Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Mice, Inbred BALB CH-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor: A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Rhabdoid Tumor: A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mammary Neoplasms, Animal: Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype that has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA and LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA. It is constitutively expressed in most tissues and is a key mediator of tumor necrosis factor signaling in the vast majority of cells. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Phyllodes Tumor: A type of connective tissue neoplasm typically arising from intralobular stroma of the breast. It is characterized by the rapid enlargement of an asymmetric firm mobile mass. Histologically, its leaf-like stromal clefts are lined by EPITHELIAL CELLS. Rare phyllodes tumor of the prostate is also known.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Glomus Tumor: A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

A possible contributory role of BK virus infection in neuroblastoma development. (1/1118)

The tumor suppressor protein p53 is aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells, compromising the suppressor function of this protein. Such tumors are experimentally induced in transgenic mice expressing the large tumor (T) antigen of polyomaviruses. The oncogenic mechanisms of T antigen include complex formation with, and inactivation of, the tumor suppressor protein p53. Samples from 18 human neuroblastomas and five normal human adrenal glands were examined. BK virus DNA was detected in all neuroblastomas and none of five normal adrenal glands by PCR. Using DNA in situ hybridization, polyomaviral DNA was found in the tumor cells of 17 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of five adrenal medullas. Expression of the large T antigen was detected in the tumor cells of 16 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of the five adrenal medullas. By double immunostaining BK virus T antigen and p53 was colocalized to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed binding between the two proteins. The presence and expression of BK virus in neuroblastomas, but not in normal adrenal medulla, and colocalization and binding to p53, suggest that this virus may play a contributory role in the development of this neoplasm.  (+info)

The retinoblastoma protein alters the phosphorylation state of polyomavirus large T antigen in murine cell extracts and inhibits polyomavirus origin DNA replication. (2/1118)

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) can associate with the transforming proteins of several DNA tumor viruses, including the large T antigen encoded by polyomavirus (Py T Ag). Although pRb function is critical for regulating progression from G1 to S phase, a role for pRb in S phase has not been demonstrated or excluded. To identify a potential effect of pRb on DNA replication, pRb protein was added to reaction mixtures containing Py T Ag, Py origin-containing DNA (Py ori-DNA), and murine FM3A cell extracts. We found that pRb strongly represses Py ori-DNA replication in vitro. Unexpectedly, however, this inhibition only partially depends on the interaction of pRb with Py T Ag, since a mutant Py T Ag (dl141) lacking the pRb interaction region was also significantly inhibited by pRb. This result suggests that pRb interferes with or alters one or more components of the murine cell replication extract. Furthermore, the ability of Py T Ag to be phosphorylated in such extracts is markedly reduced in the presence of pRb. Since cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation of Py T Ag is required for its replication function, we hypothesize that pRb interferes with this phosphorylation event. Indeed, the S-phase CDK complex (cyclin A-CDK2), which phosphorylates both pRb and Py T Ag, alleviates inhibition caused by pRb. Moreover, hyperphosphorylated pRb is incapable of inhibiting replication of Py ori-DNA in vitro. We propose a new requirement for maintaining pRb phosphorylation in S phase, namely, to prevent deleterious effects on the cellular replication machinery.  (+info)

The simian virus 40 small-t and large-T antigens jointly regulate cell cycle reentry in human fibroblasts. (3/1118)

Focus formation in human diploid fibroblasts (HDF cells) is known to require both the simian virus 40 (SV40) large-T and small-t antigens. Similarly, both SV40 proteins were required to stimulate confluent, density-arrested HDF cells to reenter the cell cycle. This study used defective recombinant adenoviruses to examine the roles of the individual SV40 proteins in altering specific steps in the cell cycle. Small-t antigen and, to a lesser extent, large-T antigen increased the level of the S phase cyclin cyclin A but without increasing the activity of associated cyclin kinases unless the two SV40 proteins were coexpressed. The absence of kinase activity reflected the presence in density-arrested cells of high levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1). We report here that expression of SV40 large-T antigen reduced levels of p21(WAF1), while expression of small-t antigen was required to decrease p27(KIP1). The separate effects of large-T and small-t antigens on these two inhibitors may explain the joint requirement for the two proteins to drive cell cycle reentry of HDF cells and ultimately transform these cells.  (+info)

The J domain of papovaviral large tumor antigen is required for synergistic interaction with the POU-domain protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. (4/1118)

Large T antigens from polyomaviruses are multifunctional proteins with roles in transcriptional regulation, viral DNA replication, and cellular transformation. They have been shown to enhance the activity of various cellular transcription factors. In the case of the POU protein Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP, this enhancement involves a direct physical interaction between the POU domain of the transcription factor and the amino-terminal region of large T antigen. Here we have analyzed the structural requirements for synergistic interaction between the two proteins in greater detail. Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and the related POU protein Brn-1 were both capable of direct physical interaction with large T antigen. Nevertheless, only Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP functioned synergistically with large T antigen. This differential behavior was due to differences in the amino-terminal regions of the proteins, as evident from chimeras between Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and Brn-1. Synergy was specifically observed for constructs containing the amino-terminal region of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. Large T antigen, on the other hand, functioned synergistically with Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP only when the integrity of its J-domain-containing amino terminus was maintained. Mutations that disrupted the J domain concomitantly abolished the ability to enhance the function of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP. The J domain of T antigen was also responsible for the physical interaction with Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and could be replaced in this property by other J domains. Intriguingly, a heterologous J domain from a human DnaJ protein partially substituted for the amino terminus of T antigen even with regard to the synergistic enhancement of Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP function. Given the general role of J domains, we propose chaperone activity as the underlying mechanism for synergy between Tst-1/Oct6/SCIP and large T antigens.  (+info)

New insights into the mechanism of inhibition of p53 by simian virus 40 large T antigen. (5/1118)

Simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) has been shown to inhibit p53-dependent transcription by preventing p53 from binding to its cognate cis element. Data presented in this report provide the first direct functional evidence that T antigen, under certain conditions, may also repress p53-dependent transcription by a mechanism in which the transactivation domain of p53 is abrogated while DNA binding is unaffected. Specifically, p53 purified as a complex with T antigen from mouse cells was found to bind DNA as a transcriptionally inactive intact complex, while that purified from human cells was found to bind DNA independently of T antigen and could activate p53-dependent transcription. This difference in activity may be dependent on a different interaction of T antigen with mouse and human p53 and, in addition, on the presence of super T, which is found only in transformed rodent cells. These results suggest that subtle yet important differences exist between the inhibition of p53 by T antigen in mouse and human cells. The implications of this finding with respect to SV40-associated malignancies are discussed.  (+info)

A kinase activity associated with simian virus 40 large T antigen phosphorylates upstream binding factor (UBF) and promotes formation of a stable initiation complex between UBF and SL1. (6/1118)

Simian virus 40 large T antigen is a multifunctional protein which has been shown to modulate the expression of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase I (Pol I), II, and III. In all three transcription systems, a key step in the activation process is the recruitment of large T antigen to the promoter by direct protein-protein interaction with the TATA binding protein (TBP)-TAF complexes, namely, SL1, TFIID, and TFIIIB. However, our previous studies on large T antigen stimulation of Pol I transcription also revealed that the binding to the TBP-TAFI complex SL1 is not sufficient to activate transcription. To further define the molecular mechanism involved in large T antigen-mediated Pol I activation, we examined whether the high-mobility group box-containing upstream binding factor (UBF) plays any role in this process. Here, using cell labeling experiments, we showed that large T antigen expression induces an increase in UBF phosphorylation. Further biochemical analysis demonstrated that UBF is phosphorylated by a kinase activity that is strongly associated with large T antigen, and that the carboxy-terminal activation domain of UBF is required for the phosphorylation to occur. Using in vitro reconstituted transcription assays, we demonstrated that the inability of alkaline phosphatase treated UBF to efficiently activate transcription can be rescued by large T antigen. Moreover, we showed that large T antigen-induced UBF phosphorylation promotes the formation of a stable UBF-SL1 complex. Together, these results provide strong evidence for an important role for the large T antigen-associated kinase in mediating the stimulation of RNA Pol I transcription.  (+info)

Atm is dispensable for p53 apoptosis and tumor suppression triggered by cell cycle dysfunction. (7/1118)

Both p53 and ATM are checkpoint regulators with roles in genetic stabilization and cancer susceptibility. ATM appears to function in the same DNA damage checkpoint pathway as p53. However, ATM's role in p53-dependent apoptosis and tumor suppression in response to cell cycle dysregulation is unknown. In this study, we tested the role of murine ataxia telangiectasia protein (Atm) in a transgenic mouse brain tumor model in which p53-mediated apoptosis results in tumor suppression. These p53-mediated activities are induced by tissue-specific inactivation of pRb family proteins by a truncated simian virus 40 large T antigen in brain epithelium. We show that p53-dependent apoptosis, transactivation, and tumor suppression are unaffected by Atm deficiency, suggesting that signaling in the DNA damage pathway is distinct from that in the oncogene-induced pathway. In addition, we show that Atm deficiency has no overall effect on tumor growth and progression in this model.  (+info)

Telomerase extends the lifespan of virus-transformed human cells without net telomere lengthening. (8/1118)

Human fibroblasts whose lifespan in culture has been extended by expression of a viral oncogene eventually undergo a growth crisis marked by failure to proliferate. It has been proposed that telomere shortening in these cells is the property that limits their proliferation. Here we report that ectopic expression of the wild-type reverse transcriptase protein (hTERT) of human telomerase averts crisis, at the same time reducing the frequency of dicentric and abnormal chromosomes. Surprisingly, as the resulting immortalized cells containing active telomerase continue to proliferate, their telomeres continue to shorten to mean lengths below those in control cells that enter crisis. These results provide evidence for a protective function of human telomerase that allows cell proliferation without requiring net lengthening of telomeres.  (+info)

*HLA-F

Viral proteins and other exogenous antigens decrease surface HLA-F expression because the exogenous proteins interact with HLA ... "Alteration of HLA-F and HLA I antigen expression in the tumor is associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous ... of HLA class I and they function together in cross-presentation of exogenous antigen. Exogenous antigen binds to a structure on ... Xu Y, Han H, Zhang F, Lv S, Li Z, Fang Z (January 2015). "Lesion human leukocyte antigen-F expression is associated with a poor ...

*Natural killer cell

MHC class I molecules are the main mechanism by which cells display viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T cells. A common ... NK cells provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor ... Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of tumor cells by NK cells is mediated by alternative receptors, ... They serve to contain viral infections while the adaptive immune response generates antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that can ...

*Cancer vaccine

This enhances the anti-tumor immune response to tumor antigens released following viral lysis and provides a patient-specific ... shared tumor antigens; and unique tumor antigens. Shared antigens are expressed by many tumors. Unique tumor antigens result ... Escape loss variants (that target a single tumor antigen are likely to be less effective. Tumors are heterogeneous and antigen ... as sometimes an immune response to a single antigen can lead to immunity against other antigens on the same tumor. For example ...

*Middle tumor antigen

Khalili, K; Sariyer, IK; Safak, M (May 2008). "Small tumor antigen of polyomaviruses: role in viral life cycle and cell ... The genes for the small tumor antigen (STag), middle tumor antigen (MTag), and large tumor antigen (LTag) are encoded in the " ... the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen. MTag occurs only in a few known polyomaviruses, while STag and LTag are ... The middle tumor antigen (also called the middle T-antigen and abbreviated MTag or MT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ...

*Small tumor antigen

Khalili, K; Sariyer, IK; Safak, M (May 2008). "Small tumor antigen of polyomaviruses: role in viral life cycle and cell ... and sometimes other tumor antigens as well, such as the murine polyomavirus middle tumor antigen). Polyomavirus STag proteins ... The small tumor antigen (also called the small T-antigen and abbreviated STag or ST) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ... MCPyV genetic material is often found integrated into the tumor cell genome, usually with mutations in the tumor antigen genes ...

*Alphavirus

They could therefore be used to vaccinate against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and tumor antigens. Alphavirus infection ... The proteolytic maturation of P62 into E2 and E3 causes a change in the viral surface. Together the E1, E2, and sometimes E3, ... Larger mammals such as humans and horses are usually dead-end hosts or play a minor role in viral transmission; however, in the ... The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through ...

*Human polyomavirus 12

... containing a small and large tumor antigen and three viral capsid proteins; it has no open reading frame corresponding to an ... A survey of seroprevalence - that is, prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins indicating either past or ...

*Murine polyomavirus

Ramqvist, T; Dalianis, T (August 2009). "Murine polyomavirus tumour specific transplantation antigens and viral persistence in ... these proteins are expressed from the early region of the viral genome and are known as large, middle, and small tumor antigen ... and small tumor antigens (LT, MT, ST) and are sufficient for inducing tumors. The three genes in the late region express the ... In 2015 the genome sequence of a rat polyomavirus was reported to contain middle tumor antigen as well, consistent with ...

*Major capsid protein VP1

Ramqvist, T; Dalianis, T (August 2009). "Murine polyomavirus tumour specific transplantation antigens and viral persistence in ... All of the capsid proteins are expressed from the late region of the viral genome, so named because expression occurs only late ... Major capsid protein VP1 is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. VP1 monomers are generally ... The VP1 protein, along with capsid components VP2 and VP3, is expressed from the "late region" of the circular viral genome. ...

*Glioblastoma

"Detection of human herpesvirus-6 variants in pediatric brain tumors: Association of viral antigen in low grade gliomas". ... Because the tumor grade is based upon the most malignant portion of the tumor, biopsy or subtotal tumor resection can result in ... In a small trial, a tumor B-cell hybridoma vaccine against tumor stem cells elicited a specific tumor immune reaction thus ... Imaging of tumor blood flow using perfusion MRI and measuring tumor metabolite concentration with MR spectroscopy may add value ...

*PTX3

... viral, and tumor antigens". Blood. 107 (1): 151-8. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-03-1112. PMID 16166594. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, ... Lee GW, Lee TH, Vilcek J (1993). "TSG-14, a tumor necrosis factor- and IL-1-inducible protein, is a novel member of the ... Lee TH, Wisniewski HG, Vilcek J (1992). "A novel secretory tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein (TSG-6) is a member of the ... Klouche M, Brockmeyer N, Knabbe C, Rose-John S (2002). "Human herpesvirus 8-derived viral IL-6 induces PTX3 expression in ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.050.225 --- ca-125 antigen MeSH D23.050.285.062 --- antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 --- antigens, cd147 MeSH D23.050.285.050 --- antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH ... antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.101.840.075 --- antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23.101.840.075.050 --- antigens, cd15 ... antigens, viral, tumor MeSH D23.050.327.062.045 --- adenovirus e1a proteins MeSH D23.050.327.062.050 --- adenovirus e1b ...

*Hamster polyomavirus

At around 5.3 kilobase pairs in length, it contains genes for the small, middle, and large tumor antigens and three viral coat ... However, middle tumor antigen has also recently been reported in at least one virus of unrelated lineage, the trichodysplasia ... In 2015 the genome sequence of a rat polyomavirus was reported to contain middle tumor antigen as well, consistent with ... This observation is in contrast to the skin tumors, which carry substantial viral loads. The capacity to induce hematopoietic ...

*Agnoprotein

... interacts with the viral proteins small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen as well as with the capsid protein ... Differences in tissue tropism and in viral life cycle, particularly in viral exit from the host cell, have also been proposed ... and encapsidation of the viral genome. It has also been suggested that agnoprotein functions as a viroporin - that is, a viral ... Agnoprotein is expressed from a region of the circular viral genome called the agnogene, an open reading frame contained in a ...

*MW polyomavirus

At around 4.9 kilobase pairs in length, it contains genes for the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen and three viral ... Phylogenetic analyses of the MWPyV genome suggest different ancestries for the large tumor antigen and the major capsid protein ... Studies of the presence of viral DNA, indicating active viral replication, suggest MWPyV prevalence in the range of 1-10% of ... In studies that profile polyomavirus seroprevalence, or prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins indicating ...

*MHC multimer

... s allow for ex vivo selection and proliferation of T-cells specific to viral or tumor-related antigens, which can ... 2001). "Ex vivo analysis of tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses using MHC/peptide tetramers in cancer patients". Int. ... Characterization of circulating T cells specific for tumor-associated antigens in melanoma patients. Maile, R.; et al. (2001 ... MHC pentamers have been used in the detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in flow cytometry, and are cited in over 750 ...

*Large tumor antigen

"Crystal structure of SV40 large T-antigen bound to p53: interplay between a viral oncoprotein and a cellular tumor suppressor ... SV40 has three early proteins, the large tumor antigen, the small tumor antigen, and a small protein called 17kT that shares ... The large tumor antigen (also called the large T-antigen and abbreviated LTag or LT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ... The LTag gene is usually encoded in two exons, of which the first overlaps with the gene for the small tumor antigen (STag); as ...

*Hubert Schoemaker

... who developed some of the earliest monoclonal antibodies against tumour antigens and influenza viral antigens, the objective of ...

*STL polyomavirus

... it contains genes for the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen, a novel additional tumor antigen, and three viral coat ... in addition to the small and large tumor antigens highly conserved in polyomaviruses, STLPyV also expresses a third tumor ... antigen designated 229T, which contains a novel fusion of portions of the small and large tumor antigen sequences. Among the ... A distinctive characteristic of the STLPyV genome is its alternatively spliced tumor antigen; ...

*Oncolytics Biotech

... antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells ... Direct tumor lysis - selective viral replication in permissive cancer cells leading to tumor cell lysis; Innate immune response ... induces selective tumor lysis and promotes an inflamed tumor phenotype through innate and adaptive immune responses. Oncolytics ... 2010). "Oncolytic viral therapy for prostate cancer: efficacy of reovirus as a biological therapeutic". Cancer Research. 70 (6 ...

*Reolysin

... antigen presenting cells (APCs) display tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells ... Direct tumor lysis - selective viral replication in permissive cancer cells leading to tumor cell lysis; Innate immune response ... being developed as a first-in-class systemically administered immuno-oncology viral agent for the treatment of solid tumors and ... This cycle of infection, replication and cell death is believed to be repeated until all tumour cells carrying an activated Ras ...

*Immunotherapy

These cells are then either pulsed with an antigen or tumor lysate or transfected with a viral vector, causing them to display ... The extraction of G-CSF lymphocytes from the blood and expanding in vitro against a tumour antigen before reinjecting the cells ... The cells then destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen.[citation needed] BCG immunotherapy for early stage (non- ... Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ...

*Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes

The carcinoma cells still harbour the viral genes and antigens. As expected T cell responses against antigens encoded by genes ... the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to tumor ... The gene coding for a major tumor rejection antigen of tumor P815 is identical to the normal gene of syngeneic DBA/2 mice ". ... Cancer therapy targeted at tumor antigens can involve the direct use of these antigens in vaccines, but also the adoptive ...

*Tumor antigen vaccine

As such, tumor antigen vaccines are a type of cancer immunotherapy. Tumor antigen vaccines work the same way that viral ... while the antigens for tumor antigen vaccines are derived from cancer cells. Since tumor antigens are antigens found in cancer ... or pure tumor antigens (substances isolated from tumor cells)". A tumor antigen vaccine may stimulate the body's immune system ... to which tumor antigens are added. In this strategy, the antigen-presenting dendritic cells directly stimulate T-cells rather ...

*Immune system

Tumor antigens are presented on MHC class I molecules in a similar way to viral antigens. This allows killer T cells to ... The transformed cells of tumors express antigens that are not found on normal cells. To the immune system, these antigens ... In addition, immunological tolerance may develop against tumor antigens, so the immune system no longer attacks the tumor cells ... into tumors called melanomas. A third possible source of tumor antigens are proteins normally important for regulating cell ...

*Phage display

The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for ... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ... Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... novel expression vectors that display cloned antigens on the virion surface". Science. 228 (4705): 1315-7. Bibcode:1985Sci... ...

*New Jersey polyomavirus

... the small tumor antigen, large tumor antigen, and alternative tumor antigen (ALTO); and three viral coat proteins, VP1, VP2, ... which canonically encodes the small and large tumor antigens; expression of ALTO has also been reported in trichodysplasia ... After doctors were unable to identify known viral causes of the patient's symptoms, a research team led by virologist Ian ... "Characterization of T Antigens, Including Middle T and Alternative T, Expressed by the Human Polyomavirus Associated with ...
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Return to Modified Bases Modifications Super T (5-hydroxybutynl-2-deoxyuridine) is a duplex-stabilizing modified base that increases oligonucleotide Tm. Oligonucleotides containing Super T can be extended normally by polymerases, including Taq polymerase,making Super T a useful modified base for designing short primers or probes for low-complexity, A-T rich sequences. ...
Thank you very much for your answer. But do you happen to know why the expression of largr T antigen can make the cell grow faster ...
Isolation date: July 2002 Method: developed by infection of hTERT-HPNE E6/E7/K-RasG12D cells (ATCC ® CRL-4038™ ) with retroviral vector (pBabeZeo) carrying the SV40 small t antigen
U.S. researchers uncover molecular evidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in tissue samples from four children born after 1982.
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Abstract: Abstract Polyomaviruses have provided many insights into control of cell physiology. Studies of their tumor antigens (Tags) have led to appreciation of the role of tyrosine phosphorylation, PI3K and p53 in oncogenic transformation. This work explores signal pathways regulated by polyomavirus small T antigen (PyST) that control differentiation and regulate cell survival in fat, muscle and... read more bone models. Comparisons of murine polyomavirus ST (PyST) to monkey polyomavirus SV40 (SV40 ST) have been especially useful in parsing out the mechanisms involved. This work also makes use of PyST mutants defective in specific interactions. Of the many PyST functions, we particularly illustrate the importance of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) for PyST to regulate differentiation. PP2A regulates almost all cell signaling pathways. The holoenzyme consists of a catalytic C subunit and one of many regulatory B subunits bound to an A scaffolding subunit. Of more than 80 PP2A isoforms, 10% use Abeta as a ...
A bacterial expression system was used to produce simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) in the absence of the extensive posttranslational modifications that occur in mammalian cells. Wild-type T antigen produced in bacteria retained a specific subset of the biochemical activities displayed by its mammalian counterpart. Escherichia coli T antigen functioned as a helicase and bound to DNA fragments containing either site I or the wild-type origin of replication in a manner identical to mammalian T antigen. However, T antigen purified from E. coli did not efficiently bind to site II, an essential cis element within the simian virus 40 origin of replication. It therefore could not unwind origin-containing plasmids or efficiently replicate simian virus 40 DNA in vitro. The ability of protein phosphorylation to modulate the intrinsic preference of full-length T antigen for either site I or site II is discussed.. ...
1FAF: NMR structure of the N-terminal J domain of murine polyomavirus T antigens. Implications for DnaJ-like domains and for mutations of T antigens.
Buy our Recombinant Simian Virus 40 (SV40) SV40 Large T Antigen protein. Ab82118 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus and has been validated in…
Deppert, W and Walter, G, "Domains of simian virus 40 large t-antigen exposed on the cell surface." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3601 ...
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Cells were derived by infection of hTERT-HPNE E6/E7 cells (ATCC CRL-4036) with retroviral vector (pBabeZeo) carrying the SV40 small t antigen
This entry was posted on June 2, 2011, 3:42 am and is filed under Fugitive Document. You can follow any responses to this entry through RSS 2.0. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. ...
generating the core 1 O-glycan Gal-beta1-3GalNAc-alpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen), which is a precursor for many extended O-glycans in ...
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The simian virus 40 small T-associated 56,000-Mr (56K) and 32K cellular proteins were shown to be closely related to the polyomavirus medium T-associated 61K and 37K cellular proteins as demonstrated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and V8 protease peptide mapping. ...
Simian virus (SV40) large T antigen, molecular model. This antigen is from the simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Large T antigens play a role in regulating the viral life cycle of the polyomaviridae viruses, such as SV40. SV40 is found in monkeys such as Rhesus monkeys and macaques. Potentially tumour-causing in primates and humans, it is used in laboratory research and in vaccines. - Stock Image C025/1808
Looking for online definition of T-antigen in the Medical Dictionary? T-antigen explanation free. What is T-antigen? Meaning of T-antigen medical term. What does T-antigen mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60.. AU - Courtneidge, Sara. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024387934&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024387934&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2477198. AN - SCOPUS:0024387934. VL - 144. SP - 121. EP - 128. JO - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. JF - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. SN - 0070-217X. ER - ...
Innate and adaptive immunity have both been implicated in resistance to spontaneous and carcinogen-induced tumors in mice (13). Alternatively, immunity/inflammation may contribute to tumor progression (10, 36). One view is that inflammation results from antitumor immune reactivity (15, 36, 37). The other is that tumor-intrinsic changes associated with the oncogenic process also involve a "proinflammatory" program (10, 38).. In human papillomavirus 16-induced tumors, antibody production seemed responsible for an inflammatory reaction with tumor-promoting effects (15). In polyoma virus middle T-induced breast cancer, macrophages recruited to the tumor were found to be essential for the angiogenic switch (39), and M2-type polarization (10, 36) of tumor-associated macrophages and IMC was recently suggested to be dependent on CD4 T cells (40).. In contrast to these deleterious tumor-promoting effects of components of adaptive immunity, in the inducible melanoma model with expression of a natural ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Simian Virus 40 Major Capsid VP1 protein (ab74565). Please download our general…
This topic contains 11 study abstracts on Simian virus 40 (SV40) indicating it may contribute to Simian virus 40 (SV40), Mesothelioma, and Cancer Metastasis
Kupffer cells have been isolated from transgenic mice carrying a thermolabile SV40 large tumor antigen under the H2Kb promoter (kind gift of D. Kioussis, NIMR, London). The cells grow with Interferon-gamma at 33oC, at which temperature the promoter is turned on and the SV40T Ag is active. They differentiate at 39oC. These cells are now being characterised: cytokine and NO liberation is stimulated, surface receptors are assessed at the mRNA and protein level, and phagocytosis and uptake of bacterial components are being measured. Results will be compared with the functional characteristics of primary Kupffer cells isolated from normal mice (see also 3R project 73-00) Conclusions and Relevance for 3R ...
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Molecular Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally identified as key components of signaling pathways involved in mediating responses to IFNs. Previous studies showed that the Src oncoprotein constitutively activates one STAT family member, Stat3. In this study, we investigated STAT activation in a panel of rodent fibroblast cell lines stably transformed by diverse viral oncoproteins. Using a temperature-sensitive mutant of v-Src, we determined that Stat3 is activated within 15 min of shift from nonpermissive to permissive temperature for cell transformation. This finding indicates that v-Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for Stat3 activation and suggests that Stat3 is proximal to signaling initiated by Src. In addition, Stat3 activation is induced by another nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, v-Fps; by polyoma virus middle T antigen, which activates Src family kinases; ...
The role of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) as a DNA helicase at the replication fork was studied. We found that a T-antigen hexamer complex acts during the unidirectional unwinding of appropriate DNA substrates and is localized directly in the center of the fork, contacting the adjacent double strand as well as the emerging single strands. When bidirectional DNA unwinding, initiated at the viral origin of DNA replication, was analyzed, a larger T-antigen complex that is simultaneously active at both branch points of an unwinding bubble was observed. The size and shape of this helicase complex imply that the T-antigen dodecamer complex, assembled at the origin and active in the localized melting of duplex DNA, is subsequently also used to continue DNA unwinding bidirectionally. Then, however, the dodecamer complex does not split into two hexamer subunits that track along the DNA; rather, the DNA is threaded through the intact complex, with the concomitant extrusion of ...
DELETION OF THE CARBOXY TERMINUS OT SIMIAN VIRUS 40 LARGE T ANTIGEN AFFECTS VIRAL LATE GENE EXPRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Terryl Stacy DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire March 8,1990 ...
SV40 T-antigen antibody [PAb419] for ICC/IF, IP. Anti-SV40 T-antigen mAb (GTX16848) is tested in Simian virus 40 samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Melero, J A.; Tur, S; and Carroll, R B., "Host nuclear proteins expressed in simian virus 40-transformed and -infected cells." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2647 ...
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4FGN: Analysis of the Costructure of the Simian Virus 40 T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain with Site I Reveals a Correlation between GAGGC Spacing and Spiral Assembly.
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Looking for online definition of Renal tumour antigen 1 in the Medical Dictionary? Renal tumour antigen 1 explanation free. What is Renal tumour antigen 1? Meaning of Renal tumour antigen 1 medical term. What does Renal tumour antigen 1 mean?
Much has been learned in recent years concerning the nature of tumor antigens recognized by T cells. To apply this knowledge clinically, the nature of the host response to individual and multiple tumor antigens has to be characterized. This will help to define the efficacy of immune surveillance and the immune status of the host following exposure to tumor antigens expressed on pre-neoplastic tissue. To approach these questions, we have developed a transgenic mouse which expresses the tumor-specific antigen P91A. The single amino acid substitution in P91A results in the expression of a new MHC class I (H-2Ld)-binding peptide. In transgenic tissue, the H-2Ld/P91A complex is expressed in isolation from other tumor-associated antigens, allowing definition of the immune response to a single defined tumor antigen, a situation closely analogous to events during tumorigenesis. We show that CD8+ T cell immune surveillance of P91A is ineffective without the introduction of a helper determinant operating ...
Cerebral cortical development requires orderly transitions between neurogenesis and differentiation. Neurogenesis also results in overproduction of neurons that are selectively targeted for apoptosis. In these experiments, we conditionally immortalized (Almazan and McKay, 1992; Yanai and Obinata, 1994; Taher et al., 1995; Eves et al., 1996) neural precursors from embryonic rat cerebral cortex, to contrast estrogen and neurotrophin regulation of p53-dependent cortical differentiation and death.. The large T antigen promotes mammalian cell cycle by inhibiting checkpoint transcription factors like p53 (for review, see Levine, 1997). Consequently, the Ts/U19 large T antigen mutation permits synchronization of differentiation, by conditionally regulating p53-dependent mechanisms. At the nonpermissive temperature (39°C), large T antigen expression ceases and substantial cell death occurs, that is partly caused by apoptosis. At this temperature, we also observed induction of pp53 and p53-dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen. AU - Ikeda, K.. AU - Clark, J. C.. AU - Bachurski, C. J.. AU - Wikenheiser, K. A.. AU - Cuppoletti, J.. AU - Mohanti, S.. AU - Morris, R. E.. AU - Whitsett, J. A.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028041963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028041963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0028041963. VL - 267. JO - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. SN - 0363-6135. IS - 3 part 1. ER - ...
SV40 large T antigen is a hexamer protein, an oncogene derived from the polyomavirus SV40 which is capable of transforming a variety of cell types. The viral supernatant was produced by co-transfecting 293T cells with a lentiviral vector containing the SV40 Large T antigen and eGFP, with two other plasmids which make the lentiviral envelop proteins and VSV-G protein. The viral supernatant was aliquoted and stored at -70OC immediately after purification and concentration. Features: ...
Janelle, Valérie; Lamarre, Alain (2014). How Informative is the Immune Response Against Surrogate Tumor Antigens to Assess Antitumor Immunity? Frontiers in oncology , vol. 4 , nº 135. p. 1-3. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00135. ...
p53 is a cellular-encoded phosphoprotein first identified in protein complexes with the large tumor (T) antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40) (Linzer and Levine, 1979; Lane and Crawford, 1979). High...
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Author Summary MCV is a novel human polyomavirus that has recently been discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but highly aggressive skin cancer. Several independent studies have confirmed that MCV is present in ∼80% of MCC tumors. However, very little is known about how the interaction between MCV and its human hosts contributes to the virus-induced cancers. Many aspects of the infectious life cycle of MCV are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that the MCV-encoded large T antigen can bind to host protein Brd4, which in turn serves as a scaffold that functionally recruits cellular DNA replication factors for replication of MCV viral DNA in host cells. This study is the first report to demonstrate mechanistic details of MCVs recruitment of the host cell DNA replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus. Importantly, our work demonstrates that blocking the Brd4 and MCV LT interaction can prevent MCV
A human polyomavirus was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) specimens. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome undergoes clonal integration into the host cell chromosomes of MCC tumors and expresses small T antigen and truncated large T antigen. Previous studies have consistently reported that MCPyV can be detected in approximately 80% of all MCC tumors. We sought to increase the sensitivity of detection of MCPyV in MCC by developing antibodies capable of detecting large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we expanded the repertoire of quantitative PCR primers specific for MCPyV to improve the detection of viral DNA in MCC. Here we report that a novel monoclonal antibody detected MCPyV large T antigen expression in 56 of 58 (97%) unique MCC tumors. PCR analysis specifically detected viral DNA in all 60 unique MCC tumors tested. We also detected inactivating point substitution mutations of TP53 in the two MCC specimens that lacked large T antigen expression and in ...
Author Summary Strong evidence suggests that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is a causative factor in the development of a large proportion of cancers arising from epidermal Merkel cells. While Merkel cell carcinoma is rare, it appears that infection with MCV is common, and many healthy people chronically shed MCV virions from the surface of their skin. In an effort to better understand the factors controlling MCV tissue tropism, we sought to characterize the cellular receptors that mediate MCV attachment to cultured cells. Several previously-examined polyomaviruses utilize sialic acid-containing glycolipids and glycoproteins to mediate cell binding and infectious entry. Our results show that, in contrast to other polyomaviruses, MCV does not require sialic acid-bearing glycans for attachment to cells, but instead uses a different group of carbohydrates called glycosaminoglycans for the initial attachment step of the infectious entry process. Interestingly, although sialic acid-bearing glycans
To assess the usefulness of using cutaneous swabs to detect Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA, we analyzed swabs from persons with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), others with skin diseases, and healthy volunteers. MCPyV was detected in at least 1 sample from virtually all participants. Viral loads were higher in samples from patients with MCC.
Transgenic mice. To make the 7X-tetOp A-FOS transgene, the plasmid pUHD 10-3 ( 19) was linearized with SacII and BamHI and ligated to a 62-bp polylinker: top strand, 5′-GGCCACCATGGCGTATCCCTACGACGTGCCCGATTATGCCCGATTATGCCCATATGCAGGAATTCAAGCTTG-3′ that encodes a Kozak consensus and a Hemagglutinin tag (YPYDVPDYA). An SV40 poly(A) fragment containing the small T-antigen intron that preceded the poly(A) site was obtained from the plasmid pRSVNeo as a 1,026-bp BamHI-SmaI fragment. This fragment, when ligated to the BamHI-NaeI-digested 2.7-kb vector (pTRE 850/85-ds) backbone, produced a plasmid with the SV40 poly(A) in reverse orientation (pTRE850/851 ds reversed). To obtain a plasmid with the SV40 poly(A) in the correct orientation, "pTRE850/851-ds-reversed" was digested with HindIII. The 2,704-bp vector and the 1,067-bp insert were then religated, and recombinants were selected in which the insert fragment [representing the SV40 poly(A)] is reversed when compared with the parental plasmid. This ...
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Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LTs ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LTs ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is common in the human population with a seropositivity of approximately 60%. The virus is chronically shed from healthy skin, but the genuine host cell remains unknown and a permissive cell culture system is lacking. The viral genome is in an episomal state in cells where MCPyV has been found. The virus is not harmful in healthy individuals, but it is involved in the pathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. Approximately 80% of all examined MCC specimens are MCPyV-positive. Two hallmarks of virus-positive MCCs are integrated viral genome and expression of truncated large T-antigen (tLT-ag). The non-coding control region (NCCR), encompassing the origin of replication and the promoter/enhancer controlling the expression of the early and late viral genes, of most MCPyV isolates are quasi identical to the reference strain MCC350. However, the NCCR of MCPyV isolated from healthy skin (strain 16b), feces (strain HB039C), ...
We investigated whether Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patients in France carry Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and then identified strain variations. All frozen MCC specimens and 45% of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens, but none of the non-MCC neuroendocrine carcinomas specimens, had MCPyV. Strains from France and the United States were similar.
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase. The interaction between early viral antigens and cell cycle regulators represents an important mechanism through which viruses deregulate cell cycle ...
a_benign_virus_normally_found_in_the_skin_can_lead_to_a_type_of_rare_lethal_skin_cancer_specifically_infection_by_the_merkel_cell_polyomavirus_can_lead_to_merkel_cell_carcinoma_in_immunecompromised_individuals_researchers_have_now_identified_a_type_of_skin_cell_as_the_target_of_the_virus_in_humans_this_study_from_the_perelman_school_of_medicine_at_the_university_of_pennsylvania_establis
Hi Histonetters! ....I need your advice with yet another antibody. Is anyone using an antibody for the polyoma virus (specifically the BK virus)?....this must be done on paraffin tissue - not urine - and is to be used on renal transplant biopsies. As always, TIA. Ann Maruska Fairview-University Med Ctr. Mpls. MN 55454 [email protected] 612-672-4005 ...
After the backlog of orders had already been above average at the beginning of the year, it increased even further during the first half of the year. By hiring several more employees and external staff and reorganizing the business at the same time, we were able to work through the backlog successfully both technically and in time.. Even compared to the already very successful business year of 2015, we were able to boost our turnover considerably yet again and acquire many new customers. We were very pleased that both business areas, Software and Applications, contributed in equal measure to this positive development.. In the Applications area, the order situation continued to be dominated by large orders from the German automotive industry but also by the well represented middle-sized machine manufacturers. The superiority of scalable computer and software architecture offering the same user interface for all use cases becomes more and more evident in these markets.. Technologically interesting ...
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We have recently discovered a new human polyomavirus monoclonally-integrated into human Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) that we call Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPy...
A retrospective molecular case-control study was conducted in Non-small-cell lung-cancer patients and their relatives. During the screening program, 106 patient samples (including 77 serum biopsies and 29 parafin embedded tissues) and 90 non-cancer counterparts (50 serum biopsies and 40 parafin embedded tissues) were recruited for being analyzed by realtime-PCR and sequencing. ...
So you might say this would be a great test, but we dont use it in our patients. Why not? Because it makes no difference therapeutically to the one in five patients who has this favorable CD8 profile. Such patients need to receive the same treatment as other patients, regardless of CD8 infiltration status. Disease can recur in such patients, but if it does, we can cure it. Because the CD8 profile really doesnt change our management, we dont routinely do this test.. Optimal Management. Whats the optimal approach, then, for managing the newly diagnosed Merkel cell carcinoma patient? In most cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (about 80%), Merkel cell polyomavirus is clonally integrated in the tumor cells, and viral oncoproteins drive oncogenesis. There is increasing evidence that these patients do somewhat better than polyomavirus-negative patients. What this means clinically is that the 20% of patients who are virus-negative might need more careful monitoring for recurrence.. Several early ...
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is a newly-discovered human tumor virus found in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). The rate of MCV infection among persons without MCC is unknown. We developed a MCV virus-like particle (VLP) enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) that does not cross-react with human BK or murine polyomaviruses. Peptide mapping of the MCV VP1 gene and immunoblotting with denatured MCV VLP are less sensitive than the MCV EIA in detecting MCV antibodies suggesting antibody reactivity in this assay primarily targets conformational but not linear epitopes. Among MCC patients, all 21 (100%) patients tested with MCV-positive tumors had high serum MCV IgG but not high MCV IgM levels. Only 3 of 6 (50%) MCC patients with MCV-negative tumors were positive for MCV antibodies. Sera from most adults, including 107 of 166 (64%) blood donors, 63 of 100 (63%) commercial donors and 37 of 50 (74%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients, show evidence for prior MCV exposure. Age-specific MCV ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
With our dedicated customer support team, 30-day no-questions-asked return policy, and our price match guarantee, you can rest easy knowing that were doing everything we can to save you time, money, and stress.. ...
This genus contains viruses, which are detected on the skin (human polyomaviruses 6 and 7) and in the gastrointestinal tract (human polyomavirus 10 (MW polyomavirus); human polyomavirus 11 (STL polyomavirus)).. ...
ERYtech is developing immunotherapies using red blood cells (RBCs) as a natural delivery system of tumour-associated antigen to antigen presenting cells (APCs),
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The levels of c-myc, c-fos, and JE mRNAs accumulate in a biphasic pattern following infection of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells with polyomavirus. Maximal levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs were seen within 1 hr and were nearly undetectable at 6 hr after infection. At 12 hr after infection mRNA levels were again maximal and remained elevated thereafter. Empty virions (capsids) and recombinant VP1 protein, purified from Escherichia coli, induced the early but not the late phase of mRNA accumulation. Virions, capsids, and recombinant VP1 protein stimulated [3H]thymidine nuclear labeling and c-myc mRNA accumulation ina dose-responsive manner paralleling their affinity for the cell receptor for polyoma. The second phase of mRNA accumulation is regulated by the viral early gene products, as shown by polyomavirus early gene mutants and by a transfected cell line (336a) expressing middle tumor antigen upon glucocorticoid addition. These results suggest that polyomavirus interacts with the cell membrane ...
Affiliations of authors: Program in Cancer Biology (JJC, GCW, DM, DAG), Division of Human Biology (JJC, MMM, LGJ, DAG), Division of Public Health Sciences (JJC, MMM, LGJ, DAG), and Division of Clinical Research (PN), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; Department of Microbiology (DAG), Department of Pathology (KGP, SL, PN), Department of Epidemiology (MMM), Department of Dermatology/Medicine (KGP, BDL, SL, AHW, JGI, PN), University of Washington, Seattle, WA.. Correspondence to: Denise A. Galloway, PhD, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M.S. C1-105, Seattle, WA 98109-1024 (e-mail: [email protected]).. Background Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in approximately 75% of patients with the rare skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma. We investigated the prevalence of antibodies against MCPyV in the general population and the association between these antibodies and Merkel cell carcinoma. Methods Multiplex antibody-binding assays were used to ...
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a lethal, virus-associated cancer that lacks effective therapies for advanced disease. Agents blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have shown objective, durable tumor regressions in patients with advanced solid malignancies and efficacy has been linked to PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment. To investigate whether MCC might be a target for PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, we examined MCC PD-L1 expression, its association with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), and overall survival. Sixty-seven MCC specimens from 49 patients were assessed with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression by tumor cells and TILs, and immune infiltrates were characterized phenotypically. Tumor cell and TIL PD-L1 expression were observed in 49% and 55% of patients, respectively. In specimens with PD-L1(+) tumor cells, 97% (28/29) showed a geographic association with immune infiltrates. Among specimens with moderate-severe TIL intensities, 100% (29/29) showed ...
0052] One class of antigens as comprised in the herein defined inventive vaccine/inhibitor combination comprises tumour antigens. "Tumour antigens" are preferably located on the surface of the (tumour) cell. Tumour antigens may also be selected from proteins, which are overexpressed in tumour cells compared to a normal cell. Furthermore, tumour antigens also include antigens expressed in cells which are (were) not themselves (or originally not themselves) degenerated but are associated with the supposed tumour. Antigens which are connected with tumour-supplying vessels or (re)formation thereof, in particular those antigens which are associated with neovascularization, e.g. growth factors, such as VEGF, bFGF etc., are also included herein. Antigens connected with a tumour furthermore include antigens from cells or tissues, typically embedding the tumour. Further, some substances (usually proteins or peptides) are expressed in patients suffering (knowingly or notknowingly) from a cancer disease ...
Thank you for a very informative website. Effective Oct 2009 Merkel Cell Carcinoma was assigned to ICD-9-CM category 209. Do you know where it is referenced
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Induction of tumor and viral immunity using antigen presenting cell co-culture products and fusion products - University of...Induction of tumor and viral immunity using antigen presenting cell co-culture products and fusion products - University of...

These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell ... Formulations comprising combinations of APCs and tumor cells and APCs and virally infected cells are disclosed. ... The fused cells and/or co-cultured cells are then used to provide a complete array of tumor antigens or viral antigens that can ... This is presumably because the tumor cells and viral cells are incapable of providing the antigen or antigens in the ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/y2006/0153821.html

Migration inhibition and blastogenic reactions with viral and tumor antigens in transplantable mammary tumor systems<...Migration inhibition and blastogenic reactions with viral and tumor antigens in transplantable mammary tumor systems<...

Migration inhibition and blastogenic reactions with viral and tumor antigens in transplantable mammary tumor systems. / Sigel, ... title = "Migration inhibition and blastogenic reactions with viral and tumor antigens in transplantable mammary tumor systems", ... T1 - Migration inhibition and blastogenic reactions with viral and tumor antigens in transplantable mammary tumor systems ... Migration inhibition and blastogenic reactions with viral and tumor antigens in transplantable mammary tumor systems. ...
more infohttps://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/migration-inhibition-and-blastogenic-reactions-with-viral-and-tum

Vaccinia virus expressing ICP47 : a novel platform for cancer vaccines highlighting tumor epitopes and hiding viral antigens  -...Vaccinia virus expressing ICP47 : a novel platform for cancer vaccines highlighting tumor epitopes and hiding viral antigens -...

Vaccinia virus expressing ICP47 : a novel platform for cancer vaccines highlighting tumor epitopes and hiding viral antigens ... Vaccinia virus expressing ICP47 : a novel platform for cancer vaccines highlighting tumor epitopes and hiding viral antigens. ... poxviruses or immunodominance of viral antigens which may reduce the induction of immune response against weaker tumor antigens ... Recombinant poxviruses expressing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) are evaluated since 20 years as immunogenic vaccine vector ...
more infohttps://edoc.unibas.ch/1141/

Idiotype and anti-idiotype specific T cell responses on transplantation with hybridomas reactive to viral hemagglutinin and...Idiotype and anti-idiotype specific T cell responses on transplantation with hybridomas reactive to viral hemagglutinin and...

... specific T cell responses on transplantation with hybridomas reactive to viral hemagglutinin and human tumor antigen ... specific T cell responses on transplantation with hybridomas reactive to viral hemagglutinin and human tumor antigen. In: ... peptido-mimics of antigen to T helper cells through class II MHC and de novo synthesized peptido-mimics of antigens to CTLs. ... of Rinderpest virus and human Mucin-1 have been used as surrogate B cells to study T cell responses against the antigens. The ...
more infohttp://eprints.iisc.ac.in/12040/

Cellular transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens.  - PubMed - NCBICellular transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens. - PubMed - NCBI

Tumor Virus Infections/immunology. Substance. *Antigens, Viral, Tumor. Grant support. *R01-CA63113/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... The SV40 early region encodes three tumor antigens, large T (LT), small T (ST) and 17KT that contribute to cellular ... Large (LT), 17KT and Small (ST) of SV40 and PY as well as Middle (MT) T antigens from PY share coding regions. The N terminal ... Cellular transformation by Simian Virus 40 and Murine Polyoma Virus T antigens.. Cheng J1, DeCaprio JA, Fluck MM, Schaffhausen ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19505649?dopt=Abstract

Medicine, Diseases | CollectionsMedicine, Diseases | Collections

WDFY4 is required for cross-presentation in response to viral and tumor antigens ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/collection/medicine-diseases

The Morphological Oncogenic Signature | SpringerLinkThe Morphological Oncogenic Signature | SpringerLink

Weil, R., 1978, Viral "tumor antigens"? A novel type of mammalian regulatory protein, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 516:301-308.Google ... Rifkin, D. B., Crowe, R. M. ,and Pollack, R., 1979, Tumor promoters induce changes in the chickGoogle Scholar ... Wigler, M. ,and Weinstein, I. B., 1976, Tumor promoter induces plasminogen activator, Nature (Lond.) 259:232-233.CrossRefGoogle ... 2: Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion and Cocarcinogenesis (T. J. Slaga, A. Sivak, and R. K. Boutwell, eds.), pp. 11-48, Raven Press ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5050-7_5

ICP 10-AG-4 antigen, Human herpesvirus 2 | Semantic ScholarICP 10-AG-4 antigen, Human herpesvirus 2 | Semantic Scholar

Viral Tumor Antigens. Papers overview. Semantic Scholar uses AI to extract papers important to this topic. ... ICP 10-AG-4 antigen, Human herpesvirus 2. Known as: ICP 10-AG-4 protein, Human herpesvirus 2, antigen ICP 10-AG-4, Herpes ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/ICP-10-AG-4-antigen%2C-Human-herpesvirus-2/6054940

Molecular Pathogenesis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma - PubMedMolecular Pathogenesis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma - PubMed

Antigens, Viral, Tumor / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Distinct merkel cell polyomavirus molecular features in tumour and non tumour specimens from patients with merkel cell ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19400830/

Plus itPlus it

T Cell Responses against Viral (Tumor-Associated) Antigens in Malignant Disease. Several viruses are known to cause malignant ... cancer germ-line antigens, mutated antigens, and viral antigens (reviewed in Ref. 3 ). These TAAs have facilitated the analysis ... The most widely studied tumor antigen is the melanoma differentiation antigen melanA/MART-1, against which specific T cell ... Analysis of the T cell response to tumor and viral peptide antigens by an IFNγ-ELISPOT assay. Int. J. Cancer, 71: 932-936, 1997 ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/9/12/4296

Decoding intratumoral heterogeneity of breast cancer by multiparametric in vivo imaging: A translational study<...Decoding intratumoral heterogeneity of breast cancer by multiparametric in vivo imaging: A translational study<...

To address the need for a comprehensive, noninvasive strategy to define the molecular and functional profiles of tumors in vivo ... MRI in the polyoma virus middle T antigen transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. The implementation of a voxelwise analysis ... To address the need for a comprehensive, noninvasive strategy to define the molecular and functional profiles of tumors in vivo ... To address the need for a comprehensive, noninvasive strategy to define the molecular and functional profiles of tumors in vivo ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/decoding-intratumoral-heterogeneity-of-breast-cancer-by-multipara

Immortalized liver endothelial cells: A cell culture model for studies of motility and angiogenesis<...Immortalized liver endothelial cells: A cell culture model for studies of motility and angiogenesis<...

HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and ... Importantly, the cells can be transduced efficiently with viral vectors. TSECs should provide a reproducible cell culture model ... HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and ... HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/immortalized-liver-endothelial-cells-a-cell-culture-model-for-stu

Immune surveillance against a solid tumor fails because of immunological ignorance | PNASImmune surveillance against a solid tumor fails because of immunological ignorance | PNAS

We studied immune surveillance against a s.c. sarcoma expressing a characterized viral tumor antigen. Surprisingly, the tumor ... Tumor Progression Despite Efficient Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation and Effective Arming of Tumor Antigen-Specific CTL ... Mice exhibiting growing tumors and those without tumors (Fig. 2b) were tested for tumor specific antigen-specific CTL priming ( ... Many peripheral solid tumors such as sarcomas and carcinomas express tumor-specific antigens that can serve as targets for ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/96/5/2233?ijkey=12789e29834d84fff0445a9f428852fd63f2476f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Tumor Suppressor Proteins
      - Proteins, Tumor Suppressor
     Summary Report | CureHunterTumor Suppressor Proteins - Proteins, Tumor Suppressor Summary Report | CureHunter

Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development. ... Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. ... Tumor Viral Antigens (Large T Antigen) CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and specifically does NOT provide medical ... Tumor Suppressor Proteins (Proteins, Tumor Suppressor). Subscribe to New Research on Tumor Suppressor Proteins ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD025521-Tumor-Suppressor-Proteins-Proteins--Tumor-Suppressor.do

JCI -
Self-adjuvanting nanoemulsion targeting dendritic cell receptor Clec9A enables antigen-specific immunotherapyJCI - Self-adjuvanting nanoemulsion targeting dendritic cell receptor Clec9A enables antigen-specific immunotherapy

Antigen-specific immunotherapy, combining viral tumor antigen or personalized neoepitopes with immune targeting, offers a ... However, the lack of flexible systems targeting tumor antigens to cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) limits clinical ... We functionalized tailored nanoemulsions encapsulating tumor antigens to target Clec9A (Clec9A-TNE). Clec9A-TNE encapsulating ... Thus, cross-presenting DCs targeted with antigen-Clec9A-TNE stimulate therapeutically effective tumor-specific immunity, ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/96791/pdf

Schreiber RD[au] - PubMed - NCBISchreiber RD[au] - PubMed - NCBI

WDFY4 is required for cross-presentation in response to viral and tumor antigens. ... Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens.. Gubin MM, Zhang X, Schuster H, Caron E, Ward ... Pillars Article: IFNγ and Lymphocytes Prevent Primary Tumour Development and Shape Tumour Immunogenicity. Nature. 2001. 410: ... Tumor neoantigens: building a framework for personalized cancer immunotherapy.. Gubin MM, Artyomov MN, Mardis ER, Schreiber RD. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Schreiber+RD%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

JCI -
Therapeutic cancer vaccinesJCI - Therapeutic cancer vaccines

Phase I trial of recombinant modified vaccinia ankara encoding Epstein-Barr viral tumor antigens in nasopharyngeal carcinoma ... Antigens of choice include mutant sequences, selected cancer testis antigens, and viral antigens. Drugs or physical treatments ... Expression of a natural tumor antigen by thymic epithelial cells impairs the tumor-protective CD4+ T-cell repertoire. Cancer ... Such a heterologous prime-boost protocol ensures that the response against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA), the only antigen ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/80009

Vero  ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normalVero ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normal

Temperature dependence of the synthesis of adenovirus tumor and viral antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 642-646, 1968. ... Temperature dependence of the synthesis of adenovirus tumor and viral antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 642-646, 1968. ... Perfusion system and a method for the large scale production of virus or virus antigen. US Patent 5,719,051 dated Feb 17 1998 ... Perfusion system and a method for the large scale production of virus or virus antigen. US Patent 5,719,051 dated Feb 17 1998 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/By_Tissue/Kidney/CCL-81.aspx

Vero  ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normalVero ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normal

Temperature dependence of the synthesis of adenovirus tumor and viral antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 642-646, 1968. ... Temperature dependence of the synthesis of adenovirus tumor and viral antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 127: 642-646, 1968. ... Perfusion system and a method for the large scale production of virus or virus antigen. US Patent 5,719,051 dated Feb 17 1998 ... Perfusion system and a method for the large scale production of virus or virus antigen. US Patent 5,719,051 dated Feb 17 1998 ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Global/Products/8/3/5/8/CCL-81.aspx

David Degraff, PhD - Research Output
     - Penn StateDavid Degraff, PhD - Research Output - Penn State

Viral Tumor Antigens National Institutes of Health (U.S.) 32 Citations (Scopus) ... Wnt/Β-Catenin activation promotes prostate tumor progression in a mouse model. Yu, X., Wang, Y., Degraff, D., Wills, M. L. & ... Detection of tumor cells in the bone offers independent prognostic value in bladder cancer patients: The clinical and basic ... Mitotic activity in noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma: its value in predicting tumor recurrence and comparison with ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/david-degraff/publications/

Penn State University Park - Research Output
     - Penn StatePenn State University Park - Research Output - Penn State

5-Aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy induces anti-tumor effects in malignant melanoma via p53-miR-34a-Sirt1 axis ... 94,000- and 100,000-molecular-weight simian virus 40 T-antigens are associated with the nuclear matrix in transformed and ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/penn-state-university-park/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false&page=5

Surrogate Genetics in the Frog Oocyte | SpringerLinkSurrogate Genetics in the Frog Oocyte | SpringerLink

Rungger, D. and Tuerler, H. (1978). DNAs of simian virus 40 and polyoma direct the synthesis of viral tumor antigens and capsid ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-3707-2_17

Single polypeptide chain binding molecules - Genex CorporationSingle polypeptide chain binding molecules - Genex Corporation

Of particular interest are hybridomas secreting antibodies which are reactive with viral antigens, tumor associated antigens, ... The antigen-binding site is to the left, about 9 oclock and between the two loops which project to the right above (light ... The single-chain antigen binding proteins from TRY40, TRY61, TRY59 and TRY104b are insoluble, and cells induced to produce ... Single-chain antigen-binding protein genes were constructed using the sequences of the variable domains of two different anti- ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/4946778.html

Plus itPlus it

HPV-positive tumor cells present antigens of the viral protein in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I that can ... with these unique viral tumor antigens, cervical cancer cells may be recognized specifically by CTLs. Such CTLs can be ... HLA Expression in Tumor Biopsy.. In 11 patients, the presence of tumor cells in the biopsies taken after surgery could be ... Human papillomavirus type 16 nucleoprotein E7 is a tumor rejection antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88: 110-114, 1991. ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/8/12/3676
  • Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and Mouse Polyoma Virus (PY) are small DNA tumor viruses that have been used extensively to study cellular transformation. (nih.gov)
  • The SV40 early region encodes three tumor antigens, large T (LT), small T (ST) and 17KT that contribute to cellular transformation. (nih.gov)
  • SV40 LT mediated transformation requires binding to the tumor suppressor proteins Rb and p53 in the nucleus and ST binding to the protein phosphatase PP2A in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • SV40 LT also binds to several additional cellular proteins including p300, CBP, Cul7, IRS1, Bub1, Nbs1 and Fbxw7 that contribute to viral transformation. (nih.gov)
  • The unique contributions of SV40 LT and ST and PY MT to cellular transformation have provided significant insights into our understanding of tumor suppressors, oncogenes and the process of oncogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Large (LT), 17KT and Small (ST) of SV40 and PY as well as Middle (MT) T antigens from PY share coding regions. (nih.gov)
  • The N terminal 82 (SV40) and 79 (PY) residues for all T antigens are identical (magenta). (nih.gov)
  • HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and subcloned on the basis of their ability to endocytose the acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL). (elsevier.com)
  • To address the need for a comprehensive, noninvasive strategy to define the molecular and functional profiles of tumors in vivo, we investigated a novel combination of metabolic PET and diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI in the polyoma virus middle T antigen transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60. (elsevier.com)
  • Although antigen-anti-Clec9A mAb conjugates target cross-presenting DCs, adjuvant must be codelivered for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) induction. (jci.org)
  • Hecker, E., 1978, Structure-activity relationships in diterpene esters irritant and cocarcinogenic to mouse skin, in: Carcinogenesis, Vol. 2: Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion and Cocarcinogenesis (T. J. Slaga, A. Sivak, and R. K. Boutwell, eds. (springer.com)
  • Fey, E. G., and Penman, S., 1984, Tumor promoters induce a specific morphological signature in the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament scaffold of Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell colonies, Proc. (springer.com)
  • An effective vaccine also should seek to stimulate long term memory to prevent tumor recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, it has been known for some time that immunosuppression in humans may enhance the incidence of virally triggered tumors or tumors of lymphohematopoietic vascular origin, but sometimes has little influence on frequencies of solid peripheral tumors such as carcinomas and sarcomas ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Some scientists claim both the innate and adaptive immune systems must be activated to achieve total tumor elimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential diagnosis and therapy of heterogeneous breast tumors poses a major clinical challenge. (elsevier.com)
  • To evaluate the feasibility of this approach for clinical use, we examined estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive breast tumors from five patient cases using DW-MRI and [ 18 F]FDG-PET in a simultaneous PET/MRI system. (elsevier.com)
  • In many phase I/II studies, these vaccines have shown clinical benefit, in particular extended overall or disease-free survival, while objective durable regressions of the type associated with targeted or immunomodulatory mAb therapy ( 2 - 6 ) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) ( 7 - 10 ) or adoptive T cell ( 11 , 12 ) therapy were rarely seen. (jci.org)
  • Non-antigen-specific stimulatory cancer immunotherapies are commonly complicated by off-target effects. (jci.org)
  • By this approach, we showed how molecular, structural (microscopic, anatomic), and functional information could be simultaneously obtained noninvasively to identify precancerous and malignant subtypes within heterogeneous tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Combined with an automatized analysis, our results suggest that multiparametric molecular and functional imaging may be capable of providing comprehensive tumor profiling for noninvasive cancer diagnostics. (elsevier.com)
  • Despite the fact that s.c. localizations are not classically considered to belong to immunologically privileged sites ( 19 ), our analysis shows that peripheral solid tumors may grow because they are ignored by the immune system for too long. (pnas.org)