Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detecting p40 RNA of Borna disease virus, without risk of plasmid contamination. (1/10399)

Several methods for the detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA have been reported, one being the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) method. However, due to the possibility of contamination of the cloned DNA in a reaction tube, false-positive results might be obtained by RT-nested PCR. To detect only BDV RNA without anxiety of contamination, we developed an RT-nested PCR system using "mRNA selective PCR kit". Using this system, cDNA of BDV p40 in the plasmid (up to 5 x 10(7) molecules) was not amplified. BDV specific sequence was amplified from total RNA (more than 50 pg) of MDCK/BDV cells, which were persistently infected with BDV. These results indicate that this mRNA selective RT-nested PCR system can specifically amplify target RNA as distinguished from plasmid contaminated.  (+info)

Inhibition of Pichinde virus replication by actinomycin D. (2/10399)

The yields of Pichinde virus, a member of the arenavirus group, were markedly inhibited when infected BHK 21 cells were incubated in the presence of 0.4 to 4 mug/ml of actinomycin D. Maximal inhibition was observed when actinomycin D was added after the adsorption of virus to cultures; however, addition of drug as late as 12 h after infection reduced the 24 h yield by 50%. Virus antigen synthesis, as measured by complement fixation and immunodiffusion, was not dramatically reduced by actinomycin D. The expression of virus antigens on the surface of infected cells was greater on cells treated with actinomycin D than on untreated cells. Putative defective particles with a density of Pichinde virus were not detected in fluids of cultures incubated with actinomycin D and 3H-amino acids. Actinomycin D appears to inhibit Pichinde virus late in the replicative cycle. The observations raise the possibility that the drug inhibits the synthesis of proteins of the host cell membrane which are required for virus maturation.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (3/10399)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (4/10399)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Immune response to the immunodominant epitope of mouse hepatitis virus is polyclonal, but functionally monospecific in C57Bl/6 mice. (5/10399)

Mutations in an immunodominant CD8 CTL epitope (S-510-518) are selected in mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. These mutations abrogate recognition by T cells harvested from the infected CNS in direct ex vivo cytotoxicity assays. Previous reports have suggested that, in general, an oligoclonal, monospecific T cell response contributes to the selection of CTL escape mutants. Herein, we show that, in MHV-JHM-infected mice, the CD8 T cell response after intraperitoneal infection is polyclonal and diverse. This diverse response was shown to include both polyclonal and oligoclonal components. The polyclonal data were shown to fit a logarithmic distribution. With regard to specificity, we used a panel of peptide analogues of epitope S-510-518 and spleen-derived CD8 T cell lines to determine why only a subset of possible mutations was selected in persistently infected mice. At a given position in the epitope, the mutations identified in in vivo isolates were among those that resulted in the greatest loss of recognition. However, not all such mutations were selected, suggesting that additional factors must contribute to selection in vivo. By extrapolation of these results to the persistently infected CNS, they suggest that the selection of CTL escape mutants requires the presence of a monospecific T cell response but also show that this response need not be oligoclonal.  (+info)

Immune surveillance against a solid tumor fails because of immunological ignorance. (6/10399)

Many peripheral solid tumors such as sarcomas and carcinomas express tumor-specific antigens that can serve as targets for immune effector T cells. Nevertheless, overall immune surveillance against such tumors seems relatively inefficient. We studied immune surveillance against a s.c. sarcoma expressing a characterized viral tumor antigen. Surprisingly, the tumor cells were capable of inducing a protective cytotoxic T cell response if transferred as a single-cell suspension. However, if they were transplanted as small tumor pieces, tumors readily grew. Tumor growth correlated strictly with (i) failure of tumor cells to reach the draining lymph nodes and (ii) absence of primed cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells were not tolerant or deleted because a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response was readily induced in lymphoid tissue by immunization with virus or with tumor cells even in the presence of large tumors. Established tumors were rejected by vaccine-induced effector T cells if effector T cells were maintained by prolonged or repetitive vaccination, but not by single-dose vaccination. Thus, in addition to several other tumor-promoting parameters, some antigenic peripheral sarcomas-and probably carcinomas-may grow not because they anergize or tolerize tumor-specific T cells, but because such tumors are immunologically dealt with as if they were in a so-called immunologically privileged site and are ignored for too long.  (+info)

Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. (7/10399)

A 120-amino-acid polypeptide selected from the transmembrane protein region (tTM) and the major capsid protein p26 of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) were expressed as fusion proteins from recombinant baculoviruses. The antigenic reactivity of both recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western blot with bovine and rabbit antisera to BIV. BIV-negative bovine sera and animal sera positive for bovine syncytial virus and bovine leukemia virus failed to recognize the recombinant fusion proteins, thereby showing the specificity of the BIV Western blot. One hundred and five bovine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by the recombinant protein-based Western blot and a reference Western blot assay using cell culture-derived virions as test antigens. There was a 100% concordance when the p26 fusion protein was used in the Western blot. However, the Western blot using the tTM fusion protein as its test antigen identified four BIV-positive bovine sera which had tested negative in both the p26 recombinant-protein-based and the reference Western blot assays. This resulted in the lower concordance of 96.2% between the tTM-protein-based and reference Western blot assays. The results of this study showed that the recombinant p26 and tTM proteins can be used as test antigens for the serodetection of BIV-infection in animals.  (+info)

Human serum antibodies to a major defined epitope of human herpesvirus 8 small viral capsid antigen. (8/10399)

The major antibody-reactive epitope of the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was defined by use of overlapping peptides. Strong IgG reactivity was found among approximately 50% of 44 human immunodeficiency virus-positive or -negative patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and 13 subjects who were seropositive by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the latent HHV-8 nuclear antigen. Only 1 of 106 subjects seronegative for both lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens and 10 of 81 subjects IFA-seropositive only for the lytic HHV-8 antigen had strong IgG reactivity to this epitope. Among 534 healthy Swedish women, only 1.3% were strongly seropositive. Comparison of the peptide-based and purified sVCA protein-based ELISAs found 55% sensitivity and 98% specificity. However, only 1 of 452 serum samples from healthy women was positive in both tests. In conclusion, the defined sVCA epitope was a specific, but not very sensitive, serologic marker of active HHV-8 infection. Such infection appears to be rare among Swedish women, even with sexual risk-taking behavior.  (+info)

Expression of viral antigen in target tissues of mice 3-7 days after in vivo infection.Spleen and bone marrow cells were isolated from mice infected by the s.
The E.Coli derived recombinant artificial mosaic protein contains two epitopes from C-end associated in one molecule from the HHV-4 p18 regions.
BioAssay record AID 288762 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of TPA-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assessed as EBV-EA induction in Raji cells at 3.2 nM after 48 hrs relative to TPA.
Epstein-Barr virus early antigen: synthesized before or in the absence of viral-progeny DNA replication & present only in infected cells
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Immunotherapeutic treatments in head and neck cancer clinical trials include cancer vaccines targeting foreign viral antigens or mutational neoantigens derived from cancer-expressed proteins. Anti-tumor immune responses place cancer cells under selective pressure to lose or downregulate target antig …
Over the past 15 years, a number of observations have culminated in the localization of viral antigens in liver tissue by the use of routine histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM),...
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The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen diffuse component (EA-D) and its relationship with EBV DNA polymerase in EBV genome-carrying cells are unclear, EBV-specified DNA polymerase was purified in a sequential manner from Raji cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate and n-butyrate by phosphocellulose, DEAE-cellulose, double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and blue Sepharose column chromatography. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 110,000, 100,000, 55,000, and 49,000 daltons were found to be associated with EBV-specified DNA polymerase activity. A monoclonal antibody which could neutralize the EBV DNA polymerase activity was prepared and found to recognize 55,000- and 49,000-dalton polypeptides. An EA-D monoclonal antibody, R3 (G. R. Pearson, V. Vorman, B. Chase, T. Sculley, M. Hummel, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 47:183-201, 1983), was also able to recognize these same two polypeptides associated with EBV DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that EBV EA-D polypeptides, as ...
Summary The mol. wt. of the polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) molecule (EBNA 1) encoded by the BamHI K fragment of the EBV DNA has been determined in 14 EBV-carrying lymphoblastoid and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. There is no obvious correlation between the size of this polypeptide and any properties of the cells from which it is derived, other than those related to the strain of transforming virus. We confirm that the polymorphic region of this molecule is the glycine-alanine copolymer encoded by the third internal repeat of the EBV genome (IR3) and we consider the significance of this domain.
Immobilization of Raji cells on surface coated with anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) at low cell densities lead to the synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen (EA) in up to 5% of the cells. At higher cell densities the percentage of antigen-positive cells decreased and at confluency no antigen synthesis was observed. Addition of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) to low density cultures increased the expression of EA to 20%, whereas in confluent cultures the cells could not be induced to synthesize EA. Treatment of cells in suspension with ALG failed to induced EA synthesis and did not potentiate the effect of IdUrd. Immobilized Raji cells proved to be suitable targets for superinfection with EBV derived from P3HR1 cultures. ...
Intended Use The ZEUS IFA Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen (EBV-EA) IgG Test System is an indirect fluorescent antibody assay intended for the qualitative and quantitative detection of antibodies to the early antigen (EA) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in human sera. This test system detects IgG antibodies to diffuse (D) and restricted (R) components of the EBV-EA complex. This test system is for research use only. Product Description This test system uses methanol-fixed slides. This test system uses ZORBA NS Sample Diluent. Kit Size 25 x 10 wells
This study will examine the effects of long-term antiviral therapy with valaciclovir (Valtrex) on Epstein-Barr virus infection. This virus infects more
PubMed journal article: High prevalence of immunoglobulin A antibody against Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen in adult patients with lupus with disease flare: case control studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
An effective method for the synthesis of 7,8-epoxy-1,3,11-cembratriene-15R(α), 16-diol and its in vitro Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen (EBV-EA) Activation Chemopreventive Assay are reported. This semisynthetic product is a new cembranoid with a potent tumor inhibitory activity that is expected to be a lead compound for a new class of chemopreventive agents of marine origin.
The government never tested the quality or effectiveness of the rapid antigen tests for Covid-19 recently introduced into the countrys testing policy, Le Soir
ID:1,Note:Change of Day(s) Test Setup to every Monday, Wednesday and Friday w.e.f 1 August 2014. ,Date:2014-07-29T08:45:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
The overriding performance driver for antigen capture microarrays is the functional integrity of the capture ligand on the surface of the assay device.
The numerous cases which were treated showed a positive clinical response in greater or lesser degree. The earliest cases were studied intensively and were readied for publication.. The tumors that responded to a greater degree to our treatment, as was expected, are the ones with the greatest degree of undifferentiation; because of their antigenic characteristics and because of the greater degree of dissimilarity between them and the genotypes and antigenic characteristics of normal cells, they have more probability of eliciting an efficient immunologic response.. Histological studies which were made give us certain possible mechanisms of action which correlate with the clinical response obtained.. Microscopic studies showed the almost complete delimitation of the tumoral areas by connective-vascular structures which seem to have diverse morphologies according to their proximity to the tumor and the level of their chronological development, having at first a thick endothelial wall with ...
Nagpahayag ng pagkabahala si Senador Nancy Binay sa plano ng gobyerno na gamitin ang rapid antigen test sa layuning mapalakas ang pagtukoy sa mga taong may COVID-19 sa bansa.
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We assessed the value of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay for diagnosing primary CMV infection in adults. The CMV antigenemia assay was performed for 40 patients admitted to our unit over a 2-year period with unexplained fever and suspected primary CMV infection. Nine of the 10 patients with primary CMV infection had positive CMV antigenemia assays, and the results were available within 5 hours. All 10 patients had a mononucleosis-like syndrome. All but one of the 30 other patients had negative CMV antigenemia assays. A false-positive result was obtained for a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Overall, the CMV antigenemia assay was 90% sensitive and 96% specific for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection. Therefore, the CMV antigenemia assay appears to be a simple, rapid, inexpensive test for the diagnosis of primary CMV infection in hospitalized adults.. ...
The Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) in a sample. This kit utilizes Epstein-Barr VCA antigen (P3H3 cell extract, cultured in human Burkitt lymphoma cells).
The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus functions as an origin-binding protein (OBP) and transcriptional regulator. LANA binds the terminal repeats via the C-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) to support latent DNA replication. To date, the structure of LANA has not been solved. Sequence alignments among OBPs of gammaherpesviruses have revealed that the C terminus of LANA is structurally related to EBNA1, the OBP of Epstein-Barr virus. Based on secondary structure predictions for LANA(DBD) and published structures of EBNA1(DBD), this study used bioinformatics tools to model a putative structure for LANA(DBD) bound to DNA. To validate the predicted model, 38 mutants targeting the most conserved motifs, namely three alpha-helices and a conserved proline loop, were constructed and functionally tested. In agreement with data for EBNA1, residues in helices 1 and 2 mainly contributed to sequence-specific DNA binding and replication activity, whilst ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic peptides deduced from the amino acid sequence of Epstein‐Barr virus nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA 6). T2 - Antigenic properties, production of monoreactive reagents, and analysis of antibody responses in man. AU - Falk, K.. AU - Linde, A.. AU - Johnson, D.. AU - Lennette, E.. AU - Ernberg, I.. AU - Lundkvist, A.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Studies on the antibody responses to various Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) antigens have been instrumental in the understanding of the seroepidemiology and diagnosis of this viral infection and the subsequent carrier state. While antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA), early antigen (EA), and nuclear antigens 1 and 2 (EBNA 1 and 2) have been well characterized, the antibody response to the other nuclear antigens is not well understood. EBNA 6 is expressed by lymphoblasts during acute EBV infection and may be an important antigen for diagnosis and evaluation of the immune response. In order to analyze the antibody response to EBNA ...
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism in cancer invasiveness and metastasis. We had previously reported that cancer cells expressing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent viral antigens EBV nuclear antigen EBNA3C and/ or EBNA1 showed higher motility and migration potential and had a propensity for increased metastases when tested in nude mice model. We now show that both EBNA3C and EBNA1 can modulate cellular pathways critical for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. Our data confirms that presence of EBNA3C or EBNA1 result in upregulation of transcriptional repressor Slug and Snail, upregulation of intermediate filament of mesenchymal origin vimentin, upregulation of transcription factor TCF8/ZEB1, downregulation as well as disruption of tight junction zona occludens protein ZO-1, downregulation of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. We further show that the primary tumors as well as metastasized lesions derived from EBV ...
There is increasing interest in formulating an effective vaccine against EBV, designed to not only limit the outgrowth of latently infected B cells in healthy individuals but to also block the development of many EBV-associated malignancies such as Burkitts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Hodgkins disease. In western societies, the principle aim of such a vaccine would be to protect from IM. In this context, virus load (a large dose of orally transmitted virus and/or overexpansion of the virus-transformed B cell pool beyond a critical threshold) may be a critical determinant of disease risk 1 . Therefore, a vaccine capable of either blocking primary EBV infection or significantly reducing the EBV load during primary infection may be adequate to avert clinical symptoms. A similar vaccine will also be able to reduce the immediate risk of lymphoproliferative disease in transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. On the other hand, EBV-associated malignancies such as Burkitts ...
The various antigen complexes of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are broadly classified as the viral capsid antigen (VCA), diffuse early antigen (EA-D), restricted early antigen (EA-R), membrane antigen (MA) and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA). The different EBV-related diseases may be differentiated according to the reactivity of these different classes of antibodies towards the various classes of antigen complexes. However, with the recent development of molecular biology, it is now known that the individual polypeptides of the different EBV antigen complexes can be used as serological markers for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Among the useful serological markers which have been used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of NPC are the gp125 from the VCA complex (IgA), pp58 from the EA-D complex (IgG), ribonucleotide reductase (IgG and IgA), DNase (IgA) and thymidine kinase (IgA) from the EA-R complex, gp 250/200 from the MA complex (IgA) and ...
Thane, Jul 13(PTI) Maharashtra Minister Eknath Shinde on Monday commissioned a programme in Thane city to administer rapid antigen tests to detect COVID-19 quickly. The Thane Municipal Corporation has placed an order for one lakh rapid antigen test kits, which can give results in 30 minutes, an official said, adding that tests will be conducted on a large-scale in hotspots, slum clusters etc using these kits. Municipal Commissioner Vipin Sharma said the increase in cases was because of the rise in number of tests, adding that 80 per cent of patients in the city were asymptomatic. During the function held in the TMC headquarters, Shinde also launched Mission Zero campaign to contain the outbreak. The campaign will be jointly carried out by TMC, MCHI CREDAI, Indian Jain Association and NGO Desh Apnaye. As part of the campaign, nine mobile dispensaries will make the rounds of nine wards. PTI COR BNM BNM ...
Blog on CMV antigen product: The CMV n/a (Catalog #MBS318657) is an Antigen produced from HF Cells and is intended for research purpos...
About Rapid Antigen Test Safe and private 100% service Best price for a home service Results available in Spanish and English Qualified personnel and biosafety protocols COVID-19 tests valid to enter any country and endorsed by INDRE and COFEPRIS. This rapid COVID-19 antigen test is performed using a nasapharyngeal swab and produces results in 15 minutes. Once the result has been observed, it will be broadcast in an electronic version within 3 successive hours.
Lee et al (87), used a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of 474 hotspots in 41 genes using 237 gastric adenocarcinomas, which included 58 EBVaGCs. Among these, 34 cases (14.3%) harbored somatic mutations, 6 of which concomitantly had two different mutations. Fourteen EBVaGC cases had mutations; 6 in PIK3CA (10.3%), 1 in p53 (1.7%), 2 in APC (3.4%), 1 in STK11 (1.7%), 3 in CTNNB1 (5.2%) and 1 in CDKN2A (1.7%). CTNNB1 mutations were significantly more frequent in EBVaGC than in EBV-negative gastric carcinomas (one of 179 cases, 0.6%). Frequent PIK3CA mutations were also reported in two subsequent studies; 16.7% (of 18 EBVaGCs) in a report by Sukawa et al (88), and 80% (of 28 EBVaGCs) in a report by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network (89). A recent report by Liang et al (90), showed several newly identified mutations in EBVaGC, including mutations in MAP3K4 (20.8%), TGFBR1 (25.0%), CCNA1 (25.0%) and AKT2 (38.2%). Among these, an AKT2 mutation was ...
The envelope glycoproteins of HIV, gp120 and gp41, contain epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Studies of human sera from infected individuals indicate that group-specific neutralization antigens common to most isolates of HIV-1 exist, and that some HIV-2 antisera cross-neutralize HIV-1. Neutralization epitopes for HIV-1 have been identified and mapped, including a group-specific antigen on gp41, and a type-specific antigen on gp120. Neutralization escape mutants have been selected in vitro with a neutralizing mab to the type-specific antigenic loop. The CD4 antigen binds HIV-1 gp120 with high affinity and acts as the receptor on human and simian T-lymphocytes and monocytes for all strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV tested. Following binding to the CD4 receptor, HIV becomes internalized by a pH-independent process. The principle binding domain for gp120 is located in the N-terminal V domain of CD4. Anti-idiotypic sera to CD4 mabs recognizing the same site weakly neutralize HIVs of many
5GTC: Crystal structure of complex between DMAP-SH conjugated with a Kaposis sarcoma herpesvirus LANA peptide (5-15) and nucleosome core particle
Ukrainian Deputy Health Minister and Chief Medical Officer Viktor Liashko says the ministry plans to boost COVID-19 testing by applying rapid antigen tests. According to Liashko, four manufacturers have already been incorporated in the United States.
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After washing to remove non-specifically bound antibodies, the substrate is incubated with an anti-human antibody conjugated to fluorescein. When results are positive, a stable three-part complex forms, consisting of fluorescent antibody bound to human antinuclear antibody that is bound to nuclear antigen. This complex can be visualized with the aid of a fluorescent microscope. In positive samples, the cell nuclei will show a bright apple-green fluorescence with a staining pattern characteristic of the particular nuclear antigen distribution within the cells. If the sample is negative for ANA, the nucleus will show no clearly discernible pattern of nuclear fluorescence. The cytoplasm may demonstrate weak staining while the non-chromosome region of mitotic cells demonstrates brighter staining ...
Proceeding/Conference:Biennial Conference of the International Association for Research on Epstein-Barr Virus and Associated Diseases ...
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Cullinan Oncology, LLC and The Wistar Institute today announced an agreement to accelerate the development of VK-2019, a novel EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1) inhibitor discovered by The Wistar Institute. VK-2019 will be developed by Cullinan Apollo, a company formed and...
BEOOGD GEBRUIK SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG ELISA-kit is een enzymgebonden immunosorbentassay (ELISA) voor de detectie en kwalitatieve meting van IgG-klasse-antilichamen tegen het nucleocapside-eiwit (NP) van het SARS-CoV-2-virus in menselijk bloed. Dit product is bedoeld voor de diagnose van coronavirusziekte 2019 (COVID-19). Dit product is uitsluitend bedoeld voor gebruik door professionele personen. OVERZICHT In december 2019 werd […]. ...
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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious zoonosis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which is a mosquito-borne pathogen of the family Flavivirus. However, the application of several developed laboratory methods for the detection of JEV antigens or antibodies are limited by their requirements of laboratory operations, skilled technicians and special facilities. To develop a method for detecting JEV antigen in swine, human, mosquito and other clinical specimens specifically, conveniently and effectively, an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, repeatability and stability of the developed method were evaluated, and 60 clinical samples were tested in this study. The results demonstrated that the antigen capture ELISA was capable in detecting JEV antigen with high sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional methods. 14 samples showed the positive result with coincidence rate of 70%, and 46 displayed negative
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are pathogenic. With the emergence of drug-resistant strains of HSV, new antiviral agents, especially those with different modes of action, are urgently needed. Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in China and Europe, has long been used as a …
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Summary Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) A22 Iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in BHK monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the A serotype. Plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. However, viruses obtained by passage in suspension BHK cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned from this stock resulted in the selection of virus which induced antibodies with highly specific neutralizing activity. In addition to their antigenic properties the monolayer and suspension cell-adapted viruses could be distinguished by plaque morphology, tendency to aggregate and ability to attach to BHK cells. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) induced with the plaque-purified monolayer-adapted virus had neutralizing activity almost as broad as polyclonal serum, showing that this property can be represented by
This topic contains 47 study abstracts on Epstein-Barr Virus Infections indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Curcumin, Licorice, and Turmeric
Recombinant proteins of Respiratory Syncytial Virus antigen with high purity and low endotoxin are all produced in house by Sino Biological.
Comparison of washed nasopharyngeal cells and whole nasal secretions for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...
Nevertheless, up to now, this passive immune technique has not been carried out as a therapy for RVA-linked diarrhea. Although Ab muscles can have higher
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric, 5 x 96 Tests. |p|The advent of biological products produced using animal components has created a need to ensure their removal prior to use.
When the mono spot test is negative, the optimal combination of EBV serologic testing consists of the antibody titration of four markers: IgM and IgG to the viral capsid antigen, IgM to the early antigen, and antibody to EBNA ...
Antigen test reliably and quickly triages people suspected of SARS-CoV-2, with results ready in 15 minutes, allowing informed treatment decisionsAntigen...
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
Viral Antigen ID: Performed on specimens obtained via nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs.. The test methodology is a well-established, widely used Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA), provided under FDA-granted EUA for the detection and identification of specific protein structures associated with SARS-CoV-2, namely: the spike protein, and the nucleocapsid protein (both known as viral antigens), is highly specific for confirming COVID-19. The FDA has authorized one. (1) testing system EUA in determining the presence of SARS-Co-V-2 Antigen. That test, ...
There are a lot of coronavirus tests that can determine whether you are infected with the coronavirus or not, and they also help find out if the virus has
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Cytomegalovirus pp28 protein (ab43038). Please download our general protocols booklet
The basic components of the diagnostic test systems are antigens and specific antibodies. The main objective of developing express tests for the diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is to obtain a virus antigen drug, which is very time-consuming to prepare. This problem can be solved by producing anti-idiotype antibodies that have a chemical structure identical to that of the viral antigen and does not require large expenditures to manufacture [1, 2 ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Antigen processing is a process that.... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
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The Rapid Antigen Test is easy to use and takes place as a smear in the anterior nasal cavity to determine the detection of antigens.
Discussion. In our study, we found 2 age peaks in the incidence of primary infection by EBV before adolescence: 2-4 years and 7 years. Historically, the literature has described a higher incidence in adolescence.2 In our sample, up to 64% of patients with a serologic diagnosis of primary infection by EBV were aged less than 10 years, probably because older children have a more florid presentation, which in many cases leads to a clinical diagnosis without the ordering of confirmatory laboratory tests that was the basis of our study.14-16. Despite the higher frequency in younger children, our study found a predominance of the typical presentation (65 cases). In the group of patients with typical features, 13 only had 2 symptoms and 52 more than 2 symptoms. However, in many instances the third symptom belonged to the composite variables other symptoms, which encompassed clinical manifestations that are not specifically part of mononucleosis syndromes. This approach to the classification of ...
As you know we have put in place guidelines and cleaning structure as part of our Covid-19 policy that coxes and crew must adhere to. On top of this, all coxes have agreed to take twice weekly rapid antigen tests (lateral flow test). We feel that by adding in this extra level of safety is Read More ...
MACS GMP PepTivator EBV EBNA-1 is a peptide pool that consists mainly of 15-mer peptides with 11 amino acids overlap. It has been developed for efficient in vitro stimulation and subsequent isolation of EBV EBNA-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. - Liechtenstein
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the major cause of birth defects and a precise definition of the HCMV-specific T-cell response in primary ...
Learn the difference between antigen and pathogen . Explore how these two vary from each other and discover if they have any similarities only on BYJUS Biology.
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viral antigen plant". The Hindu. -. 26 November 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 11 January 2021.CS1 maint: others (link) ...
"Detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA". Retrieved 2017-04-03. Grandien, M. (1996-05-01). "Viral ... By knowing the epitope sequence of the antibody, ELISA can also be used for antigen detection in a sample. Histological methods ... ELISA can also indicate viral presence and is highly specific, having a detection specificity of 10−9-10−12 moles per litre ... Antibodies are added to a bacterial solution, providing an antigen for the binding of fluorescent anti-antibody adherence. ...
... -antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis, autoimmune ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ...
He worked on the mechanism of activation of the immune system by viral antigens. He was awarded a D.Phil. in 1997 for his ... The processing and presentation of viral antigens (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC 43182774. "Medical Alumnus Wins ... thesis titled The processing and presentation of viral antigens. After graduation, he attended Harvard Medical School, where he ... Mukherjee's lab, with the help of PureTech Health plc, has been investigating chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR ...
This includes testing sera and saliva for viral antigens. Prenatal diagnosis is further complicated when microcephaly manifests ... severe reduction of neural progenitors and neurones as a result of cell cycle arrest and neural progenitor death due to viral ...
However, viral genomes are constantly mutating, producing new forms of these antigens. If one of these new forms of an antigen ... Two processes drive the antigens to change: antigenic drift[1][2] and antigenic shift, antigenic drift being the more common. ... In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.[4] The ... A. W. Hampson (2002). "Influenza virus antigens and antigenic drift". In C. W. Potter. Influenza. Elsevier Science B. V. pp. 49 ...
Viral meningitis[edit]. Viral meningitis typically only requires supportive therapy; most viruses responsible for causing ... carrying the K1 antigen). Listeria monocytogenes (serotype IVb) is transmitted by the mother before birth and may cause ... Bacterial and viral meningitis are contagious, but neither is as contagious as the common cold or flu.[50] Both can be ... Viral[edit]. Viruses that cause meningitis include enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus (generally type 2, which produces most ...
Transplantation antigens and their changes in carcinogenesis and viral infection. In: Virusnyi onkoliz i iskusstvennaya ... geterogenizatsiya opukholei (Viral Oncolysis and Artificial Heterogenization of Tumors). Riga, pp. 217-234. the stem bark of ...
Tjian R (1981). "Regulation of viral transcription and DNA replication by the SV40 large T antigen". Current Topics in ... ATPases (EC, adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ...
"The MHC class I antigen presentation pathway: strategies for viral immune evasion". Immunology. 110 (2): 163-9. doi:10.1046/j. ... "MHC class I antigen presentation: learning from viral evasion strategies". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 9 (7): 503-13. doi ... It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ... Histocompatibility+Antigens+Class+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... antigen presentation in adaptive immunity and viral infection; cystic fibrosis; and bacterial nutrition. In 2019, she was ...
DNA vaccines induce antigen production in the host. It is a plasmid that contains a viral, bacterial or parasite gene. The ... or killed viral strains. The inactivation occurs through chemical or physical treatment which either denatures the protein or ... analysis of pathogens and furthered understanding of the mechanisms of pathogens has resulted in the discovery of antigens and ...
Each adult dose contains 500 U of viral antigen. The pediatric dose contains 250 U of viral antigen. Vaqta: made by Merck. ... Each adult dose contains 1440 ELISA units of viral antigen adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg Al). The pediatric (child) ... doses contain half the amount of viral antigen and aluminium. Healive: made by Sinovac. Inactivated hepatitis A virus cultured ... "Hepatitis, Viral, Type A". Travelers' Health: Yellow Book (CDC). Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 12 ...
Viral antigen can be detected by performing an assay. A serological assay can also be performed on the sample to look for virus ... The viral protein gyanyltransferase λ2 is responsible for capping the viral mRNA. Mammalian orthoreovirus mRNA transcripts have ... "Orthoreovirus". Viral Zone. Retrieved 1 October 2014. editors, Michael G. Rossmann, Venigalla B. Rao (2012). Viral molecular ... "Viral Zone". Anonymous. "Orthoreovirus". ViralZone. Retrieved 1 October 2014. Anonymous. "Orthoreovirus". Viral Zone. Retrieved ...
... (core antigen) is a hepatitis B viral protein. It is an indicator of active viral replication; this means the person ... The presence of both HBcAg and HBeAg proteins together act as a marker of viral replication, and antibodies to these antigens ... May 2003). "New enzyme immunoassay for detection of hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and relation between levels of HBcAg ... HBcAg is an antigen that can be found on the surface of the nucleocapsid core (the inner most layer of the hepatitis B virus). ...
Viral antigen can be shown in tissues by indirect fluorescent antibody staining.[7] ... NS3 is a putative helicase, and NS5 is the viral polymerase. It has been noted that Japanese encephalitis infects the lumen of ... Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, with up to 70,000 cases reported annually.[25] ... The outer envelope is formed by envelope protein and is the protective antigen. It aids in entry of the virus into the inside ...
Fluorescent antibody study identified the locations of viral antigens in wild rabbit papillomas. They were present only in the ... In domesticated rabbits, the viral antigens were present in much smaller quantity in only superficial, keratinized layers. The ... Viral replication proteins E1 and E2 are also required to form the papilloma and keep the episomal viral genome replication low ... E4 proteins are expressed, and viral DNA amplification starts in the differentiated cells. Following this, the L1 and L2 viral ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fiber glycoproteins to host ... In addition, virus antigen can be detected double immunodiffusion. Postmortem examination may reveal a variety of clinical ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Avian Adenoviruses, reviewed and published ... Diagnosis of aviadenovirus is by histopathology, electron microscopy, viral isolation, ELISA and PCR. ...
An antigen is the part of a pathogen that elicits an immune response. Antigen tests look for antigen proteins from the viral ... Viral proteins are not amplified in an antigen test. According to the WHO the sensitivity of similar antigen tests for ... Tests that look for the viral antigens (parts of the virus) are called antigen tests. There are multiple types of tests that ... While some scientists doubt whether an antigen test can be useful against COVID-19, others have argued that antigen tests are ...
Less frequently, MHC II antigen presentation and induced-self molecules may also be targeted. Some viral immunoevasins block ... Lilley, Brendan N.; Ploegh, Hidde L. (2005). "Viral modulation of antigen presentation: manipulation of cellular targets in the ... where mutated or deleted immunoevasin genes would not interfere with antigen presentation on MHC I complexes upon viral ... However, additional viral proteins may be required for successful transport of m04-bound MHC I to the cell membrane. VZV ...
The viral envelope of an enveloped virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus which act as antigens. These ... Today, these antigen-proteins can be genetically manufactured (e.g. transgene E. coli) to produce material for a simple antigen ... HBsAg (also known as the Australia antigen) is the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It indicates current ... It is commonly referred to as the Australia Antigen. This is because it was first isolated by the American research physician ...
The most variable region of the viral capsid is the P2 domain, which contains antigen-presenting sites and carbohydrate- ... "Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens". Antiviral Res. 133: 14-22 ... The ABH-antigen produced is thought to act as a receptor for human norovirus: A non-functional fucosyltransferase FUT2 provides ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Prasad BV, Crawford S, Lawton JA, Pesavento J, Hardy M, Estes MK (2001). " ...
It was seen in this study that p53 could bind to viral tumor antigens. This information was corroborated during the same year ... It is also possible that mda-7 induces cytokine secretion, which causes antigen-presenting cells to present tumor antigens, ... E4orf4 is a key regulator of Ad by down-regulating both viral and cellular genes, which plays an important role in regulating ... This protein, also known as viral protein 3 (VP3) was isolated from chickens, and has been shown to cause PCD in transformed ...
... and viral capsid proteins VP1 and VP2/3 genes (from late strand) [1]. MCV T antigen has similar features to the T antigens of ... The viral T antigen has truncation mutations that leave the T antigen unable to initiate DNA replication needed to propagate ... "Merkel cell polyomavirus-infected Merkel cell carcinoma cells require expression of viral T antigens". Journal of Virology. 84 ... genome and encodes characteristic polyomavirus genes from opposite strands including a large T antigen, a small T antigen (LT ...
Blood tests can be done to detect antibodies against viral antigens and foreign proteins. Virus isolation is the most sensitive ... Polioencephalitis is a viral infection of the brain, causing inflammation within the grey matter of the brain stem. The virus ... Experiments on transgenic mice are investigating the initial sites of viral replication in the host and how the virus moves ... "Polioencephalitis and the brain Fatigue Generator Model of Post-Viral Fatigue Syndromes". J. Of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2 (2- ...
They could therefore be used to vaccinate against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and tumor antigens. Initially, the Togaviridae ... The proteolytic maturation of P62 into E2 and E3 causes a change in the viral surface. Together the E1, E2, and sometimes E3, ... Larger mammals such as humans and horses are usually dead-end hosts or play a minor role in viral transmission; however, in the ... The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through ...
HA creates a surface antigen that is especially important in transmissibility. PB1 creates a viral polymerase molecule that is ... form the minimum complement required for viral mRNA synthesis and replication." Surface antigen encoding gene segments (RNA ... M1 is a protein that binds to the viral RNA. M2 is a protein that uncoats the virus, thereby exposing its contents (the eight ... The PB1 protein is a critical component of the viral polymerase. The PB1-F2 protein is encoded by an alternative open reading ...
Main article: Viral neuraminidase. Influenza neuraminidase is a mushroom-shaped projection on the surface of the influenza ... It comprises a single polypeptide chain that is oriented in the opposite direction to the hemagglutinin antigen. The ... The viral neuraminidases are frequently used as antigenic determinants found on the surface of the influenza virus. Some ... The best-known neuraminidase is the viral neuraminidase, a drug target for the prevention of the spread of influenza infection ...
Interleukin-10 determines viral clearance or persistence in vivo. Nature Medicine. November 2006, 12 (11): 1301-9. PMC 2535582 ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Progressive loss of memory T cell potential and commitment to exhaustion during chronic viral infection. Journal of Virology. ...
COVID-19 rapid antigen test. *Covid-Organics. *Curative (company). *Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 ... Viral respiratory tract infections. *Atypical pneumonias. *Airborne diseases. *Coronavirus-associated diseases. Hidden ...
... meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ... Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ...
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). *Immune toxicity, with depletion of B cells in 70% ...
... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... "A systematic review of viral infections associated with oral involvement in cancer patients: a spotlight on Herpesviridea" ... the donor should preferably have the same human leukocyte antigens (HLA) as the recipient. About 25 to 30 percent of allogeneic ...
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Other viral infections. *Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by JC virus reactivation[30] ...
Isn't that a sure way to get a lot of viral particles into the air? Why don't more people get sick from that? Imagine Reason ( ... I've gotten the vaccine so I don't know how good antigen tests would be. Also, home test kits have high error rates. Imagine ... Furthermore, recent viral variants significantly complicate the question, and broadly speaking, researchers and public health ... viral load, "transmissibility", and many more. This is why it's never sufficient to say "well the Pfizer vaccine has an ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... Unlike viral meningitis, Lyme lymphocytic meningitis tends to not cause fever, last longer, and recur.[33][30] Lymphocytic ... The EM (Erythema migrans) rash is often accompanied by symptoms of a viral-like illness, including fatigue, headache, body ... People with high fever for more than two days or whose other symptoms of viral-like illness do not improve despite antibiotic ...
"Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ... or alternatively the result of chronic viral infection which is known to also elevate anti-tranglutaminase antibody. A German ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ...
... , also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] ... However, immunofluorescence essays provide less definitive proof of Lassa infection.[7] An ELISA test for antigen and ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium Lassa fever Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed April 6, 2016 ... Clinically, Lassa fever infections are difficult to distinguish from other viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg ...
Figueiredo LT (2009). "Viral pneumonia: epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects". J Bras Pneumol ... gayundin ang pagsusuri sa ihi para sa mga antigen (substansiyang lumilikha ng pangontra sa sakit) para sa Legionella at ... Ruuskanen, O; Lahti, E, Jennings, LC, Murdoch, DR (2011-04-09). "Viral pneumonia". Lancet. 377 (9773): 1264-75. doi:10.1016/ ... Ang mga impeksiyong sanhi ng birus ay maaaring kumpirmahin sa pamamagitan ng pagtuklas ng alinman sa birus o mga antigen ( ...
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ... The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.[3] In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... stimulation the accumulation and the clonal expansion of memory and effector T-cells hampered immune defences against viral ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
The immune complexes are formed by binding of antibodies to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane. The antigens may be ... Within membranous glomerulonephritis, especially in cases caused by viral hepatitis, serum C3 levels are low.[7] ... Other studies have implicated neutral endopeptidase and cationic bovine serum albumin as antigens.[4] ... "M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy". The New England Journal of Medicine ...
T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the initiation of DNA replication for the virus as well ... The Spi-B factor was shown to be crucial in initiating viral replication in certain strains of transgenic mice.[10] The protein ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... Further research is needed to determine the exact etiological role of T-antigen, but there seems to be a connection to the ...
... is to conjugate the antigens. Conjugation is the attachment to the antigen of another substance which also generates an immune ... A more contemporary approach for "boosting" the immune response to simpler immunogenic molecules (known as antigens) ... In the future it might be possible to artificially design antibodies to fit specific antigens, then produce them in large ... response, thus amplifying the overall response and causing a more robust immune memory to the antigen. For example, a toxoid ...
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
Infectious diseases - viral (AIDS, SARS, West Nile encephalitis, hepatitis, herpes, measles, others), bacterial (TB, typhoid, ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ...
... have been produced primarily by ex-vivo cultures and by the expansion of T-lymphocytes after stimulation with viral antigens. ... This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... It is a treatment that has been effective in preventing and treating viral infections after HSCT. VST therapy uses active donor ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ...
Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ... The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ... Next, some of these RNA molecules are translated into viral proteins. For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of ...
... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse inoculated with the viral ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... This can occur in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural killer" because they do not require activation in ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. Its name derives from ... a B/Brisbane 60/2008-like antigens[23]. A separate vaccine was available for pandemic H1N1 influenza using the A/California/7/ ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... When a part of a plant becomes infected with a microbial or viral pathogen, in case of an incompatible interaction triggered by ...
The decomposition of a viral capsid. An informal and simplified description of the way a virus infectious material enters the ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... which act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as ... system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens.[2] ...
Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or hepatitis C),[22][23][24] alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis of ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucins may aid in diagnosis.[45] Most tumors (,90%) are adenocarcinomas.[46] ...
Viral antigens[edit]. For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ...
negative regulation of viral genome replication. • humoral immune response. • positive regulation of interleukin-8 production. ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via IL1 & IL6 producing cells. ... but also found in viral capsid proteins. ...
"Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome". Science 244 (4902): 359-62. April ... Detection by Immune Electron Microscopy of a Viruslike Antigen Associated with Acute Illness". Science 182 (4116): 1026-1028. ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Viral disease. Notes and references[edit]. *^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-03. Retrieved ... In these forms of viral infection, the illness is often treated by the body's own immune response, and therefore the virus is ... Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the ...
Sino Biological possesses the worlds largest bank of recombinant viral antigens. This means they can ably support infectious ... The ProVir™ viral antigen bank includes more than 1,000 antigens from 90 virus types/subtypes and 350 strains. ... Recombinant antigens for influenza vaccine strains. The ProVir™ collection also includes 630+ ME, NA and HA antigens from more ... ProVir™, the worlds largest recombinant viral antigen collection, has been independently developed by Sino Biological. ...
p24 Antigen Detection Assay Modified with a Booster Step for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 ... B Enzyme Immunoassay and Correlation of Results with the Number of Antigen-Positive Cells Detected by Cytospin ...
An easy-to-use directory for life science and biomedical research products. Find special deals on products, order catalogs and browse product lines from suppliers of reagents, antibodies, laboratory equipment, and more.
Viral antigens elicit augmented immune responses in primary Sjögrens syndrome.. Björk A1, Thorlacius GE1, Mofors J1, ... We observed augmented innate and adaptive immune responses in pSS following viral antigen exposure suggesting an underlying ... Systematic studies of immune responses to microbial antigens in vivo may be performed during vaccination. In the present study ...
Duration of humoral immunity to common viral and vaccine antigens.. Amanna IJ1, Carlson NE, Slifka MK. ... We performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody titers specific for viral antigens (vaccinia, measles, mumps, rubella, ... In addition, we measured antigen-specific memory B cells by means of limiting-dilution analysis, and we compared memory B-cell ... Antibody responses against tetanus and diphtheria antigens waned more quickly, with estimated half-lives of 11 years and 19 ...
Additional Keywords : Adverse Reaction, Chromosome, Genomic Variation, Modified Viral Antigens. Anti Therapeutic Actions : ... 1 Abstracts with Modified Viral Antigens Research. Filter by Study Type. Human: Case Report. ... 1 Problematic Actions Researched for Modified Viral Antigens Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Antigen-Antibody Pens, a set of any 3 pens. 10. Antigen-Antibody Pen For Biotin-tagged antibodies (all species). 11. Antigen- ...
A viral antigen is a protein encoded by the viral genome.A viral protein is an antigen specified by the viral genome that can ... A viral Antigen is an antigen with multiple antigenicities that is protein in nature, strain-specific, and closely associated ... A viral antigen is a protein encoded by the viral genome.A viral protein is an antigen specified by the viral genome that can ... About Viral Antigens:. A viral Antigen is an antigen with multiple antigenicities that is protein in nature, strain-specific, ...
... lack of antigen capture cannot be the main cause of impaired MHC II presentation of viral antigens seen here, because mature ... so it might be expected that antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves (for instance, viral antigens) would still be presented ... rather than to down-regulation of antigen uptake or processing. Indeed, presentation of an endogenous viral antigen was also ... but were unable to present peptides derived from these antigens. Furthermore, presentation of viral antigens synthesized by the ...
The kit disclosed herein uses ELISA methodology, employs the BVDV antigen specific monoclonal antibody 15.c.5, and requires at ... or other bodily fluid samples to identify cattle infected with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). The results of this ... The invention disclosed herein presents an antigen-capture immunoassay that utilizes serum, plasma, milk, urine, saliva, ... MIGNON B ET AL: "A MONOCLONAL ELISA FOR BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA PESTIVIRUS ANTIGEN DETECTION IN PERSISTENTLY INFECTED CATTLE", ...
These studies provide quantitative analysis of serologic memory for multiple antigens in subjects followed longitudinally over ... Duration of humoral immunity to common viral and vaccine antigens N Engl J Med. 2007 Nov 8;357(19):1903-15. doi: 10.1056/ ... Methods: We performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody titers specific for viral antigens (vaccinia, measles, mumps, rubella ... In addition, we measured antigen-specific memory B cells by means of limiting-dilution analysis, and we compared memory B-cell ...
... ... Unknown author (‎1979)‎. Detection of antigens and IgM antibodies for rapid diagnosis of viral infections: a WHO Memorandum*. ...
PRNewswire/ -- The Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Forecast to 2027 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis by ... Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Analysis - By End User. 11. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Analysis and ... 4. Global Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market - Market Landscape. 5. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market- Key ... 6. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market - Global Analysis. 7. Native Bacterial and Viral Antigens Market Analysis - By ...
These findings indicate that the viral GP determines nAb kinetics largely independently of the specific viral infection context ... They further suggest that structural features of viral GPs or coevolutionary adaptation of the viruss GP to the hosts naive B ... Using a reverse genetic approach, we evaluated possible underlying mechanisms in 2 widely studied viral infection models. ... each of the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral ...
The nAbs of the indicated specificity were used for detection of the viral surface antigens. Scale bar: 0.2 μm. (. D. ) BHK-21 ... These findings indicate that the viral GP determines nAb kinetics largely independently of the specific viral infection context ... WT and recombinant viral genomes. (. A. ) The LCMV-ARM genome consists of 2 single-stranded negative-strand ambisense RNA ... They further suggest that structural features of viral GPs or coevolutionary adaptation of the viruss GP to the hosts naive B ...
... viral or tumor-derived antigens are presented to CD8,sup,+,/sup, T cells by ,i,Batf3-,/i,dependent CD8α,sup,+,/sup,/XCR1,sup ... WDFY4 is required for cross-presentation in response to viral and tumor antigens Science. 2018 Nov 9;362(6415):694-699. doi: ... During the process of cross-presentation, viral or tumor-derived antigens are presented to CD8+ T cells by Batf3-dependent CD8α ... and identified the BEACH domain-containing protein WDFY4 as essential for cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens by ...
What is viral hepatitis antigens? Meaning of viral hepatitis antigens medical term. What does viral hepatitis antigens mean? ... Looking for online definition of viral hepatitis antigens in the Medical Dictionary? viral hepatitis antigens explanation free ... viral hepatitis antigens. vi·ral hep·a·ti·tis an·ti·gens (vīrăl hepă-tītis anti-jĕnz) Immunogenic components of hepatitis ... Viral hepatitis antigens , definition of viral hepatitis antigens by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
The antigen of claim 11 wherein the immunogenic carrier material is Keyhole limpet hemocyanin. 14. The antigen of claim 11 ... An immunogenic antigen comprising the peptide of claim 4 covalently bonded to an immunogenic carrier material. 12. The antigen ... The preparation of an antibody using the antigen is carried out by administering the aforesaid antigen, preferably using an ... while it is apparent that the antigen of the core protein of the AIDS virus at positions 92 to 109 is critical in the viral ...
Recombinant Borrelia Burgdorferi p100 (p100/p83) produced in SF9 is a glycosylated, polypeptide chain having a calculated molecular mass of 77,813 Dalton.
Performance Evaluation Programs for Determining HIV-1 Viral Loads, Testing for HIV p24 Antigen, and Identifying Mycobacterium ... The first assesses the performance of laboratories that perform tests to determine the viral RNA copy number (viral load) in ... Results of viral load determinations are being used by physicians treating HIV-infected patients to make decisions regarding ... For laboratories interested in participating in the new PE programs for viral load and p24 Ag testing, or one of the existing ...
The Epstein-Barr virus viral-capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) is the viral protein that forms the viral capsid of the Epstein-Barr ... It is the antigen targeted by antibodies that bond to viral capsid antigens (VCA). Such antibodies can be used in serology to ...
Australia Antigen and Acute Viral Hepatitis W. THOMAS LONDON, M.D., F.A.C.P.; ALTON I. SUTNICK, M.D., F.A.C.P.; BARUCH S. ... Australia antigen (Au(1)) was found in the sera of 20% of 125 patients with acute viral hepatitis. It was not present in the ... Australia Antigen and Acute Viral Hepatitis. Ann Intern Med. 1969;70:55-59. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-70-1-55 ... Experiences of Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Viral Hepatitis B, and Viral Hepatitis C Infections at a Hospital in ...
Diagnosis of viral infections via viral antigen detection methods such as immunofluorescence (FA), immunochromatography ( ... This chapter deals with principles of FA, IC, and EIA and their contemporary applications in viral antigen detection. ... offer many of these attractive features and are useful for direct detection of viral antigens in an array of clinical specimens ... Whether the detection method is FA, rapid IC, or EIA, detection of antigens of the common respiratory viruses (i.e., adenovirus ...
Determinants of spontaneous surface antigen loss in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with a low viral load†‡. ... Determinants of spontaneous surface antigen loss in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients with a low viral load. Hepatology, ... Viral Hepatitis. You have free access to this content. ...
Viral, Tumor" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Viral, Tumor" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Antigens, Viral, Tumor" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, Viral, Tumor" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antigens, Viral, Tumor". ...
... a number of observations have culminated in the localization of viral antigens in liver tissue by the use of routine histology ... The role of hepatitis B viral antigens and liver membrane antigens as targets. In: Popper H, Schaffner F (eds) Progress in ... Prognostic Significance of Viral Antigens in Liver Tissue. In: Callea F., Zorzi M., Desmet V.J. (eds) Viral Hepatitis. ... Over the past 15 years, a number of observations have culminated in the localization of viral antigens in liver tissue by the ...
These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell ... The fused cells and/or co-cultured cells are then used to provide a complete array of tumor antigens or viral antigens that can ... This is presumably because the tumor cells and viral cells are incapable of providing the antigen or antigens in the ... Induction of tumor and viral immunity using antigen presenting cell co-culture products and fusion products ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen(HBsAg) Loss in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Low Viral Load (LVL). The safety and scientific ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen(HBsAg) Loss in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Low Viral Load. ... 50 HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients with low viral load will receive Peg-Interferon alfa 2a + Adefovir for a period ... 50 HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients with low viral load will receive Peg-Interferon alfa 2a + Tenofovir for a period ...
Human B Cells Secrete Granzyme B When Recognizing Viral Antigens in the Context of the Acute Phase Cytokine IL-21. Magdalena ... Human B Cells Secrete Granzyme B When Recognizing Viral Antigens in the Context of the Acute Phase Cytokine IL-21 ... Human B Cells Secrete Granzyme B When Recognizing Viral Antigens in the Context of the Acute Phase Cytokine IL-21 ... Human B Cells Secrete Granzyme B When Recognizing Viral Antigens in the Context of the Acute Phase Cytokine IL-21 ...
The immunodot blot test was sensitive and specific for ASFV antigens and has potential field application. Hemolymph from field- ... antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks (Ornithodoros coriaceus) fed on ASFV-infected pigs. ... Identification of African Swine Fever Viral Antigens in the Hemolymph of Soft Ticks (Argasidae: Ornithodoros) by the Immunodot ... The immunodot blot test was used to identify African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks ( ...
  • When cellular immunity is unable to clear the virus, the infection can become chronic, and serum antibodies to the viral pathogen are used as first indicator for the diagnosis of the disease. (
  • Recombinant viral antigens contain part of viral sequence meaning that the recombinant antigen contains a region which can be recognized by different antibodies produced by different individuals. (
  • If an individual infected with a viral antigen makes antibodies to a part of the protein not included in the synthetic peptides, a false negative results. (
  • It is the antigen targeted by antibodies that bond to viral capsid antigens (VCA). (
  • The EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM test looks for a type of antibody which the body develops in response to infection with Epstein-Barr Virus . (
  • We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. (
  • We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. (
  • This hypothesis suggests that B cells initially recruited to neutralize external pathogens after somatic mutations and maturation start to produce low-to-middle affinity cross-reactive antibodies able to recognize self-antigens. (
  • We observed that viral vectored vaccines expressing both stalk-targeting, chimeric HA constructs, and the NP+M1 fusion protein, in a prime-boost regimen resulted in the production of antibodies toward group 2 HAs, the HA stalk, NP and M1, as well as in induction of influenza virus-specific-IFNγ responses. (
  • Measurement of heterophil antibody and antibodies to EB viral capsid antigen IgG and IgM in suspected cases of infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Detection of influenza and other acute respiratory viruses: haemagglutinin-specific antibodies and viral antigens for assay development and research. (
  • Advanced ImmunoChemical offers 15 antigens of influenza and other acute respiratory diseases, as well as a selection of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of these respiratory illnesses: influenza type A and type B, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and Newcastle disease. (
  • In immunology , antigens ( Ag ) are structures (aka substances) specifically bound by antibodies (Ab) or a cell surface version of Ab ~ B cell antigen receptor (BCR). (
  • Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. (
  • because of this, many different antibodies are produced, each able to bind a different antigen while sharing the same basic structure. (
  • in some instances, however, antibodies may cross-react and bind more than one antigen. (
  • But, by 1903, he understood that an antigen induces the production of immune bodies (antibodies) and wrote that the word antigen is a contraction of antisomatogen ( Immunkörperbildner ). (
  • Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is specific to one of the antigen's epitopes. (
  • The immunoperoxidase technique using monoclonal antibodies showed that persistently infected neurons primarily expressed the nucleocapsid protein antigens of LCMV. (
  • Use Immunoaffinity to purify anti-CD4 antibodies from patient serum and assess the influence of those antibodies on virus uptake into target cells;and 2) Continue screening of additional patient serum to assess anti-CD4,anti-SU, and anti-Gag humoral antibody responses as a function of rate/extent of disease progression, as measured by relative CD4+ and CD8+ T cell levels and viral load. (
  • New viral vectors for the expression of antigens and antibodies in plants. (
  • 2 antibodies to 4 different viral antigens. (
  • The collection features a comprehensive collection of influenza antigens , an exclusive coronavirus catalog and many other hard-to-find viral proteins such as Cytomegalovirus, Ebola, RSV and Zika. (
  • The ability to produce recombinant viral proteins will ensure that future ELISAs are safe, specific and rapid. (
  • 2. No nucleic acids or other viral or external proteins, therefore less toxic. (
  • Such antigens correspond to proteins captured from the extracellular medium (exogenous), or those synthesized by the DCs themselves (endogenous). (
  • Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. (
  • It is generally thought that the Ag processing pathways for endogenously synthesized proteins are the same for allo and viral Ag processing. (
  • Radioimmunoassay of mammalian type C viral proteins. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis is related to the host responses to viral infection within target cells, and therefore, this study assessed intracellular changes in host proteins following DENV infection. (
  • by contrast, latent infections, in which viral gene expression has been extinguished yet viral proteins persist, will remain visible to CD4+ T cells. (
  • Phosphorylation of cellular and viral proteins, which has been observed during lytic infection of cells by herpesviruses, seems to be a common phenomenon which involves a number of different protein kinase activities ( 21 ). (
  • The aim of this project is to determine if the coexpression of a viral antigen and cell death modulating adaptor proteins can enhance the immune response as well as protection against a homologous viral challenge. (
  • Recombinant Viral Antigens Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GRA1) recombinant antigen recombinant proteins Most stable storage is at - 81 C or lower but some lyophilised proteins can be stored at +4C. (
  • [3] Antigens are usually proteins , peptides (amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides. (
  • Responsiveness of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to viral proteins and to recombinant epitopes was monitored by MHC-multimer staining and cytokines (IFNγ & IL-2) expression analysis. (
  • pdf Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides-III: Viral and Bacterial Antigens & feminist fault - Should Euthanasia or charitable income acquire other? (
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  • Our examples are engrained healthy pdf Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides-III: Viral and malware from your journalism. (
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  • Your pdf Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides-III: Viral says not clear in Filing us give the New Zealand only defendant. (
  • in 2015 Senator Ted Cruz, sometimes a sluggish pdf Immunobiology of Proteins and Peptides-III: Viral, was a federal 16 network advantage for all understanding taxes. (
  • The exogenous pathway is utilized by specialized antigen-presenting cells to present peptides derived from proteins that the cell has endocytosed. (
  • In Cross-presentation , peptides derived from extracellular proteins are presented in the context of MHC class I. The cell starts off with the exogenous pathways but diverts the antigens (cytosolic diversion) to the endogenous pathway. (
  • This work reports on new SHMV-based viral vectors for high yield of target proteins in legumes. (
  • Here, we show that DCs matured in vivo could still capture and process soluble antigens, but were unable to present peptides derived from these antigens. (
  • [4] In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells ) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules present peptides derived from the endogenous protein pool to cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which can thus recognize intracellular antigen. (
  • This protein down-regulates MHC class-I antigen presentation by blocking the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), which translocates peptides, generated by proteasomal protein degradation, into the endoplasmic reticulum for loading onto MHC class I molecule. (
  • If a virus had infected the cell, viral peptides would also be presented, allowing the immune system to recognize and kill the infected cell. (
  • Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a protein that spans the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum , transports the peptides into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • 10. The fusion protein of claim 1, wherein the Ag comprises virus peptides from different antigens separated by different peptide linkers. (
  • 4. Viral Protein is an effective preventative against ear infection. (
  • Using a reverse genetic approach, we evaluated possible underlying mechanisms in 2 widely studied viral infection models. (
  • These findings indicate that the viral GP determines nAb kinetics largely independently of the specific viral infection context. (
  • Our findings suggest that GrB-secreting B cells support the early antiviral immune response against viruses with endosomal entry pathways, thereby counteracting overwhelming viral replication at the beginning of an infection until virus-specific T cells from draining lymph nodes arrive at the site of infection. (
  • Differential diagnosis of bacterial and viral infection is often a big challenge. (
  • On the other hand, tests which are known as a gold standard for confirmation of bacterial or viral etiology of infection (microbiological culture or polymerase chain reaction - PCR, respectively) are laborious and, what is more important, time-consuming. (
  • Additionally, they also have some limitations, i.e. cultures may give false negative results if the patient already got antibiotics, while PCR may lead to false positive results, because of high sensitivity and presence of viral genome in the sample long after the infection [5]. (
  • None of these 97 persons gave evidence of infection with Australia/SH antigen. (
  • Lethality of infection correlates with inefficient reconstitution of viral epitope-specific CD8 + T cells. (
  • Notably, lethality is prevented and control of cytopathogenic infection is restored when viral antigen presentation is enhanced by deletion of immune evasion genes from the infecting virus. (
  • Here, we combine these two platforms to evaluate the efficacy of a viral vectored vaccination regimen in protecting ferrets from H3N2 influenza virus infection. (
  • It has been suggested that virus-specific CD8+ T cells with a "polyfunctional" profile, defined by the capacity to secrete multiple cytokines or chemokines, are most competent in controlling viral replication in chronic HIV-1 infection. (
  • We used HIV-1 infection as a model of chronic persistent viral infection to investigate the process of exhaustion and dysfunction of virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses on the single-epitope level over time, starting in primary HIV-1 infection. (
  • Epitope-specific CD8+ T cells responded with multiple effector functions to antigenic stimulation during primary HIV-1 infection, but lost their polyfunctional capacity in response to antigen and up-regulated programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression with persistent viremic infection. (
  • Conclusion: These data suggest that persistence of antigen can be the cause, rather than the consequence, of the functional impairment of virus-specific T cell responses observed during chronic HIV-1 infection, and underscore the importance of evaluating autologous viral sequences in studies aimed at investigating the relationship between virus-specific immunity and associated pathogenesis. (
  • Transfection of target cells to express GRP78 prior to DENV challenge did not affect subsequent DENV infection, but cleavage of GRP78 with the SubAB toxin, during an established DENV infection, yielded a 10- to 100-fold decrease in infectious-virus release, loss of intracellular DENV particles, and a dramatic decrease in intracellular DENV antigen. (
  • Thus, GRP78 is upregulated by DENV infection and is necessary for DENV antigen production and/or accumulation. (
  • The two cases reported here provide, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first description of the pathology and viral antigen distribution of lethal respiratory disease in domestic cats after natural pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus infection, probably transmitted from humans. (
  • Recognition by cytolytic T lymphocytes of the phosphoprotein pp89, the immunodominant viral antigen expressed in the immediate-early phase of infection, was selectively prevented during the subsequent expression of viral early genes. (
  • Among the potential viral protein substrates we examined, the EBV early antigen (EA-D, BMRF1), a DNA polymerase accessory factor and an important transactivator during lytic infection, was found to be phosphorylated by BGLF4 in vitro. (
  • During the lytic phase of EBV infection, the viral factor BNLF2a interferes with antigen processing by preventing peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. (
  • These experiments underscore the importance of DCs in the immunotherapeutic clearance of a persistent viral infection and suggest that strategies to elevate the activation/migration of DCs (especially within the CNS) may facilitate pathogen clearance. (
  • Remarkably, a series of seminal studies conducted in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) model system ( 1 ) have revealed that total body elimination of a fully established persistent viral infection is attainable ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • 2016). CT findings in viral lower respiratory tract infection caused by parainfluenza virus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus. (
  • Antigen tests are immunoassays that detect the presence of a specific viral antigen, which implies current viral infection. (
  • However, NAATs can remain positive for weeks to months after initial infection and can detect levels of viral nucleic acid even when virus cannot be cultured, suggesting that the presence of viral nucleic acid may not always indicate contagiousness. (
  • Accumulation of data on the performance of antigen tests in different situations has helped guide the use of these tests as screening tests in asymptomatic people to detect or exclude SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • A central feature of vertebrate immune systems is the ability to form antigen-specific immune memory in response to microbial challenge and so provide protection against future infection. (
  • In conflict with this process is the ability that many viruses have to mutate their antigens to escape infection- or vaccine-induced antibody memory responses. (
  • Induction of long-lived germinal centers associated with persisting antigen after viral infection. (
  • they are the first to show colocalization of antigen and specific memory B cells and to analyze a protective neutralizing antibody response against an acute viral infection. (
  • Labs across the city and health experts credit the rapid antigen test for reducing the burden on RT-PCR tests, helping in quicker identification of cases and reducing the risk of spread of infection. (
  • No vaccine or specific antiviral treatment is available for treating Norovirus infection although the observation that the anti-viral nucleoside analogue 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine inhibits murine norovirus replication in macrophages has elicited hopes that this compound can be developed into medication for the treatment of infection with this virus. (
  • Bianchi L, Gudat F (1976) Sanded nuclei in hepatitis B. Eosinophilic inclusions in liver cell nuclei due to excess in hepatitis B core antigen formation. (
  • The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of hepatitis C core antigen assay in the monitoring of anti-viral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. (
  • This longitudinal, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and cost benefit of an All-HCV core antigen assay protocol and a hybrid qtHCV RNA PCR and HCV core Ag assay protocol to the standard All-qtHCV-PCR protocol in chronic HCV G4 patients treated with pegylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin. (
  • The All-HCV core antigen and hybrid monitoring assays resulted in the significant cost savings without compromising performance. (
  • In addition, we measured antigen-specific memory B cells by means of limiting-dilution analysis, and we compared memory B-cell frequencies to their corresponding serum antibody levels. (
  • however, in many cases a vigorous cellular immune response mediated by T-cells and NK-cells is required for effective viral clearance. (
  • 1. A Viral Protein Mimics its Way into cells. (
  • 2. Viral Protein Helps Infected T Cells Stick To Uninfected Cells. (
  • 7. Antigen-presenting cells from calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus, a member of the Flaviviridae, are not compromised in their ability to present viral antigen. (
  • 9. The absence of viral antigens on the surface of equine herpesvirus-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a strategy to avoid complement-mediated lysis. (
  • 11. A viral protein produced by cancer-causing virus influences a key signaling pathway in the immune cells that the virus infects. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) have a high capacity to endocytose antigens and present them on their MHC class II (MHC II) molecules (reviewed in ref. 1 ). (
  • C ) Immunogold staining of viral particles budding from BHK-21 cells infected with the viruses as indicated. (
  • During the process of cross-presentation, viral or tumor-derived antigens are presented to CD8 + T cells by Batf3- dependent CD8α + /XCR1 + classical dendritic cells (cDC1s). (
  • These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell fused to either at least one tumor cell or at least one virally infected cell, or the products of co-cultures of antigen presenting cells and either tumor cells or virally infected cells. (
  • wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells, and said second cells are selected from the group consisting of tumor cells and virally infected cells. (
  • We have discovered that BCR stimulation with either viral Ags or activating Abs in the context of the acute phase cytokine IL-21 can induce the secretion of substantial amounts of GrB by human B cells. (
  • Importantly, GrB response to viral Ags was significantly stronger in B cells from subjects recently vaccinated against the corresponding viruses as compared with unvaccinated subjects. (
  • Normally immature B cells recognizing self-antigens are forced to undergo receptor editing or eliminated during negative selection ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Differential recruitment of viral and allo-epitopes into the MHC class I antigen processing pathway of a novel mutant of Ltk- cells. (
  • In HSV-1-infected gro29 cells, viral polypeptides are synthesized in normal amounts and viral assembly takes place. (
  • However, transport of the assembled particles is defective in these cells, resulting in the accumulation of noninfectious virus in cytoplasmic vesicles, and a reduction in the release of viral particles by at least 2000-fold. (
  • Focal staining showed this antigen to be present in epidermal cells in 12 of 16 skin biopsy specimens. (
  • 3. Detection of viral antigen in normal murine cells and tissues. (
  • A radioimmunoassay specific for a murine leukemia virus structural protein, the gs antigen, detects an antigenic reactivity in normal murine cells in culture and natural tissues. (
  • This was a general phenomenon, as T cells presenting influenza (flu) antigen also fail to activate otherwise potent flu-specific CTLs either in vitro or in vivo. (
  • GRP78 was upregulated in both DENV antigen-positive and -negative cells in the DENV-infected culture, suggesting a bystander effect, with the highest GRP78 levels coincident with high-level DENV antigen production and infectious-virus release. (
  • Using immunohistochemistry, influenza A viral antigen was demonstrated in bronchiolar epithelial cells, pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in pneumonic areas. (
  • The regulation of antigen processing and presentation to MHC class I-restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes was studied in cells infected with murine cytomegalovirus. (
  • Viruses that naturally infect cells expressing both MHC I and MHC II molecules render themselves potentially visible to both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells through the de novo expression of viral antigens. (
  • By contrast, CD4 epitope display persisted for many days and, following peptide stripping, recovered well on cells in the absence of new antigen synthesis. (
  • We infer that, in virally-infected MHC I/II-positive cells, newly-synthesised polypeptides are the dominant source of antigen feeding the MHC I pathway, whereas the MHC II pathway is fed by the mature protein pool. (
  • Virus-infected cells are eliminated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which recognize viral epitopes displayed on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules at the cell surface. (
  • By monitoring the migration of traceable LCMV-specific memory CD8 + T cells after immunotherapy, it was revealed that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) distributed widely throughout the CNS compartment early after immunotherapy, which resulted in a dramatic elevation in the activity of CNS antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • DCs were also found to be an essential element of the immunotherapeutic process because in their absence, memory T cells failed to undergo secondary expansion, and viral clearance was not attained in the CNS. (
  • The immune system is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body and usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus . (
  • Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (
  • HBV-specific CD8 cells show altered MHC/peptide binding in the presence of high levels of circulating viral antigen. (
  • In the cerebellum, Purkinje cells selectively expressed viral antigens. (
  • Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is an effective therapy for select lymphomas. (
  • Among the possible design limitations of CAR-T cells for cancer are unwanted tonic (antigen-independent) signaling and off-target activation. (
  • In order to highlight in vitro the immunogenic advantage provided by ICP47 blockade of viral epitopes, T cells were pre-sensitized with WT-VV infected APC and then used as responders to r.VV-Mart-US12 or r.VV-Mart infected APC. (
  • Cells infected with HSV-US12-r.VV, demonstrated a decreased ability of presenting MHC class-I antigens to CD8+ T cells whereas MHC-class-II restricted presentation to CD4+ T cells remained unaffected. (
  • We have reported that autophagosomes derived from tumor cells after proteasome inhibition, DRibbles (Defective ribosomal products in blebs), were excellent sources of antigens for efficient cross priming of tumor-specific CD8 + T cells, which mediated regression of established tumors in mice. (
  • DRibbles or cell lysates derived from HEK293T or UbiLT3 cell lines expressing cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65 protein or transfected with a plasmid encoding dominant HLA-A2 restricted CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Influenza (Flu) epitopes (CEF) were loaded onto human monocytes or PBMCs and the response of human CMV pp65 or CEF antigen-specific CD4 + and CD8 + memory T cells was detected by intracellular staining. (
  • DRibbles containing specific viral antigens are an efficient ex vivo activator of human antigen-specific memory T cells specific for those antigens. (
  • This study provides proof-of-concept for applying this strategy to activate memory T cells against other antigens, including tumor-specific T cells ex vivo for immunological monitoring and adoptive immunotherapy, and in vivo as vaccines for patients with cancer. (
  • The assumption is that most tumor antigens are passively released from healthy or dying tumor cells as intact soluble antigens, peptide fragments complexed with heat shock protein chaperones, or packaged in secretory vesicles in the form of microparticles or exosome nanoparticles. (
  • Thus some anti-virally protective (memory) B cells are cycling and locally proliferate in long-lived GC in association with persisting antigen and therefore seem responsible for long-term maintenance of elevated antibody levels. (
  • Antigen processing , or the cytosolic pathway , is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes . (
  • [2] Not all antigen-presenting cells utilize cross-presentation. (
  • The present invention includes compositions and methods for the expression, secretion and use of novel compositions for use as, e.g., vaccines and antigen delivery vectors, to delivery antigens to antigen presenting cells. (
  • Over the past 15 years, a number of observations have culminated in the localization of viral antigens in liver tissue by the use of routine histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy (EM), and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM). (
  • To map the localization of viral antigens in the central nervous system (CNS), the authors studied, by means of ultrastructural immune peroxidase techniques, 4-6 month-old mice persistently infected with LCMV following an intracerebral inoculation at birth. (
  • 8. There is a difference in the distribution and spread of a viral antigen, development of lesions and correlation between presence of viral antigen and lesions. (
  • Antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are generally less sensitive than real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and other nucleic acid amplification tests ( NAATs ) for detecting the presence of viral nucleic acid. (
  • The invention disclosed herein presents an antigen-capture immunoassay that utilizes serum, plasma, milk, urine, saliva, or other bodily fluid samples to identify cattle infected with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). (
  • In this study, the use of the anti-His mAbfor the detection of recombinant antigens from seven differentanimal viruses: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndromevirus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenzavirus (SIV), African swine fever virus (ASFV), classical swine fevervirus (CSFV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Rift Valleyfever virus (RVFV) bound to microsphere beads after coupling weretested. (
  • Viral antigens protrude from the capsid and often fulfill important function in docking to the host cell, fusion, and injection of viral DNA/RNA. (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus viral-capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) is the viral protein that forms the viral capsid of the Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • In a model study we generated antigen-producing potato tubers expressing the major capsid protein VP60 of the Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as an interesting veterinary vaccine candidate. (
  • Recombinant viral protein usually contains a fusion protein/partner which produces superior attachment to assay surfaces such as wells. (
  • The kit disclosed herein uses ELISA methodology, employs the BVDV antigen specific monoclonal antibody 15.c.5, and requires at least 100 l of sample per assay. (
  • The assay was shown to measure an antigen that is highly related to the virion protein as shown by absorption tests, immunoadsorbent chromatography, and by analysis of linearized dose-response curves. (
  • Methods Paired mid-turbinate nasal swabs were collected from university students and staff and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using both Quidel Sofia SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) and rRT-PCR assay. (
  • The results of the His-tagblocking assay showed that 1 μg/ml of His-tag blocking peptide cancompletely inhibit the interaction of His-tagged antigens and anti-HismAb. (
  • Viral antigens elicit augmented immune responses in primary Sjögren's syndrome. (
  • Systematic studies of immune responses to microbial antigens in vivo may be performed during vaccination. (
  • We observed augmented innate and adaptive immune responses in pSS following viral antigen exposure suggesting an underlying hyper-responsiveness to immune challenges, supporting a role for infections driving the immunopathology and acting as environmental risk factor for pSS. (
  • Antibody responses against tetanus and diphtheria antigens waned more quickly, with estimated half-lives of 11 years and 19 years, respectively. (
  • Indeed, i.v. injection of pathogen mimics, which caused systemic DC activation in vivo , impaired the induction of CD4 T cell responses against subsequently encountered protein antigens. (
  • This immunosuppressed state could be reversed by adoptive transfer of DCs loaded exogenously with antigens, demonstrating that impairment of CD4 T cell responses was due to lack of antigen presentation rather than to overt suppression of T cell activation. (
  • This illustrates that in contrast to the allogeneic and influenza specific responses, the recruitment of herpes virus-specific Ag into the Ag-processing pathway is dependent on a cellular function that is also required for viral maturation and egress. (
  • We hypothesize that any kind of mismatch in GvH-HCT can induce "non-cognate transplantation tolerance" that dampens not only a mismatch-specific GvH response, which is beneficial, but adversely affects also responses to mismatch-unrelated antigens, such as CMV antigens in the specific case, with the consequence of lethal CMV disease. (
  • Furthermore, replication deficient viral vectors based on Chimpanzee Adenovirus Oxford 1 (ChAdOx1) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the influenza virus internal antigens, the nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1) protein, can induce strong heterosubtypic influenza virus-specific T cell responses in vaccinated individuals. (
  • Until now, most efforts focused on the identification of virus-specific epitopes, whereas immune responses directed against shared cellular tumor-specific antigens have not been evidenced. (
  • In this study, we measured T-cell responses against viral (n = 3) and tumor antigens (n = 47) from TILs derived from 21 MCC tumors. (
  • Virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses dominated MCC-specific immune responses, and we identified two new HLA-peptide complexes derived from the LT antigen, located in a region encompassing 3 previously identified epitopes. (
  • The main focus of my talk will be: 1) the analysis of the immunodominance of pox-viral specific CTLs in melanoma patients receiving recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara and 2) the interplay between innate and adaptive immune system to elicit strong tumor-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. (
  • For the purposes of this review, the current understanding of the different memory B-cell (MBC) populations, and their potential to recognize mutant antigens, will be described prior to some examples from antibody responses against the highly mutable RNA based flaviviruses, influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Despite the benefits of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies against lymphoid malignancies, responses in solid tumors have been more limited and off-target toxicities have been more marked. (
  • However, both non-progressors and rapid progressors exhibit substantial immune responses to HIV, with humoral antibody responses particularly directed at the major neutralization target, the viral envelope. (
  • Experiences of Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Viral Hepatitis B, and Viral Hepatitis C Infections at a Hospital in Thailand: Test Utilization and Outcomes. (
  • Diagnosis of viral infections via viral antigen detection methods such as immunofluorescence (FA), immunochromatography (lateral flow) (IC), and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) offer many of these attractive features and are useful for direct detection of viral antigens in an array of clinical specimens and for identification of cultivated viruses. (
  • Nevertheless bacterial and viral infections are a big diagnostic difficulty also for laboratories. (
  • Background: Virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial reduction of peak viremia during acute viral infections, but display signs of increasing dysfunction and exhaustion under conditions of chronic antigen persistence. (
  • Given the challenges associated with the eradication of persistent viral infections, it is important to devise and fully understand therapeutic strategies that achieve systemic viral elimination without severe pathological consequences. (
  • Hossain MM, Rowland RR (2017) Application of Recombinant Histidine-Tagged Antigens in the Diagnosis of Viral Infections. (
  • HSV/MHC class I restriction/immune recognition/antigen processing/antigen presentation/influenza virus. (
  • These findings suggest that the immune reaction and subsequent tissue damage of herpes-associated erythema multiforme are due to the presence of herpes antigens in the skin. (
  • The immune response induced by this vaccination regime ultimately reduced viral titers in the respiratory tract of influenza virus infected ferrets. (
  • An illustration that shows how antigens induce the immune system response by interacting with an antibody that matches the antigen's molecular structure . (
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (
  • Inhibition of peptide translocation by a viral protein indicates a previously undocumented potential mechanism for viral immune evasion. (
  • Some caveats for using recombinant viral vector are due to either prior systemic immunity to poxviruses or immunodominance of viral antigens which may reduce the induction of immune response against weaker tumor antigens. (
  • Two-step immunohistochemical staining showed the expression of viral antigens in situ. (
  • Mature DCs accumulate long-lived surface MHC II-peptide complexes, derived from antigens contained within the endosomal compartments at the time of activation ( 5 - 10 , 55 ). (
  • Down-regulation of MHC II-peptide complex turnover allows long-term presentation of antigens captured, or synthesized, at the time of activation ("antigenic memory") ( 2 ). (
  • When antigen expression was suppressed, despite the persistence of mature protein, CD8 epitope display fell rapidly at rates similar to that seen for the MHC I/epitope half-life in peptide pulse-chase experiments. (
  • Presentation of viral antigen by MHC class I molecules is dependent on a putative peptide transporter heterodimer. (
  • Here we show that PSF1 is necessary for the efficient assembly of class I molecules and enables them to present a peptide epitope derived from endogenously synthesized viral antigen. (
  • The interactionbetween His-tagged recombinant antigens and anti-His tag mAbwere tested using His-tag blocking peptide. (
  • Recombinant Viral Antigens Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GRA1) recombinant antigen antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Recombinant Viral Antigens Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GRA1) recombinant antigen. (
  • Please read carefully the data sheet of the Recombinant Viral Antigens Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GRA1) recombinant antigen. (
  • Gentaur Molecular :Virogen \ Recombinant Viral antigens, HAV: HAV P3C recombinant antigen a.a. 1643-1743. (
  • Product Detail : 00162-V Recombinant Viral antigens, HAV: HAV P3C recombinant antigen a.a. 1643-1743. (
  • Please read carefully the data sheet of the Recombinant Viral antigens, HAV: HAV P3C recombinant antigen a.a. 1643-1743. (
  • We have also other products like : Recombinant Viral antigens, HAV: HAV P3C recombinant antigen a.a. 1643-1743. (
  • Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant . (
  • BIO-RAD LABORATORIES INC., Microbix Biosystems, SERION Immunologics, Aalto Bio Reagents Ltd, Enzo Life Sciences Inc., Jena Bioscience GmbH, ROSS SOUTHERN LABORATORIES, The Native Antigen Company, Creative Diagnostics, and TRINA BIOREACTIVES AG is among the leading companies operating in the native bacterial and viral antigens market. (
  • We performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody titers specific for viral antigens (vaccinia, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus) and nonreplicating antigens (tetanus and diphtheria) in 45 subjects for a period of up to 26 years. (
  • Here we use one such pathogen, the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), to examine the kinetics of these processes in the virally-infected cell, comparing newly synthesised polypeptides versus the mature protein pool as viral antigen sources for MHC I- and MHC II-restricted presentation. (
  • In particular, viral assembly that takes place within intracellular membranes may require unique Ag processing steps. (
  • A viral antigen is a protein encoded by the viral genome. (
  • A viral protein is an antigen specified by the viral genome that can be detected by a specific immunological response. (
  • These findings combined with the finding of viral-specific RNA indicate that portions of the viral genome are being expressed with a much greater frequency than previously appreciated. (
  • Thus, viral vectors expressing ICP47 confirmed a diminished TAP-dependant processing of endogenous class-I restricted epitopes while the immunogenic potential of recombinant epitopes directly targeted to the ER was enhanced. (
  • In studying the immunopathogenesis of herpes-associated erythema multiforme, we examined skin lesions for the presence of a herpes simplex viral antigen by an indirect immunofluorescence test using a monoclonal antibody to a major type-common glycoprotein antigen, gB. (
  • Such impairment of MHC class II (MHC II) antigen presentation has generally been thought to be a consequence of down-regulation of endocytosis, so it might be expected that antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves (for instance, viral antigens) would still be presented by mature DCs. (
  • Furthermore, presentation of viral antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves was also severely impaired. (
  • This is usually attributed to down-regulation of endocytosis, but it is unclear whether other factors downstream of antigen uptake also contribute to poor presentation of new antigens. (
  • Defining the role of systemic DC maturation on this immunosuppression, and the mechanisms controlling MHC II antigen presentation by DCs, might provide strategies for restoring immunocompetence. (
  • We designed a functional CRISPR screen for previously unknown regulators of cross-presentation, and identified the BEACH domain-containing protein WDFY4 as essential for cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens by cDC1s in mice. (
  • Researches focused on expression of these antigens on phagocytes, which are involved in the first defence mechanisms, including: antigen presentation, recognition and phagocytosis of IgG and complement opsonised pathogens, and complement activity. (
  • Because recognition of several other antigens occurred during the early phase, a general failure in processing and presentation was excluded. (
  • Since neither rate of synthesis, amount, stability, nor nuclear transport of pp89 was modified, the failure in recognition indicates a selective interference with pp89 antigen processing and presentation. (
  • For both antigens, when synthesis was induced, CD8 epitope display rose quickly to near maximum within 24 h, well before steady state levels of mature protein had been reached, whereas CD4 epitope presentation was delayed by 36-48 h and rose only slowly thereafter. (
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (
  • The effect of cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-4, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-γ) TLR agonists (Lipopolysaccharide, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C), M52-CpG, R848, TLR2 ligand) and CD40 ligand on the cross-presentation of antigens contained in DRibbles or cell lysates was explored. (
  • It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. (
  • subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. (
  • MHC I antigen presentation typically (considering cross-presentation ) involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing. (
  • Cross-presentation involves parts of the exogenous and the endogenous pathways but ultimately involves the latter portion of the endogenous pathway (e.g. proteolysis of antigens for binding to MHC I molecules). (
  • On the basis of product type, the native bacterial and viral antigens market is segmented into chlamydia antigens, adenovirus antigens, borrelia antigens, clostridium antigens, chikungunya virus antigens, and dengue virus antigens. (
  • A simple and rapid immunoperoxidase test for the detection of virus antigens in tissue culture. (
  • Immunohistochemical demonstration of avian leukosis virus antigens in paraffin embedded tissue. (
  • The recent report on the global Viral Antigens market published by the Fact.MR includes the impact of COVID-19 on the Growth of Ebola Virus Antigens market . (
  • Australia antigen (Au(1)) was found in the sera of 20% of 125 patients with acute viral hepatitis. (
  • Immunoglobulin (IgG)- enriched preparations of the Tα 1 antisera have enhanced activity in blocking viral replication. (
  • Recombinant poxviruses expressing tumor associated antigens (TAAs) are evaluated since 20 years as immunogenic vaccine vector in clinical trials. (
  • 3. The Viral Protein A238L Inhibits Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression through a Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cell-dependent Trans-activation Pathway. (
  • 10. Viral Protein Influences Key Cell-signaling Pathway. (
  • This exhausted phenotype significantly decreased upon removal of stimulation by antigen, either in response to antiretroviral therapy or by reduction of epitope-specific antigen load in the presence of ongoing viral replication, as a consequence of in vivo selection of cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations in the respective epitopes. (
  • However, DENV RNA levels were unchanged, indicating normal DENV RNA replication but altered DENV antigen levels in the absence of GRP78. (
  • Studying viral protein kinases might therefore lead to an understanding of the mechanisms of virus replication and virus-cell interactions. (
  • Critical reagents in infectious disease research are recombinant antigens. (
  • The ProVir™ collection includes antigens from a variety of viruses associated with many kinds of infectious diseases, ranging from common viruses such as HIV, HPV and RSV. (
  • The global native bacterial and viral antigens market growth is mainly attributed to factors such as increasing use of native microbial antigens in diagnostics and therapeutics and rising prevalence of infectious diseases. (
  • We concluded that the causative agent of this short-incubation period hepatitis, which resembled infectious hepatitis, was antigenically different from Australia/SH antigen. (
  • Microbix's customer is a major global diagnostics company, with growing sales of infectious disease tests that require more antigen supply. (
  • In a statement, Cameron Groome, president and CEO of Microbix, said the expanded agreement reinforces the company's position as a leading global provider of infectious disease antigens. (
  • Even when a virus cannot be cultured, provided gene sequence is available, it is possible to rapidly respond to emerging viruses and new viral strains of existing pathogens. (
  • Antigen tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of respiratory pathogens, including influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial virus. (
  • These data indicate that the antigen is selectively associated with viral hepatitis and is not a nonspecific manifestation of liver damage. (
  • 5. HIV-1 Viral Protein R Induces Apoptosis via a Direct Effect on the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore. (
  • It was expanded later to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment after processing the native antigen that can be recognized by T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • Molecular mimicry of viral antigens with self determinants has been proposed as one of the pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmune disease. (
  • The ProVir™ collection also includes 630+ ME, NA and HA antigens from more than 250 strains of influenza viruses, including vaccine strains and the pandemic strains. (
  • We analyzed the nAb response to each of the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface GP and not by the virus backbone. (