Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A prazosin-related compound that is a selective alpha-1-adrenergic blocker.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
A benzamide-sulfonamide-indole derived DIURETIC that functions by inhibiting SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
A salicylamide derivative that is a non-cardioselective blocker of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and ALPHA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p830)
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Heterocyclic compounds with SULFUR and NITROGEN in the ring. This term commonly refers to the BENZOTHIADIAZINES that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
A phosphinic acid-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of hypertension. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite fosinoprilat.
The adaptation of drug administration to the known variations in biological RHYTHMICITY, such as CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS. The treatment is aimed at supporting normal rhythms, or modifying the timing of therapy to achieve maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effect.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.

Effects of amlodipine on sympathetic nerve traffic and baroreflex control of circulation in heart failure. (1/6648)

Short-acting calcium antagonists exert a sympathoexcitation that in heart failure further enhances an already elevated sympathetic activity. Whether this is also the case for long-acting formulations is not yet established, despite the prognostic importance of sympathetic activation in heart failure. It is also undetermined whether in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists favorably affect a mechanism potentially responsible for the sympathetic activation, ie, the baroreflex impairment. In 28 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class II) under conventional treatment we measured plasma norepinephrine and efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) at rest and during arterial baroreceptor stimulation and deactivation induced by stepwise intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside, respectively. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily oral amlodipine administration (10 mg/d, 14 patients) or before and after an 8-week period without calcium antagonist administration (14 patients). Amlodipine caused a small and insignificant blood pressure reduction. Heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations were not affected. This was the case also for plasma norepinephrine (from 2.43+/-0.41 to 2.50+/-0.34 nmol/L, mean+/-SEM), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (from 54.4+/-5.9 to 51.0+/-4.3 bursts/min), and arterial baroreflex responses. No change in the above-mentioned variables was seen in the control group. Thus, in mild heart failure amlodipine treatment does not adversely affect sympathetic activity and baroreflex control of the heart and sympathetic tone. This implies that in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists can be administered without untoward neurohumoral effects anytime conventional treatment needs to be complemented by drugs causing additional vasodilatation.  (+info)

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (2/6648)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (3/6648)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (4/6648)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (5/6648)

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (6/6648)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Inhibition of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization by endothelial prostanoids in guinea-pig coronary artery. (7/6648)

1. In smooth muscle of the circumflex coronary artery of guinea-pig, acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-6) M) produced an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization consisting of two components. An initial component that occurs in the presence of ACh and a slow component that developed after ACh had been withdrawn. Each component of the hyperpolarization was accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance. 2. Indomethacin (5 x 10(-6) M) or diclofenac (10(-6) M), both inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, abolished only the slow hyperpolarization. The initial hyperpolarization was not inhibited by diclofenac nor by nitroarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. 3. Both components of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization were abolished in the presence of atropine (10(-6) M) or high-K solution ([K+]0 = 29.4 mM). 4. The interval between ACh-stimulation required to generate an initial hyperpolarization of reproducible amplitude was 20 min or greater, but it was reduced to less than 5 min after inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Conditioning stimulation of the artery with substance P (10(-7) M) also caused a long duration (about 20 min) inhibition of the ACh-response. 5. The amplitude of the hyperpolarization generated by Y-26763, a K+-channel opener, was reproducible within 10 min after withdrawal of ACh. 6. Exogenously applied prostacyclin (PGI2) hyperpolarized the membrane and reduced membrane resistance in concentrations over 2.8 x 10(-9)M. 7. At concentrations below threshold for hyperpolarization and when no alteration of membrane resistance occurred, PGI2 inhibited the initial component of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization. 8. It is concluded that endothelial prostanoids, possibly PGI2, have an inhibitory action on the release of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.  (+info)

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (8/6648)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Early rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage under intensive blood pressure management. AU - Oheda, Motoki. AU - Inamasu, Joji. AU - Moriya, Shigeta. AU - Kumai, Tadashi. AU - Kawazoe, Yushi. AU - Nakae, Shunsuke. AU - Kato, Yoko. AU - Hirose, Yuichi. PY - 2015/8/1. Y1 - 2015/8/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to report the frequency and clinical characteristics of early rebleeding in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients who underwent intensive blood pressure (BP) management. Patients with aneurysmal SAH frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with elevated BP. Intensive BP management has been recommended to lower the risk of early rebleeding. However, few studies have reported the frequency of early rebleeding in SAH patients undergoing BP management. In our institution, SAH patients with systolic BP (SBP) , 140 mmHg received continuous intravenous nicardipine to maintain their SBP within 120 ± 20 mmHg after diagnosis. An attempt to implement ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of antihypertensive agents on new-onset diabetes mellitus. T2 - Time to amend the guidelines?. AU - Aksnes, Tonje Amb. AU - Kjeldsen, Sverre Erik. AU - Mancia, Giuseppe. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Recent large hypertension trials have shown great differences in incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus among patients receiving different antihypertensive drug therapies. The incidence of diabetes is unchanged or increased by the use of thiazide diuretics and β-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers) and unchanged or decreased by ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers). Recent results from ASCOT (Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial) showed superiority of the new combination of CCBs and ACE inhibitors over the old or conventional combination of β-blockers and diuretics. In this review, the results from some of the large hypertension trials are discussed, and the hypotheses ...
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MONDAY, May 18, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Intensive high blood pressure treatment may protect against a-fib, a heart rhythm disorder that can lead to stroke, heart attack and heart failure, researchers say.. They analyzed data from more than 8,000 high blood pressure patients who were at increased risk of heart disease and enrolled in a U.S. National Institutes of Health trial known as SPRINT. Participants were on either an intensive blood pressure control regimen (target less than 120 mm Hg) or standard treatment (target less than 140 mm Hg).. Over five years, the standard control group had 118 cases of atrial fibrillation, compared with 88 in the intensive control group.. Lowering systolic blood pressure to less than 120 reduced a-fib risk by 26% compared to the less-aggressive treatment, according to the Wake Forest School of Medicine study recently published in the journal Hypertension.. The effect of intensive blood pressure reduction on a-fib risk was similar for all groups, regardless of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral Microbleeds and the Effect of Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction on Hematoma Expansion and Functional Outcomes. T2 - A Secondary Analysis of the ATACH-2 Randomized Clinical Trial. AU - Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage 2 (ATACH-2) and the Neurological Emergencies Treatment Trials (NETT) Network Investigators. AU - Shoamanesh, Ashkan. AU - Morotti, Andrea. AU - Romero, Javier M. AU - Oliveira-Filho, Jamary. AU - Schlunk, Frieder. AU - Jessel, Michael J. AU - Ayres, Alison M. AU - Vashkevich, Anastasia. AU - Schwab, Kristin. AU - Afzal, Mohammad R. AU - Cassarly, Christy. AU - Martin, Renee H. AU - Qureshi, Adnan I. AU - Greenberg, Steven M. AU - Rosand, Jonathan. AU - Goldstein, Joshua N. PY - 2018/4/16. Y1 - 2018/4/16. N2 - Importance: Response to intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) might vary with the degree of underlying cerebral small vessel disease.Objectives: To characterize cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) ...
Novartis AG, Daiichi Sankyo Company Limited, Acetelion Ltd, Boehringer Ingelheim, Sanofi S.A., Astra Zeneca plc, Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceuticals Company Limited, Pfizer Inc. are some of the prominent players at the forefront of competition in the Global Market of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs and are profiled in MRFR Analysis.. Get Free Sample Report @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/sample_request/2347. According to a recent study report published by the Market Research Future, The global market of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs was valued at $32.2 billion in 2015, and is projected to reach $ USD 41.2 billion by 2023. Thus the market is anticipated to observe a sluggish growth; at a CAGR of 2.73% during 2016 to 2022.. Anti-Hypertensive Drugs are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Hypertension is a state of chronic elevated arterial blood pressure at or greater than 140/90 mm Hg for adults. Hypertension is one of the most powerful risk factors for cardiovascular ...
Strengths of our study design included its prospective design, large number of participants, a general population-based setting, and the long follow-up period of over 8 years average. Moreover, we used pharmacy records for the assessment of antihypertensive drug use. This greatly reduces the chance of exposure misclassification as opposed to baseline exposure data or periodic reassessment of drug use and allows for an accurate estimation of exposure duration. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that there was a high concordance between pharmacy filling data of cardiovascular drugs and actual use according to a patient interview.19 Moreover, we were able to subtract 4 years from the date of clinical diagnosis of dementia to avoid potentially biased risk estimates as a result of changes in antihypertensive prescription due to blood pressure changes or cognitive decline in the prodromal phase of dementia. Nevertheless, some issues warrant consideration. First, the 4-year period is an average ...
The mechanism of action of prazosin hydrochloride, a new antihypertensive agent was studied in 14 patients with essential hypertension. Mean supine blood pressure for the group fell from 148/102 +/- 3/2 (SE) mm Hg at baseline to 139/91 +/- 5/4 after eight weeks of therapy (P less than 0.05). No significant postural hypotension was noted in the patients who responded to therapy. Glomerular filtration rate (endogenous creatinine or inulin clearance) and effective renal plasma flow (PAH clearance) remained unchanged during therapy as did supine and stimulated peripheral plasma renin activity. Cardiac output did not change significantly although plasma volume increased in ten out of 12 patients in whom it was measured (P less than 0.025). Among the patients whose mean blood pressure fell 10 mm Hg or more, peripheral vascular resistance fell significantly (P less than 0.025), and the change in plasma volume was not statistically significant. Among the patients whose mean blood pressure changed less ...
The American Diabetes Association is recommending changes in blood pressure goals for people with diabetes and clarifying how frequently people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose levels.. The revised recommendations include raising the treatment goal for high blood pressure from ,130 mm Hg to ,140 mm Hg, based on several new meta-analyses showing there is little additional benefit to achieving the lower targets. Clinical trials have demonstrated health benefits to achieving a goal of ,140 mm Hg, such as reducing cardiovascular events, stroke, or nephropathy, but limited benefit to more intensive blood pressure treatment, with no significant reduction in mortality or nonfatal heart attacks. There is a small but statistically significant benefit in terms of reducing risk of stroke, but at the expense of a need for more medications and higher rates of side effects.. The new standards also clarify when people who are taking multiple daily doses of insulin (MDI) or using insulin ...
The American Diabetes Association is recommending changes in blood pressure goals for people with diabetes and clarifying how frequently people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose levels.. The revised recommendations include raising the treatment goal for high blood pressure from ,130 mm Hg to ,140 mm Hg, based on several new meta-analyses showing there is little additional benefit to achieving the lower targets. Clinical trials have demonstrated health benefits to achieving a goal of ,140 mm Hg, such as reducing cardiovascular events, stroke, or nephropathy, but limited benefit to more intensive blood pressure treatment, with no significant reduction in mortality or nonfatal heart attacks. There is a small but statistically significant benefit in terms of reducing risk of stroke, but at the expense of a need for more medications and higher rates of side effects.. The new standards also clarify when people who are taking multiple daily doses of insulin (MDI) or using insulin ...
There are many hypertension medications that sound or look very close to other medications. You should make sure that you receive your specific hypertension medication and not one that has been confused with your medication. Here is a list of possible hypertension medication errors. The hypertension medication is listed first. The medication in parenthesis is the medication that looks and/or sounds similar.) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Initial therapy for uncomplicated hypertension. T2 - Insights from the alphabetic maze of recent studies. AU - Stewart, J. R.. AU - Yeun, Jane Y. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - Some hypertension treatment guidelines published in the late 1990s recommended that diuretics and β-blockers be used as 1st line drugs for treating uncomplicated hypertension, reserving new antihypertensive drugs for special indications. This recommendation is predicated on the fact that large trials showing cardiovascular protection with antihypertensive drugs used β-blockers and diuretics. Other guidelines suggested all antihypertensives are equal and that drug selection should be individualized. These disparate guidelines arise from the controversy over are all antihypertensives created equal? Since these guidelines, many large hypertension trials have been conducted. This paper will review the recent hypertension trials, the meta-analyses of some of these trials, highlight some of the flaws ...
DR. WRIGHT: The results of SPRINT are very exciting. This study shows that intensive blood pressure management can prevent the cardiovascular complications of hypertension and save lives. As the NHLBI reported, treating high-risk hypertensive adults age 50 and older reduced cardiovascular events by 30 percent and reduced all-cause mortality by nearly 25 percent when compared with patients treated to a systolic target of 140 mm Hg. SPRINT was designed as a target-based study, which gave physicians flexibility in selecting antihypertensive medications to achieve the assigned blood pressure target. Hypertensive patients with a 10-year Framingham General cardiovascular risk ?15%, age ,75 years of age or pre-existing kidney disease were randomized to intensive blood pressure control (less than 120 mm Hg) or standard blood pressure control (less than 140 mm Hg). In the intensive-therapy arm, patients were treated with three or more antihypertensive medications, including diuretics, calcium channel ...
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Most evidence about the effects of blood pressure on the risks of cardiovascular disease derives from two principal sources: prospective non-randomised observational studies of the associations between blood pressure and the incidence of stroke and of coronary heart disease, and randomised trials of antihypertensive drug therapy. The focus of the first part of this chapter concerns the evidence from observational studies, which--despite the possibility of confounding by other risk factors--may be more relevant to the eventual effects of prolonged blood pressure differences on stroke and coronary heart disease risk. The focus of the second part concerns the evidence from randomised trials of antihypertensive drug treatment, which are more relevant to assessing how rapidly, and to what extent, the epidemiologically expected reductions in stroke or in coronary heart disease are produced by suddenly lowering blood pressure in middle and old age.
Definition of antihypertensive agent in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antihypertensive agent? Meaning of antihypertensive agent as a legal term. What does antihypertensive agent mean in law?
Use this listing to find an international brand name of a hypertension medication. The United States generic names and brand names will be listed first, followed by the international brand names. This will enable you to look up information on this site using the generic names. This list does not contain every hypertension medications international brand names nor does it contain every international brand name of hypertension medications ...
Maintaining intensive blood pressure control -- a blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg -- can eventually reduce the risk of having a repeat stroke.
The cost-effectiveness study reports that the healthcare costs associated with intensive blood pressure control are balanced by gains in health, making it cost-effective over the course of a lifetime. Intensive control costs less than $50,000 for each quality-adjusted life-year gained, a measure of improvements in length and quality of life.. The price is one that many experts believe U.S. society is willing to pay, making it a high value investment, says Bress.. A research team led by Bress and Brandon Bellows, PharmD, MS, a research assistant professor of Pharmacotherapy at U of U Health, modeled intensive and standard treatment in 10,000 hypothetical SPRINT-eligible patients to arrive at the conclusion. They gauged benefits and costs of intensive therapy in the face of uncertainties encountered in real life by incorporating over 250 variables, including a range of health histories and side effects.. Its not possible to run clinical trials that last for decades for every type of patient, ...
See related article, pp 642-653. In this issue of the journal, Verdecchia et al1 report an important analysis of the accumulation of evidence comparing more versus less intensive blood pressure (BP)-lowering strategies. Their key message is critical for guidelines and practice internationally: with the addition of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial),2 this set of trials now provides compelling evidence that more intensive BP-lowering reduces stroke and myocardial infarction (MI), and significant reductions are now also seen in cardiovascular death and heart failure. The authors have also assessed sequential monitoring boundaries for each outcome, making the analogy of a hypothetical Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) assessing the accumulation of evidence in the field.. Before examining the implications, it is worth reviewing the techniques and aims of the cumulative meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis methods used by Verdecchia et al.1 Cumulative meta-analysis ...
The proposed work should help move toward the long-term goal of selection of antihypertensive drug therapy based on a patients genetic make-up. Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease for which drugs are prescribed, and the most prevalent risk factor for heart attack, stroke, renal failure and heart failure. Responses to antihypertensive drug therapy exhibit considerable interpatient variability, contributing to poor rates of HTN control (currently about 40-50% in the US), and frequent nonadherence and dropout from therapy. We propose to identify genetic predictors of the antihypertensive and adverse metabolic responses to two preferred and pharmacodynamically contrasting drugs, a beta-blocker (metoprolol) and a thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) in a sequential monotherapy design in 400 hypertensive individuals. Data collected will include home and clinic blood pressure, blood samples for testing for adverse metabolic effects and other biomarkers, RNA, and DNA and urine sample. ...
Types of Blood Pressure Medications - American Heart Association. Treating High Blood Pressure With Medication - Hypertension. High Blood Pressure Medications With Less Side Effects. Alcohol And Blood Pressure Medication Side Effects - OnTheMicDJs. Prescription Medications Can Cause Sexual Dysfunction - AARP.
High blood pressure? Do you know what are common side effects or contraction of angiotensin receptors. dont get enough exercise or have high blood pressure physical inactivity and high blood pressure increased the likelihood of memory complaints in younger adults (ages 18 University of Hypertension Medications List Australia Monitor Omron Use Hem-806f How California Los Angeles (UCLA) Health Sciences. Hypertension Medications List Australia Monitor Omron Use Hem-806f How after measuring your lying blood pressure stand up and wait 3 minutes in .. What Is AFib? Symptoms and causes. After five weeks I took an extra half pill (5 mg 14 months ago I gave birth to beautiful daughter upon giving birth I developed high blood pressure . Hypertension Treatment: Latest Medical Breakthroughs.. The technique of using the eath to lower blood pressure is not new but a device like the Resperate Ultra to help you do it is. Along with certain savings reports including on-line and standard cheap generic viagra the ...
As you slim down, it may be possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication - or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. Dont make changes to your blood pressure medication on your own, however. Do so only after getting your doctors OK.. ...
Title:Differential Impacts of Antihypertensive Drugs on Central Blood Pressure and Their Clinical Significance. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Yoshio Matsui and Kazuomi Kario. Affiliation:Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.. Keywords:Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, calcium channel blocker, central blood pressure, left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity, reflection wave magnitude, thiazide diuretic. Abstract:Recent evidence suggests that central blood pressure (BP) is a more important determinant of cardiovascular risk than is brachial BP. Antihypertensive drugs with vasodilating properties have a more beneficial effect on central systolic BP and pulse pressure by decreasing arterial stiffness and/or the magnitude of wave reflections than thiazide diuretics and β-blockers. These differential effects of ...
This large cohort study reveals important differences in 2-year adherence and persistence between antihypertensives that were lowest for diuretics. Fixed-dose combinations with diuretics may facilitate adherence compared to single substance products. However, effective strategies to improve adherenc …
Blood pressure medication side effects are a common cause of trouble amongst the urban crowd. This article here talks at great lengths about the side effects of blood pressure medication.
A new study by investigators at Brigham and Womens Hospital puts the results of a landmark trial about blood pressure control into terms that may be easier to interpret and communicate to patients. When data from The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) were published in 2015, the medical community responded enthusiastically to the news that reducing blood pressure lower than the normal targets could reduce overall death rates by 27 percent for adults at high cardiovascular risk. While these study results are being integrated into clinical practice, explaining what they mean and why they are important to patients can be challenging. Investigators from the Brigham describe how aggressively lowering blood pressure levels can extend a persons life expectancy. They report that having a blood pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg-rather than the standard 140 mm Hg-can add six months to three years to a persons lifetime, depending upon how old they are when they begin intensive blood
Title: Conformation and Bioactivity. Design and Discovery of Novel Antihypertensive Drugs. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):T. Mavromoustakos, M. Zervou, P. Zoumpoulakis, I. Kyrikou, N. P. Benetis, L. Polevaya, P. Roumelioti, N. Giatas, A. Zoga and P. Moutevelis Minakakis. Affiliation:Institute of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Vas.Constantinou 48, Athens 11635.. Keywords:Antihypertensive Drugs, AT1 antagonists, C-terminal segment. Abstract: Peptidomimitism is applied to the medicinal chemistry in order to synthesize drugs that devoid of the disadvantages of peptides. AT1 antagonists constitute a new generation of drugs for the treatment of hypertension designed and synthesized to mimic the C-terminal segment of Angiotensin II and to block its binding action on AT1 receptor. An effort was made to understand the molecular basis of hypertension by studying the conformational analysis of Ang II and its derivatives as well as the AT1 antagonists belonging ...
On average, a lower blood pressure goal was no better than the standard blood pressure goal at slowing progression of kidney disease among African-Americans who had chronic kidney disease resulting from high blood pressure, according to results of the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), the largest and longest study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African-Americans. However, the blood pressure goal did benefit people who also had protein in the urine, which is a sign of kidney damage. The study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, appears in the Sept. 2 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.. Find good dental insurance - BestDentalPlans.com. ...
The American Diabetes Association is recommending changes in blood pressure goals for people with diabetes as well as clarifying how frequently people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose levels.
Primary objective. To assess the effects of lower or standard blood pressure targets for hypertensive patients with CKD on mortality and morbidity outcomes.. Lower targets are defined as blood pressure targets ≤ 130/80 mmHg. Standard targets are defined as blood pressure targets ≤ 140 to 160 mmHg systolic and/or blood pressure targets ≤ 90 to 100 mmHg diastolic.. Our definition of CKD for this review is as follows: albuminuria (urine albumin excretion rate ≥ 30 mg per 24 hours, approximately equivalent to urine albumin:creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or ≥ 3 mg/mmol) as a marker of kidney damage and/or decreased GFR (GFR categories G3a to G5: GFR , 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Kidney abnormalities defined in the studies as CKD will also be considered to fulfill our inclusion criteria, even though its presence during at least three months cannot be confirmed.. Secondary ...
Market Insights Anti-hypertensive drugs are indicated by doctors to treat hypertension or high blood pressure. Long-term hypertension is a major cause of
The UKPDS shows that meticulous blood pressure reduction is important in patients with type 2 diabetes. This finding has major implications for health care because of the projected dramatic increase in diabetes in the future and the clear relation between diabetes and hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) has shown that antihypertensive treatment reduces cardiovascular events in elderly patients with and without diabetes (1). The present trial consolidates this information and extends the findings to younger patients and to patients with newly detected diabetes. The results are consistent with the recently published Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study, in which intensive blood pressure lowering was more effective in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes than among those without diabetes (2). In addition, the UKPDS shows that intensive blood pressure control reduces microvascular complications, which is an outcome that has not been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and effects of antihypertensive drug therapy in hypertensive participants in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. AU - MacMahon, Stephen. AU - Collins, Gary. AU - Rautaharju, Pentti. AU - Cutler, Jeffrey. AU - Neaton, James. AU - Prineas, Ronald. AU - Crow, Richard. AU - Stamler, Jeremiah. PY - 1989/1/15. Y1 - 1989/1/15. N2 - Data are reported on electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG LVH) among 8,012 men classified as hypertensive at baseline in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Compared with those allocated to the usual care (UC) control group, men allocated to the special intervention (SI) group experienced a mean reduction of 4 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure and 7 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, over 6 years of follow-up. There were 378 new cases of ECG LVH during follow-up; the incidence in the SI group was about 23% less than that in the UC group (4.2 vs 5.4% 2P , 0.01). Among the 189 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on DNA synthesis and proliferation of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. AU - Kang, Shin Wook. AU - Lee, In Hee. AU - Choi, Kyu Hun. AU - Lee, Ho Yung. AU - Han, Dae Suk. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs, nifedipine, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, captopril, and atenolol on DNA synthesis and proliferation of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells induced by fetal calf serum. Aortic smooth muscle cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated, cultured, and seeded in multi-well plates. When confluent, cells were cultured in a conditioned medium without fetal calf serum. After 72 hours, cells were cultured in the medium retaining 10% fetal calf serum with or without anti-hypertensive drugs by increasing the concentration between 10-8 and 10-4M. DNA synthesis was assessed by [3H]-thymidine uptake and proliferation by cell numbers using a hemocytometer. Nifedipine at a ...
Background: Parsimonious self-report tools predicting pharmacy refill in patients with uncontrolled blood pressure could facilitate hypertension management in the elderly. We developed and evaluated a short self-report tool to predict low adherence via pharmacy refill in older patients with uncontrolled hypertension.. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of survey and administrative data from the Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults (CoSMO) were conducted on 394 adults with uncontrolled blood pressure. We considered 164 self-reported candidate items for development of a prediction rule for low (,0.8) vs. high (≥0.8) medication possession ratio (MPR) from pharmacy refill data. Risk prediction models were evaluated using best subsets analyses, and the final model was chosen based on clinical relevance and model parsimony. Bootstrap simulations assessed internal validation. The performance of the final model was compared to the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antihypertensive medication adherence in cancer survivors and its affecting factors. T2 - Results of a Korean population-based study. AU - Shin, Dong Wook. AU - Park, Jong Hyock. AU - Park, Jae Hyun. AU - Park, Eun Cheol. AU - Kim, So Young. AU - Kim, Sung Gyeong. AU - Choi, Jin Young. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Purpose: Cancer survivors have been reported to receive less care for other conditions than the general population; however, it is not clear whether patients behavior also contribute to this. The present study was performed to examine cancer survivors adherence to antihypertensive medication and factors associated with it, compared to the general population. Methods: We used pharmacy claims and enrollment data from the National Health Insurance, which covers 97% of the Korean population. In total, 2,455,193 subjects, including 12,636 (0.5%) cancer survivors, who were prescribed antihypertensive medications during the calendar year 2004 were identified. A cumulative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of antihypertensive agents and blood lipids in a population-based survey. AU - Strickland, Daniel. AU - Sprafka, J. Michael. AU - Luepker, Russell V. AU - Grimm, Richard H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/1. Y1 - 1994/1. N2 - Clinical trials indicate that many antihypertensive medications alter blood lipids. These lipid changes may be of sufficient magnitude to influence subsequent coronary heart disease rates. We examined this association in a large population sample (N = 15,918, ages 25-74, 12% on antihypertensive medication) surveyed cross-sectionally from 1980 to 1986. Subjects taking antihypertensive medication had a mean serum total cholesterol 4.0 mg per dl higher than those not taking these medications after we adjusted for age, sex, weight, smoking, alcohol, blood pressure, and exercise. High- density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in the medicated group by 2.5 mg per dl. There was no evidence that the length ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro effects of antihypertensive drugs on thromboxane agonist (U46619)-induced vasocontriction in human internal mammary artery. AU - Tanaka, K. A.. AU - Szlam, F.. AU - Katori, N.. AU - Tsuda, A.. AU - Levy, Jerrold H.. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Background. Hypertension is a major problem in the perioperative period of cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. The vascular endothelium plays a crucial role in modulating vascular tone by producing vasodilators as well as vasoconstrictors. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2), a prototypical vasoconstrictor produced by endothelium and platelets, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and subsequent ischaemic events. Although multiple drugs are currently available to treat perioperative hypertension, there is a paucity of data comparing these agents. Therefore, we examined the in vitro vascular effects of commonly used antihypertensive drugs on human internal mammary artery (IMA) segments. Methods. Relaxation responses to ...
Varol and Ozaydin1 raise an important question about the effects of antihypertensive drugs and statins on arterial stiffness. In fact, antihypertensive drugs reduce large arterial stiffness, partly independently of blood pressure reduction, suggesting specific pharmacological effects on arterial remodeling.2 Furthermore, statins and other cholesterol-reducing agents have been shown to have beneficial effects on wave reflection and aortic stiffness reduction in several patient groups.3 In our study,4 25 out of 39 hypertensive patients with deep intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 11 out of 15 hypertensive patients with lobar ICH received antihypertensive drugs, whereas 4 patients with deep ICH and 3 with lobar ICH received statins (Table 1). Fisher test showed no significant differences between the two groups with regard to patients treated with antihypertensive drugs (P=1, not significant) and with statins (P=0.41, not significant), confirming our hypothesis that arterial stiffness may play a key ...
Hypertension remains a public health challenge worldwide. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, its prevalence has increased in the past three decades. Higher prevalence of poor blood pressure control and an increasing number of reported cases of complications due to hypertension have also been observed. It is well established that non-adherence to antihypertensive medication contributes to poor control of blood pressure. The aim of this study is to measure non-adherence to antihypertensive medication and to identify its predictors. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kinshasa Primary Health-care network facilities from October to November 2013. A total of 395 hypertensive patients were included in the study. A structured interview was used to collect data. Adherence to medication was assessed using the Morisky Medication Scale. Covariates were defined according to the framework of the World Health Organization. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of non-adherence. A total of 395
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AMARAL, Jefferson H.; MONTENEGRO, Marcelo F.; PINHEIRO, Lucas C.; FERREIRA, Graziele C.; TANUS-SANTOS, José Eduardo. Chronic antihypertensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-name-induced hypertension in rats. Anais.. Washington: [s.n.], 2012 ...
High blood pressure is a condition that normally affects adults, but can affect young children and adolescents, as well. High blood pressure in children is most commonly caused by unhealthy lifestyle or family history, but it can also be due to disease, such as kidney or heart disease. When a person has high blood pressure, the heart must work harder to pump blood throughout the body. If left untreated, high blood pressure can eventually cause damage to the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Recent studies have linked high blood pressure in children to deficits in brain functioning. However, more information is needed to confirm this connection and to determine the effectiveness of antihypertensive treatments in restoring brain function. This study will determine the effect of high blood pressure on brain functioning in children and adolescents. The study will also determine the effect of an antihypertensive treatment plan, involving a combination of diet, weight loss, increased exercise, and if needed, ...
Antiproteinuric and blood pressure-lowering effects of a fixed-dose combination of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-race subgroup compared with renin profile as predictors of blood pressure response to antihypertensive therapy. AU - Preston, Richard A.. AU - Materson, Barry J.. AU - Reda, Domenic J.. AU - Williams, David W.. AU - Hamburger, Robert J.. AU - Cushman, William C.. AU - Anderson, Robert J.. PY - 1998/10/7. Y1 - 1998/10/7. N2 - Context. - Renin profiling and age-race subgroup may help select single- drug therapy for stage 1 and stage 2 hypertension. Objective. - To compare the plasma renin profiling and age-race subgroup methods as predictors of response to single-drug therapy in men with stage 1 and 2 hypertension as defined by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Design. - The Veterans Affairs Cooperative on Single-Drug Therapy of Hypertension, a randomized controlled trial. Setting. - Fifteen Veterans Affairs hypertension centers. Patients. - A total of 1105 ambulatory men with entry diastolic blood pressure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amlodipine/benazepril. T2 - Fixed dose combination therapy for hypertension. AU - Faulkner, Michele A.. AU - Hilleman, Daniel E.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and end-stage renal disease have all been linked to inadequate control of blood pressure. Despite overwhelming evidence that uncontrolled hypertension is responsible for a sizeable number of adverse health-related outcomes, control of the disease remains considerably suboptimal. Available data demonstrate that in order to achieve adequate blood pressure control, a large number of patients require therapy with more than one medication. Fixed dose combination antihypertensive therapy has many advantages over other treatment options. Positive effects on blood pressure control, rates of adherence, adverse effects and cost have been identified. Amlodipine/benazepril (Lotrel®, Novartis) is a fixed dose combination product indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Although not ...
The studies in this thesis describe the development of a microarray based minisequencing system and its application to highly parallel genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The technical developments included identification of a three-dimensional microarray surface coating with high binding capacity for oligonucleotides modified with amino groups as the most optimal one for the system. The system was also established for multiplexed, reproducible quantitative analysis of SNP alleles both on the level of DNA and RNA. The sensitivity of the system to distinguish SNP alleles present as a minority in a mixed sample was found to be 1-6%.. The microarray based minisequencing system was applied in a pharmacogenetic study on antihypertensive drug response. A panel of 74 SNPs located in candidate genes related to blood pressure regulation were genotyped in DNA samples from hypertensive patients that had been treated with the antihypertensive drugs irbesartan or atenolol. Multiple regression ...
Hypertension is a growing health burden and contributes to serious cardiovascular complications from target organ damage. The vascular system is particularly important in patients with elevated blood pressure, because vascular dysfunction is both a cause and consequence of hypertension. Hypertension is characterised by a vascular phenotype of endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, arterial remodelling and increased stiffness. Of the many classes of antihypertensive drugs, those that influence vascular health have the greatest efficacy for reducing cardiovascular risk. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers ameliorate vascular remodelling and improve endothelial function. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce arterial stiffness, improve endothelial function and are established antihypertensive drugs, particularly in patients with resistant hypertension. Patients prone to salt-sensitivity benefit from diuretics, ...
TWYNSTA (telmisartan/amlodipine) tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or with other antihypertensive agents to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including angiotensin II receptor blockers and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with TWYNSTA.. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood ...
Prazosin hydrochloride capsules USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes, including this drug. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Programs Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of ...
Does intensive blood pressure control improve outcomes and reduce hematoma expansion in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)? The INTERACT-2 trial previously compared intensive vs. conservative blood pressure control in ICH patients and found no difference in death or disability between the two groups. Enter the ATACH-2 trial, published in the New England Journal of Medicine September 15,…
If you have hypertension, taking antihypertensive drugs is a common solution to treat high blood pressure.. Thousands of people die from heart disease every year, and the most susceptible are those who are overweight and obese. Overweight and obese people need to lower their blood pressure, and one way to do this is by taking antihypertensives.. There are two general classifications of hypertension. You get primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. High blood pressure drugs focus on treating primary hypertension.. Depending on your circumstances, there are four main types to choose from.. 1 - Diuretics. Diuretics act by increasing the urine output of your kidneys. They also inhibit the absorption of sodium in your kidneys, thereby producing dieresis. These hypertension drugs work best when you limit your intake of sodium-rich foods. You should also avoid eating salt.. Chlorothiazide, Bumetanide, Amioloride, and Acetazolamide are some of the diuretic drugs available.. 2 - ...
National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia; UK Stroke Association; Ministry of Health and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development of Brazil; Ministry for Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs of South Korea; Takeda.
Image: PD 1, Thiazide diuretics are superior to ACE-Is and CCBs in reducing certain forms of cardiovascular disease 2.Source: www.2minutemedicine.comSee on Scoop.it - Cardiotoxicity
The overall purpose of hypertension treatment is 2-fold. First, patients often have symptoms that are related to their high blood pressure and although subtle in many instances may be improved dramatically by blood pressure control. The main reason for blood pressure treatment, however, is to reduce the burden of cardiovascular complications and end organ damage related to the condition. This may be considered the ultimate goal of blood pressure treatment. In this respect, actual blood pressure measurements may be seen as surrogate end points as the organ protective effects of two antihypertensive agents may differ significantly even though their blood pressure lowering effects are similar. Thus beta-blockers, once seen as first-line treatment of hypertension for most patients, now are considered as third- or fourthline agents according to the latest NICE guidelines (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, www.nice.org.uk/CG034). On the other hand, agents that inhibit the activity ...
This research work concerns with the pharmacological screening of herbal extract for their antihypertensive action as well as the bioassay-directed fractionation of some medicinal plants, this is also resulted in the isolation of active principle from indigenous medicinal plants.Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) is one of the most common disease of modern times The drugs so far available are not only beyond the reach of a common man, but also have serious side effects, lacking curative properties thus limiting their therapeutic use. It is alarming that 12 million lives lost annually due to various cardio-vascular troubles mainly hypertension. Many medicinal plants are used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of hypertension which require further detailed pharmacological investigation. However little systematic scientific studies with particular reference to antihypertensive activity has been undertaken on these plants. Pakistan is very rich in herbal wealth and research on ...
The Cochrane Library has published a review of the available evidence that aimed to quantify the benefits and harms of the major first line antihypertensive drug classes: thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCB), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, alpha-blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB).. The review included data from 24 trials with 58,040 participants that were of at least one year duration and compared one of the study drugs with placebo or no treatment. 70% of participants in each study were required to have a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg at baseline.. The review found that low-dose thiazide diuretics reduced all morbidity and mortality outcomes. ACE inhibitors and CCBs provided similar benefits but the evidence was less robust. No trials were found for ARBs or alpha-blockers.. Action: Thiazide diuretics are, once again, supported by the evidence for first line use in the treatment of hypertension.. ...
There can be negative side-effects from common over-the-counter decongestants if you are on blood pressure medications. Here are medications to avoid.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors the best treatment for hypertension in type 2 diabetes?. AU - Komers, Radko. AU - Anderson, Sharon. PY - 2000/3/15. Y1 - 2000/3/15. N2 - The influence of hypertension on the clinical course and complications of type 2 diabetes is well established. With a special focus on angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors, this paper will review recently published results of prospective studies addressing two important aspects: the degree of blood pressure control, and the choice of antihypertensive regimen, in the prevention of complications in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. None of the recent studies have shown worse outcomes in patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based regimens compared with alternative treatments. Some studies have suggested that angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor-based antihypertensive regimens may be superior to alternative treatments in reducing the risk of micro- and macrovascular ...
24. Types of Blood Pressure Medications The American Heart Association provides information on prescription blood pressure medicines, hypertension medications, over-the-counter blood pressure medications. Some common types of blood pressure prescriptions are Diuretics, Beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Alpha blockers, Alpha-2 Receptor Agonist, Combined alpha and beta-blockers, Central agonists, Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors, Blood vessel dilators, or vasodilators ...
High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure that is apparently difficult to control begins with an assessment of the patients adherence to the management plan, including lifestyle modifications and medications. White-coat hypertension may need to be ruled out. Suboptimal therapy is the most common reason for failure to reach the blood pressure goal. Once-daily fixed-dose combination pills may improve control through the synergism of antihypertensive agents from different classes and improved adherence. Truly drug-resistant hypertension is commonly caused by chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, or hyperaldosteronism, all of which can lead to fluid retention. Higher doses of diuretics (or a change to a loop diuretic) are usually needed. Other strategies
A total of 10,202 individuals between 16 and 60 were investigated. In this manner, the material could be subdivided into a risk population consisting of the individuals who already were receiving anti-hypertensive treatment and those individuals in whom three blood-pressure measurements either revealed a systolic blood-pressure of more than or equal to 160 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure more than or equal to 95 mm Hg. Thereafter, the risk population was included in an intervention programme. The median blood-pressure for all persons investigated was 128 mm Hg. The median diastolic blood-pressure was 80 mm Hg. 1.9% of the individuals investigated were already receiving anti-hypertensive therapy and 2.5% of those examined had blood-pressures over the limits stated on all three measurements. The risk population thus consisted of 4,4% of all the persons investigated. Increasing systolic and diastolic blood-pressures were found with increasing age in both sexes. In the younger age-groups, however, the ...
Hypertension is the most common medical disorder in pregnancy. It complicates about 15% of all pregnancies and is an important cause of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is diagnosed from an absolute rise in blood pressure at or above 140/90 mm of Hg. There is general consensus that severe hypertension should receive pharmacological treatment but the value of treating mild hypertension is controversial. The threshold for treatment is 140-150 mm of Hg systolic and/ or 95-100 mm of Hg diastolic to prevent worsening complications of hypertensive mother. Opinions differ as to which is the best antihypertensive during pregnancy. All antihypertensives are either shown or assumed to cross the placenta and reach foetal circulation. While the goal of treatment is to reduce maternal risk, agents selected must be efficacious and safe for the foetus. Methyldopa and labetolol are considered as the first line antihypertensives. As second line therapy, calcium channel blocker, oral ...
The availability of multiple effective antihypertensive medications in recent years offers greater choice in antihypertensive therapy than ever before. Hypertension resistant to treatment with ≥2 agents continues to present complex challenges to the clinician. Results from the present study indicated that despite taking 3 or 4 potent antihypertensive medications, our patients demonstrated persistently elevated arterial pressures with high systemic vascular resistance at entry. Reduced thoracic impedance and impaired renal function suggested volume expansion, despite diuretic administration to ,90% of these patients. Our results indicate that more intensive therapy with an emphasis on targeted control of volume using diuretic therapy achieved blood pressure control superior to that attained by empiric selection of drugs. In the present study, experienced clinicians in a hypertension unit in fact did achieve considerable blood pressure reduction. Drug therapy based on a treatment algorithm and ...
This study of 16 hospitals, representing academic and community hospitals in both urban and suburban neighborhoods, is the first to compare real-world ED BP management with AHA recommendations. ED management of BP in AIS was not consistent with AHA guidelines. Antihypertensive therapy was often given despite not meeting treatment criteria, and the reduction in SBP was ,20% in 1 of 4 treated cases. Interestingly, 1 in 3 cases who met AHA criteria for treatment did not receive antihypertensives.. Physicians may consider hypertension with AIS a form of hypertensive emergency. The treatment for hypertensive emergency, as in decompensated heart failure or aortic dissection, involves early aggressive BP reduction. Thus, aggressive management of BP in AIS seen in this study may be due to approaching AIS as a hypertensive emergency. Our findings may indicate a need for additional education regarding BP management in AIS.. Importantly, the AHA guidelines for BP-lowering in AIS are based on limited ...
Other drugs used to treat high blood pressure include angiotensin-receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, vasodilators, and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-receptor blockers. Drugs known as angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) block the effects of angiotensin, a hormone that would otherwise cause arteries to constrict. They are similar to ACE inhibitors in their action and ability to both lower blood pressure and protect the kidneys, but may have fewer or less severe side effects, including cough. They may even improve sexual function in men. As with ACE inhibitors, ARBs should be considered the first choice for blood pressure medication when other conditions, such as heart failure, heart disease, and diabetes, are also present. They are also associated with increasing blood potassium and angioedema. They should be used with caution in people with advanced disease. Direct renin inhibitors. Aliskiren (Tekturna) has been approved for blood pressure control since 2007 as a stand-alone agent or in ...
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In this systematic review, self-monitoring was associated with a significant decline in systolic blood pressure (−2.5 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (−1.8 mmHg). Although this blood pressure reduction does not appear substantial in clinical terms, it would, nonetheless, appear to be a useful adjunct to care and is likely to lead to a reduction in mortality and cardiovascular events. This appears to be confirmed in the HDFP study65,66 where an organised system of regular review allied to vigorous antihypertensive drug therapy was shown to reduce blood pressure as well as all-cause mortality.. At 5-year follow-up, the reductions in blood pressure (∼10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 5 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure) seen in this study were associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (6.4% versus 7.8%, absolute risk reduction = 1.4%, numbers needed to treat = 71). Nurse- or pharmacist-led care and appointment-reminder systems may be a promising way of improving ...
Blood pressure control among treated hypertensives has been improving in recent decades. Poor control in the past was largely attributed to clinical inertia-i.e., clinicians not increasing or adding antihypertensives in the face of uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), with nonadherence accounting for only 13% of the poor control.1 Physicians are now much more likely to add a second or third drug to reach the BP treatment target of less than 140/90 mmHg. Although BP control is usually achieved with three-drug therapy, some studies have suggested that many patients on three drugs, including a diuretic, were not controlled, and therefore potentially met criteria for resistant hypertension. Several studies published between 2003 and 2008 found that about 10% of all treated hypertensives on three or more drugs had uncontrolled BP.2 Thus, with over 80 million treated hypertensives in the US alone, there appeared to be a vast number of people who could benefit from further intervention and a huge market ...
Use and approval of antihypertensive agents and surrogate endpoints for the approval of drugs affecting antiarrhythmic heart failure and hypolipidemia
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Protostephanine is an alkaloid collected from Stephania japonica (Menispermaceae). Antihypertensive agent. The leaves of this ...
Potent antihypertensive agents". J. Med. Chem. 35 (17): 3254-3263. doi:10.1021/jm00095a023. PMID 1387168. Crespo, Abel; El ... antihypertensive agents, and alpha-1-a-antagonists. More recently products of the Biginelli reaction have been investigated as ...
Antihypertensives: agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system (C09). ACE inhibitors. ("-pril"). *Sulfhydryl-containing: ... Drug interactions to be aware of include lithium, agents increasing serum levels of potassium, and the use of ... hydrochlorothiazide with antidiabetic drugs both oral agents and insulin.[2] Mechanisms[edit]. Losartan works by blocking the ...
Kosman ME (July 1975). "Evaluation of clonidine hydrochloride (Catapres). A new antihypertensive agent". JAMA. 233 (2): 174-6. ... The selective agents (atenolol, metoprolol) are preferred to the non-selective agents (propranolol). There are several ( ... These agents should be avoided whenever possible as there is upwards of seven times more beta-adrenoceptor antagonism than ... Groups such as these encourage patients to become their own advocates and change agents in their healthcare decision making ...
Gyorgy Szasz; Zsuzsanna Budvari-Barany (19 December 1990). Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. ... a steroidal aldosterone antagonist and antihypertensive". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 201 (3): 762-8. PMID 864608. ...
... a new antihypertensive agent, Clin. Pharmacol. Therapeutics 1964; 5: 167-173. Becker, K.L., Sutnick, A.I. Paralytic ileus ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. 82-. ISBN 978-0-8493-4724-5. Luther, James M. (2014). "Is ...
Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. 82-. ISBN 978-0-8493-4724-5. Dennis V. Cokkinos (6 November ...
Gyorgy Szasz; Zsuzsanna Budvari-Barany (19 December 1990). Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. ...
... is an antihypertensive agent. It is used in the form of its sulfate. Guanadrel is a postganglionic adrenergic ... A new antihypertensive drug". JAMA. 245 (16): 1639-42. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03310410017019. PMID 7206175. W.R. Hardie, J.E. ... blocking agent. Uptake of guanadrel and storage in sympathetic neurons occurs via the norepinephrine pump; guanadrel slowly ...
BREST AN, ONESTI G, SWARTZ C, BERLINER H, MOYER JH (June 1962). "Butynamine hydrochloride as an antihypertensive agent". ... Butynamine is a tertiary (a highly hindered) aliphatic amine which has antihypertensive effects. ...
Lv J, Perkovic V, Foote CV, Craig ME, Craig JC, Strippoli GF (2012). "Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney ... Agents. 31 (3): 189-92. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.11.010. PMID 18248798. Abraham EP (1987). "Cephalosporins 1945-1986". ... Approximately 400 tons of these agents are manufactured each year; this is enough to put approximately 9,000,000 people to ... In the ensuring years other classes of antihypertensive drug were developed and found wide acceptance in combination therapy, ...
... is used as an antihypertensive agent. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 1997. ... Fenoldopam is used as an antihypertensive agent postoperatively, and also intravenously (IV) to treat a hypertensive crisis. ... Since fenoldopam is an intravenous agent with minimal adrenergic effects that improves renal perfusion, in theory it could be ...
... (AY-28,228) is an antihypertensive agent which acts as a selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It also ... A new class of potent antihypertensive agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 30 (2): 388-94. doi:10.1021/jm00385a022. PMID ... Oshiro G, Wojdan A, Klein M, Metcalf G (September 1987). "Antihypertensive and hypotensive actions of atiprosin (AY-28,228) in ... Prazosin Ketanserin David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-412- ...
"Pharmacology of a new antihypertensive agent, metazosin (Kenosin)". Ceskoslovenska Farmacie. 39 (6): 266-74. PMID 1981860. ... Metazosin is an antihypertensive alpha-adrenergic antagonist. Trcka, V; König, J; Mácová, S; Smíd, M; Helfert, I; Votavová, M; ...
More recently angiotensin receptor blockers and renin inhibitors have also been introduced as antihypertensive agents. Esunge ... Freis ED (1974). "The Veterans Administration cooperative study on antihypertensive agents. Implications for stroke prevention ... new class of orally active antihypertensive agents". Science. 196 (4288): 441-4. Bibcode:1977Sci...196..441O. doi:10.1126/ ... In 1977 captopril, an orally active agent, was described; this led to the development of a number of other ACE inhibitors. ...
It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has ... Olmesartan may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. Olmesartan may be administered with or without food. ... Several preparations containing olmesartan and other antihypertensives are available. Teva Pharmaceuticals produces a ...
Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated by doxepin. Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the ... Sympathomimetic agents may have their effects potentiated by TCAs like doxepin. Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects ... Antiarrhythmic agents may be an appropriate measure to treat cardiac arrhythmias resulting from doxepin overdose. Slow ... In general, sedating properties of anti-depressant agents are related to antagonism of serotonin 5HT2, histamines, and α-1 ...
Some antihypertensive agents are also used to treat tics; studies show variable efficacy but a lower side effect profile than ... The antihypertensives clonidine and guanfacine are typically tried first in children; they can also help with ADHD symptoms, ... The neuroleptics risperidone and aripiprazole are tried when antihypertensives are not effective, and are generally tried first ...
The antihypertensive agents are also used to treat tics; studies show variable efficacy, but a lower side effect profile than ... The α2-adrenergic receptor agonists (antihypertensive agents) show some efficacy in reducing tics, as well as other comorbid ... Because of the blood pressure effects, antihypertensive agents should not be discontinued suddenly. Clonidine (brand name ... This class of medication is often the first tried for tics, as the antihypertensives have a lower side effect profile than some ...
"Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD004136. doi: ... A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[76] Other ... Waugh, N; Cummins, E; Royle, P; Clar, C; Marien, M; Richter, B; Philip, S (July 2010). "Newer agents for blood glucose control ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ...
"Growth hormone secretion in response to the new centrally acting antihypertensive agent moxonidine in normal human subjects: ... a new centrally acting sympatholytic antihypertensive agent". Journal of Human Hypertension. 11 Suppl 1: S29-45. ISSN 0950-9240 ... "Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 31 (3): 334-42 ... Moxonidine (INN) is a new-generation alpha-2/imidazoline receptor agonist antihypertensive drug licensed for the treatment of ...
"Leukocyte and bone marrow effects of a thiomorpholine quinazosin antihypertensive agent". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. ... Quinazosin is an antihypertensive adrenoreceptor antagonist. Martin, RA; Barsoum, NJ; Sturgess, JM; De La Iglesia, FA (1985). " ...
It was developed as an antihypertensive agent but was never marketed. Ketanserin Allen RC (1989). Annual Reports in Medicinal ...
It can be used alone or with other anti-hypertensive agents. According to the FDA, carvedilol should not be used in people with ... This inhibition leads to decreased peripheral vascular resistance and an antihypertensive effect. There is no reflex ...
... is a pyridazine that has found use as an antihypertensive agent. Liberman, D.; Rouaix, A.; Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. ...
Hypertension caused by VEGF inhibition can usually be treated with oral antihypertensive agents. Proteinuria is common when ... Generally it is well tolerated and safe but can have adverse effects which can be intensified by chemotherapeutic agents used ... These compounds are promising anti-cancer and anti-fibrosis agents, inhibiting various protein tyrosine kinases. They have ... "Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pazopanib derivatives as antitumor agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ...
Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012, 12: CD004136. PMID 23235603. ... Agents. March 2008, 31 (3): 189-92. PMID 18248798. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.11.010.. ... How the thiazides evolved as antihypertensive therapy. Hypertension. 1993, 22 (3): 388-91. PMID 8349332. doi:10.1161/01.hyp. ... Antibacterial agents chemistry, mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and clinical applications. Oxford: WiBlackwell. 2012 ...
Levey, Andrew (2004). "K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney ...
Experiments with Y27632 show it is a promising candidate as a therapeutic antihypertensive agent. Fasudil has been used to ...
A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[87] Other ... "Effect of antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ... As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents.[87] A 2018 review found that SGLT2 inhibitors may be ...
Commonly used agents are prednisone, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, ciclosporin, tacrolimus, everolimus, thymoglobulin and ... antihypertensives, diet and weight modification and planning for end-stage kidney failure. Impaired kidney function has ... An erythropoetin stimulating agent may be required to ensure adequate production of red blood cells, activated vitamin D ...
The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic ... The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ... The short-term anti-hypertensive action is based on the fact that thiazides decrease preload, decreasing blood pressure. On the ... Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ...
Stewart JM (2003). "Bradykinin antagonists as anti-cancer agents". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 9 (25): 2036-42. doi:10.2174/ ... On the basis of this finding, Squibb scientists developed the first of a new generation of highly-effective anti-hypertensive ... and bradykinin antagonists have been investigated as anti-cancer agents.[19] ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... Affecting blood pressure/(antihypertensive drugs): ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, α blockers, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ... Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. *Vasodilators. *Beta blockers. *Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE ...
Robles-Vera I, Toral M, Romero M, Jiménez R, Sánchez M, Pérez-Vizcaíno F, Duarte J (April 2017). "Antihypertensive Effects of ... Alvarez-Olmos MI, Oberhelman RA (2001). "Probiotic agents and infectious diseases: a modern perspective on a traditional ... International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 22 (4): 360-6. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(03)00153-5. PMID 14522098.. ... "Lactobacillus species as biomarkers and agents that can promote various aspects of vaginal health". Frontiers in Physiology. 6 ...
A peptidergic agent (or drug) is a chemical which functions to directly modulate the peptide systems in the body or brain. An ... Boelsma E, Kloek J; Kloek (March 2009). "Lactotripeptides and antihypertensive effects: a critical review". The British Journal ...
The choice of the antihypertensive agent is open as long as the blood pressure is controlled to desired level. However, ... This, too, suggests an immune pathology rather than direct interference by outside agents. ... Other agents such as mycophenolate mofetil, ciclosporin and mizoribine have also been tried with varying results. ...
The effectiveness of antihypertensives and diuretics can be lowered. The use of ketorolac can increase serum lithium levels to ... Sivaprasad S, Bunce C, Crosby-Nwaobi R (February 2012). "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for treating cystoid macular ...
... new class of orally active antihypertensive agents". Science. 196 (4288): 441-4. Bibcode:1977Sci...196..441O. doi:10.1126/ ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 60 (1): 142-50. doi:10.1128/AAC.01335-15. PMC 4704194. PMID 26482303.. ... structures of Drosophila melanogaster angiotensin-converting enzyme in complex with novel inhibitors and antihypertensive drugs ...
Several classes of antihypertensive agents are recommended, with the choice depending on the cause of the hypertensive crisis, ... the blood pressure should be slowly lowered over a period of minutes to hours with an antihypertensive agent. ... The most common cause in patients with diagnosed, chronic hypertension who have discontinued anti hypertensive medications.[6] ... With the usage of anti hypertensives, the rates of hypertensive emergencies has declined from 7% to 1% of patients with ...
... antipsychotic and antihypertensive medications, and dopamine antagonists in the treatment of stuttering has been evaluated in ... the effectiveness of pharmacological agents, such as benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ... When choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ... Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. *Vasodilators. *Beta blockers. *Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE ...
While most of the agents listed above are relatively selective, there are additional agents that are considered nonselective. ... through calcium channels.[3] Calcium channel blockers are used as antihypertensive drugs, i.e., as medications to decrease ... The negative chronotropic effects of CCBs make them a commonly used class of agents in individuals with atrial fibrillation or ... For severe overdoses, treatment usually includes close monitoring of vital signs and the addition of vasopressive agents and ...
Medications commonly associated with rebound hypertension include centrally-acting antihypertensive agents, such as clonidine[ ... In addition, hypertension may develop perioperatively because of discontinuation of long-term antihypertensive medication.[37] ... High blood pressure that is associated with the sudden withdrawal of various antihypertensive medications is called rebound ...
Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ... Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. *Vasodilators. *Beta blockers. * ...
For instance, some ocular antihypertensives cause systemic effects,[8] although they are administered locally as eye drops, ... Assigning causality to a specific agent often proves difficult, unless the event is found during a clinical study or large ... stopping and starting the agent in question). The chronology of the onset of the suspected ADR is important, as another ...
nonsympatholytic vasodilatory antihypertensives. *peripheral vasodilators. *renin-angiotensin system. *sympatholytic ...
Taking antihypertensive drugs may worsen the syncope, as the hypertension may have been the body's way to compensate for the ... Central agents. *Mechanical device. *Discontinuation of medications known to lower blood pressure may be helpful, but stopping ... antihypertensive drugs can also be dangerous in some people. ...
"Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD004136. doi: ... A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[76] Other ... Waugh, N; Cummins, E; Royle, P; Clar, C; Marien, M; Richter, B; Philip, S (July 2010). "Newer agents for blood glucose control ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ...
The fluid retention may be targeted by diuretics; the antihypertensive effect of diuretics is due to its effect on blood volume ... also contributes to changing the caliber of small blood vessels and influencing resistance and reactivity to vasoactive agents. ...
One class of these agents are bryostatin-like compounds, under investigation as anti-cancer therapy.[citation needed] ... For certain therapy areas, such as antimicrobials, antineoplastics, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drugs, the numbers ... Artemisinin, an antimalarial agent from sweet wormtree Artemisia annua, used in Chinese medicine since 200BC is one drug used ... The elucidation of the chemical structure is critical to avoid the re-discovery of a chemical agent that is already known for ...
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 44 (5): 377-386. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.06.001. PMID 25130096.. ... vasodilating, antihypertensive Yohimbine stimulant, aphrodisiac Many synthetic and semisynthetic drugs are structural ... The newer semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent vinorelbine is used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.[134][195] ...
"Dermatotherapeutic Agents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). 2007. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_301.pub2. ... Kyriakidis I, Tragiannidis A, Munchen S, Groll AH (February 2017). "Clinical hepatotoxicity associated with antifungal agents ... "The cost effectiveness of testing for onychomycosis versus empiric treatment of onychodystrophies with oral antifungal agents ... Antihypertensives. *Diuretics. *Vasodilators. *Beta blockers. *Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE ...
These agents are more properly termed thiazide-like diuretics. Thiazide diuretics also increase calcium reabsorption at the ... In most countries, the thiazides are the cheapest antihypertensive drugs available. Regarding effectiveness in the treatment of ... How the thiazides evolved as antihypertensive therapy". Hypertension. 22 (3): 388-91. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.22.3.388. PMID 8349332 ... Very few agents used for the treatment of any disease can boast such staying power, which is a testament both to the efficacy ...
Lipid-lowering agents[edit]. *Simvastatin[note 72]. Dermatological medicines (topical)[edit]. Antifungal medicines[edit]. * ... 12.3 Antihypertensive medicines. *12.4 Medicines used in heart failure. *12.5 Antithrombotic medicines *12.5.1 Anti-platelet ... Diagnostic agents[edit]. *Tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD). Sera and immunoglobulins[edit]. *Antivenom ... single agent trimethoprim may be an alternative for lower urinary tract infection. ...
Acetylcholin Aldosteron Histamin Rauwolfia Respiration Serotonin adverse reactions chemistry kidney metabolism neurotransmitter pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics pharmacology research ...
Make research projects and school reports about Antihypertensive agents easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Antihypertensive agents at Encyclopedia.com. ... All antihypertensive agents lower blood pressure, although the ... Antihypertensive drugs are medicines that help lower blood pressure.. Purpose. The overall class of antihypertensive agents ... antihypertensive (anti-hy-per-ten-siv) adj. describing drugs or other agents used in treating high blood pressure.. ...
Physiologic evaluation of a new antihypertensive agent: prazosin HCl.. M C Koshy, D Mickley, J Bourgiognie, M D Blaufox ... The mechanism of action of prazosin hydrochloride, a new antihypertensive agent was studied in 14 patients with essential ... Prazosin hydrochloride appears to be an effective antihypertensive agent which acts by peripheral vasodilatation. It may cause ...
Effect of Antihypertensive Agents on Diastolic Function in Patients With Sleep Apnea. *Hypertension ... 639 Studies found for: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , Antihypertensive Agents ... Other: Optimization of antihypertensive treatment based on office BP. *Other: Optimization of antihypertensive treatment based ... Antihypertensive drug concentrations. 80. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT02449811. EKNZ 2015-081. April 2015. ...
Adherence with antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapies outside of the controlled environment of clinical trials is very ... the clinical trials that have demonstrated that these two agents can be combined without the loss of efficacy for either agent ... A single-pill combination of the antihypertensive amlodipine besylate and the lipid-lowering medication atorvastatin calcium ( ... Observational studies have demonstrated that improving adherence to lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications may reduce ...
What is antihypertensive agent? Meaning of antihypertensive agent as a legal term. What does antihypertensive agent mean in law ... Definition of antihypertensive agent in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... authorization of an agent, bailee, common agent, employee, escrow agent, general agent, implied agent, independent contraccor, ... agent. see AGENCY.. AGENT, practice. An agent is an attorney who transacts the business of another attorney. 2. The agent owes ...
95 Studies found for: target , Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , Antihypertensive Agents ... Also searched for Anti Hypertensives, Targeting, and Targeted. See Search Details. Applied Filters: Recruiting Not yet ... Antihypertensive drug concentrations. 80. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT02449811. EKNZ 2015-081. April 2015. ... Antihypertensive Treatment in Masked Hypertension for Target Organ Protection. *Masked Hypertension. *Drug: Allisartan ...
A centrally acting sympathetic agent is therefore attractive not only for loweri … ... Pharmacological properties of the central antihypertensive agent, moxonidine Cardiovasc Ther. 2012 Aug;30(4):199-208. doi: ... Older agents such as clonidine and guanabenz have numerous side effects, including sedation and dry mouth that limit their ... We conclude that moxonidine and future successors to this agent could be of great value in treating multiple chronic diseases. ...
Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men: a comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328 ... Pulse Pressure Changes With Six Classes of Antihypertensive Agents in a Randomized, Controlled Trial. William C. Cushman, Barry ... Response to a second single antihypertensive agent used as monotherapy for hypertension after failure of the initial drug. Arch ... Little is known, however, of the comparative effects of various classes of antihypertensive agents on pulse pressure. In ...
Since the original reports suggesting that the antihypertensive action of beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs is related to ... Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology*. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Clinical Trials as Topic. Depression, Chemical. Humans ... It is concluded that the antihypertensive action of beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agents, as a class, is not dependent upon ... 0/Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0/Antihypertensive Agents; 13523-86-9/Pindolol; 52-01-7/Spironolactone; 52-39-1/Aldosterone; 525 ...
... system and decreases biding of angiotensin to the receptor so decreases the blood pressure and act as an antihypertensive agent ... system and decreases biding of angiotensin to the receptor so decreases the blood pressure and act as an antihypertensive agent ...
Antihypertensive agents. Class Summary. These products are used to control hypertension and to ultimately prevent complications ... These agents are the primary treatment for short stature. They stimulate growth of linear bone, skeletal muscle, and organs. ...
Antihypertensive agents. Class Summary. Particularly useful for the treatment of hypertension associated with 17-hydroxylase ... Antihypertensives: Potassium-sparing diuretics. Class Summary. One DOC to treat hypertension associated with 17-hydroxylase ... Antihypertensives: Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. Class Summary. This and other calcium channel blockers ( ... Progestational agents have been used beginning with the first trimester of pregnancy in an attempt to prevent habitual abortion ...
Antihypertensive, and Diuretic Agents; Miscellaneous Agents WILLIAM M. BENNETT, M.D.; RICHARD S. MUTHER, M.D.; RICHARD A. ... Antihypertensive, and Diuretic Agents; Miscellaneous Agents. Ann Intern Med. ;93:286-325. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-111-3-286 ... Effect of Antihypertensive Drug Treatment on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women and Men: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient ...
Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans. Minxia M. He, Trent L. Abraham, Thomas J. ... Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans. Minxia M. He, Trent L. Abraham, Thomas J. ... Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans. Minxia M. He, Trent L. Abraham, Thomas J. ... Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
... Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2021 ... Although they need to be confirmed in further studies, these results support the continuation of antihypertensive agents in ... We aimed to investigate the association between antihypertensive agent exposure and in-hospital mortality in patients with ... or other antihypertensive agents in the case of Covid-19 remains controversial. ...
Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics. M. E. ... Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics ... Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics ... Anti-Hypertensive Adrenergic-Blocking Agents: Effects on Sodium Balance, the Renin-Angiotensin System and Haemodynamics ...
The Antihypertensive Effects of Ketanserin (R 41 468), a Novel 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Blocking Agent, in Patients with Essential ... J. De Crée, J. Leempoels, H. Geukens, W. De Cock, H. Verhaegen; The Antihypertensive Effects of Ketanserin (R 41 468), a Novel ... 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Blocking Agent, in Patients with Essential Hypertension. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 December 1981; 61 (s7): 473s- ...
Synthesis and evaluation of some 1, 4-dihydropyridine and their derivatives as antihypertensive agents. ... The title compounds have been evaluated for antihypertensive activity by tail-cuff method. Some of these compounds have been ...
... as a prototype of a new class of centrally acting antihypertensive agents for the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. ... Aminopeptidase A inhibitors as centrally acting antihypertensive agents. Laurence Bodineau 1 Alain Frugière 1 Yannick Marc 1 ... Aminopeptidase A inhibitors as centrally acting antihypertensive agents.. Heart Failure Reviews, Springer Verlag, 2008, 13 (3 ... as a prototype of a new class of centrally acting antihypertensive agents for the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. ...
Study ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs flashcards from Tiago Rodrigues ... ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs Flashcards Preview Pharmacology , ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs , ...
Excretion and Metabolism of the Antihypertensive Agent, RWJ-26240 (McN-5691) in Dogs. W. N. Wu, J. A. Masucci, G. W. Caldwell ... Excretion and Metabolism of the Antihypertensive Agent, RWJ-26240 (McN-5691) in Dogs. W. N. Wu, J. A. Masucci, G. W. Caldwell ... Excretion and Metabolism of the Antihypertensive Agent, RWJ-26240 (McN-5691) in Dogs. W. N. Wu, J. A. Masucci, G. W. Caldwell ... Excretion and Metabolism of the Antihypertensive Agent, RWJ-26240 (McN-5691) in Dogs ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive real estate agents with. February 25, 2019. exposed0 comments ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive real estate agents with. Home / Uncategorized / Angiotensin II ... Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive real estate agents with considerable proof efficacy and protection ... 0.49JIKEI HEART2007ValsartanNon-ARB antihypertensive therapyHypertension, cardiovascular system disease, HF, or a combined mix ...
Study Intro to Antihypertensive Agents I flashcards from Matt Stanton ... Intro to Antihypertensive Agents I Flashcards Preview RENAL II Exam 3 , Intro to Antihypertensive Agents I , Flashcards ...
... are antihypertensive real estate agents with. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive real estate agents ... Because it was unexpectedly found that the anti-hypertensive agent, ifenprodil, has. January 19, 2019. GABAB Receptors ... Because it was unexpectedly found that the anti-hypertensive agent, ifenprodil, has neuroprotective activity through results to ...
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Download Free Full-Text of an article SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW 1, 4-DIHYDROPYRIDINES AS ANTIHYPERTENSIVES ... SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW 1, 4-DIHYDROPYRIDINES AS ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AGENTS IN RATS. IRANIAN JOURNAL OF ... SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NEW 1, 4-DIHYDROPYRIDINES AS ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AGENTS IN RATS. ... 4-DIHYDROPYRIDINES AS ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AGENTS IN RATS. IRANIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH (IJPR), 2(1), 43-46. https ...
Randomised placebo controlled trial of antihypertensive agents for the prevention of cardiovascular complications of ... Secondary hypertension; already on antihypertensive treatment; accepted indication for antihypertensive treatment; myocardial ...
Treatment Agent, antihypertensive. Symptoms and causes Agent, antihypertensive Prophylaxis Agent, antihypertensive ... For More Information «Agent, antihypertensive». *. Antihypertensive agent - WrongDiagnosis.com. Antihypertensive agent ... antihypertensive agent - definition of antihypertensive agent .... antihypertensive /an·ti·hy·per·ten·sive/ (-ten´siv) ... Agents. Antihypertensive Agents: Review the properties, dosages, and precautions of the 28 new therapeutic agents marketed in ...
The Effect of Antihypertensive Agents on Insulin Sensitivity, Lipids and Haemostasis. Author(s): Asterios Karagiannis, ... Abstract: Antihypertensive agents exert different effects on insulin sensitivity, lipids and haemostasis. However, most studies ... Antihypertensive agents exert different effects on insulin sensitivity, lipids and haemostasis. However, most studies assessing ... Therefore, the risk of developing T2DM should be considered when selecting an antihypertensive agent. This review discusses the ...
  • The mechanism of action of prazosin hydrochloride, a new antihypertensive agent was studied in 14 patients with essential hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • These agents control severe hypertension. (medscape.com)
  • K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. (nih.gov)
  • Reliable and easy-to-use LC-MS/MS-method for simultaneous determination of the antihypertensives metoprolol, amlodipine, canrenone and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In retrospective analyses of the Veterans Affairs Single-Drug Therapy for Hypertension Study, we compared changes in pulse pressure with 6 classes of antihypertensive agents: 1292 men with diastolic blood pressure of 95 to 109 mm Hg on placebo were randomized to receive hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, captopril, clonidine, diltiazem, prazosin, or placebo. (ahajournals.org)
  • This led to the development of potent, systematically active APA inhibitors, such as RB150, as a prototype of a new class of centrally acting antihypertensive agents for the treatment of certain forms of hypertension. (inserm.fr)
  • 1 outlines the steps for the use of rapid-acting antihypertensive agents for acute-onset severe hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Comparative effectiveness of fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Aim We assessed the effectiveness of fourth-line mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in comparison with other fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • We included randomised and non-randomised studies that compared mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists with other fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in patients with resistant hypertension. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion On the basis of this meta-analysis, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure more effectively than other fourth-line agents in resistant hypertension. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Sarah-Jo Sinnott, Laurie A Tomlinson, Adrian A Root, Rohini Mathur, Kathryn E Mansfield, Liam Smeeth, Ian J Douglas, Comparative effectiveness of fourth-line anti-hypertensive agents in resistant hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 24 (3) pp. 228-238. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Morus alba extract exerts antihypertensive action in an experimental model of arterial hypertension. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Generally speaking, the primary agents for initial monotherapy to treat uncomplicated hypertension are diuretics and beta blockers. (mussenhealth.us)
  • Antihypertensive drugs, also known as anti hypertension drugs, is a kind of medicine which can control blood pressure and be used for the treatment of hypertension. (china-sinoway.com)
  • It has been suggested that a randomized controlled trial comparing specific antihypertensive agents to one another is required to determine if one agent demonstrates superior efficacy with respect to cardiovascular outcomes in patients on hemodialysis with hypertension (Jindal et al. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Subjects (n=39) with chronic renal disease accompanied by mild to moderate hypertension and varying degrees of proteinuria were divided into 3 groups based on UAE values and placed on nonpharmacological and/or treatment with an antihypertensive drug regimen (consisting of one or more antihypertensive drugs [beta blocker, ACE inhibitor or calcium-channel blocker]) to achieve a target blood pressure ≤ 130/85 mmHg. (edu.pl)
  • In conclusion, in patients with hypertension, changes in UAE depend on initial UAE values and administered antihypertensive treatment. (edu.pl)
  • Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. (aafp.org)
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can be used to rule out white coat hypertension or to monitor the effects of antihypertensive treatment. (aafp.org)
  • Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). (rug.nl)
  • While hypertension is associated with an increased risk of depression, continued treatment of the disease with hypertensive agents may reduce this risk, according to a study in Hypertension . (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • The researchers concluded that their study suggests that clinicians treating patients with hypertension should prescribe 1 of the identified individual antihypertensive "drugs depending on the somatic indication, especially in patients at increased risk of developing depression, including patients with prior depression or anxiety and patients with a family history of depression. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Antihypertensive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Crataegus Azarolus subspecies Aronia fruit in rats with renovascular hypertension. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Antihypertensive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract ofFruit in Rats with Renovascular Hypertension: An Experimental Mechanistic Study. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This study aimed at examining the antihypertensive effect and related mechanisms of hydroalcoholic extract offruit in rats with renovascular hypertension. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension (defined by blood pressure ⩾ 140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication) were compared between the two groups. (nature.com)
  • We conclude that antihypertensive also minimize the inflammation associated hypertension but not completely, as inflammation was reversed only in 67.5% population who were using beta-blocker. (zibelinepub.com)
  • Eighty per cent of older people with hypertension use antihypertensive medication (AHM). (bmj.com)
  • Chronic Hypertension (as determined by current antihypertensive therapy and/or an average of diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg or greater or systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg confirmed on at least two subsequent visits over one week or more). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Losartan is an angiotensin-receptor blocker (ARB) that may be used alone or with other agents to treat hypertension. (rcsb.org)
  • May be used as a first line agent to treat uncomplicated hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. (rcsb.org)
  • Antihypertensive drugs are medicines that help lower blood pressure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A retrospective study evaluating the tolerability and effectiveness of adjunctive antihypertensive drugs in patients with inadequate response to initial treatment. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Since the original reports suggesting that the antihypertensive action of beta-adrenoreceptor blocking drugs is related to their inhibitory action on renin release, much evidence has been put forward both to refute and support this hypothesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, it has not been established whether the impact of antihypertensive drugs on insulin sensitivity, lipids, thrombosis and fibrinolysis adds to or attenuates vascular risk reduction. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This review discusses the differential effects of antihypertensive drugs on insulin sensitivity, lipids and haemostasis and considers their association with vascular risk. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Dual-acting combination drugs have been developed because of the frequent need for two different types of antihypertensive agents to control blood pressure. (freethesaurus.com)
  • uncertainty about when to initiate therapy, which drugs to choose if a second antihypertensive agent is needed, and when (or whether) a patient is too old to benefit from treatment. (freethesaurus.com)
  • These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including this drug. (rxlist.com)
  • Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. (rxlist.com)
  • Antihypertensive drugs mainly take effects through influencing systems which play an important role in regulating blood pressure physiologically, such as the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the endothelin system and so on. (china-sinoway.com)
  • There are five categories of common first-line antihypertensive drugs including diuretic drugs (Hydrochlorothiazide and Furosemide), beta blockers (such as Metoprolol), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) (such as Captopril), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and calcium antagonists (CCB). (china-sinoway.com)
  • The common effect of these antihypertensive drugs is to reduce blood pressure, but because of differences of hypotensive mechanism, different kinds of antihypertensive drugs have their emphasis which doctors depend on to choose antihypertensive drugs for different patients. (china-sinoway.com)
  • Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: a subgroup meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (nih.gov)
  • Beneficial clinical effects of treatment with antihypertensive drugs have been shown in middle-aged patients and in those hypertensive patients over 60 years old, but whether treatment is beneficial in patients over 80 years old is not known. (nih.gov)
  • We collected data from all participants aged 80 years and over in randomised controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs through direct contact with study investigators. (nih.gov)
  • Keep antihypertensive drugs away from very old people. (nih.gov)
  • 2] Wolf S. and Risler T., Are all antihypertensive drugs renoprotective? (edu.pl)
  • The investigators focused their research on 41 most commonly used antihypertensive drugs and their association with incident depression compared with diuretics. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • Types of drugs included angiotensin agents, calcium channel blockers, and β-blockers. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • In facts, antihypertensive drugs have gone through a series of evolution with practitioners switching up different classes of the medication for their patients according to trends of recommendation to assist with achieving a lower risk target blood pressure [2]. (journal-pharm.com)
  • There are over hundreds of types of antihypertensive drugs in the current market, but only one-third of the patients that are currently diagnosed have their blood pressure successfully controlled via a monotherapy while the other two-thirds require multiple drug therapy courses to assist them in achieving the same effect. (journal-pharm.com)
  • With these pushing factors being revealed, there will be a wider structure-activity profile on vasorelaxant activity available on hands, thus more promising vasorelaxant agents could be synthesized and lead to more options in novel antihypertensive drugs creation that to be applied in current medical practices. (journal-pharm.com)
  • The available evidence about the effectiveness of specific first-line antihypertensive drugs in lowering blood pressure and preventing adverse outcomes has not been systematically quantified in a manner that would assist clinicians in choosing a first-line drug. (cmaj.ca)
  • Drug interactions to be aware of include lithium, agents increasing serum levels of potassium, and the use of hydrochlorothiazide with antidiabetic drugs both oral agents and insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina , heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). (rxlist.com)
  • How Do Antihypertensive Drugs Work? (frontiersin.org)
  • Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (frontiersin.org)
  • These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given that the therapeutic activity of antihypertensive drugs is to a large extent empirical and may itself be associated with a variety of adverse effects, clear targeting of relevant tissue components in whatever organ system does regulate arterial pressure over long periods of time, would be highly desirable. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both intensive schedules in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network reduced antihypertensive medication use, relative to three sessions per week. (advancingdialysis.org)
  • Little is known, however, of the comparative effects of various classes of antihypertensive agents on pulse pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • These data show that classes of antihypertensive agents differ in their ability to reduce pulse pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • ALLHAT was the first outcome study to evaluate the relative benefit of antihypertensive treatment initiated with newer classes of antihypertensive agents vs treatment initiated with a THZD in blacks. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Compared with control, all types of exercise (including combination of endurance and resistance) and all classes of antihypertensive medications were effective in lowering baseline SBP. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Classes of antihypertensive combinations include ACE inhibitors with calcium channel blocking agents, ACE inhibitors with thiazides, angiotensin II inhibitors with calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II inhibitors with thiazide, antiadrenergic agents (central) with thiazide, antiadrenergic agents (peripheral) with thiazide, beta blockers with calcium channel blockers, beta blockers with thiazides and potassium sparing diuretics with thiazides. (drugs.com)
  • To determine if the combined incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease death differs between diuretic-based and each of three alternative antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • While all interventional cardiologists have access to pharmacopeial texts and databases and are aware of the growing number of pharmacological agents in the armamentarium, questions arise as to the ideal agent or combination of agents in differing patient situations. (routledge.com)
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are antihypertensive real estate agents with considerable proof efficacy and protection for the reduced amount of cardiovascular (CV) disease risk in various patient populations over the CV continuum. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Individuals aged 65 years and older or 75 years and older who receive antihypertensive therapy have statistically significant reduction in the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, heart failure, and stroke. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the finding of microalbuminuria is an indication for screening for possible vascular disease and aggressive intervention to reduce all cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., lowering of LDL cholesterol, antihypertensive therapy, cessation of smoking, institution of exercise, etc. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A single-pill combination of the antihypertensive amlodipine besylate and the lipid-lowering medication atorvastatin calcium (SPAA) is currently available in many parts of the world. (dovepress.com)
  • The role of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), or other antihypertensive agents in the case of Covid-19 remains controversial. (nih.gov)
  • Aminopeptidase A inhibitors as centrally acting antihypertensive agents. (inserm.fr)
  • Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of orally active antihypertensive agents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Losartan may be also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors. (rcsb.org)
  • Our studies of the acute and chronic effects of treatment with propranolol in hypertensive patients showed that the antihypertensive action of the drug was of later onset than the initial cardio-depressant and renin-suppressive effects and had little relationship to the pre-treatment levels of treatment-induced changes in plasma renin activity (PRA). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. The changes in plasma volume, haemodynamic variables, plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone were studied in forty-one hypertensive patients after administration of adrenergic-blocking agents. (clinsci.org)
  • Because it was unexpectedly found that the anti-hypertensive agent, ifenprodil, has neuroprotective activity through results to GluN2B and GluN1-4b ATDs (Supplementary Fig. (grey) and Ro 25-6981 (lime) in stereoview. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Results of a large-scale specific trial are needed for definite conclusion that antihypertensive treatment is beneficial in very elderly hypertensive patients. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the bioavailability and the antihypertensive properties of the most active derivative were evaluated by in vitro studies and in vivo administration (1 month) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), respectively. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The blood pressure-lowering effect of exercise among hypertensive populations appears similar to that of commonly used antihypertensive medications. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The calcium channel blocking agents, also called slow channel blockers or calcium antagonists, inhibit the movement of ionic calcium across the cell membrane. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Combined rate of a depression diagnosis or use of an antidepressant was lower in patients prescribed angiotensin agents, calcium antagonists, and β-blockers, but not in patients prescribed diuretics. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • In the US, Isradipine (isradipine systemic) is a member of the drug class calcium channel blocking agents and is used to treat Angina Pectoris Prophylaxis , High Blood Pressure and Raynaud's Syndrome . (drugs.com)
  • Dihydropyrimidinones, the products of the Biginelli reaction, are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as calcium channel blockers, antihypertensive agents, and alpha-1-a-antagonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall class of antihypertensive agents lowers blood pressure, although the mechanisms of action vary greatly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Losartan is the first of a class of antihypertensive agents called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). (rcsb.org)
  • The medications used in the treatment of patients with basilar artery thrombosis include thrombolytic agents, anticoagulants, antihypertensive agents, and antiplatelet agents. (medscape.com)
  • Observational studies have demonstrated that improving adherence to lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications may reduce CV events. (dovepress.com)
  • 1 Perennially, blood pressures over 140/90 are the second leading cause of kidney failure in the U.S.. 2 Antihypertensive medications are widely used and polypharmacy is common, but pharmacologic intervention is often unsuccessful at lowering blood pressure to normotensive levels. (advancingdialysis.org)
  • Multiple randomized and prospective cohort studies demonstrate that intensive hemodialysis significantly lowers pre-dialysis blood pressure and reduces the need for antihypertensive medications. (advancingdialysis.org)
  • Clinical trials indicate that many antihypertensive medications alter blood lipids. (elsevier.com)
  • Subjects taking antihypertensive medication had a mean serum total cholesterol 4.0 mg per dl higher than those not taking these medications after we adjusted for age, sex, weight, smoking, alcohol, blood pressure, and exercise. (elsevier.com)
  • We included a total of 391 RCTs, 197 of which evaluated exercise interventions (10 461 participants) and 194 evaluated antihypertensive medications (29 281 participants). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In analyses that combined all populations, antihypertensive medications achieved higher reductions in baseline SBP compared with exercise interventions (mean difference -3.96 mmHg, 95% CrI -5.02 to -2.91). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Assessing compliance to antihypertensive medications using computer-based pharmacy records. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Review the properties, dosages, and precautions of the 28 new therapeutic agents marketed in the United States in 1999. (drugster.info)
  • In this study, we evaluated the prognostic impact of antihypertensive agents in patients with CRPC treated with androgen receptor axis-targeting (ARAT) agents or docetaxel chemotherapy. (elsevier.com)
  • This review describes the rationale for this combination therapy and the clinical trials that have demonstrated that these two agents can be combined without the loss of efficacy for either agent or an increase in the incidence of adverse events. (dovepress.com)
  • Real-world observational studies have demonstrated that patients are more adherent to SPAA than co-administered antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy, and this improved adherence translated to reduced CV events. (dovepress.com)
  • Novel agonists of melatonin receptors as promising hypotensive and neuroprotective agents for therapy of glaucoma. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • [1] Antihypertensive therapy seeks to prevent the complications of high blood pressure, such as stroke and myocardial infarction . (rug.nl)
  • There have been a number of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy, but most have focused on overall effectiveness [ 1 , 2 ] or effectiveness in special groups such as elderly patients. (cmaj.ca)
  • The antihypertensive effects of Verelan are evident within the first week of therapy. (rxlist.com)
  • 4) To assess the adherence to antihypertensive treatment as well as the rate of drop-outs in both treatment arms during a six-month period. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These agents are the primary treatment for short stature. (medscape.com)
  • These agents are used for treatment of hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • The invention furthermore relates to compounds of the formula I and agents containing these for use in the treatment of the abovementioned disease. (google.com)
  • Selected were randomized controlled trials of at least 1 year's duration that provided morbidity or mortality data and that compared 1 of 6 possible first-line antihypertensive therapies either with another 1 of the 6 drug therapies (drug-drug comparison) or with no treatment, including placebo (drug-no treatment comparison). (cmaj.ca)
  • It may also be used as an alternative agent for the treatment of systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. (rcsb.org)
  • Prazosin hydrochloride appears to be an effective antihypertensive agent which acts by peripheral vasodilatation. (ahajournals.org)
  • It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite blindly searching and testing for the potential vasorelaxant effects of an unknown compound, we strongly believe that the opinions elaborated above could serve better insights for those researching similar topics in the future and potentially lead to at least in the advancement for an alternative antihypertensive study. (journal-pharm.com)
  • The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of moxonidine, a potent central-acting antihypertensive agent, were studied in four healthy subjects after a single oral administration of approximately 1 mg (∼60 μCi) of [ 14 C 3 ]moxonidine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, QSAR model was developed by using linear and nonlinear methodology that may be helpful in development of potent antihypertensive agents. (ijddr.in)
  • The investigators found no such association between breast cancer and any of the other commonly used antihypertensive agents , even if they were taken for long durations. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Describe the most commonly prescribed agents in the major drug classes. (uky.edu)
  • Adherence with antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapies outside of the controlled environment of clinical trials is very low (~30%-40% at 12 months). (dovepress.com)
  • On the other hand, although it is obvious that macroalgae represent promising sources of antihypertensive and anti-obesity compounds, it is also clear that further efforts are required to fully understand their cellular mechanisms of action, to establish structure-inhibition relationships and mainly to evaluate them in pre-clinical and clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies have demonstrated differences in DBP and SBP antihypertensive efficacy between drug classes overall and in various demographic groups. (ahajournals.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of different antihypertensive drug groups on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) as related to blood pressure in non-diabetic population. (edu.pl)
  • Discussion of antihypertensive drug development showed that the vasorelaxant effect of a potential compound should be accessed via the in vitro blood vessels assay before the in vivo testing. (journal-pharm.com)
  • Basic pharmacologic principles and the pharmacologic actions of the major drug classes will be discussed in relation to physiologic systems, with emphasis on the application of these agents. (uky.edu)
  • Moxonidine and the related agent rilmenidine have greatly reduced side effects, because they have reduced activity at the α(2) -adrenergic receptors that mediate these undesirable actions. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that moxonidine and future successors to this agent could be of great value in treating multiple chronic diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Results showed that the mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) remained practically unchanged in men and women 7 even though the use of antihypertensive medication increased in hypertensives. (nature.com)
  • 3. Analgesics, Narcotic antagonists, and agents used to treat arthritis: Agents used to treat gout. (worldcat.org)
  • 6. Cardiac, vascular, and renal agents: Agents used to treat migraine. (worldcat.org)
  • 1 These trials mainly used a single agent rather than comparing blood pressure lowering with different agents. (bmj.com)
  • Older agents such as clonidine and guanabenz have numerous side effects, including sedation and dry mouth that limit their acceptability to patients. (nih.gov)
  • Again, in animal experiments, although a range of different beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agents induced decreases in both blood pressure and PRA, the hypotensive effects of pindolol was associated with a rise in PRA. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antihypertensive agents exert different effects on insulin sensitivity, lipids and haemostasis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our findings show that the hydroalcoholic extract offruit has antihypertensive effects, which may be partly due to antioxidant and nitric oxide releasing effects. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Grimm, Richard H. / Association of antihypertensive agents and blood lipids in a population-based survey . (elsevier.com)
  • The title compounds have been evaluated for antihypertensive activity by tail-cuff method. (niscair.res.in)
  • Some of these compounds have been found to exhibit excellent antihypertensive activity. (niscair.res.in)
  • We observed increased proportion of use of antihypertensive, from 48.7% in 2000 to 61.3% in 2006, reaching 65.7% in 2010. (scielo.br)
  • An agent that binds to but does not activate beta -adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous beta -adrenergic agonists. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Some patients, particularly those with severe and active comorbid conditions, such as an acute myocardial infarction, require inotropic agents and vasopressors. (medscape.com)
  • The antihypertensive flavonol quercetin (Q1) is endowed with a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemic damage. (cf.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of antihypertensive agents in the chronic dialysis population. (elsevier.com)
  • Only 2 reviews have attempted to distinguish between the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. (cmaj.ca)
  • Captopril and atenolol were equally effective in reducing blood pressure to a mean of 144/83 mm Hg and 143/81 mm Hg respectively, with a similar proportion of patients (27% and 31%) requiring three or more antihypertensive treatments. (bmj.com)
  • Increased number of individuals with SAH in populations has contributed to increase of treatments, both for nondrug treatments and for treatments based on use of antihypertensives 26 . (scielo.br)
  • Oral Anti-Neoplastic Agents For Prevention of Restenosis. (routledge.com)
  • Therefore, the risk of developing T2DM should be considered when selecting an antihypertensive agent. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Prescription pattern of antihypertensive agents in T2DM patients visiting tertiary care centre in North India. (freethesaurus.com)