tolerability and efficacy exist between these preparations in psychiatric patients. The objective of the present study was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of divalproex sodium with those of valproic acid in psychiatric inpatients.. Method:Information gathered retrospectively from the medical records of 150 patients treated with divalproex sodium was compared with that of 150 patients treated with valproic acid. These medical records were photocopied, and any mention of divalproex sodium or valproic acid treatment was concealed. A series of demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. Results: Patients treated with divalproex sodium compared with patients treated with valproic acid were less likely to have gastrointestinal side effects (14.7% vs. 28.7%, p = .003), specifically anorexia (6.0% vs. 14.7%, p = ...
redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online. Researchers from the University of South Florida (USF) have reportedly discovered that an alternative salt form of lithium might be a safer, less toxic way to treat bipolar disorder and other neuropsychiatric conditions.. Publishing a paper in a recent edition of RSC Advances, the journal of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the study authors discuss how oral lithium salicylate was able to produce steady lithium levels for up to 48 hours in rats - without the toxic side effects typically linked with the rapid absorption of current FDA-approved lithium carbonate.. While lithium carbonate has been tremendously effective in treating the mania associated with bipolar disorder, as well as reducing the likelihood of suicide during the depressive phases of the condition, it can also cause such side effects as diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain, hand tremors and even decreased thyroid function.. As a result of those adverse effects, patients often stop ...
Canadian pharmaceutical companies are reporting shortages of divalproex sodium (Epival), also known as valproic acid.. As of Thursday December 17, a total of fifteen divalproex sodium shortages were posted on drugshortages.ca by Abbott Laboratories Limited*, Apotex Inc., Pro Doc Limitée, Sanis Health Inc. and Teva Canada Limited. None of the pharmaceutical companies have provided an explanation for the shortages.. This situation is a serious concern. The estimated resupply dates currently range from December 24, 2015 to April 30, 2016. These dates are estimates and could change. Drug shortages, or back-orders, at the level of the pharmaceutical companies do not always result in shortages at community and hospital pharmacies. Although the longer a shortage lasts the greater the likelihood that it could have an impact on patients.. If you or a family member have been prescribed divalproex sodium (Epival), contact your pharmacist and ask about the availability of your medication.. If your ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of chronic divalproex sodium use and brain atrophy in Alzheimers disease. AU - Han, Changsu. AU - Shim, Dong Suk. AU - Lee, Soo Jung. AU - Patkar, Ashwin A.. AU - Masand, Prakash S.. AU - Pae, Chi Un. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Divalproex sodium has been widely use for the treatment of bipolar disorder, behavioral control in schizophrenia, seizure and agitation in Alzheimers disease. With the advent of other mood stabilizers and anticonvulsants, the use of divaplroex sodium has been slightly decreased; however, it has been a major mediation for the treatment of such medical conditions. Beyond symptomatic effects on such neuropsychiatric conditions, it has also been proposed to hold some neurotoxicity effects, including reversible brain atrophy (which may be a serious complication associated with substantial cognitive decline), although it has shown neuroprotective effects. Common adverse events include sedation, tiredness and gastrointestinal symptoms. According ...
Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including divalproex sodium delayed-release capsules, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking divalproex sodium delayed-release capsules during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling toll-free 1-888-233-2334 or visiting the website, http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. This must be done by the patient herself. Risk Summary For use in prophylaxis of migraine headaches, valproate is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications (4)].]. For use in epilepsy or bipolar disorder, valproate should not be used to treat women who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable [see Boxed Warning ...
Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including divalproex sodium extended-release tablets, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking divalproex sodium extended-release tablets during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling toll-free 1-888-233-2334 or visiting the website, http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. This must be done by the patient herself. Risk Summary For use in prophylaxis of migraine headaches, valproate is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications (4)]. For use in epilepsy or bipolar disorder, valproate should not be used to treat women who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable [see Boxed Warning ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between cognitive functioning and 6-month clinical and functional outcome in patients with first manic episode bipolar i disorder. AU - Torres, I. J.. AU - Defreitas, C. M.. AU - Defreitas, V. G.. AU - Bond, D. J.. AU - Kunz, M.. AU - Honer, W. G.. AU - Lam, R. W.. AU - Yatham, L. N.. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - Background Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder have been associated with diminished functional outcome, this relationship has been studied primarily through cross-sectional designs, and has not been studied in patients early in the course of illness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of cognitive functioning on longitudinal 6-month functional and clinical outcome in recently diagnosed clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder. Method A total of 53 recently diagnosed patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder type I were assessed within 3 months of their first manic episode using a neuropsychological battery measuring ...
The more you know about bipolar disorder, the better you will be able to cope with this lifelong illness. There are many steps that you can take-or help a loved one take-to recognize and better manage manic episodes. Learn the warning signs of a manic episode, and get early treatment to avoid disruption in your life...
We present expert consensus guideline recommendations for the treatment of bipolar depression. These were arrived at through the statistical aggregation of the survey responses of 61 leading clinical researchers to eight questions about the key decision points in the management of bipolar depression. The experts first-line recommendation for treating psychotic depression in bipolar disorder is to provide a combination of mood stabilizer, antidepressant, and neuroleptic medication. For severe, but nonpsychotic bipolar depression, the experts recommend the combination of a mood stabilizer and an antidepressant. For milder bipolar depression, a mood stabilizer and an antidepressant together or a mood stabilizer alone would be first line. The experts antidepressant dose and dosing schedule recommendations are equivalent for unipolar and bipolar depression, but the experts recommend a faster discontinuation of antidepressants during the maintenance phase in bipolar patients-probably to reduce the ...
Few studies have analyzed predictors of length of stay (LOS) in patients admitted due to acute bipolar manic episodes. The purpose of the present study was to estimate LOS and to determine the potential sociodemographic and clinical risk factors associated with a longer hospitalization. Such information could be useful to identify those patients at high risk for long LOS and to allocate them to special treatments, with the aim of optimizing their hospital management. This was a cross-sectional study recruiting adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria) who had been hospitalized due to an acute manic episode with a Young Mania Rating Scale total score greater than 20. Bivariate correlational and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of LOS. A total of 235 patients from 44 centers were included in the study. The only factors that were
High blood sugar levels may put patients with bipolar disorder at risk of not responding to lithium and other mood stabilizer treatments.
Description of disease Bipolar I disorder. Treatment Bipolar I disorder. Symptoms and causes Bipolar I disorder Prophylaxis Bipolar I disorder
While medications such as valproate (Depakote and others) and lithium are generally considered first-line agents in late life bipolar disorder, side effects are common, and many individuals with bipolar disorder continue to have symptoms in spite of medication treatment. A continuing unmet need is the availability of medications that are generally well- tolerated and effective in later life bipolar disorders.. Antipsychotic medications such as Abilify are known to be effective for related conditions such as schizophrenia and are also used by some physicians in clinical settings in combination with mood stabilizing medications (Lithium, Depakote and others) to treat symptoms of bipolar disorder. Currently Abilify is approved by the FDA to treat schizophrenia and to treat bipolar disorder. ...
What is this medicine? DIVALPROEX SODIUM (dye VAL pro ex SO dee um) is used to treat certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy.
Mylan Institutional Inc.: Divalproex sodium extended-release tablets are indicated for: Acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar...
Treating bipolar disorder effectively involves a combination of psychotherapy, appropriate medications, support, and self-care. Several types of therapy may be used to treat bipolar disorder, and medications include antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics, which help to relieve symptoms of depression, minimize mania, and stabilize mood between episodes. With commitment to a treatment plan, support from family, and good self-care, bipolar disorder can be managed.
For more than 60 years, the mood stabilizer lithium has been used alone or in combination for the treatment of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression and other mental illnesses. Despite this long history, the molecular mechanisms trough which lithium regulates behavior are still poorly understood. Among several targets, lithium has been shown to directly inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and beta (GSK3α and GSK3β). However in vivo, lithium also inhibits GSK3 by regulating the activity of other mechanisms like the formation of a signaling complex comprised of beta-arrestin 2 and Akt. Here, we provide an overview of in vivo evidence supporting a role for inhibition of GSK3 in some behavioral effects of lithium. We also explore how regulation of GSK3 by lithium within a signaling network involving several molecular targets and cell surface receptors (e.g. G protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases) may provide cues to its relative pharmacological selectivity and its effects on
Information from the manufacturer about divalproex sodium for migraine prevention, including side effects and other concerns. ...
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OBJECTIVE: Little is known regarding the relationship between treatment adherence and residual cognitive dysfunction in euthymic bipolar disorder patients. This study aimed to investigate whether poor treatment adherence is associated with cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients and whether other factors may be associated with both adherence and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Euthymic DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder patients (N = 103: 61 with high levels of treatment adherence and 42 with poor treatment adherence) were assessed using a neuropsychological battery targeting attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and executive functions and compared with 35 healthy controls of similar age, sex distribution, and education. Data were collected from September 2005 to June 2007. RESULTS: Bipolar patients with poor treatment adherence had more hospitalizations than those with high adherence. After controlling for age, gender, estimated IQ score, and Young Mania Rating Scale and 17-item Hamilton
The efficacy offor treating mania was discovered in 1949, making it the first medication specifically developed to treat bipolar disorder. Lithium remains a mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder, especially for acute mania and maintenance treatm
Your question has to do with maintenance treatment for someone with bipolar disorder who presumably has been free of episodes of mania and depression for three years. To prevent or decrease the frequency of further episodes, maintenance (or prophylactic) treatment is employed.. Lithium is the main agent, but increasingly other drugs are used instead of or in addition to it. Divalproex or valproic acid (Depakote and Depakene) and carbamazapine (Tegretal) are the main so-called mood stabilizers used.. Antidepressants are used in the treatment of depressive episodes but generally are not used for long-term maintenance. Indeed, the use of antidepressants, especially alone, can cause manic episodes and instability, especially in rapid-cycling patients.. Individuals who are stable for a long time and who have mild histories may be considered for cessation of maintenance treatment. This should be done with caution under supervision. Id have to know a lot more about your particular history to know ...
Bipolar I disorder is referred to as manic depression. Manic depression presents differently for each individual, but the diagnosis requires a history of at least one manic episode. A manic episode involves a period of time in which emotions are elevated in a positive direction, often for no particular reason. Brief elation at a piece of good news is not manic, but a few weeks of that feeling could indicate mania.. Individuals with bipolar I often spiral into depression following episodes of mania. Depression can wreak havoc on your life and even result in suicidal thoughts. Between cycles, individuals who suffer from bipolar I disorder usually lead fairly normal lives ...
Treatment for these disorders can include antidepressants and antimanic agents. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ...
Antimanic Agent, Stimulant Prescription Drugs. ...
The risk of antidepressant-induced mania when given to patients concomitantly on antimanic agents is not known for certain but ... Most mood stabilizers are primarily antimanic agents, meaning that they are effective at treating mania and mood cycling and ... Many agents described as "mood stabilizers" are also categorized as anticonvulsants. The term "anticonvulsant mood stabilizers ... More precise terminology based on pharmacology is used to further classify these agents. Drugs commonly classed as mood ...
Various lines of evidence from post-mortem studies and the putative mechanisms of anti-manic agents point to abnormalities in ... demonstrates antimanic effects. Traditional antimanic drugs also demonstrate PKC inhibiting properties, among other effects ... Other medication possibly include glutaminergic agents and drugs that alter the HPA axis. Lifestyle triggers include irregular ...
... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.210.950.025 - antimanic agents ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.700.872.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.700.872.025 - antimanic agents ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ...
... into its efficacy as an antimanic agent in patients with acute bipolar mania. In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 ... Harada T, Otsuki S (1986). "Antimanic effect of zotepine". Clinical Therapeutics. 8 (4): 406-14. PMID 3089626. Amann B, Sterr A ...
It has not been extensively studied in bipolar depression.[1] It is generally considered a second-line agent due to its side ... "Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis". The Lancet. 378 ... Each anti-convulsant agent has a unique side-effect profile. Valproic acid can frequently cause sedation or gastrointestinal ... Several studies have shown atypical antipsychotics to be effective both as single-agent and adjunctive treatments.[20] ...
The psychopharmacological era began in earnest in 1949, with an article published by John Cade about the observed antimanic ... He welcomed the introduction of other prophylactic agents into the market. From the available observations he concluded, ... lithium is the first drug demonstrated as a clear-cut prophylactic agent against one of the major psychoses'. However, the ...
... is not listed as a first line agent by the guidelines provided by JAMA in JNC-8. However, it may be used to treat ... Addition of magnesium oxide to the verapamil treatment protocol enhances the antimanic effect. Intra-abdominal adhesions are ... Since calcium channels are especially concentrated in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, these agents can be used to ... In cardiac pharmacology, calcium channel blockers are considered class-IV antiarrhythmic agents. ...
... not all psychotropic agents are used to treat psychiatric conditions.) Contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X ... sometimes called an antimanic medication. Depakene is the trade name for the same drug prepared without sodium. Desyrel ( ... Neurontin (gabapentin) - an anticonvulsant which is sometimes used as a mood stabilizer, anti-anxiety agent or to treat chronic ...
"Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis". Lancet. 378 ( ... "Effect of topiramate on weight gain in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic agents". Journal of Clinical ...
Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH (2009). "Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human receptor ... "Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis". Lancet. 378 ( ...
... and second-generation agents. The efficacy of such drugs is suboptimal. Few patients achieve complete resolution of symptoms. ... and the comparatively rapid antimanic effects of antipsychotic drugs. The antipsychotics have a documented efficacy when used ... although more patients discontinued perphenazine owing to extrapyramidal effects compared to the atypical agents (8% vs. 2% to ...
In 1974, this application was extended to its use as a preventive agent for manic-depressive illness. Ronald R. Fieve, who had ... Lithium is thought to provide long-term mood stabilization and have anti-manic properties by modulating glutamate levels. It is ... Despite not being approved by the FDA for use as an augmentation agent with any antidepressant for the treatment of MDD, ... lithium has nevertheless been prescribed for this purpose since the 1980s and is one of the few augmentation agents for ...
... a novel antipsychotic agent with potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5-HT1A receptor activity". The Journal of ... even though the majority of atypical antipsychotics are known to possess significant antimanic activity, which is yet to be ... "Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis". Lancet. 378 ( ...
Lithium is thought to provide long-term mood stabilization and have anti-manic properties by modulating glutamate levels.[72] ... Despite not being approved by the FDA for use as an augmentation agent with any antidepressant for the treatment of MDD, ... lithium has nevertheless been prescribed for this purpose since the 1980s and is one of the few augmentation agents for ... this application was extended to its use as a preventive agent for manic-depressive illness. ...
On 22 August 2007, risperidone was approved as the only drug agent available for treatment of schizophrenia in youths, ages 13- ... Yildiz A, Vieta E, Leucht S, Baldessarini RJ (January 2011). "Efficacy of antimanic treatments: meta-analysis of randomized, ... Risperidone has been classified as a "qualitatively atypical" antipsychotic agent with a relatively low incidence of ...
... but clinical experience with these newer agents is not as developed as that with the older agents. The mechanism of these ... October 2011). "Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antimanic drugs in acute mania: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis ... When 5-HT2A antagonistic agent particles occupy 5-HT2A receptors in the mesocortical pathway and in the prefrontal cortex, the ... Shahid M, Walker GB, Zorn SH, Wong EH (January 2009). "Asenapine: a novel psychopharmacologic agent with a unique human ...
It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine appears ... Iqbal MM, Gundlapalli SP, Ryan WG, Ryals T, Passman TE (March 2001). "Effects of antimanic mood-stabilizing drugs on fetuses, ... There is evidence that it is a serotonin releasing agent and possibly even a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Carbamazepine was ...
Three months later, when the patient was admitted anew, a rapid antimanic effect was again shown after re-exposition to ... although not a diagnostically specific causal agent for bipolar, does place genetically and biologically vulnerable individuals ... and considerable evidence suggests they may even produce an antimanic effect. In cases of comorbid ADHD and bipolar, stimulants ... and there are even several case reports suggesting rapid antimanic effects of psychostimulants (Beckmann & Heinemann, 1976; ...
Three months later, when the patient was admitted anew, a rapid antimanic effect was again shown after re-exposition to ... as well as the efficacy of anti-epileptic agents. Normal platelets placed in plasma from people with bipolar disorder do not ... and the mechanism of antimanic drugs may involve attenuating dopamine signalling. Hypersensitivity of reward systems is ... and there are even several case reports suggesting rapid antimanic effects of psychostimulants (Beckmann & Heinemann, 1976; ...
Taurine as an Anti-Manic Agent: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Taurine as an Anti-manic Agent: a Double-blind Placebo-controlled Study.. ... Taurine is widely sold as a component of over-the-counter mood enhancing agents. However, controlled studies examining the mood ...
An Extended-Release Form of Clonidine as an Anti-Manic Agent: An Add-on, Open-Label Study. The safety and scientific validity ... Clonidine as an Antimanic Agent. Subjects with Bipolar Disorder, Mania receive an extended-release form of clonidine on the ... Clonidine as an Antimanic Agent. Subjects with Bipolar Disorder, Mania receive an extended-release form of clonidine on the ...
Carbamazepine is used for the treatment of seizures. It also is used to treat certain types of nerve pain. Inform your physican if you are pregnant or nursing. Inform your physician if you have glaucoma. Do not take this medication with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This medication may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or blurred vision; use caution while driving or operating hazardous machinery. Do not stop taking carbamazepine without talking with your physician. Shake the suspension well before each use. This medication should be taken with meals to avoid stomach upset. Notify your physician if you develop unexplained fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, or yellow eyes or skin ...
Important Information for Women Who Could Become Pregnant About the Use of DEPAKOTE® (divalproex sodium) Tablets. Please read this leaflet carefully before you take DEPAKOTE® (divalproex sodium) tablets. This leaflet provides a summary of important information about taking DEPAKOTE to women who could become pregnant. If you have any questions or concerns,or want more information about DEPAKOTE, contact your doctor or pharmacist.. Information For Women Who Could Become Pregnant. DEPAKOTE can be obtained only by prescription from your doctor. The decision to use DEPAKOTE is one that you and your doctor should make together, taking into account your individual needs and medical condition.. Before using DEPAKOTE, women who can become pregnant should consider the fact that DEPAKOTE has been associated with birth defects, in particular, with spina bifida and other defects related to failure of the spinal canal to close normally. Approximately 1 to 2% of children born to women with epilepsy taking ...
Antipsychotics/Antimanic Agents. 90th. 90th. 50. Amphetamine-Dextroamphet ER. G. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 50th. 99th. 28. Focalin XR. B. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants. 75th. ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 75th. 95th. 22. Intuniv. B. ADHD/Anti-Narcolepsy/Anti-Obesity/Anorexiants. 75th. 95th ... Antiasthmatic and Bronchodilator Agents. 50th. 99th. 21. Symbicort. B. ...
Khan, A., Faucett, J., Emslie, G. J., & Brown, W. A. (2012). Efficacy and safety of anti-manic agents in children and adults. ... Khan, A, Faucett, J, Emslie, GJ & Brown, WA 2012, Efficacy and safety of anti-manic agents in children and adults, Israel ... Khan, Arif ; Faucett, James ; Emslie, Graham J. ; Brown, Walter A. / Efficacy and safety of anti-manic agents in children and ... Several trials of anti-manic agents in children were recently conducted and regulatory reviews of the data have become ...
Antimanic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Antidepressive Agents. Psychotropic Drugs. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ... Exposure to any investigational agent within 28 days of the screening visit ... and there are no effective disease modifying agents. ...
Drug class: antimanic agents For consumers: dosage, interactions, For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, ... Drug class: monoamine oxidase inhibitors, dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agents For consumers: dosage, interactions, side ...
Antimanic Agent. *Second Generation (Atypical) Antipsychotic. Pharmacology. Asenapine is a dibenzo-oxepino pyrrole atypical ... Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor ... QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Avoid) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of ... Blood Pressure Lowering Agents: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). ...
Antimanic Agents. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Cytochrome P- ... Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antipsychotic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central ... Nootropic Agents. Calcium Channel Blockers. Membrane Transport Modulators. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. ...
The relationship between antimanic agent for treatment of classic or dysphoric mania and length of hospital stay. / Frye, Mark ... The relationship between antimanic agent for treatment of classic or dysphoric mania and length of hospital stay. In: Journal ... Frye, M. A., Altshuler, L. L., Szuba, M. P., Finch, N. N., & Mintz, J. (1996). The relationship between antimanic agent for ... Frye MA, Altshuler LL, Szuba MP, Finch NN, Mintz J. The relationship between antimanic agent for treatment of classic or ...
ENDOCRINE CORRELATES OF ANTIMANIC EFFECTS OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS. Cortisol. Elevated serum cortisol levels are found in mania ... Tohen, M. & Zarate, C. A. (1998) Antipsychotic agents and bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59 (suppl. 1), 38 - ... One hope for the new atypical antipsychotic agents is that by virtue of their action to block noradrenalin α2 receptors, they ... Baldessarini, R. J., Kando, J. C. & Centorrino, F. (1995) Hospital use of antipsychotic agents in 1989 and 1993: stable dosing ...
Antimanic agents (eg, lithium). * Anticonvulsants (eg, carbamazepine, valproate sodium, valproic acid, divalproex sodium, ... The mood-stabilizing agents lithium and valproate robustly increase the levels of the neuroprotective protein bcl-2 in the CNS ... Other agents that exacerbate mania include L-dopa, which implicates dopamine and serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, which in turn ... Popovic D, Reinares M, Goikolea JM, Bonnin CM, Gonzalez-Pinto A, Vieta E. Polarity index of pharmacological agents used for ...
Antimanic Agents. 357. (2). Anxiolytics. 359. (3). Antipsychotic Medications/Major Tranquilizers. 362. (7). ...
... a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ... Antimanic Agents / pharmacology* * Brain / cytology * Brain / drug effects* * Cells, Cultured * Cilia / drug effects ... The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system ... The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet ...
Antimanic Agents. Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders. ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of allopurinol as an augmentation agent for the prevention of mania in ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of allopurinol as an augmentation agent for treatment resistant mania ...
Antimanic Agents / therapeutic use* * Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis* * Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy* * Bipolar Disorder / ...
Antimanic Agents. Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders. ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ...
0 (Antimanic Agents); 0 (GABA Agonists); H789N3FKE8 (Baclofen); X015L14V0O (Bromazepam). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1709. ... 0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Fibrinolytic Agents); EC 3.4.21.68 (Tissue Plasminogen Activator); X015L14V0O (Bromazepam). ... 0 (Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation); 0 (Antipsychotic Agents); 0 (Fat Emulsions, Intravenous); 0DHU5B8D6V (Citalopram ... 0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Antidepressive Agents); 0 (Antiemetics); 12794-10-4 (Benzodiazepines); 250PJI13LM (Mianserin); ...
Antimanic Agents / adverse effects*, therapeutic use. Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy*, psychology. Dose-Response Relationship ...
Treatment for these disorders can include antidepressants and antimanic agents. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ...
Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. ...
Maguire J. Clonidine: an effective anti-manic agent? Br J Psychiatry 1997; 150: 863-4 ... Haloperidol plasma levels in relation to antimanic effect. In: Usdin E, Dahl SG, Gram LF, et al., editors. Clinical ... Based on pretreatment scores, trials of antimanic therapies can be classified into: (i) ultrashort (1 week) therapy of severe ... Phenytoin as an antimanic anticonvulsant: a controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157: 463-5 ...
Antimanic agents/mood stabilizers:. Think LITHIUM (provide Ca membrane stability and promote neuronal health and protective ...
Antimanic Agents. Antidepressive Agents. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for ...
L2: Which bipolar disorder pharmacologic agent? Anti-manic agents, reasonable safety/effectiveness, risk of metabolic effects/ ... L2: Which bipolar disorder pharmacologic agent? Anti-manic, anti-depressant, and reasonable prevention ... L2: Which bipolar disorder pharmacologic agent? Not effective as preventative agent, sedation, not effective in bipolar ... L2: Which pharmacologic agent? Effective for prevention of manic and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder ...
Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. ...
Antimanic Agents (Mood Stabilizers) Antidepressants Antianxiety Drugs Stimulants Nonpsychotropic Prescriptions Unit III: Micro ...
Antimanic Agents (Mood Stabilizers). Antidepressants. Antianxiety Drugs. Stimulants. The Process of Social Work Assessment/ ...
... antimigraine agents, antianginal agents; antipsychotic agents; antimanic agents; antiarthritic agents, anti-gout agents; ... antimigraine agents, antianginal agents; antipsychotic agents; antimanic agents; antiarthritic agents, anti-gout agents; ... anti-proliferative agents, antineoplastic agents, anti-mitotic agents, anti-migratory agents, agents affecting extracellular ... anti-proliferative agents, antineoplastic agents, anti-mitotic agents, anti-migratory agents, agents affecting extracellular ...
  • Future studies should evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of newer atypical antipsychotic agents, and the place of anticonvulsants in combination with antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. (rcpsych.org)
  • Pharmaceuticals, including antipsychotics and anti-manic agents, are intended to treat bipolar disorder by balancing levels of neurochemicals in the brain. (mountsinai.org)
  • While most antipsychotics are proven anti-manic agents, few are also proven as antidepressants in bipolar disorder. (mountsinai.org)
  • This done, antipsychotics become first line agents. (thelastpsychiatrist.com)
  • Background: This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the mood-stabilizing agents lithium, carbamazepine, and divalproex sodium and time course of drug response as measured by length of hospital stay. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: The individual survival curves of four major antimanic treatment groups revealed a significant difference by the second week of hospitalization in the divalproex sodium and the lithium/carbamazepine combination groups as compared with the lithium or carbamazepine groups (χ 2 = 13.83, df= 3, p = .003). (elsevier.com)
  • Since the 1970s anticonvulsant drugs, first carbamazepine and more recently valproate and, in open studies, lamotrigine and topiramate, have displayed antimanic effects in at least a proportion of patients ( Dunn et al , 1998 ). (rcpsych.org)
  • Use of antimanic agents (lithium, valproate, carbamazepine) is complicated because of the balance between some fetal teratogenic risk, the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and the early relapse of manic-depressive illness following cessation of medication. (aafp.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of allopurinol as an augmentation agent for the prevention of mania in bipolar disorder patients with currently stable mood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • L2: Which bipolar disorder pharmacologic agent? (brainscape.com)
  • Antimanic drugs are agents used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Antimanic refers to any agent that prevents or treats bipolar disorder. (ebscohost.com)
  • Effect of the dysbindin gene on antimanic agents in patients with bipolar I disorder. (snpedia.com)
  • The gold standard for treating bipolar disorder is the antimanic medication lithium. (mountsinai.org)
  • I was exposed to another study which involved monitoring and follow up of mothers with Bipolar disorder who had been on anti-manic agents during pregnancy with the aim of determining the course and outcome of the disorder. (wpanet.org)
  • To review the efficacy and acceptability of oxcarbazepine compared to placebo and other agents in the treatment of acute bipolar episodes including mania, mixed episodes and depression. (cochrane.org)
  • What is the efficacy of antimanic pharmacotherapy for paediatric bipolar disorder? (bmj.com)
  • Studies on bipolar depression and any study that did not focus on antimanic agents were excluded. (bmj.com)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, which compared tiagabine with placebo or with active agents in the treatment of any acute mood episodes in bipolar disorder in adults, male and female, aged 18 to 74 years. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Results Guidelines recommend lithium or valproate as first-line treatments for mania, and antipsychotic agents only as 'adjuncts' for agitation, dangerous behaviour or psychosis. (rcpsych.org)
  • The mood-stabilizing agent valproate inhibits the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3. (nih.gov)
  • Aims To review the efficacy and mode of action of antipsychotic drugs in mania, and to consider the differences between official guidelines and routine clinical practice in the use of these agents for mania. (rcpsych.org)
  • These cholinergically induced phenomena are generally reversible with centrally active sympathetic agents and antimuscarinic drugs, thus supporting evidence of a balance between adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic factors in their regulation (43). (acnp.org)
  • However, controlled studies and more clinical experience with oxcarbazepine in the United States are required before we can assess the potential utility of the agent with any clarity. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Antipsychotic Agents, Rajiv Tandon, M.D. (appi.org)
  • Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). (fpnotebook.com)
  • Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivative and an atypical antipsychotic agent that is chemically unrelated to other antipsychotic agents. (medscape.com)
  • newer atypical compounds demonstrate antimanic efficacy with a reduced incidence of neurological side-effects. (rcpsych.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of allopurinol as an augmentation agent for treatment resistant mania and mixed mania. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Here, we review data supporting the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of mood disorders as well as the efficacy of glutamatergic agents as novel therapeutics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cialis 20mg angebote - Safety and observation, respiratory infections aetiological agents in early drug trials. (norfolkspca.com)
  • In most innovative studies of norethisterone for consumption or menopausal hormone binding, the drug has been combined with an effective, and for this medication, https://en.wikipedia.org it is difficult to evade which of the side effects were caused by norethisterone and which of them were conducted by estrogen in such controversy. (thedomains.com)
  • See also antimanic, mood stabilizer, orphan drug. (cadasb.org)
  • 1 Both the pro-drug and this metabolite are active agents thought to block sodium channels. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • In all cases, the prescriber is expected to OTHER NASAL AGENTS --------------------------------- select appropriate drug therapy for the individual patient and provide high quality healthcare. (healthdrugpdf.com)
  • As antiplatelet agent: Aspirin is effective against many gram-negative organisms, e.G., h. (cadasb.org)
  • Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents, which work by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Lithium belongs to a group of medications called antimanic agents. (rxwiki.com)
  • Several trials of anti-manic agents in children were recently conducted and regulatory reviews of the data have become available. (elsevier.com)
  • Method Studies with established and potentially antimanic, antidepressant and mood-stabilising agents range from open case series to double-blind randomised clinical trials, and use the same core assessment methodology, thereby optimising the comparability of the outcomes. (rcpsych.org)
  • Alkylating agents inhibit cell division by reacting with DNA and are used as antineoplastic agents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Methods: We acquired pediatric and adult anti-mania agent Medical and Statistical Reports from the U.S. FDA. (elsevier.com)
  • Those treated with antimanic agents were much less likely to develop a substance use disorder. (bipolarnews.org)
  • oxidizing agent a substance capable of accepting electrons from another substance, thereby oxidizing the second substance and itself becoming reduced. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • psychoactive agent , psychotropic agent psychoactive substance . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • reducing agent a substance that acts as an electron donor in a chemical redox reaction . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • surface-active agent a substance that exerts a change on the surface properties of a liquid, especially one that reduces its surface tension, as a detergent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • wetting agent a substance that lowers the surface tension of water to promote wetting. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of lithium, a first-line antimanic mood stabilizer, have not yet been fully elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • The present results provide initial evidence that a psychotropic agent can affect ciliary length in the central nervous system, and furthermore suggest that lithium exerts its therapeutic effects via the upregulation of cilia-mediated MCH sensing. (nih.gov)
  • Invention conjugates provide a new class of pharmacologically active agents (e.g., anti-inflammatory agents) which cause a much lower incidence of side-effects due to the protective effects imparted by modifying the pharmacologically active agents as described herein. (justia.com)
  • In addition, invention conjugates are more effective than unmodified pharmacologically active agents because cells and tissues contacted by the pharmacologically active agent(s) are protected from the potentially damaging effects of nitric oxide overproduction induced thereby as a result of the co-production of nitric oxide scavenger (e.g., dithiocarbamate), in addition to free pharmacologically active agent, when invention conjugate is cleaved. (justia.com)
  • Indeed similar effects on cell survival and neurite outgrowth were induced in SH-SY5Y cells by retinoic acid (RA), an established differentiating agent. (neurotransmitter.net)
  • inhibition of GSK-3beta in the CNS may thus underlie some of the long-term therapeutic effects of mood-stabilizing agents. (nih.gov)
  • Anxiety and depression st line: Increase or re commence antimanic agent. (norfolkspca.com)
  • CNS Depression (and apnea) increases when combined with other agents (e.g. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Significantly, increasing central cholinergic tone with such centrally active cholinomimetic agents as physostigmine, arecoline, and oxotremorine usually induces or enhances the behavioral analogs of depression in such models of depression. (acnp.org)
  • An agent that inhibits sodium influx through cell membranes. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • adrenergic blocking agent one that inhibits response to sympathetic impulses by blocking the alpha (alpha-adrenergic blocking a.) or beta (beta-adrenergic blocking a.) receptor sites of effector organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • adrenergic neuron blocking agent one that inhibits the release of norepinephrine from postganglionic adrenergic nerve endings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • blocking agent an agent that inhibits a biological action, such as movement of an ion across the cell membrane, passage of a neural impulse, or interaction with a specific receptor. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sodium channel blocking agent any of a class of antiarrhythmic agents that prevent ectopic beats by acting on partially inactivated sodium channels to inhibit abnormal depolarizations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Symptomatic treatment is of minimal benefit to individuals with PSP or CBD, and there are no effective disease modifying agents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Continuing anti-parkinsonism agents for a brief period after discontinuation may prevent withdrawal symptoms (Cerovecki 2013). (drugs.com)
  • A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. (nih.gov)
  • potassium channel blocking agent any of a class of antiarrhythmic agents that inhibit the movement of potassium ions through the potassium channels, thus prolonging repolarization of the cell membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)