Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.ReadingHypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.EncyclopediasBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Renal Plasma Flow, Effective: The amount of PLASMA flowing to the parts of the KIDNEY that function in the production of urine. It is the amount of plasma perfusing the KIDNEY TUBULES per unit time, generally measured by P-AMINOHIPPURATE clearance. It should be differentiated from RENAL PLASMA FLOW which is approximately 10% greater than the effective renal plasma flow.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases: Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Imidazoline Receptors: Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Sexual Infantilism: The permanent lack of SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT in an individual. This defect is usually observed at an age after expected PUBERTY.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Pregnanetriol: A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.IndiaImpotence, Vasculogenic: Inability to achieve and maintain an erection (ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION) due to defects in the arterial blood flow to the PENIS, defect in venous occlusive function allowing blood drainage (leakage) from the erectile tissue (corpus cavernosum penis), or both.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.

Effects of amlodipine on sympathetic nerve traffic and baroreflex control of circulation in heart failure. (1/6648)

Short-acting calcium antagonists exert a sympathoexcitation that in heart failure further enhances an already elevated sympathetic activity. Whether this is also the case for long-acting formulations is not yet established, despite the prognostic importance of sympathetic activation in heart failure. It is also undetermined whether in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists favorably affect a mechanism potentially responsible for the sympathetic activation, ie, the baroreflex impairment. In 28 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class II) under conventional treatment we measured plasma norepinephrine and efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) at rest and during arterial baroreceptor stimulation and deactivation induced by stepwise intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside, respectively. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily oral amlodipine administration (10 mg/d, 14 patients) or before and after an 8-week period without calcium antagonist administration (14 patients). Amlodipine caused a small and insignificant blood pressure reduction. Heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations were not affected. This was the case also for plasma norepinephrine (from 2.43+/-0.41 to 2.50+/-0.34 nmol/L, mean+/-SEM), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (from 54.4+/-5.9 to 51.0+/-4.3 bursts/min), and arterial baroreflex responses. No change in the above-mentioned variables was seen in the control group. Thus, in mild heart failure amlodipine treatment does not adversely affect sympathetic activity and baroreflex control of the heart and sympathetic tone. This implies that in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists can be administered without untoward neurohumoral effects anytime conventional treatment needs to be complemented by drugs causing additional vasodilatation.  (+info)

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (2/6648)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (3/6648)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

PST 2238: A new antihypertensive compound that modulates Na,K-ATPase in genetic hypertension. (4/6648)

A genetic alteration in the adducin genes is associated with hypertension and up-regulation of the expression of renal Na, K-ATPase in Milan-hypertensive (MHS) rats, in which increased ouabain-like factor (OLF) levels are also observed. PST 2238, a new antihypertensive compound that antagonizes the pressor effect of ouabain in vivo and normalizes ouabain-dependent up-regulation of the renal Na-K pump, was evaluated for its ability to lower blood pressure and regulate renal Na,K-ATPase activity in MHS genetic hypertension. In this study, we show that PST 2238, given orally at very low doses (1 and 10 microg/kg for 5-6 weeks), reduced the development of hypertension in MHS rats and normalized the increased renal Na,K-ATPase activity and mRNA levels, whereas it did not affect either blood pressure or Na,K-ATPase in Milan-normotensive (MNS) rats. In addition, a similar antihypertensive effect was observed in adult MHS rats after a short-term treatment. In cultured rat renal cells with increased Na-K pump activity at Vmax due to overexpression of the hypertensive variant of adducin, 5 days of incubation with PST 2238 (10(-10-)-10(-9) M) lowered the pump rate to the level of normal wild-type cells, which in turn were not affected by the drug. In conclusion, PST 2238 is a very potent compound that in MHS rats reduces blood pressure and normalizes Na-K pump alterations caused by a genetic alteration of the cytoskeletal adducin. Because adducin gene mutations have been associated with human essential hypertension, it is suggested that PST 2238 may display greater antihypertensive activity in those patients carrying such a genetic alteration.  (+info)

Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (5/6648)

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (6/6648)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Inhibition of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization by endothelial prostanoids in guinea-pig coronary artery. (7/6648)

1. In smooth muscle of the circumflex coronary artery of guinea-pig, acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-6) M) produced an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization consisting of two components. An initial component that occurs in the presence of ACh and a slow component that developed after ACh had been withdrawn. Each component of the hyperpolarization was accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance. 2. Indomethacin (5 x 10(-6) M) or diclofenac (10(-6) M), both inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, abolished only the slow hyperpolarization. The initial hyperpolarization was not inhibited by diclofenac nor by nitroarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. 3. Both components of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization were abolished in the presence of atropine (10(-6) M) or high-K solution ([K+]0 = 29.4 mM). 4. The interval between ACh-stimulation required to generate an initial hyperpolarization of reproducible amplitude was 20 min or greater, but it was reduced to less than 5 min after inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Conditioning stimulation of the artery with substance P (10(-7) M) also caused a long duration (about 20 min) inhibition of the ACh-response. 5. The amplitude of the hyperpolarization generated by Y-26763, a K+-channel opener, was reproducible within 10 min after withdrawal of ACh. 6. Exogenously applied prostacyclin (PGI2) hyperpolarized the membrane and reduced membrane resistance in concentrations over 2.8 x 10(-9)M. 7. At concentrations below threshold for hyperpolarization and when no alteration of membrane resistance occurred, PGI2 inhibited the initial component of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization. 8. It is concluded that endothelial prostanoids, possibly PGI2, have an inhibitory action on the release of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.  (+info)

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (8/6648)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

*Biginelli reaction

Potent antihypertensive agents". J. Med. Chem. 35 (17): 3254-3263. doi:10.1021/jm00095a023. Folkers, K.; Johnson, T. B. (1933 ... antihypertensive agents, and alpha-1-a-antagonists. The reaction mechanism of the Biginelli reaction is a series of bimolecular ...

*Mexrenone

Gyorgy Szasz; Zsuzsanna Budvari-Barany (19 December 1990). Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. ... a steroidal aldosterone antagonist and antihypertensive". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 201 (3): 762-8. PMID 864608. ...

*Spirolactone

Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. 82-. ISBN 978-0-8493-4724-5. Luther, James M. (2014). "Is ...

*SC-5233

Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. 82-. ISBN 978-0-8493-4724-5. Dennis V. Cokkinos (6 November ...

*Prorenone

Gyorgy Szasz; Zsuzsanna Budvari-Barany (19 December 1990). Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Antihypertensive Agents. CRC Press. pp. ...

*Guanadrel

... is an antihypertensive agent. It is used in the form of its sulfate. Guanadrel is a postganglionic adrenergic ... A new antihypertensive drug". JAMA. 245 (16): 1639-42. doi:10.1001/jama.1981.03310410017019. PMID 7206175. W.R. Hardie, J.E. ... blocking agent. Uptake of guanadrel and storage in sympathetic neurons occurs via the norepinephrine pump; guanadrel slowly ...

*Butynamine

BREST AN, ONESTI G, SWARTZ C, BERLINER H, MOYER JH (June 1962). "Butynamine hydrochloride as an antihypertensive agent". ... Butynamine is a tertiary (a highly hindered) aliphatic amine which has antihypertensive effects. ...

*Alton Sutnick

... a new antihypertensive agent, Clin. Pharmacol. Therapeutics 1964; 5: 167-173. Becker, K.L., Sutnick, A.I. Paralytic ileus ...

*Pharmaceutical industry

Lv J, Perkovic V, Foote CV, Craig ME, Craig JC, Strippoli GF (2012). "Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney ... Agents. 31 (3): 189-92. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.11.010. PMID 18248798. Abraham EP (1987). "Cephalosporins 1945-1986". ... Approximately 400 tons of these agents are manufactured each year; this is enough to put approximately 9,000,000 people to ... In the ensuring years other classes of antihypertensive drug were developed and found wide acceptance in combination therapy, ...

*Atiprosin

... (AY-28,228) is an antihypertensive agent which acts as a selective α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It also ... A new class of potent antihypertensive agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 30 (2): 388-94. doi:10.1021/jm00385a022. PMID ... Oshiro G, Wojdan A, Klein M, Metcalf G (September 1987). "Antihypertensive and hypotensive actions of atiprosin (AY-28,228) in ... Prazosin Ketanserin David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 0-412- ...

*Metazosin

"Pharmacology of a new antihypertensive agent, metazosin (Kenosin)". Ceskoslovenska farmacie. 39 (6): 266-74. PMID 1981860. ... Metazosin is an antihypertensive alpha-adrenergic antagonist. Trcka, V; König, J; Mácová, S; Smíd, M; Helfert, I; Votavová, M; ...

*History of hypertension

More recently angiotensin receptor blockers and renin inhibitors have also been introduced as antihypertensive agents. Esunge ... Freis ED (1974). "The Veterans Administration Cooperative Study on Antihypertensive Agents. Implications for Stroke Prevention ... new class of orally active antihypertensive agents". Science. 196 (4288): 441-4. doi:10.1126/science.191908. PMID 191908. ... In 1977 captopril, an orally active agent, was described; this led to the development of a number of other ACE inhibitors. ...

*Olmesartan

It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has ... Benicar may be administered with other antihypertensive agents. Benicar may be administered with or without food. Olmesartan ... Several preparations containing olmesartan and other antihypertensives are available. Teva Pharmaceuticals produces a ...

*Fenoldopam

... is used as an antihypertensive agent. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 1997. ... Fenoldopam is used as an antihypertensive agent postoperatively, and also intravenously (IV) to treat a hypertensive crisis. ... Since fenoldopam is the only intravenous agent that improves renal perfusion, in theory it could be beneficial in hypertensive ...

*Doxepin

Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated by doxepin. Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the ... Sympathomimetic agents may have their effects potentiated by TCAs like doxepin. Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects ... Antiarrhythmic agents may be an appropriate measure to treat cardiac arrhythmias resulting from doxepin overdose. Slow ... PMC 4027305 . In general, sedating properties of anti-depressant agents are related to antagonism of serotonin 5HT2, histamines ...

*ACE inhibitor

Current, John D. Pharmacology for Anesthetists 3: Antihypertensive Agents. p. 171. FDA Prescribing information, http://www. ... In a large clinical study, one of the agents in the ACE inhibitor class, ramipril (Altace), demonstrated an ability to reduce ... Nakamura Y, Yamamoto N, Sakai K, Takano T (1995). "Antihypertensive effect of sour milk and peptides isolated from it that are ... The combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor antagonists with ACE inhibitors may be superior to either agent alone. This ...

*Moxonidine

"Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans" (PDF). Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the ... Moxonidine (INN) is a new-generation centrally acting antihypertensive drug licensed for the treatment of mild to moderate ... Compared to the older central-acting antihypertensives, moxonidine binds with much greater affinity to the imidazoline I1- ...

*Lidanserin

It was developed as an antihypertensive agent but was never marketed. Ketanserin Richard C. Allen (1989). Annual Reports in ...

*Hydracarbazine

... is a pyridazine that has found use as an antihypertensive agent. Liberman, D.; Rouaix, A.; Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. ...

*Quinazosin

"Leukocyte and bone marrow effects of a thiomorpholine quinazosin antihypertensive agent". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. ... Quinazosin is an antihypertensive adrenoreceptor antagonist. Martin, RA; Barsoum, NJ; Sturgess, JM; De La Iglesia, FA (1985). " ...

*Pre-eclampsia

Evidence does not support the use of one anti-hypertensive over another. The choice of which agent to use should be based on ... Labetolol, Hydralazine and Nifedipine are commonly used antihypertensive agents for hypertension in pregnancy. ACE inhibitors ... Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ, Meher S, King JF (2007). "Antiplatelet agents for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications ... recommends that women with severe hypertension during pregnancy should receive treatment with anti-hypertensive agents. Severe ...

*Treatment of Tourette syndrome

The α2-adrenergic receptor agonists (antihypertensive agents) show some efficacy in reducing tics, as well as other comorbid ... Because of the blood pressure effects, antihypertensive agents should not be discontinued suddenly. Clonidine (brand name ... This class of medication is often the first tried for tics, as the antihypertensives have a lower side effect profile than some ... Guanfacine (brand name Tenex) is another antihypertensive that is used in treating TS. Side effects can include sedation, dry ...

*ROCK1

Experiments with Y27632 show it is a promising candidate as a therapeutic antihypertensive agent. Fasudil has been used to ...

*Alpha-1 blocker

... alpha.1-adrenoceptor antagonists and antihypertensive agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 31 (5): 1031-1035. doi:10.1021/ ... Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic ... Because these medications may cause orthostatic hypotension, as well as low blood pressure in general, these agents may ... Since alpha-1 blockers may cause orthostatic hypotension, co-administration with antihypertensives and vasodilators must be ...

*Captopril

New class of orally active antihypertensive agents". Science. 196 (4288): 441-4. doi:10.1126/science.191908. PMID 191908. ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 60 (1): 142-150. doi:10.1128/AAC.01335-15. ISSN 0066-4804. PMC 4704194 . PMID 26482303. ... Structures of Drosophila melanogaster Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Complex with Novel Inhibitors and Antihypertensive Drugs ...

*Tenoxicam

... anti-platelet agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tacrolimus, zidovudine, and gold/penicillamine. The ... diuretics and anti-hypertensives, methotrexate, oral anti-diabetics, colestyramine, dextromethorphan, mifepristone, ...
... is a serious condition. Do you have Can You Drink Alcohol When Taking High Blood Pressure Medication or are you at risk for Can You Drink Alcohol When Taking High Blood Pressure Medication. But if you treat it carefully you can provent Can You Drink Alcohol When Taking High Blood Pressure Medication. But bont worry about Can You Drink Alcohol When Taking High Blood Pressure Medication? Youve come to the right place. This quick guidence for Can You Drink Alcohol When Taking High Blood Pressure Medication. These tutorial will get you started.
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Tailored antihypertensive drug therapy prescribed to older women attenuates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α Juliana O Toledo,1 Clayton F Moraes,2,3 Vinícius C Souza,2 Audrey C Tonet-Furioso,2 Luís CC Afonso,4 Cláudio Córdova,3 Otávio T Nóbrega1,2 1Graduate Program in Health Sciences, 2Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, 3Graduate Program in Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Research Center in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil Objective: To test the hypothesis that antihypertensive drug therapy produces anti-inflammatory effects in clinical practice, this study investigated circulating levels of selected proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and interferon-γ [INF-γ]) in response to multivariate drug directions for blood pressure (BP)
Strengths of our study design included its prospective design, large number of participants, a general population-based setting, and the long follow-up period of over 8 years average. Moreover, we used pharmacy records for the assessment of antihypertensive drug use. This greatly reduces the chance of exposure misclassification as opposed to baseline exposure data or periodic reassessment of drug use and allows for an accurate estimation of exposure duration. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that there was a high concordance between pharmacy filling data of cardiovascular drugs and actual use according to a patient interview.19 Moreover, we were able to subtract 4 years from the date of clinical diagnosis of dementia to avoid potentially biased risk estimates as a result of changes in antihypertensive prescription due to blood pressure changes or cognitive decline in the prodromal phase of dementia. Nevertheless, some issues warrant consideration. First, the 4-year period is an average ...
The mechanism of action of prazosin hydrochloride, a new antihypertensive agent was studied in 14 patients with essential hypertension. Mean supine blood pressure for the group fell from 148/102 +/- 3/2 (SE) mm Hg at baseline to 139/91 +/- 5/4 after eight weeks of therapy (P less than 0.05). No significant postural hypotension was noted in the patients who responded to therapy. Glomerular filtration rate (endogenous creatinine or inulin clearance) and effective renal plasma flow (PAH clearance) remained unchanged during therapy as did supine and stimulated peripheral plasma renin activity. Cardiac output did not change significantly although plasma volume increased in ten out of 12 patients in whom it was measured (P less than 0.025). Among the patients whose mean blood pressure fell 10 mm Hg or more, peripheral vascular resistance fell significantly (P less than 0.025), and the change in plasma volume was not statistically significant. Among the patients whose mean blood pressure changed less ...
The American Diabetes Association is recommending changes in blood pressure goals for people with diabetes and clarifying how frequently people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose levels.. The revised recommendations include raising the treatment goal for high blood pressure from ,130 mm Hg to ,140 mm Hg, based on several new meta-analyses showing there is little additional benefit to achieving the lower targets. Clinical trials have demonstrated health benefits to achieving a goal of ,140 mm Hg, such as reducing cardiovascular events, stroke, or nephropathy, but limited benefit to more intensive blood pressure treatment, with no significant reduction in mortality or nonfatal heart attacks. There is a small but statistically significant benefit in terms of reducing risk of stroke, but at the expense of a need for more medications and higher rates of side effects.. The new standards also clarify when people who are taking multiple daily doses of insulin (MDI) or using insulin ...
The American Diabetes Association is recommending changes in blood pressure goals for people with diabetes and clarifying how frequently people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose levels.. The revised recommendations include raising the treatment goal for high blood pressure from ,130 mm Hg to ,140 mm Hg, based on several new meta-analyses showing there is little additional benefit to achieving the lower targets. Clinical trials have demonstrated health benefits to achieving a goal of ,140 mm Hg, such as reducing cardiovascular events, stroke, or nephropathy, but limited benefit to more intensive blood pressure treatment, with no significant reduction in mortality or nonfatal heart attacks. There is a small but statistically significant benefit in terms of reducing risk of stroke, but at the expense of a need for more medications and higher rates of side effects.. The new standards also clarify when people who are taking multiple daily doses of insulin (MDI) or using insulin ...
There are many hypertension medications that sound or look very close to other medications. You should make sure that you receive your specific hypertension medication and not one that has been confused with your medication. Here is a list of possible hypertension medication errors. The hypertension medication is listed first. The medication in parenthesis is the medication that looks and/or sounds similar.) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Initial therapy for uncomplicated hypertension. T2 - Insights from the alphabetic maze of recent studies. AU - Stewart, J. R.. AU - Yeun, Jane Y. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - Some hypertension treatment guidelines published in the late 1990s recommended that diuretics and β-blockers be used as 1st line drugs for treating uncomplicated hypertension, reserving new antihypertensive drugs for special indications. This recommendation is predicated on the fact that large trials showing cardiovascular protection with antihypertensive drugs used β-blockers and diuretics. Other guidelines suggested all antihypertensives are equal and that drug selection should be individualized. These disparate guidelines arise from the controversy over "are all antihypertensives created equal?" Since these guidelines, many large hypertension trials have been conducted. This paper will review the recent hypertension trials, the meta-analyses of some of these trials, highlight some of the flaws ...
DR. WRIGHT: The results of SPRINT are very exciting. This study shows that intensive blood pressure management can prevent the cardiovascular complications of hypertension and save lives. As the NHLBI reported, treating high-risk hypertensive adults age 50 and older reduced cardiovascular events by 30 percent and reduced all-cause mortality by nearly 25 percent when compared with patients treated to a systolic target of 140 mm Hg. SPRINT was designed as a target-based study, which gave physicians flexibility in selecting antihypertensive medications to achieve the assigned blood pressure target. Hypertensive patients with a 10-year Framingham General cardiovascular risk ?15%, age ,75 years of age or pre-existing kidney disease were randomized to intensive blood pressure control (less than 120 mm Hg) or standard blood pressure control (less than 140 mm Hg). In the intensive-therapy arm, patients were treated with three or more antihypertensive medications, including diuretics, calcium channel ...
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Definition of antihypertensive agent in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antihypertensive agent? Meaning of antihypertensive agent as a legal term. What does antihypertensive agent mean in law?
Use this listing to find an international brand name of a hypertension medication. The United States generic names and brand names will be listed first, followed by the international brand names. This will enable you to look up information on this site using the generic names. This list does not contain every hypertension medications international brand names nor does it contain every international brand name of hypertension medications ...
Although previous studies have investigated the use of different drug classes in patients with ISH,3,8,12,13 this is the first study to measure the effects of the 4 drug classes on both peripheral and central BPs, PP amplification, and aPWV simultaneously in ISH. Our major findings were that, although all 4 of the drugs reduced peripheral systolic pressure to a similar extent, atenolol was significantly less effective in reducing central pressure compared with the other drugs. Consequently, atenolol actually lowered PP amplification, whereas this did not change with the other agents. In addition, our data suggest that aPWV, the current gold standard measure of aortic stiffness, is not improved by traditional antihypertensive therapy in patients with ISH.. Different antihypertensive drug classes reduce BP by a variety of mechanisms. Despite this, in the current study, peripheral PP was reduced to a similar extent by all 4 of the drugs. However, central PP was only reduced significantly by ...
Moist L. Review: Intensive blood pressure control reduces stroke, but not mortality or MI, in type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:JC5. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-2-201301150-02005. Download citation file:. ...
NHLBI-funded studies published by The New England Journal of Medicine provide additional support for intensive blood pressure control in patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease. The study about the cost-effectiveness of this approach "is important not just because it shows that the long-term benefits of intensive blood pressure treatment outweigh considerations about costs and side effects, but because of its population-wide implications," said co-author Lawrence Fine M.D., Dr.P.H., Chief of the Branch of Clinical Applications and Prevention at NHLBI. The authors of the study on patient-reported outcomes found that intensive blood pressure treatment appeared to be safe and well tolerated.. The New England Journal of Medicine: Cost-Effectiveness of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control. The New England Journal of Medicine: Effect of Intensive Blood-Pressure Treatment on Patient-Reported Outcomes. WebMD: More Support for Tight Blood Pressure Control. DoctorsLounge: Intensive ...
See related article, pp 642-653. In this issue of the journal, Verdecchia et al1 report an important analysis of the accumulation of evidence comparing more versus less intensive blood pressure (BP)-lowering strategies. Their key message is critical for guidelines and practice internationally: with the addition of SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial),2 this set of trials now provides compelling evidence that more intensive BP-lowering reduces stroke and myocardial infarction (MI), and significant reductions are now also seen in cardiovascular death and heart failure. The authors have also assessed sequential monitoring boundaries for each outcome, making the analogy of a hypothetical Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) assessing the accumulation of evidence in the field.. Before examining the implications, it is worth reviewing the techniques and aims of the cumulative meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis methods used by Verdecchia et al.1 Cumulative meta-analysis ...
The proposed work should help move toward the long-term goal of selection of antihypertensive drug therapy based on a patients genetic make-up. Hypertension (HTN) is the most common chronic disease for which drugs are prescribed, and the most prevalent risk factor for heart attack, stroke, renal failure and heart failure. Responses to antihypertensive drug therapy exhibit considerable interpatient variability, contributing to poor rates of HTN control (currently about 40-50% in the US), and frequent nonadherence and dropout from therapy. We propose to identify genetic predictors of the antihypertensive and adverse metabolic responses to two preferred and pharmacodynamically contrasting drugs, a beta-blocker (metoprolol) and a thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) in a sequential monotherapy design in 400 hypertensive individuals. Data collected will include home and clinic blood pressure, blood samples for testing for adverse metabolic effects and other biomarkers, RNA, and DNA and urine sample. ...
Types of Blood Pressure Medications - American Heart Association. Treating High Blood Pressure With Medication - Hypertension. High Blood Pressure Medications With Less Side Effects. Alcohol And Blood Pressure Medication Side Effects - OnTheMicDJs. Prescription Medications Can Cause Sexual Dysfunction - AARP.
High blood pressure? Do you know what are common side effects or contraction of angiotensin receptors. dont get enough exercise or have high blood pressure physical inactivity and high blood pressure increased the likelihood of memory complaints in younger adults (ages 18 University of Hypertension Medications List Australia Monitor Omron Use Hem-806f How California Los Angeles (UCLA) Health Sciences. Hypertension Medications List Australia Monitor Omron Use Hem-806f How after measuring your lying blood pressure stand up and wait 3 minutes in .. What Is AFib? Symptoms and causes. After five weeks I took an extra half pill (5 mg 14 months ago I gave birth to beautiful daughter upon giving birth I developed high blood pressure . Hypertension Treatment: Latest Medical Breakthroughs.. The technique of using the eath to lower blood pressure is not new but a device like the Resperate Ultra to help you do it is. Along with certain savings reports including on-line and standard cheap generic viagra the ...
Title:Differential Impacts of Antihypertensive Drugs on Central Blood Pressure and Their Clinical Significance. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Yoshio Matsui and Kazuomi Kario. Affiliation:Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan.. Keywords:Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor blocker, β-blocker, calcium channel blocker, central blood pressure, left ventricular mass, pulse wave velocity, reflection wave magnitude, thiazide diuretic. Abstract:Recent evidence suggests that central blood pressure (BP) is a more important determinant of cardiovascular risk than is brachial BP. Antihypertensive drugs with vasodilating properties have a more beneficial effect on central systolic BP and pulse pressure by decreasing arterial stiffness and/or the magnitude of wave reflections than thiazide diuretics and β-blockers. These differential effects of ...
Blood pressure medication side effects are a common cause of trouble amongst the urban crowd. This article here talks at great lengths about the side effects of blood pressure medication.
A randomised crossover trial of anti-hypertensive medication dosing regimen in effective blood pressure control.. To investigate whether there is a difference in 24 hour blood pressure (BP) control when antihypertensive medications are taken in the morning compared with the evening. The identification of any significant difference could lead to more effective therapeutic management of arterial hypertension, which in turn would result in a reduced cardiovascular burden, lower costs and a better quality of life for hypertensive patients. ...
The American Diabetes Association is recommending changes in blood pressure goals for people with diabetes as well as clarifying how frequently people with type 1 diabetes should test their blood glucose levels.
The UKPDS shows that meticulous blood pressure reduction is important in patients with type 2 diabetes. This finding has major implications for health care because of the projected dramatic increase in diabetes in the future and the clear relation between diabetes and hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP) has shown that antihypertensive treatment reduces cardiovascular events in elderly patients with and without diabetes (1). The present trial consolidates this information and extends the findings to younger patients and to patients with newly detected diabetes. The results are consistent with the recently published Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study, in which intensive blood pressure lowering was more effective in reducing cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes than among those without diabetes (2). In addition, the UKPDS shows that intensive blood pressure control reduces microvascular complications, which is an outcome that has not been ...
Get this from a library! Heart medications. Blood pressure medications & anticoagulants. [Marsha Scott, RN.; Medcom, inc.;] -- (Producer) Discusses high blood pressure and provides an overview of blood pressure medications, including ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and central adrenergic inhibitors. ...
Lebatalol blood pressure medication - Blood Pressure : Beta-blockers - blood pressure medication. The Hypercet Cholesterol and Blood Pressure Formulas can help support and maintain normal body functions to help maintain optimum health.
Additionally, type wise and application wise consumption figures are also given. With the help of supply and consumption data, gap between these two is also explained.. To provide information on competitive landscape, this report includes detailed profiles of Antihypertensive Drug Market key players. For each player, product details, capacity, price, cost, gross and revenue numbers are given. Their contact information is provided for better understanding.. Purchase Antihypertensive Drug Market Report at: http://www.360marketupdates.com/purchase/10359267. In this Antihypertensive Drug Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details. For material and equipment suppliers also, contact details are given. New investment feasibility analysis and Antihypertensive Drug Market Industry growth is included in the report.. No. of Report Pages: 104. Price of Report (Single User Licence): $4900. Have any query? Ask our Experts @ ...
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Its always a good idea to tell your health care providers about any side effects you may be experiencing as soon as you notice them. However, even though gum tissue overgrowth may be a worrisome issue, it doesnt mean you should stop taking your blood pressure medication! There are several options for controlling this condition, which should be discussed with all members of your medical team.. With your doctors consent, it may be possible for you to change your dosage or switch to a different blood pressure medication that produces fewer side effects. It can take a few months for your gums to return to normal after the change, while you are maintaining good oral hygiene at home. But even if its not possible for you to change your medication, there are a number of in-office treatments that can be used to help alleviate the problem.. Non-surgical treatments like scaling and root planing (a type of deep cleaning) are sometimes the first step to controlling gum overgrowth. These relatively minor ...
Its always a good idea to tell your health care providers about any side effects you may be experiencing as soon as you notice them. However, even though gum tissue overgrowth may be a worrisome issue, it doesnt mean you should stop taking your blood pressure medication! There are several options for controlling this condition, which should be discussed with all members of your medical team.. With your doctors consent, it may be possible for you to change your dosage or switch to a different blood pressure medication that produces fewer side effects. It can take a few months for your gums to return to normal after the change, while you are maintaining good oral hygiene at home. But even if its not possible for you to change your medication, there are a number of in-office treatments that can be used to help alleviate the problem.. Non-surgical treatments like scaling and root planing (a type of deep cleaning) are sometimes the first step to controlling gum overgrowth. These relatively minor ...
This study prospectively investigated in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes the hypothesis that bedtime treatment with ≥1 hypertension medications exerts better blood pressure control and CVD risk reduction than conventional therapy, in which all medications are ingested upon waking. The results document, first, greater ambulatory blood pressure control in patients ingesting ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime than in those ingesting all their medications upon awakening. The main differences between groups in terms of blood pressure control were achievement in patients treated at bedtime of 1) significantly lower asleep blood pressure mean and 2) greater sleep time relative blood pressure decline, without loss of awake blood pressure lowering efficacy (Table 2). These administration-time-dependent effects on sleep time blood pressure control were strongly associated with lower CVD risk and increased event-free survival. Indeed, the progressive reduction in the asleep blood ...
DynaMed™ is a clinical reference tool created by physicians for physicians and other health care professionals for use at the point-of-care. This clinical care tool summaries for more than 3,200 topics.
Olmesartan medoxomil tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with olmesartan medoxomil.. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Programs Joint National Committee on Prevention, ...
High blood pressure requires treatment with anti-hypertensive medications. This article describes the various classes of high blood pressure medications and the general approach to pharmacological management of hypertension.
Main results. Mean SBP was reduced from 139 mm Hg at baseline to 119 mm Hg at 1 year in the intensive-therapy group and 134 mm Hg in the standard-therapy group. These levels were maintained throughout the trial. Intensive therapy did not reduce major CV events or death, except stroke (Table). Patients in the intensive-therapy group were more likely to have serious adverse events attributable to antihypertensive medications (3.3% vs 1.3%), hypokalemia (2.1% vs 1.1%), elevated serum creatinine levels (24% vs 15%), and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (4.2% vs 2.2%). However, they were less likely to have macroalbuminuria (6.6% vs 8.7%). ...
Baltimore, MD, USA - High blood pressure affects about 70-80 percent of those with type 2 diabetes. To prevent complications associated with hypertension, such as heart attack, chronic kidney disease or blindness, in adults with diabetes, medical guidelines suggest tight blood pressure control, with prescription medications as a key treatment.. Researchers at the University of Maryland Schools of Nursing and Medicine, and University of South Carolina College of Pharmacy compared the differences in health services utilization and medical costs between those using medications to control blood pressure versus non-users [in adults with diabetes and a diagnosis of hypertension]. They found that 16 percent of the estimated 38.7 million non-institutionalized U.S. adults with diabetes and coexistent essential hypertension did not use blood pressure controlling (antihypertensive) medications during a two-year span.. Antihypertensive medication non-users had lower numbers of diabetes and hypertension ...
We appreciate Wexlers1 comments about the need for improvement in hypertension treatment in primary care settings. We agree that initiating treatment and adequately controlling blood pressure should be key objectives of primary care physicians. Our focus on patterns of drug selection in hypertension treatment did not intend to diminish the important implications of suboptimal treatment and control of elevated blood pressure. At the same time, appropriate medication choice may not only further the goal of blood pressure control but also achieve the goal of lowering the global risk for heart attack and stroke by ensuring that patients receive cost-effective medications with the best evidence of clinical efficacy. Current practices continue to deviate substantially from national recommendations.. Our analysis used 2 federally collected US national ambulatory care surveys to examine 1993-2004 trends in the prescription of antihypertensive drugs for uncomplicated hypertension. Thiazide diuretic ...
Sixty-one studies were included: 47 RCTs, 1 non-RCT, 9 retrospective and 2 prospective cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional cohort study and 1 case-control study.. Blood-pressure control.. Fifty studies were identified: 47 RCTs (most scoring fair to good quality), 1 non-RCT, 1 retrospective cohort and 1 case-control study. Most of the studies showed similar long-term blood-pressure control, while some favoured one treatment over the other. The authors stated that there was substantial clinical heterogeneity across the studies. The average proportion of patients who achieved successful blood-pressure control with a single agent was about 55% for both study groups (RD 1.3%, 95% CI: -1.0, 3.5, p=0.26). Other efficacy outcomes.. No significant differences were observed for death and major cardiovascular events (9 studies), quality of life (4 studies), rate of single antihypertensive agent use, lipid (12 studies), glucose level control or progression to diabetes (13 studies), left ventricular mass or ...
This is part of the recently published KDIGO guidelines for blood pressure management. As opposed to other sections of these guidelines, the authors recommend a target blood pressure < 130/80 for all patients regardless of degree of proteinuria. No specific class of antihypertensive agent is preferred in these guidelines.. ...
Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A range of antihypertensive drugs exists, and their prices vary widely mainly due to patent rights. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of different generic antihypertensive drugs as first, second and third choice for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.. Methods: We used the Norwegian Cardiovascular Disease model (NorCaD) to simulate the cardiovascular life of patients from hypertension without symptoms until they were all dead or 100 years old. The risk of CVD events and costs were based on recent Norwegian sources.. Results: In single-drug treatment, all antihypertensives are cost-effective compared to no drug treatment. In the base-case analysis, the first, second and third choice of antihypertensive were calcium channel blocker, thiazide and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. However the sensitivity and scenario analyses indicated considerable uncertainty in ...
the prevalence of hypertension across the globe continues to rise despite advances in treatment and an ever-growing battery of antihypertensive drugs. Untreated hypertension remains an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including stroke. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has long been recognized as a critical mediator of blood pressure regulation, RAS blockers are particularly effective antihypertensive agents. Continued interest in clinically blocking the system is evidenced by the recent FDA approval of the renin inhibitor aliskiren as a first-line antihypertensive (16). Despite the impact of environmental and behavioral factors, it is now widely accepted that there exists a strong genetic component that influences the susceptibility to hypertension.. Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the substrate of angiotensin II (ANG II) and the only known target of the aspartyl protease renin. Numerous studies have offered convincing evidence physiologically linking AGT with hypertension. These ...
Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions, lowering other cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[24] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes may be used in combination with education,[70] however the benefit of self monitoring in those not using multi-dose insulin is questionable.[24][71] In those who do not want to measure blood levels, measuring urine levels may be done.[70] Managing other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a persons life expectancy.[24] Decreasing the systolic blood pressure to less than 140 mmHg is associated with a lower risk of death and better outcomes.[72] Intensive blood pressure management (less than 130/80 mmHg) as opposed to standard blood pressure management (less than 140/85-100 mmHg) results in a slight decrease in stroke risk but no effect on overall risk of death.[73]. Intensive blood ...
Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions, lowering other cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[24] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes may be used in combination with education,[70] however the benefit of self monitoring in those not using multi-dose insulin is questionable.[24][71] In those who do not want to measure blood levels, measuring urine levels may be done.[70] Managing other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a persons life expectancy.[24] Decreasing the systolic blood pressure to less than 140 mmHg is associated with a lower risk of death and better outcomes.[72] Intensive blood pressure management (less than 130/80 mmHg) as opposed to standard blood pressure management (less than 140/85-100 mmHg) results in a slight decrease in stroke risk but no effect on overall risk of death.[73]. Intensive blood ...
Interest in identifying the most appropriate targets for systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering to reduce cardiovascular events in persons with hypertension has been piqued by the widely publicized results of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT)1,2. SPRINT found overwhelming benefit (25% reduction in the primary composite outcome of myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndrome not resulting in MI, stroke, acute decompensated heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes) and 27% reduction in all-cause mortality among participants randomized to a SBP target of , 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) compared to , 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). In contrast, serious adverse events, including acute kidney injury or acute renal failure that contributed to hospitalizations or emergency department visits were significantly more common in the intensive treatment group (4.4% vs. 2.6%, HR 1.71, P ,0.001). Among those who did not have chronic kidney disease (CKD) at baseline, ...
Beta-blockers are less beneficial than other antihypertensive drugs in the elderly with hypertension. All elderly patients in Ontario, Canada (population over 3.5 million elderly) without co-morbidities who were first treated for hypertension with a beta-blocker were studied in this retrospective, population-based cohort study (1994-2002) to determine the characteristics of those prescribed beta-blockers. Of the 194,761 patients in the cohort, 25,485 (13%) were prescribed a beta-blocker as their first antihypertensive agent. On multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with being prescribed a beta-blocker as first-line therapy included male sex (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.06 [95% CI 1.03-1.09] vs. women), younger age (adjusted OR 1.67 [95% CI 1.55-1.79] for patients aged 66-69 vs. those aged 85 or older), residence in a long-term care facility (adjusted OR 1.19 [95% CI 1.04-1.35] vs. living in the community) and lower socioeconomic status (adjusted OR 1.07 [95% CI 1.02-1.12], for ...
Severe hypertension during pregnancy is a relevant health problem, particularly in developing countries. The review by Duley and Henderson-Smart compared different antihypertensive drugs with the aim of identifying those with the greatest comparative benefit and least risk for adverse outcomes. Strengths of the review include a clear statement of the objective and a comprehensive literature search without language restrictions. A limitation is data heterogeneity. Contributing factors to the data heterogeneity include different criteria for severe hypertension, doses, diagnoses, and outcome definitions. Hydralazine has been the first-line drug for decades and based on this systematic review, it will continue to be. Diazoxide causes a rapid decrease in blood pressure, and as expected, this systematic review shows some probable consequences, such as an increased number of maternal hypotension episodes and the need for cesarean section due to fetal distress. Although the initial use of hydralazine ...
The Syst-Eur study investigated whether active antihypertensive treatment could reduce cardiovascular complications in elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Patients (>= 60 years) were randomly assigned to active treatment (n = 2398), ie, nitrendipine, with the possible addition of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide, or to matching placebos (n = 2297). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the between-group difference in blood pressure amounted to 10.1/4.5 mmHg (p < 0.001). Active treatment reduced the incidence of fatal and nonfatal stroke (primary endpoint) by 42 % (p = 0.003). On active treatment all cardiac endpoints decreased by 26 % (p = 0.03) and all cardiovascular endpoints by 31 % (p < 0.001). Cardiovascular mortality was slightly lower on active treatment (-27 %; p = 0.07), but all-cause mortality was not influenced (-14 %; p = 0.22). For total (p = 0.009) and cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.09), the benefit of antihypertensive treatment weakened with advancing age and for ...
Long-term nursing home residents with hypertension do not experience significant benefits from more intensive antihypertensive treatment, according to a study published online July 22 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
As this eMedTV page explains, calcium channel blockers and nervous system inhibitors are just two types of blood pressure medication available. This page provides detailed information about these and other medications used to treat hypertension.
Hello, I have a elevated blood pressure since one year ago, and I can not make it lower to normal. Now it is 90/150mmHg and I have stage 3 CKD. Is there an incident of uncontrolled blood pressure with increased creatinine? I do not have any discomfor
New research shows that in people with high blood pressure as part of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increases the risk for heart disease, diuretics offer greater protection against cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, and are at least as effective for lowering blood pressure as newer, more expensive medications. The findings run counter to current medical practices that favor ACE-inhibitors, alpha-blockers, and calcium channel blockers for treatment of high blood pressure in those with metabolic syndrome. In addition, the results provide important new evidence supporting the use of diuretics for initial blood pressure-lowering therapy in black patients with metabolic syndrome.. The latest findings from the "Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial" or ALLHAT, sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health, are published in the January 28 issue of Archives of Internal ...
Sailesh Mohan, MD, MPH, Departments of Medicine, Community Health Sciences, and Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Calgary, Calgary; Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Calgary, AB.. As over 9 in 10 older adults will develop hypertension, it is important for clinicians to routinely assess blood pressure. It is as important to treat hypertension in older adults as it is in younger people. In general, select a low-dose diuretic. Beta-blockers are not as effective at preventing stroke as other major antihypertensive drug classes. Specific indications for drug classes are provided. Target the blood pressure levels to ,140/90 mmHg in general, ,130/80 mmHg in people with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, and focus on systolic blood pressure control. If blood pressure control is not achieved using a moderate dose of your initial selection, add a second antihypertensive drug ...
What are the worst supplements for high blood pressure? everyone talks a lot about high blood pressure, the blood pressure medication you take could be. Any
In individuals with chronic kidney disease, targeting a systolic blood pressure to <120 mm Hg resulted in lower risks of cardiovascular events and premature death, compared with standard targeting to <140 mm Hg. There was a slightly faster decline in kidney function in the intensive group, but no increase in rates of kidney failure or serious adverse events.
Image Credit: Photos.com. ---. Connie K. Ho for RedOrbit.com. New findings from the Grady Trauma Project report that traumatized people who take a type of blood pressure medication often have less intense post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms.. The results show that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) could be used to help treat patients with PSTD. The study was conducted with over 5,000 low-income Atlanta residents who were exposed to violence as well as physical and mental abuse, which resulted in high civilian PTSD. There was 505 participants in the study, all of which who experienced at least one traumatic event. 35 percent of the participants met the criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD. Out of the 98 participants who were taking ACE inhibitors or ARB, 26 were diagnosed with PTSD.. "These results are particularly exciting because its the first time ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been connected to PTSD, and it gives us a new direction to ...
Cardiovascular disease and death are major life-threatening problems in patients with atheromatous peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This review focuses on management of hypertension in the context Of cardiovascular risk in patients with PAD. PAD is underdiagnosed and hypertension in PAD is often poorly managed. Current evidence supports a low threshold for blood pressure treatment in PAD and intensive blood pressure control to reduce the high risk of cardiovascular disease and death in patients with PAD. Optimal treatment targets should be , 140185 mmHg, with the lower target of , 130/80 mmHg in the presence of diabetes mellitus or chronic renal disease. Class-specific selection of anti-hypertensive treatments in PAD should be based on caution in relation to co-existing renovascular disease and indications and contraindications based on other significant co-morbidity. There is a pressing need for primary end-point studies targeted specifically at patients with PAD. In particular, prospective ...
How quick fast does blood pressure medication lower - Home Remedies for High Blood Pressure | Top 10 Home Remedies. The Hypercet Cholesterol and Blood Pressure Formulas can help support and maintain normal body functions to help maintain optimum health.
Blood pressure medication Lotensin is normally prescribed to lower hypertension, or high blood pressure. As with all medication, its important to know the benefits and potential side effects.
There is no doubt in my mind that blood pressure medication saves lives. A couple of years ago, I wound up in the hospital because my head hurt a lot. In addition to the pain, I could actually hear the pulsing as I lay in bed trying to pass the pain. I couldnt take it anymore, and I hit the E.R. This episode happened after a particularly large, and obviously very salty penne and vodka dish from Pasta Lovers.. When I hit the ER, they put me on some pain medicine. The doctor told me that I needed to follow up with my primary care physician because my blood pressure was so high that I could have an aneurysm or stroke.. In hindsight, I think its weird that rather than treat my blood pressure, they just gave me something to try and mask the pain. It didnt work by the way, the pain remained. According to my primary doctor, the meds they gave me worked off of a different pathway and wouldnt help with this type of pain. What bothers me most is that they left me in a state where I could have had a ...
BioAssay record AID 536444 submitted by ChEMBL: Antihypertensive activity against DOCA-salt induced hypertension in albino rat assessed as reduction in systolic blood pressure at 10 mg/kg, po after 180 mins by tail-cuff method.
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The management of hypertension remains a significant challenge and requires a multi-faceted approach that includes addressing lifestyle factors, prescribing anti-hypertensives and ruling out secondary causes. However despite the availability, efficacy and safety of anti-hypertensive medications, a significant proportion of hypertensive patients do not meet blood pressure (BP) targets recommended in national guidelines [2]. Patients in whom BP is elevated despite three anti-hypertensive medications of different classes are described as having resistant hypertension . These patients represent over 10% of the hypertensive population and are 50% more likely to experience a cardiovascular event than the general hypertensive population [2, 3]. It is therefore not difficult to understand why there has been significant interest in interventional procedures, such as renal denervation, in BP management.. Renal denervation: The concept. Experimental studies in animals and humans with hypertension have ...
Prescription medications are generally safe and effective, but many of them can interact poorly with certain foods. Blood pressure medications are one...
Scott, a 49-year-old man living a typical busy life, was relying on medications to get through his day. He would wake up feeling groggy and lethargic and would be falling asleep at his desk daily; he took that simply as a sign that it was time for more coffee. He went through the day feeling sluggish and had constant mood swings that were affecting both his relationships and his work. He was experiencing sore and achy joints and had horrible acid reflux that was so bad it was affecting his sleep; he was on high doses of Nexium as well as blood pressure medication.. ...
Participants needed for the ACES Trial - Antihypertensives Combined with Exercise for Seniors with Hypertension. This is a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) to determine if choice of antihypertensive medication influences changes in functional status and other cardiovascular risk factors among older persons with hypertension. Sedentary men and women , 60 years of age with functional limitations and hypertension will be recruited from two sites to participate in a longitudinal intervention trial. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three first-line antihypertensive agents and participate in a structured aerobic exercise intervention. This study is expected to differentiate beneficial effects of three FDA-approved antihypertensive medications on established and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in a clinically-relevant population. For more information, call 205-996-3005 or apply online ...
This topic contains 17 study abstracts on Antihypertensive Drugs indicating they may contribute to Hypertension, Heart Failure, and Elderly: Age Specific Diseases
Although an interaction is possible, Ethanol (alchohol) and Antihypertensive Agents (drugs used to reduce high blood pressure) may be used together. Ethanol or alchohol-containing beverages may increase the effects of Antihypertensive Agents on your blood pressure. If the blood pressure drops too low while taking Ethanol and Antihypertensive Agents, you may become dizzy or feel faint. To limit this interaction, avoid alcohol-containing beverages while taking medicines to lower your blood pressure. Do not stand or sit up too quickly. Contact your prescriber if you have dizziness which does not go away ...
Patient suffering from Hypertension Nephropathy in addition to accept kidney disease treatment, but also need to take antihypertensive drugs, antihypertensive therapy is also an urgent matter, attention must be paid to the patients with hyp
Analysis of more than 5 million UK medical records has revealed that those taking drugs known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), used to treat high blood pressure, had a 35-40% lower risk of developing Alzheimers disease and similar neurodegenerative disorders. The drugs also appeared to slow the progression of Alzheimers disease, reducing deaths, admissions to nursing homes and certain symptoms of the condition by up to 45%. The drugs were of most benefit to patients who had experienced a stroke. The most common ARBs are marketed as candesartan, losartan and irbesartan. In the next few months, the study will be repeated using US medical records of a further 3 million patients. Its reported that the analysis has also identified other drugs that appear to prevent Alzheimers and some that make the condition worse. A combination of ARBs with other drugs may reduce the risk of dementia by more than 50%.. The findings were presented at the international conference on Alzheimers disease in ...
Look for other causes whether it be deconditioning, recent infections, over training, underlying medical problems or riding with 30 pounds of mud on your bike. Do talk to your doctor about your concerns. There is good news here, with improved aerobic conditioning, you may well see the need for the blood pressure medication go away. Well aerobically conditioned athletes often have significantly lower blood pressures. However, there are non-hypertensive reasons to take the type of medication you are on, specifically, diabetes. The angiotensin enzyme converting inhibitors have been show to reduce diabetic neprhopathy (kidney disease). If you have diabetes, you doctor may want you to continue this medication for this reason ...
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Hypertension is a major risk factor for a spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. In the US, over 65 million people have high blood pressure and a large proportion of these individuals are prescribed antihypertensive medications. Although large long-term clinical trials conducted in the last several decades have identified a number of effective antihypertensive treatments that reduce the risk of future clinical complications, responses to therapy and protection from cardiovascular events vary among individuals.Using a genome-wide association study among 21,267 participants with pharmaceutically treated hypertension, we explored the hypothesis that genetic variants might influence or modify the effectiveness of common antihypertensive therapies on the risk of major cardiovascular outcomes. The classes of drug treatments included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics. In the ...
The evidence suggested that antihypertensive drug treatment was effective at reducing cardiovascular events in people with a clinic blood pressure of 160/100 mmHg or more (stage 2 hypertension).. A large study also suggested there was benefit of treating people with stage 1 hypertension. However, other studies in people with a low cardiovascular risk did not identify a benefit of treatment, and the committee agreed that the benefit of treatment across different cardiovascular risk groups was uncertain. The evidence was used to develop an economic model to compare the cost effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment with no treatment in people with stage 1 hypertension at different levels of cardiovascular risk. For people aged 60, the model showed that treatment was cost effective at a 10-year cardiovascular risk level of 10%, but there was some uncertainty at around 5% risk. Further analysis showed that it was cost effective to offer antihypertensive treatment to people aged 40 and 50 with ...
Antihypertensives lower blood pressure. Blood pressure lowering drugs can be divided into diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors, centrally acting antihypertensives and sympatholytics. Come here
AIMS: Large-scale observational studies show that lower blood pressure is associated with lower cardiovascular risk in both men and women although some studies have suggested that different outcomes between the sexes may reflect different responses to blood pressure-lowering treatment. The aims of these overview analyses were to quantify the effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment in each sex and to determine if there are important differences in the proportional benefits of treatment between men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-one randomized trials that included 103,268 men and 87,349 women contributed to these analyses. For each outcome and each comparison summary estimates of effect and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for men and women using a random-effects model. The consistency of the effects of each treatment regimen across the sexes was examined using chi(2) tests of homogeneity. Achieved blood pressure reductions were comparable for men and women in every comparison made.
Diagnosis Code T46.5X5A information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Diagnosis Code T46.5X4 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Aim: To investigate efficacy and safety of a Verapamil/Trandolapril based therapy in hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic disorders.. Methods: Open label study in 248 patients with moderate or severe hypertension and diabetes and/or dyslipidemia and/or body mass index greater 27kg/m2, which was conducted May 2001 to October 2003 at 13 sites in Germany. All patients were initially treated with a once daily combination of 180mg Verapamil SR and 2mg Trandolapril. Further antihypertensive drugs such as Moxonidine, Hydrochlorothiazide or Verapamil were systematic added and/or dose was increased if blood pressure goals less than 140/90mmHg were not achieved.. Results: The median follow-up period was 182 days. Efficacy data were available for 235 patients with a mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 167.1 15.3 or 97.1 8.9mmHg and a mean resting heart rate of 82.9 13.7 beats/min at baseline. Blood pressure goals were achieved by 82.6% of patients. 104 patients were treated with ...
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Midday naps are associated with reduced blood pressure levels and prescription of fewer antihypertensive medications, according to research presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Manolis Kallistratos, a cardiologist at Asklepieion Voula General Hospital in Athens, Greece.. More ...
... acting to reduce hypertension: an antihypertensive drug, diet, or regimen. a drug, as a diuretic, used to treat hypertension. Historical Examples Other ben
The antihypertensives were divided into trio categories: antihypertensives other than ACE inhibitors and CCBs, CCBs, and ACE inhibitors. Article categories were created for CCBs and ACE inhibitors to amount the construct rigor of the class-based analyses involving Lotensin and Cardizem CD. Variables related to the antihistamines were adjusted to ascendence the dispensation caused by seasonal allergens by subtracting the monthly norm stage from the observed monthly levels of each dependent variable quantity (i.e., diagnoses and prescriptions written). What remained after the seasonal biological process was the event in the dependent thing not attributable to scale value seasonal variations ...
SAN FRANCISCO -- Lower is not better for blood pressure targets, according to a Cochrane review that revealed no reduction in morbidity and mortality below the standard 140/90 mm Hg.
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Adult Hypertension The antihypertensive effects of valsartan tablets were demonstrated principally in 7 placebo-controlled, 4- to 12-week trials (1 in patients over 65 years) of dosages from 10 to 320 mg/day in patients with baseline diastolic blood pressures of 95 to 115 mmHg. The studies allowed comparison of once-daily and twice-daily regimens of 160 mg/day; comparison of peak and trough effects; comparison (in pooled data) of response by gender, age, and race; and evaluation of incremental effects of hydrochlorothiazide.. Administration of valsartan to patients with essential hypertension results in a significant reduction of sitting, supine, and standing systolic and diastolic blood pressure, usually with little or no orthostatic change.. In most patients, after administration of a single oral dose, onset of antihypertensive activity occurs at approximately 2 hours, and maximum reduction of blood pressure is achieved within 6 hours. The antihypertensive effect persists for 24 hours after ...
Study Flashcards On Pharm S2B3 - CV - Anti-Hypertensives at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
This weeks guest, Dr. Sripal Bangalore, finds no evidence that use of the standard anti-hypertensive drugs increases risks for cancer. His meta-analysis did find, however, an indication that ARBs and ACE inhibitors, when used in combination, increase risks modestly. Even with the short follow-up, Bangalore says clinicians should find reassurance in the results. Listen in. Interview-related links: Physicians […]. ...
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I am preparing for a talk on the controversy surrounding JNC-8 and came across a post on KevinMD.com by an author of a Cochrane systematic review that aimed to quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on mortality and morbidity in adults with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP) 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic BP 90-99…
1. After 10 years of β-adrenoceptor blockade in five female patients with essential hypertension, the β-adrenoceptor-blocking agent was withdrawn, and the women were then followed up for 1 year, with measurements of cardiac output and peripheral resistance.. 2. Blood pressure remained low during the first year after withdrawal in spite of the fact that the heart rate increased within the first few days.. 3. Cardiac output was found to increase during the first year after withdrawal, although total peripheral resistance was essentially unchanged.. 4. The maintenance of low blood pressure after withdrawal of the antihypertensive drug might indicate a regression of structural changes in the resistance vessels during successful long-term antihypertensive treatment.. 5. Minimal resistance in hands and calves did not increase during the year after withdrawal. ...
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? METHODS: Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question ...
7. While some data may suggest superiority of one class of antihypertensive agents over another for select outcomes, the ESH/ESC guidelines provide latitude for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, indicating, Diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are all suitable and recommended. Concomitant administration of two antagonists of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and direct renin inhibitors-is discouraged ...
Purpose: To assess blood pressure control and to evaluate and compare the utilization pattern of antihypertensive therapies in Chinese patients with d..
2 Answers - Posted in: hypertension, alcohol - Answer: Since drinking alot of alcohol can effect your liver, that would increase ...
The interest in obesity, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome has escalated together with the burgeoning obesity epidemic over the past 30 years. Obesity, especially in association with abdominal fat pattern, is linked not only with elevated blood pressure but also with abnormalities of insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolism, proinflammatory factors and oxidative stress, the fibrinolytic system, the autonomic nervous system and endothelial dysfunction as well as other structural and functional vascular abnormalities [1,2]. As a result, interest in therapies that simultaneously address multiple abnormalities has also erupted. In this regard, renin-angiotensin system blockade has generated considerable interest as a single pharmacological intervention, which favourably alters multiple components of the cardiometabolic syndrome [3-5].. The study by Dorresteijn et al. [6] examines the effects of various classes of antihypertensive agents on several risk factors and risk markers in obese ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antihypertensive medication adherence in cancer survivors and its affecting factors. T2 - Results of a Korean population-based study. AU - Shin, Dong Wook. AU - Park, Jong Hyock. AU - Park, Jae Hyun. AU - Park, Eun Cheol. AU - Kim, So Young. AU - Kim, Sung Gyeong. AU - Choi, Jin Young. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Purpose: Cancer survivors have been reported to receive less care for other conditions than the general population; however, it is not clear whether patients behavior also contribute to this. The present study was performed to examine cancer survivors adherence to antihypertensive medication and factors associated with it, compared to the general population. Methods: We used pharmacy claims and enrollment data from the National Health Insurance, which covers 97% of the Korean population. In total, 2,455,193 subjects, including 12,636 (0.5%) cancer survivors, who were prescribed antihypertensive medications during the calendar year 2004 were identified. A cumulative ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Electromechanical effects of the direct renin inhibitor (aliskiren) on the pulmonary vein and atrium. AU - Tsai, Chin Feng. AU - Chen, Yao Chang. AU - Lin, Yung Kuo. AU - Chen, Shih Ann. AU - Chen, Yi Jen. PY - 2011/11. Y1 - 2011/11. N2 - Activation of the atrial renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). The pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrium (LA) are important trigger and substrate for the genesis of AF. We investigate the effects of a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, on the PV and LA arrhythmogenic activity and the underlying electromechanical mechanisms. Conventional microelectrodes were used to record action potentials and contractility in isolated rabbit PVs and LA tissues before and after the administration of aliskiren (0.1, 1, 3 and 10 μM). By the whole-cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorimetric ratio techniques, ionic currents and intracellular calcium transient were studied in isolated single PV and LA ...
The importance of counterregulatory mechanisms triggered by arterial vasodilation for the antihypertensive response to the calcium entry blocking agent nifedipine was investigated in 13 men with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance were significantly reduced 30 minutes after sublingual administration of 10 mg of nifedipine while heart rate, cardiac index and plasma norepinephrine concentrations increased (all p , 0.01). Also, changes in mean blood pressure correlated inversely with arterial baroreflex sensitivity (r = -0.74, p , 0.01), suggesting that arterial baroreflex mechanisms by means of sympathetic activation tend to limit the acute antihypertensive response. Blood pressure, but not systemic vascular resistance, decreased further (p , 0.01) after 6 weeks of therapy with nifedipine 20 mg three times daily, while average heart rate, cardiac index and plasma norepinephrine concentrations had returned toward pretreatment values.. Thus, a ...
Background: Current American Heart Association guidelines for targeted blood pressure management in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), published in 2010, suggest a target mean arterial pressure of less than 110 or a blood pressure of less than 160/90 in patients without elevated intracranial pressure. These guidelines acknowledge that these recommendations have been based on incomplete efficacy evidence. A lower level recommendation was given for reducing target blood pressure to a systolic of 140, based on the INTERACT trial published in 2008. The INTERACT2 trial, published in May 2013, has been interpreted to establish the safety of rapid blood pressure lowering to 140 systolic.. Purpose: To determine the current level of adoption by stroke centers of lower targets for blood pressure in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, and whether these targets have changed in 2013.. Methods: We developed a web-based survey that was distributed via email and professional groups to ...
Downloaded from imr.sagepub.com by guest on October Ramipril + amlodipine and ramipril + hydrochlorothiazide fixed-dose combinations in relation to patient adherence.and faculty The most I Since five professional sure panelists zestoretic 20/12.5 (containing hydrochlorothiazide and lisinopril) triamterene hydrochlorothiazide drug.. Lisinopril hydrochlorothiazide oral. Hydroflumethiazide HCTZ did not (Pharma-A-spheres) in a fluid IPA water mixture and continue stirring for 45.Triamterene Hydrochlorothiazide 50 25 Mg. Combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide how much hydrochlorothiazide is too much propecia online pharmacy.Norvasc Hydrochlorothiazide Combination 1 telmisartan hydrochlorothiazide tablets usp monograph 1) JAI REPAIR - We are considering some options on reconfiguring.Preferred Label: hydrochlorothiazide, losartan drug combination; CISMeF synonym: hydrochlorothiazide, losartan potassium drug combination; hyzaar; merck brand of.. ...
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Pulse Pressure and Antihypertensive Agents | HypertensionPulse Pressure and Antihypertensive Agents | Hypertension

Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Hypertension.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
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Antihypertensive agents facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Antihypertensive agentsAntihypertensive agents facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Antihypertensive agents

Make research projects and school reports about Antihypertensive agents easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Antihypertensive agents at Encyclopedia.com. ... All antihypertensive agents lower blood pressure, although the ... Antihypertensive drugs are medicines that help lower blood pressure.. Purpose. The overall class of antihypertensive agents ... antihypertensive (anti-hy-per-ten-siv) adj. describing drugs or other agents used in treating high blood pressure.. ...
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Antihypertensive agent legal definition of antihypertensive agentAntihypertensive agent legal definition of antihypertensive agent

What is antihypertensive agent? Meaning of antihypertensive agent as a legal term. What does antihypertensive agent mean in law ... Definition of antihypertensive agent in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... authorization of an agent, bailee, common agent, employee, escrow agent, general agent, implied agent, independent contraccor, ... agent. see AGENCY.. AGENT, practice. An agent is an attorney who transacts the business of another attorney. 2. The agent owes ...
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Physiologic evaluation of a new antihypertensive agent: prazosin HCl. | CirculationPhysiologic evaluation of a new antihypertensive agent: prazosin HCl. | Circulation

Physiologic evaluation of a new antihypertensive agent: prazosin HCl.. M C Koshy, D Mickley, J Bourgiognie, M D Blaufox ... The mechanism of action of prazosin hydrochloride, a new antihypertensive agent was studied in 14 patients with essential ... Prazosin hydrochloride appears to be an effective antihypertensive agent which acts by peripheral vasodilatation. It may cause ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/55/3/533

Newer Versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) TrialNewer Versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) Trial

... 2014-08-27 03:17:20 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Topics » Nutrition » Research » Newer Versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) ... More From BioPortfolio on "Newer Versus Older Antihypertensive Agents in African Hypertensive Patients (NOAAH) Trial". *Related ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ...
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Basilar Artery Thrombosis Medication: Antihypertensive agents, Thrombolytics, Anticoagulant Agents, Antiplatelet Agents,...Basilar Artery Thrombosis Medication: Antihypertensive agents, Thrombolytics, Anticoagulant Agents, Antiplatelet Agents,...

Antihypertensive agents. Class Summary. These agents control severe hypertension. They are recommended for patients considered ... antihypertensive agents, and antiplatelet agents. Some patients, particularly those with severe and active comorbid conditions ... Anticoagulant Agents. Class Summary. The rationale for the use of these agents is to prevent recurrent embolism or extension of ... Antiplatelet Agents, Cardiovascular. Class Summary. Antiplatelet agents inhibit the cyclo-oxygenase system, decreasing the ...
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Search of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Antihypertensive Agents - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Antihypertensive Agents' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Effect of Antihypertensive Agents on Diastolic Function in Patients With Sleep Apnea. *Hypertension ... 639 Studies found for: Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , Antihypertensive Agents ... Other: Optimization of antihypertensive treatment based on office BP. *Other: Optimization of antihypertensive treatment based ... Antihypertensive drug concentrations. 80. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT02449811. EKNZ 2015-081. April 2015. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?recr=Open&intr=%22Antihypertensive+Agents%22&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=new14

K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease.  - PubMed - NCBIK/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. - PubMed - NCBI

K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease.. Kidney Disease ...
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Search of: target | Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | Antihypertensive Agents - List Results -...Search of: target | Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies | 'Antihypertensive Agents' - List Results -...

95 Studies found for: target , Recruiting, Not yet recruiting, Available Studies , Antihypertensive Agents ... Also searched for Anti Hypertensives, Targeting, and Targeted. See Search Details. Applied Filters: Recruiting Not yet ... Antihypertensive drug concentrations. 80. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT02449811. EKNZ 2015-081. April 2015. ... Antihypertensive Treatment in Masked Hypertension for Target Organ Protection. *Masked Hypertension. *Drug: Allisartan ...
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Pulse Pressure Changes With Six Classes of Antihypertensive Agents in a Randomized, Controlled Trial | HypertensionPulse Pressure Changes With Six Classes of Antihypertensive Agents in a Randomized, Controlled Trial | Hypertension

Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men: a comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328 ... Pulse Pressure Changes With Six Classes of Antihypertensive Agents in a Randomized, Controlled Trial. William C. Cushman, Barry ... Response to a second single antihypertensive agent used as monotherapy for hypertension after failure of the initial drug. Arch ... Little is known, however, of the comparative effects of various classes of antihypertensive agents on pulse pressure. In ...
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Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans | Drug Metabolism & DispositionMetabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans | Drug Metabolism & Disposition

Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans. Minxia M. He, Trent L. Abraham, Thomas J. ... Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans. Minxia M. He, Trent L. Abraham, Thomas J. ... Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans. Minxia M. He, Trent L. Abraham, Thomas J. ... Metabolism and Disposition of the Antihypertensive Agent Moxonidine in Humans Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/31/3/334

Turner Syndrome Medication: Human growth hormone, Anabolic steroids, Thyroid replacement therapies, Estrogen replacement...Turner Syndrome Medication: Human growth hormone, Anabolic steroids, Thyroid replacement therapies, Estrogen replacement...

Antihypertensive agents. Class Summary. These products are used to control hypertension and to ultimately prevent complications ... These agents are the primary treatment for short stature. They stimulate growth of linear bone, skeletal muscle, and organs. ...
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ISRCTN - ISRCTN13275753: Randomised placebo controlled trial of antihypertensive agents for the prevention of cardiovascular...ISRCTN - ISRCTN13275753: Randomised placebo controlled trial of antihypertensive agents for the prevention of cardiovascular...

Randomised placebo controlled trial of antihypertensive agents for the prevention of cardiovascular complications of ... Secondary hypertension; already on antihypertensive treatment; accepted indication for antihypertensive treatment; myocardial ...
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Antihypertensive Agents Flashcards - Cram.comAntihypertensive Agents Flashcards - Cram.com

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Antihypertensive agent synonyms, antihypertensive agent antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comAntihypertensive agent synonyms, antihypertensive agent antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for antihypertensive agent. 1 synonym for antihypertensive: antihypertensive drug. What are synonyms for ... antihypertensive. (redirected from antihypertensive agent). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, ... Antihypertensive agent synonyms, antihypertensive agent antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/ ... antihypertensive agent.. Antihypertensive Treatment for the Neurological Patient: A Nursing Challenge ...
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Luprac
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        Diuretics,  Antihypertensive Agents,  ATC:C03CA04Luprac - Diuretics, Antihypertensive Agents, ATC:C03CA04

Torasemide, a monosulfonamyl loop diuretic, differs form other thiazide diuretics in that a double ring system is incorporated into its structure. Torasemide is used alone or with atenolol in the management of hypertension and edema. Micropuncture studies in animals have shown that torsemide acts from within the lumen of the thick ascending portion of the loop of Henle, where it inhibits the Na+/K+/2Cl--carrier system ...
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Esidrex
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        Diuretics,  Antihypertensive Agents,  ATC:C03AA03Esidrex - Diuretics, Antihypertensive Agents, ATC:C03AA03

The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient.. If progressive renal impairment ... In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with ...
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Antihypertensive Agents - Action Kinetics - Derick Mussen HealthcareAntihypertensive Agents - Action Kinetics - Derick Mussen Healthcare

See also the following drug classes and individual drugs Agents Acting Directly on Vascular Smooth Muscle Hydralazine ... Agents Acting Directly on Vascular Smooth Muscle. Hydralazine hydrochloride Alpha-1-Adrenergic Blocking Agents Doxazosin ... The goal of antihypertensive therapy is a BP of ,140/90 mm Hg, except in hypertensive diabetics where the goal is ,135/85 mm Hg ... Hypertension, Natural Antihypertensive Medications, Alternative Remedies For Diabetics, Natural Weight Reduction Programs, ...
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Tài liệu Antihypertensive Agents chọn lọc - TaiLieu.VNTài liệu Antihypertensive Agents chọn lọc - TaiLieu.VN

... antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., captopril, enalapril, ceranopril, ... antihypertensives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), certain antidepressants, chemotherapeutic agents, ...
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Antihypertensive agents synonyms, Antihypertensive agents antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comAntihypertensive agents synonyms, Antihypertensive agents antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for Antihypertensive agents. 1 synonym for antihypertensive: antihypertensive drug. What are synonyms for ... antihypertensive. (redirected from Antihypertensive agents). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.. Related to Antihypertensive ... Antihypertensive agents synonyms, Antihypertensive agents antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www.freethesaurus.com/ ... Antihypertensive agents provided by ,a style=color:#000 href=https://www.freethesaurus.com/Antihypertensive+agents, ...
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Pharmacology - MCQ 30 - Antihypertensive agent causing impotence « PG BlazerPharmacology - MCQ 30 - Antihypertensive agent causing impotence « PG Blazer

Impotence is most commonly caused by which antihypertensive agent. a) Calcium channel blocker. b) ACE inhibitors. c) AT1 ...
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ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs Flashcards by Tiago Rodrigues | BrainscapeORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs Flashcards by Tiago Rodrigues | Brainscape

Study ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs flashcards from Tiago Rodrigues ... ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs Flashcards Preview Pharmacology , ORGANOTROPIC AGENTS - Antihypertensive drugs , ...
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WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antihypertensive agents}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antihypertensive agents}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: London : Royal Society of Medicine Press, 1980Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WG 340 80TH] (1). ...
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WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antihypertensive agents}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antihypertensive agents}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: London : Royal Society of Medicine Press, 1980Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: WG 340 80TH] (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=ccl=su%3A%7BAntihypertensive%20agents%7D&sort_by=relevance_dsc&expand=su-to

Intensive hemodialysis improves blood pressure control and reduces need for antihypertensive agentsIntensive hemodialysis improves blood pressure control and reduces need for antihypertensive agents

... download chapter summary ... the mean number of prescribed antihypertensive agents decreased from 1.7 to 1.0 in one year, while the percentage of patients ... not prescribed antihypertensive agents increased from 21% to 47%.6. Conclusion. Multiple randomized and prospective cohort ... Intensive Hemodialysis, Blood Pressure, and Antihypertensive Medication Use. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;68(5)(suppl 1):S15-S23. ...
more infohttp://advancingdialysis.org/chapter/intensive-hemodialysis-improves-blood-pressure-control-reduces-need-antihypertensive-agents/
  • M. Y. Ebeid , Atomic absorption spectrophotometry for the determination of some antihypertensive agents, Egypt. (who.int)
  • Our study sought to extend previous knowledge of adherence by determining the rate of first-fill failure for antihypertensive agents prescribed by electronic means, as well as identifying the clinical and demographic factors most closely associated with that failure. (freethesaurus.com)
  • If DBP was still not controlled with the alternative monotherapy, the first agent was added to the second agent to assess control with the combination. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14,15 If DBP was not controlled, participants were randomized to one of the alternative active agents after another placebo washout period. (ahajournals.org)
  • These agents are used to inhibit ACTH-stimulated bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. (medscape.com)
  • 42 The connection between cerebrovascular disorders and AD means that antihypertensive agents may play a role in dementia prophylaxis and management. (freethesaurus.com)