Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Chloroquine: The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Mefloquine: A phospholipid-interacting antimalarial drug (ANTIMALARIALS). It is very effective against PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM with very few side effects.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.SesquiterpenesDrug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Plasmodium cynomolgi: A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.PhenanthrenesPlasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Tetraoxanes: Compounds with two peroxide groups, that is, two pairs of adjacent OXYGEN atoms. They may have activity against PLASMODIUM similar to the ARTEMISININS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Proguanil: A biguanide compound which metabolizes in the body to form cycloguanil, an anti-malaria agent.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.QuinolinesEthanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Blackwater Fever: A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Hydroxychloroquine: A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)Atovaquone: A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Folic Acid Antagonists: Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.CambodiaParasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.NaphthyridinesTablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.AfricaStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. (1/4748)

New drugs are needed for preventing drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against P. falciparum in malaria-immune Kenyans was 83%. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the prophylactic efficacy of azithromycin against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum malaria and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesian adults with limited immunity. After radical cure therapy, 300 randomized subjects received azithromycin (148 subjects, 750-mg loading dose followed by 250 mg/d), placebo (77), or doxycycline (75, 100 mg/d). The end point was slide-proven parasitemia. There were 58 P. falciparum and 29 P. vivax prophylaxis failures over 20 weeks. Using incidence rates, the protective efficacy of azithromycin relative to placebo was 71.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-83.8) against P. falciparum malaria and 98.9% (95% CI, 93.1-99.9) against P. vivax malaria. Corresponding figures for doxycycline were 96.3% (95% CI, 85.4-99.6) and 98% (95% CI, 88.0-99.9), respectively. Daily azithromycin offered excellent protection against P. vivax malaria but modest protection against P. falciparum malaria.  (+info)

8-Aminoquinolines active against blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro inhibit hematin polymerization. (2/4748)

From the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) inventory, thirteen 8-aminoquinoline analogs of primaquine were selected for screening against a panel of seven Plasmodium falciparum clones and isolates. Six of the 13 8-aminoquinolines had average 50% inhibitory concentrations between 50 and 100 nM against these P. falciparum clones and were thus an order of magnitude more potent than primaquine. However, excluding chloroquine-resistant clones and isolates, these 8-aminoquinolines were all an order of magnitude less potent than chloroquine. None of the 8-aminoquinolines was cross resistant with either chloroquine or mefloquine. In contrast to the inactive primaquine prototype, 8 of the 13 8-aminoquinolines inhibited hematin polymerization more efficiently than did chloroquine. Although alkoxy or aryloxy substituents at position 5 uniquely endowed these 13 8-aminoquinolines with impressive schizontocidal activity, the structural specificity of inhibition of both parasite growth and hematin polymerization was low.  (+info)

Alternative oxidase inhibitors potentiate the activity of atovaquone against Plasmodium falciparum. (3/4748)

Recent evidence suggests that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum utilizes a branched respiratory pathway including both a cytochrome chain and an alternative oxidase. This branched respiratory pathway model has been used as a basis for examining the mechanism of action of two antimalarial agents, atovaquone and proguanil. In polarographic assays, atovaquone immediately reduced the parasite oxygen consumption rate in a concentration-dependent manner. This is consistent with its previously described role as an inhibitor of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Atovaquone maximally inhibited the rate of P. falciparum oxygen consumption by 73% +/- 10%. At all atovaquone concentrations tested, the addition of the alternative oxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, resulted in a further decrease in the rate of parasite oxygen consumption. At the highest concentrations of atovaquone tested, the activities of salicylhydroxamic acid and atovaquone appear to overlap, suggesting that at these concentrations, atovaquone partially inhibits the alternative oxidase as well as the cytochrome chain. Drug interaction studies with atovaquone and salicylhydroxamic acid indicate atovaquone's activity against P. falciparum in vitro is potentiated by this alternative oxidase inhibitor, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.6. Propyl gallate, another alternative oxidase inhibitor, also potentiated atovaquone's activity, with a sum fractional inhibitory concentration of 0.7. Proguanil, which potentiates atovaquone activity in vitro and in vivo, had a small effect on parasite oxygen consumption in polarographic assays when used alone or in the presence of atovaquone or salicylhydroxamic acid. This suggests that proguanil does not potentiate atovaquone by direct inhibition of either branch of the parasite respiratory chain.  (+info)

Declining concentrations of dihydroartemisinin in plasma during 5-day oral treatment with artesunate for Falciparum malaria. (4/4748)

Six patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria received artesunate for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The concentrations of dihydroartemisinin in plasma 2 h after a dose showed a time-dependent decline. Concentrations of artesunate in plasma especially after the last dose, were very low. Despite this, all patients responded with a fast recovery.  (+info)

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. (5/4748)

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies.  (+info)

Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil. (6/4748)

Mutations in human CYP2C19 and parasite dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes, related to poor metabolism of proguanil and resistance to cycloguanil, respectively, have both been assumed to be associated with poor antimalarial effect by proguanil. To study this, 95 subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infections in Vanuatu received proguanil treatment for 3 days (adult relative dose of 300-500 mg/day) and were followed up for 28 days. A similarly high antimalarial efficacy against both infections was observed in 62 patients with CYP2C19-related poor metabolizer genotype and in 33 with extensive metabolizer genotype, even though blood cycloguanil was significantly more often detected in those with extensive metabolizer genotype than in those with poor metabolizer genotype. All 28 P. falciparum isolates had two dhfr mutations (residues 59 and 108), suggesting moderate resistance to cycloguanil. The results suggest that the parent compound proguanil has significant intrinsic efficacy against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil.  (+info)

A randomized, double-blind, comparative trial of a new oral combination of artemether and benflumetol (CGP 56697) with mefloquine in the treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand. (7/4748)

CGP 56697, a new oral fixed combination of artemether and benflumetol, was tested in a double-blinded, randomized trial in 252 adult patients treated either with CGP 56697 (4 x 4 tablets each containing 20 mg of artemether and 120 mg of benflumetol, given at 0, 8, 24, and 48 hr), or with mefloquine (three tablets of 250 mg at initial diagnosis, followed by two tablets of 250 mg at 8 hr). Baseline data of the two groups were comparable. The 28-day cure rate with CGP 56697 was lower than with mefloquine (69.3% versus 82.4%; P = 0.002). However, CGP 56697 was more effective than mefloquine in parasite clearance time (43 hr versus 66 hr; P < 0.001) fever clearance time (32 hr versus 54 hr; P < 0.005), and gametocyte clearance time (152 hr versus 331 hr; P < 0.001). This study revealed that CGP 56697 is effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Thailand, but higher doses will probably be needed to improve the cure rate.  (+info)

The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin after administration of two different suppositories to healthy Vietnamese subjects. (8/4748)

Eight healthy Vietnamese male subjects received 400 mg artemisinin formulated into fatty suppositories (FS), and six different subjects received 500 mg of artemisinin formulated in polyethylene glycol suppositories (PEGS). Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection; concentration versus time curves were analyzed with nonparametric methods. No statistically significant differences were found between the two formulations. The maximum concentration (Cmax) was 100 +/- 102 microg/L (mean +/- SD, range = 24-330) microg/L (FS), the pharmacokinetic lag time (Tlag) was 1.3 +/- 1.0 hr (range = 0-3) (FS), and the time of the maximum concentration (Tmax) was 7.1 +/- 2.1 hr (range = 3-10) hr (FS). Because artemisinin is not available for intravenous dosage, absolute bioavailability cannot be assessed. However, compared with a previous study on oral artemisinin in healthy Vietnamese subjects, bioavailability relative to oral administration was estimated to be approximately 30%. We conclude that therapeutic blood concentrations of artemisinin can be reached after rectal dosage. The dose after rectal administration should probably be higher than after oral administration; doubling or tripling the oral dose might be necessary, which would imply a rectal dose of at least 20 mg/kg of body weight given twice a day.  (+info)

  • No new class of antimalarial drug has entered the market in the last 15 years resulting in the emergence of resistance against all clinically used drug classes. (edu.au)
  • This project will utilise medicinal chemistry to optimise the antimalarial activity of recently identified classes of drug-like small molecules to achieve efficacy in laboratory models of malaria. (edu.au)
  • MMV, a leading product development partnership (PDP) in the field of antimalarial drug research, is committed to playing its part in the fight against malaria. (devfinance.net)
  • Scientists specialized in natural substances, investigating the chemical structure and properties of the phloeodictines as part of the French malaria control research programme Pal +, have revealed antimalarial activity among phloeodictines extracted from the reef sponge Oceanapia fistulosa. (innovations-report.com)
  • B. orellona seed extracts showed moderate in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Other investigations are planned to seek confirmation of these results and find out accurate information on this antimalarial activity in vivo, using infected rodent models, and to attempt to unravel phloeodictines' action mechanism. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2016) " Metabolite identification of the antimalarial piperaquine in vivo using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with multiple data-mining tools in tandem ," doi: 10.1002/bmc.3689. (thermofisher.com)
  • NUS scientists discovered that a combination of artemisinin, which is a potent antimalarial drug, and aminolaevulinic acid, which is a photosensitizer, could kill colorectal cancer cells and suppress tumor growth more effectively than administering artemisinin alone. (photonics.com)
  • A never-ending search for more potent and less toxic antimalarials has continued and will undoubtedly do so until this scourge is no longer of importance. (ku.edu)
  • To investigate whether antimalarials decrease the risk of cancer in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (bmj.com)
  • The researchers measured certain properties of several antimalarial chemical structures called 4-aminoquinoline analogues, including their so-called log P and pKa values. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Scientists have shown that the anticancer properties of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug that is also a promising alternative cancer treatment, could be enhanced potentially tenfold when used with the photosensitizer aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). When exposed to light, ALA leads to the generation of free radicals that can kill cells. (photonics.com)
  • Request for injectable antimalarial was significantly more among educated patients and those attending private clinics and health centers. (who.int)
  • Antimalarials, which have a broad array of anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antithrombotic effects, now are recommended for all patients with lupus and have demonstrated benefits in reducing disease flares and improving survival, the authors wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Oral lichenoid reactions during antimalarial prophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination" Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health Vol. 20 Iss. (bepress.com)
  • But a fourth combo drug - a newer antimalarial that combines chlorproguanil, dapsone and artesunate - proved only around 85% effective, and was removed from the study after its maker, London-based GlaxoSmithKline, pulled it from the market in 2008 because of adverse effects. (nature.com)
  • antimalarials also help to prevent lupus flares and have been associated with reduced morbidity and mortality in SLE patients followed in observational trials. (medscape.com)
  • The U.S. FDA has issued a warning to patients and healthcare professionals about an antimalarial drug due to serious psychiatric and nerve side effects. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier cancer-free survival curves for patients treated and not treated with antimalarials were compared. (bmj.com)
  • 156 (66%) patients had ever received antimalarials. (bmj.com)
  • This study launches the hypothesis of a protective action of antimalarials against cancer in patients with SLE. (bmj.com)
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Treatment of Plasmodium chabaudi Parasites with Curcumin in Combination with Antimalarial Drugs: Drug Interactions and... (hindawi.com)
The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation
The Interactions of P-Glycoprotein with Antimalarial Drugs, Including Substrate Affinity, Inhibition and Regulation (journals.plos.org)
Cardiovascular Disease in SLE: An Update
Cardiovascular Disease in SLE: An Update (medscape.com)
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Malaria Surveillance --- United States, 2004 (cdc.gov)
Malaria Surveillance --- United States, 2001
Malaria Surveillance --- United States, 2001 (cdc.gov)
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines - Wikipedia
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
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Malaria Surveillance --- United States, 2002 (cdc.gov)
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Malaria Surveillance --- United States, 2003 (cdc.gov)
CDC - Malaria - Malaria Worldwide - How Can Malaria Cases and Deaths Be Reduced? - Mass Drug Administration and Mass Fever...
CDC - Malaria - Malaria Worldwide - How Can Malaria Cases and Deaths Be Reduced? - Mass Drug Administration and Mass Fever... (cdc.gov)
Synthetic ozonide drug candidate OZ439 offers new hope for a single-dose cure of uncomplicated malaria | PNAS
Synthetic ozonide drug candidate OZ439 offers new hope for a single-dose cure of uncomplicated malaria | PNAS (pnas.org)
CDC - Malaria - Features - CDC Now Provides Malaria Drug Resistance Testing Services
CDC - Malaria - Features - CDC Now Provides Malaria Drug Resistance Testing Services (cdc.gov)
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CDC - Malaria - People With Malaria Speak - The Risks of Unproven "Antimalarials" (cdc.gov)
A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens | Nature
A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens | Nature (nature.com)
Antimalarial Archives | The Moritz Lab
Antimalarial Archives | The Moritz Lab (moritz.isbscience.org)
Potential Health Benefits of Methylene Blue
Potential Health Benefits of Methylene Blue (news-medical.net)
Pharmaceutical Drugs,Antimalarial Medicine Suppliers Mumbai
Pharmaceutical Drugs,Antimalarial Medicine Suppliers Mumbai (kosherpharmaceuticals.in)
From the journals: JBC
From the journals: JBC (asbmb.org)
Antimalarials | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural
Antimalarials | GreenMedInfo | Pharmacological Action | Natural (greenmedinfo.com)
Common Treatments for Lupus | Everyday Health
Common Treatments for Lupus | Everyday Health (everydayhealth.com)
How do antimalarials and protease inhibitors (PIs) interact?
How do antimalarials and protease inhibitors (PIs) interact? (medscape.com)
Use of clinical syndromes to target antibiotic prescribing in seriously ill children in malaria endemic area: observational...
Use of clinical syndromes to target antibiotic prescribing in seriously ill children in malaria endemic area: observational... (bmj.com)
Parasite genes drive up antimalarial resistance - NHS
Parasite genes drive up antimalarial resistance - NHS (nhs.uk)
CDC - Malaria - Tools for Tomorrow - CDC's Research Contributions
CDC - Malaria - Tools for Tomorrow - CDC's Research Contributions (cdc.gov)
Insect | The Naked Scientists
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Psoriasis Cure with Homeopathy: Fact or Fiction
Psoriasis Cure with Homeopathy: Fact or Fiction (medindia.net)
Quantification of labile heme in live malaria parasites using a genetically encoded biosensor | PNAS
Quantification of labile heme in live malaria parasites using a genetically encoded biosensor | PNAS (pnas.org)
Fake Antimalarial Medications Undermine Africa Malaria Drive
Fake Antimalarial Medications Undermine Africa Malaria Drive (medicalnewstoday.com)
What Drugs May Fight COVID-19? Drug Trials, Treatments, Vaccines
What Drugs May Fight COVID-19? Drug Trials, Treatments, Vaccines (medicinenet.com)
Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study ...
Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study ... (bmj.com)
Dr Geoff Brown - Lecturer in NMR Spectroscopy
Dr Geoff Brown - Lecturer in NMR Spectroscopy (reading.ac.uk)
Paludrine/Avloclor antimalarial travel pack
Paludrine/Avloclor antimalarial travel pack (netdoctor.co.uk)
Progress against Malaria | The New York Academy of Sciences
Progress against Malaria | The New York Academy of Sciences (nyas.org)