Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detecting p40 RNA of Borna disease virus, without risk of plasmid contamination. (1/10399)

Several methods for the detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA have been reported, one being the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) method. However, due to the possibility of contamination of the cloned DNA in a reaction tube, false-positive results might be obtained by RT-nested PCR. To detect only BDV RNA without anxiety of contamination, we developed an RT-nested PCR system using "mRNA selective PCR kit". Using this system, cDNA of BDV p40 in the plasmid (up to 5 x 10(7) molecules) was not amplified. BDV specific sequence was amplified from total RNA (more than 50 pg) of MDCK/BDV cells, which were persistently infected with BDV. These results indicate that this mRNA selective RT-nested PCR system can specifically amplify target RNA as distinguished from plasmid contaminated.  (+info)

Inhibition of Pichinde virus replication by actinomycin D. (2/10399)

The yields of Pichinde virus, a member of the arenavirus group, were markedly inhibited when infected BHK 21 cells were incubated in the presence of 0.4 to 4 mug/ml of actinomycin D. Maximal inhibition was observed when actinomycin D was added after the adsorption of virus to cultures; however, addition of drug as late as 12 h after infection reduced the 24 h yield by 50%. Virus antigen synthesis, as measured by complement fixation and immunodiffusion, was not dramatically reduced by actinomycin D. The expression of virus antigens on the surface of infected cells was greater on cells treated with actinomycin D than on untreated cells. Putative defective particles with a density of Pichinde virus were not detected in fluids of cultures incubated with actinomycin D and 3H-amino acids. Actinomycin D appears to inhibit Pichinde virus late in the replicative cycle. The observations raise the possibility that the drug inhibits the synthesis of proteins of the host cell membrane which are required for virus maturation.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (3/10399)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (4/10399)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Immune response to the immunodominant epitope of mouse hepatitis virus is polyclonal, but functionally monospecific in C57Bl/6 mice. (5/10399)

Mutations in an immunodominant CD8 CTL epitope (S-510-518) are selected in mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. These mutations abrogate recognition by T cells harvested from the infected CNS in direct ex vivo cytotoxicity assays. Previous reports have suggested that, in general, an oligoclonal, monospecific T cell response contributes to the selection of CTL escape mutants. Herein, we show that, in MHV-JHM-infected mice, the CD8 T cell response after intraperitoneal infection is polyclonal and diverse. This diverse response was shown to include both polyclonal and oligoclonal components. The polyclonal data were shown to fit a logarithmic distribution. With regard to specificity, we used a panel of peptide analogues of epitope S-510-518 and spleen-derived CD8 T cell lines to determine why only a subset of possible mutations was selected in persistently infected mice. At a given position in the epitope, the mutations identified in in vivo isolates were among those that resulted in the greatest loss of recognition. However, not all such mutations were selected, suggesting that additional factors must contribute to selection in vivo. By extrapolation of these results to the persistently infected CNS, they suggest that the selection of CTL escape mutants requires the presence of a monospecific T cell response but also show that this response need not be oligoclonal.  (+info)

Immune surveillance against a solid tumor fails because of immunological ignorance. (6/10399)

Many peripheral solid tumors such as sarcomas and carcinomas express tumor-specific antigens that can serve as targets for immune effector T cells. Nevertheless, overall immune surveillance against such tumors seems relatively inefficient. We studied immune surveillance against a s.c. sarcoma expressing a characterized viral tumor antigen. Surprisingly, the tumor cells were capable of inducing a protective cytotoxic T cell response if transferred as a single-cell suspension. However, if they were transplanted as small tumor pieces, tumors readily grew. Tumor growth correlated strictly with (i) failure of tumor cells to reach the draining lymph nodes and (ii) absence of primed cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells were not tolerant or deleted because a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response was readily induced in lymphoid tissue by immunization with virus or with tumor cells even in the presence of large tumors. Established tumors were rejected by vaccine-induced effector T cells if effector T cells were maintained by prolonged or repetitive vaccination, but not by single-dose vaccination. Thus, in addition to several other tumor-promoting parameters, some antigenic peripheral sarcomas-and probably carcinomas-may grow not because they anergize or tolerize tumor-specific T cells, but because such tumors are immunologically dealt with as if they were in a so-called immunologically privileged site and are ignored for too long.  (+info)

Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. (7/10399)

A 120-amino-acid polypeptide selected from the transmembrane protein region (tTM) and the major capsid protein p26 of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) were expressed as fusion proteins from recombinant baculoviruses. The antigenic reactivity of both recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western blot with bovine and rabbit antisera to BIV. BIV-negative bovine sera and animal sera positive for bovine syncytial virus and bovine leukemia virus failed to recognize the recombinant fusion proteins, thereby showing the specificity of the BIV Western blot. One hundred and five bovine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-BIV antibodies by the recombinant protein-based Western blot and a reference Western blot assay using cell culture-derived virions as test antigens. There was a 100% concordance when the p26 fusion protein was used in the Western blot. However, the Western blot using the tTM fusion protein as its test antigen identified four BIV-positive bovine sera which had tested negative in both the p26 recombinant-protein-based and the reference Western blot assays. This resulted in the lower concordance of 96.2% between the tTM-protein-based and reference Western blot assays. The results of this study showed that the recombinant p26 and tTM proteins can be used as test antigens for the serodetection of BIV-infection in animals.  (+info)

Human serum antibodies to a major defined epitope of human herpesvirus 8 small viral capsid antigen. (8/10399)

The major antibody-reactive epitope of the small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) was defined by use of overlapping peptides. Strong IgG reactivity was found among approximately 50% of 44 human immunodeficiency virus-positive or -negative patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and 13 subjects who were seropositive by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the latent HHV-8 nuclear antigen. Only 1 of 106 subjects seronegative for both lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens and 10 of 81 subjects IFA-seropositive only for the lytic HHV-8 antigen had strong IgG reactivity to this epitope. Among 534 healthy Swedish women, only 1.3% were strongly seropositive. Comparison of the peptide-based and purified sVCA protein-based ELISAs found 55% sensitivity and 98% specificity. However, only 1 of 452 serum samples from healthy women was positive in both tests. In conclusion, the defined sVCA epitope was a specific, but not very sensitive, serologic marker of active HHV-8 infection. Such infection appears to be rare among Swedish women, even with sexual risk-taking behavior.  (+info)

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

There are several types of lymphoma, including:

1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching

Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

There are several types of colonic neoplasms, including:

1. Adenomas: These are benign growths that are usually precursors to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise from the epithelial lining of the colon.
3. Sarcomas: These are rare malignant tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the colon.
4. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can affect the colon.

Colonic neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including bleeding, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel habits. They are often diagnosed through a combination of medical imaging tests (such as colonoscopy or CT scan) and biopsy. Treatment for colonic neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Overall, colonic neoplasms are a common condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals to be aware of their risk factors and to undergo regular screening for colon cancer to help detect and treat any abnormal growths or tumors in the colon.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Adenocarcinoma is a term used to describe a variety of different types of cancer that arise in glandular tissue, including:

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma (cancer of the colon or rectum)
2. Breast adenocarcinoma (cancer of the breast)
3. Prostate adenocarcinoma (cancer of the prostate gland)
4. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (cancer of the pancreas)
5. Lung adenocarcinoma (cancer of the lung)
6. Thyroid adenocarcinoma (cancer of the thyroid gland)
7. Skin adenocarcinoma (cancer of the skin)

The symptoms of adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Blood in the stool or urine
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Changes in bowel habits
4. Unusual vaginal bleeding (in the case of endometrial adenocarcinoma)
5. A lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere
6. Weight loss
7. Fatigue
8. Coughing up blood (in the case of lung adenocarcinoma)

The diagnosis of adenocarcinoma is typically made through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI scans, and PET scans, and a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

Treatment options for adenocarcinoma depend on the location of the cancer and can include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Chemotherapy, which involves using drugs to kill cancer cells
3. Radiation therapy, which involves using high-energy X-rays or other particles to kill cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy, which involves using drugs that target specific molecules on cancer cells to kill them
5. Immunotherapy, which involves using drugs that stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells.

The prognosis for adenocarcinoma is generally good if the cancer is detected and treated early, but it can be more challenging to treat if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

The two main types of lymphoid leukemia are:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This type of leukemia is most commonly seen in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.
2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia usually affects older adults and is characterized by the gradual buildup of abnormal white blood cells in the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphoid leukemia include fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment options for lymphoid leukemia can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of symptoms, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.

Also known as Burkitt's Lymphoma.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

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Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Conclusion
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

Examples of experimental leukemias include:

1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.

The infection occurs when the parasitic worm enters the body through the skin, usually during contact with infected water. The schistosomes migrate to the liver and intestines, where they cause inflammation and damage to the host tissues.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as anemia, liver and kidney damage, and even death.

Diagnosis is based on the presence of schistosome eggs in the urine or stool, and treatment typically involves a combination of antiparasitic drugs and supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water and using snail-killing agents to reduce the number of intermediate hosts.

Leprosy can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Skin lesions: Leprosy can cause skin lesions, including lighter or darker patches on the skin, and thickening of the skin.
2. Nerve damage: The bacteria can damage the nerves, leading to numbness, pain, and muscle weakness.
3. Eye problems: Leprosy can cause eye inflammation, vision loss, and dryness of the eyes.
4. Respiratory problems: In severe cases, leprosy can cause breathing difficulties and respiratory failure.
5. Enlarged lymph nodes: The lymph nodes may become enlarged in some cases.
6. Joint pain and swelling: Leprosy can cause joint pain and swelling.
7. Neuritis: Inflammation of the nerves can occur, leading to pain, numbness, and tingling sensations.
8. Ulcers: Leprosy can cause ulcers on the skin and mucous membranes.

Leprosy is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged nerves.

Leprosy can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, close contact with an infected person, or through contaminated objects such as clothing or bedding. However, leprosy is not highly contagious and the risk of transmission is low if proper precautions are taken.

While there is no cure for leprosy, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and disability. However, due to the stigma surrounding the disease, many people may delay seeking medical attention, leading to a higher risk of long-term complications.

Overall, while leprosy is a serious disease, it is also a preventable and treatable one. With proper awareness and education, we can work towards reducing the stigma surrounding leprosy and ensuring that those affected receive the medical attention they need.

There are several different types of leukemia, including:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.

Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

1. Bubonic plague: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by the development of swollen and painful lymph nodes (called buboes) in the groin, armpits, or neck.
2. Pneumonic plague: This form of the disease affects the lungs and can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets. It is highly contagious and can be fatal if left untreated.
3. Septicemic plague: This form of the disease occurs when the bacteria enter the bloodstream directly, without going through the lymph nodes or lungs. It can cause fever, chills, abdominal pain, and bleeding into the skin and organs.

Plague has a long history of being a major public health threat, with pandemics occurring in the Middle Ages and other times throughout history. In modern times, plague is still present in some parts of the world, particularly in rural areas of the western United States and in parts of Africa and Asia.

Treatment of plague typically involves antibiotics, which can be effective if started early in the course of the illness. However, resistance to these antibiotics has been a growing concern in recent years, making it increasingly difficult to treat the disease effectively.

Prevention of plague primarily involves controlling the population of infected fleas and other vectors, as well as avoiding contact with infected animals or people. This can be achieved through measures such as using insecticides, wearing protective clothing and gear, and practicing good hygiene. Vaccines are also available for some forms of the disease, but they are not widely used due to their limited effectiveness and the availability of other treatment options.

Overall, plague is a serious and potentially deadly disease that requires prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. While treatment options exist, prevention is key to avoiding infection and controlling the spread of the disease.

There are three main forms of anthrax:

1. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax: This is the most common form of the disease and causes skin lesions that can progress to severe inflammation and scarring.
2. Inhalational (lung) anthrax: This is the most deadly form of the disease and causes serious respiratory problems, including fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
3. Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax: This form of the disease causes symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.

Anthrax can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the timing of treatment.

Prevention of anthrax primarily involves vaccination of animals and control of animal products to prevent the spread of the bacteria. In addition, public health measures such as surveillance and quarantine can help prevent the spread of the disease to humans.

The medical management of anthrax involves a combination of antibiotics, supportive care, and wound management. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing serious complications and death.

Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.

Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.

Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.

In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Example sentence: The patient was diagnosed with experimental sarcoma and underwent a novel chemotherapy regimen that included a targeted therapy drug.

2. Our research focuses on identifying the genetic mutations that contribute to experimental melanoma and developing targeted therapies.
3. The patient's experimental melanoma had spread to her lungs and liver, so we recommended chemotherapy and immunotherapy treatments.

The symptoms of toxoplasmosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. In some cases, it may cause mild flu-like symptoms or no symptoms at all. However, in severe cases, it can lead to complications such as brain inflammation, eye infections, and pneumonia.

Toxoplasmosis is a significant public health concern due to its potential to affect anyone and its ability to cause serious complications, especially in certain populations such as pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and the elderly. It is important for individuals who may be at risk of contracting the disease to take preventive measures such as avoiding undercooked meat, washing hands frequently, and avoiding contact with cat feces.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in the body. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans may be used to evaluate any complications of the disease.

Treatment for toxoplasmosis typically involves antibiotics to control the infection and manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications. Prevention is key to avoiding this disease, as there is no vaccine available to protect against it.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

Here are 10 key points to remember about histoplasmosis:

1) Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.
2) It primarily affects the lungs and can disseminate to other organs.
3) Inhalation of spores from contaminated soil or bird droppings leads to infection.
4) Symptoms range from mild to severe, including fever, cough, chest pain, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5) Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.
6) Treatment is primarily supportive, with antifungal medications for severe cases.
7) Prevention includes avoiding exposure to contaminated environments and wearing protective clothing during cleanup or construction activities.
8) Histoplasmosis has a global distribution and is found in many parts of the United States.
9) It is an important occupational hazard for workers involved in construction, mining, and agriculture.
10) In severe cases, histoplasmosis can lead to chronic lung disease, heart problems, and meningitis.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

The symptoms of coccidioidomycosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's immune response. Some people may experience mild symptoms, such as fever, cough, and fatigue, while others may develop more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bone or skin infections. Skin lesions and rashes are also common.

Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may involve antifungal medications and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key in avoiding coccidioidomycosis, which includes avoiding areas with high concentrations of the fungus, using respiratory protection when working in areas where the fungus is present, and taking antifungal medications prophylactically for those who are at high risk.

Prognosis for coccidioidomycosis is generally good for those with mild infections, but can be poor for those with severe infections or underlying conditions such as HIV/AIDS or cancer. Long-term effects of the infection can include lung scarring and joint damage.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.

It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.

The symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
* Pain in the abdomen
* Anemia
* Low blood platelet count
* Low white blood cell count

If left untreated, visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal. Treatment is typically with antiparasitic drugs, such as miltefosine or amphotericin B, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

It is important to note that visceral leishmaniasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and prompt medical attention is necessary for effective treatment and management.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

The symptoms of glomerulonephritis can vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease, but may include:

* Blood in the urine (hematuria)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* High blood pressure

Glomerulonephritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as staphylococcal or streptococcal infections
* Autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
* Allergic reactions to certain medications
* Genetic defects
* Certain diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia

The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and kidney biopsy.

Treatment for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and may include:

* Antibiotics to treat infections
* Medications to reduce inflammation and swelling
* Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
* Immunosuppressive medications to suppress the immune system in cases of autoimmune disorders
* Dialysis in severe cases

The prognosis for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and the severity of the inflammation. In some cases, the disease may progress to end-stage renal disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. With proper treatment, however, many people with glomerulonephritis can experience a good outcome and maintain their kidney function over time.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

Herpesviridae infections are caused by the Herpesviridae family of viruses and can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Symptoms of herpesviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected, but may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and skin sores or rashes.

There is no cure for herpesviridae infections, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission to others. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with those who are infected, can also help prevent the spread of these viruses.

Some common types of herpesviridae infections include:

* Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
* Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - Causes chickenpox and shingles.
* Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) - Associated with certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

The parasite forms cysts in various organs of the body, including the brain, liver, lungs, and muscles. Symptoms of cysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, and may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, and movement disorders.

Diagnosis of cysticercosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of antibodies or parasitic elements in the body. Treatment generally involves surgical removal of the cysts, and may also involve antiparasitic drugs to kill any remaining parasites.

In some cases, cysticercosis can lead to serious complications such as inflammation of the brain (meningitis) or blockage of blood vessels, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent these complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Overall, cysticercosis is a significant health problem in many parts of the world, particularly in areas where sanitation and hygiene are poor, and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.

Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:

1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are two main types of schistosomiasis:

1. Schistosoma haematobium: This type is most commonly found in Africa and the Middle East, and affects the urinary tract, causing bleeding, kidney damage, and bladder problems.
2. Schistosoma japonicum: This type is found in Asia, and affects the intestines, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
3. Schistosoma mansoni: This type is found in sub-Saharan Africa, and affects both the intestines and the liver, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and liver damage.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis can include:

* Bloody urine
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea
* Rectal bleeding
* Fatigue
* Anemia
* Weight loss

If left untreated, schistosomiasis can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and infertility.

Treatment of schistosomiasis typically involves the use of praziquantel, an antiparasitic drug that is effective against all species of Schistosoma. In addition to treatment, preventive measures such as avoiding contact with contaminated water and using protective clothing when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common can help reduce the risk of infection.

Preventive measures for schistosomiasis include:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated water
* Using protective clothing such as long sleeves and pants when swimming or bathing in areas where the disease is common
* Avoiding activities that involve exposure to water, such as swimming or fishing, in areas where the disease is common
* Using clean water for drinking, cooking, and personal hygiene
* Implementing sanitation measures such as building latrines and improving sewage systems in areas where the disease is common

It is important to note that schistosomiasis is a preventable and treatable disease, but it requires awareness and action from individuals, communities, and governments to control and eliminate the disease.

A persistent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV is a bloodborne pathogen and can be spread through contact with infected blood, sexual contact, or vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.

Chronic hepatitis B is characterized by the presence of HBsAg in the blood for more than 6 months, indicating that the virus is still present in the liver. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, with symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, and jaundice.

Chronic hepatitis B is diagnosed through serological tests such as HBsAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. Treatment options include interferon alpha and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can slow the progression of the disease but do not cure it.

Prevention strategies for chronic hepatitis B include vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, which is effective in preventing acute and chronic HBV infection, as well as avoidance of risky behaviors such as unprotected sex and sharing of needles.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

There are several types of hepatitis, including:

1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.

Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.

Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.

In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Legionnaires' disease is typically acquired by inhaling aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella bacteria. The most common sources of exposure are cooling towers, hot tubs, and plumbing systems in large buildings. The risk of infection increases with age, and people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or chronic lung disease, are at greater risk for severe illness and death.

The symptoms of Legionnaires' disease can resemble those of pneumonia and include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the disease can lead to respiratory failure, septic shock, and even death.

Legionnaires' disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood cultures and urinary antigen tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can be effective if started early in the course of the illness. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to provide supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key to avoiding Legionnaires' disease, and this includes regularly cleaning and disinfecting cooling towers and plumbing systems, maintaining proper water temperatures, and ensuring that the system is properly designed and maintained. Testing for Legionella bacteria can also be performed to ensure that the system is free of contamination.

In summary, Legionnaires' disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, typically acquired through inhalation of contaminated aerosolized water droplets. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing severe illness and death, and prevention measures include regular cleaning and maintenance of cooling towers and plumbing systems, as well as testing for Legionella bacteria.

Treatment options include medications such as alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, minimally invasive therapies such as transurethral microwave therapy or laser therapy, and surgical intervention such as a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

There are also lifestyle changes that can help manage Prostatic Hyperplasia, including limiting fluid intake before bedtime, avoiding caffeine and alcohol, and following a healthy diet. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

In simpler terms, Prostatic Hyperplasia is an enlargement of the prostate gland which can cause urinary problems and discomfort. Treatment options include medication, minimally invasive therapies, and surgery, and lifestyle changes can also help manage the condition.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

Some common horse diseases include:

1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.

These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

The infection occurs when the parasite migrates through the body and reaches the CNS, where it forms cysticerci, which are fluid-filled structures that can cause inflammation and damage to brain tissue. The symptoms of neurocysticercosis can vary depending on the location and size of the cysts, but they often include seizures, headaches, weakness, and vision problems.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs to kill the parasites, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of neurocysticercosis primarily involves controlling the transmission of the parasite, which can be done by improving food hygiene and avoiding consumption of undercooked or raw pork. In areas where the infection is common, mass drug administration programs have also been implemented to reduce the prevalence of the parasite.

In summary, neurocysticercosis is a severe and potentially debilitating parasitic infection that affects the central nervous system, with symptoms ranging from seizures to vision problems. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical findings and imaging studies, and treatment involves antiparasitic drugs and supportive care. Prevention primarily involves controlling the transmission of the parasite through improved food hygiene and mass drug administration programs.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

The symptoms of Chagas disease can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. In the acute phase, which typically lasts for weeks to months after infection, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, joint pain, and swelling of the eyelids and neck. In some cases, the infection can spread to the heart and digestive system, leading to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and intestinal obstruction.

If left untreated, Chagas disease can enter a chronic phase, which can last for years or even decades. During this phase, symptoms may be less severe but can still include fatigue, joint pain, and cardiac problems. In some cases, the infection can reactivate during pregnancy or after exposure to stress, leading to relapses of acute symptoms.

Chagas disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs, which can be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be difficult to diagnose and treat, particularly in remote areas where medical resources are limited.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing Chagas disease. This includes controlling the population of triatomine bugs through measures such as insecticide spraying and sealing homes, as well as educating people about the risks of the disease and how to avoid infection. In addition, blood banks in areas where Chagas disease is common screen donated blood for the parasite to prevent transmission through blood transfusions.

Overall, Chagas disease is a significant public health problem in Latin America and can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for those infected with this disease.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Benign ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.

Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:

1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.

Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.

Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.

There are several subtypes of lymphoma, B-cell, including:

1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): This is the most common type of B-cell lymphoma and typically affects older adults.
2. Follicular lymphoma: This type of lymphoma grows slowly and often does not require treatment for several years.
3. Marginal zone lymphoma: This type of lymphoma develops in the marginal zone of the spleen or other lymphoid tissues.
4. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of B-cell lymphoma that is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are abnormal cells that can be identified under a microscope.

The symptoms of lymphoma, B-cell can vary depending on the subtype and the location of the tumor. Common symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Treatment for lymphoma, B-cell usually involves chemotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be recommended.

Prognosis for lymphoma, B-cell depends on the subtype and the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with early-stage disease, but the cancer can be more difficult to treat if it has spread to other parts of the body.

Prevention of lymphoma, B-cell is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not known. However, avoiding exposure to certain risk factors, such as viral infections and pesticides, may help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early detection and treatment can also improve outcomes for patients with lymphoma, B-cell.

Lymphoma, B-cell is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can be treated with chemotherapy and other therapies. The prognosis varies depending on the subtype and stage of the disease at diagnosis. Prevention is not possible, but early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Thymoma can be broadly classified into two main types:

1. Benign thymoma: This type of thymoma is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It is usually small in size and may not cause any symptoms.
2. Malignant thymoma: This type of thymoma is cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, and bone marrow. Malignant thymomas are more aggressive than benign thymomas and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The exact cause of thymoma is not known, but it is believed to arise from abnormal cell growth in the thymus gland. Some risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing thymoma include:

1. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations, such as those affecting the TREX1 gene, can increase the risk of developing thymoma.
2. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation, such as from radiation therapy, may increase the risk of developing thymoma.
3. Thymic hyperplasia: Enlargement of the thymus gland, known as thymic hyperplasia, may increase the risk of developing thymoma.

The symptoms of thymoma can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:

1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
3. Coughing
4. Fatigue
5. Weight loss
6. Fever
7. Night sweats
8. Pain in the arm or shoulder

Thymoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the thymus gland for examination under a microscope. Treatment options for thymoma depend on the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor, and may include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor through surgery is often the first line of treatment for thymoma.
2. Radiation therapy: High-energy beams can be used to kill cancer cells and shrink the tumor.
3. Chemotherapy: Drugs can be used to kill cancer cells and shrink the tumor.
4. Targeted therapy: Drugs that target specific molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells can be used to treat thymoma.
5. Immunotherapy: Treatments that use the body's immune system to fight cancer, such as checkpoint inhibitors, can be effective for some people with thymoma.

Overall, the prognosis for thymoma is generally good, with a 5-year survival rate of about 70% for people with localized disease. However, the prognosis can vary depending on the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the effectiveness of treatment.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

Eimeria species are obligate intracellular parasites that infect the epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract of animals, causing damage to the gut mucosa and leading to diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and even death. The disease can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity of the infection and the host's immune response.

There are several species of Eimeria that can infect ruminants, with different species affecting different parts of the intestinal tract. For example, Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii infect the caecum and abomasum, respectively, while Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria falciformis infect the small intestine.

Coccidiosis is typically diagnosed through fecal examination, where the presence of oocysts (eggs) in the feces is indicative of an infection. Treatment options include anticoccidial drugs, which can be administered orally or parenterally, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as diarrhea and dehydration.

Prevention is key to managing coccidiosis, and this includes the use of vaccines, cleanliness and hygiene practices, and controlling the parasite's environmental survival. In some cases, a combination of these methods may be necessary to effectively prevent and control coccidiosis in ruminant populations.

alveolitis /al?veo?lit?s/ (noun) A type of inflammation affecting the air sacs (alveoli) caused by an allergic reaction to substances inhaled into the lungs.

Synonyms: allergic alveolitis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis

Medicine dictionary

Scientific definition of alveolitis, extrinsic allergic:
Alveolitis, also known as allergic alveolitis, is a type of inflammatory disease that affects the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. It occurs when an individual's immune system overreacts to certain substances inhaled into the lungs, causing an allergic reaction that leads to inflammation and damage to the alveolar tissue.

The term "extrinsic" refers to the fact that the allergen is coming from outside the body, as opposed to "intrinsic" allergies where the allergen is produced within the body.

This condition can be caused by a variety of substances including dust mites, mold, pollen, and animal dander. People with a history of asthma or atopic dermatitis are more likely to develop allergic alveolitis. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

Treatment for allergic alveolitis typically involves avoidance of the allergen, medications such as corticosteroids, and immunotherapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

There are several types of brucellosis, including:

1. Brucella abortus: This type is primarily found in cattle and is the most common form of the disease in humans.
2. Brucella suis: This type is found in pigs and is less common in humans.
3. Brucella melitensis: This type is found in sheep, goats, and other animals, and is more virulent than B. abortus.
4. Brucella canis: This type is found in dogs and is rare in humans.

The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Joint pain
4. Muscle pain
5. Swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen
6. Fatigue
7. Loss of appetite
8. Weight loss

In severe cases, brucellosis can cause complications such as:

1. Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
2. Meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord)
3. Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
4. Testicular inflammation in men
5. Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis)
6. Inflammation of the heart muscle and valves
7. Pneumonia
8. Inflammation of the liver and spleen

Brucellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent complications. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals and ensuring proper hygiene practices when handling livestock or wild game.

Dermatitis, contact can be acute or chronic, depending on the severity and duration of the exposure. In acute cases, the symptoms may resolve within a few days after removing the offending substance. Chronic dermatitis, on the other hand, can persist for weeks or even months, and may require ongoing treatment to manage the symptoms.

The symptoms of contact dermatitis can vary depending on the individual and the severity of the exposure. Common symptoms include:

* Redness and inflammation of the skin
* Itching and burning sensations
* Swelling and blistering
* Cracks or fissures in the skin
* Difficulty healing or recurring infections

In severe cases, contact dermatitis can lead to complications such as:

* Infection with bacteria or fungi
* Scarring and disfigurement
* Emotional distress and anxiety

Diagnosis of contact dermatitis is typically made based on the patient's medical history and physical examination. Allergic patch testing may also be performed to identify specific allergens that are causing the condition.

Treatment for contact dermatitis usually involves avoiding the offending substance and using topical or oral medications to manage symptoms. In severe cases, systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressants may be prescribed. Phototherapy and alternative therapies such as herbal remedies or acupuncture may also be considered.

Prevention of contact dermatitis involves identifying and avoiding substances that cause an allergic reaction or skin irritation. Individuals with a history of contact dermatitis should take precautions when handling new substances, and should be aware of the potential for cross-reactivity between different allergens.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the joints breaks down over time, causing the bones to rub together. It is the most common form of arthritis and typically affects older adults.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joints, leading to inflammation and pain. It can affect anyone, regardless of age, and is typically seen in women.

Other types of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis, gouty arthritis, and lupus-related arthritis. Treatment for arthritis depends on the type and severity of the condition, but can include medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, can also be helpful. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Arthritis is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting over 50 million adults in the United States alone. It can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, making everyday activities such as walking, dressing, and grooming difficult and painful. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

There are two main forms of echinococcosis: cystic and alveolar. Cystic echinococcosis is the most common form and is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the liver, lungs, or other organs. Alveolar echinococcosis is a more aggressive form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of solid tumor-like masses in the liver, lungs, or other organs.

The symptoms of echinococcosis vary depending on the location and size of the cysts or tumors. They may include abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and by examining a sample of the cyst contents under a microscope.

Treatment for echinococcosis usually involves surgery to remove the cysts or tumors, followed by antiparasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. In some cases, chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the disease. Prevention of echinococcosis primarily involves controlling the spread of dog tapeworms, which can be done through measures such as regularly deworming dogs and avoiding contact with dog feces.

Echinococcosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, but with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many people are able to recover fully or partially.

A group of autoimmune blistering diseases that are characterized by the formation of large, tense bullae on the skin and mucous membranes. These diseases are caused by abnormal immunological responses to certain antigens, which lead to the production of autoantibodies that attack the basement membrane zone of the skin and mucous membranes, causing damage and blister formation.

There are several types of pemphigoid, bullous diseases, including:

* Pemphigoid, benign chronic
* Pemphigoid, severe
* Bullous pemphigoid
* Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

Symptoms of pemphigoid, bullous diseases may include:

* Blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
* Redness and swelling around the blisters
* Itching or pain
* Fever

Diagnosis of pemphigoid, bullous diseases is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsy. Treatment involves the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis can vary in severity but typically include:

* Fatigue
* Fever
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Enlarged spleen
* Headache
* Muscle weakness
* Rash
* Swollen liver or spleen

Infectious mononucleosis is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and other laboratory tests. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and allowing the body to fight the infection on its own.

Prognosis for infectious mononucleosis is generally good, but it can take several weeks to recover fully. Complications are rare but can include inflammation of the spleen, liver disease, and a condition called splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen).

Prevention includes avoiding close contact with people who have mononucleosis, washing hands frequently, and not sharing eating or drinking utensils. There is no vaccine available to protect against infectious mononucleosis.

There are several different types of uveitis, including:

1. Anterior uveitis: This type affects the front part of the eye and is the most common form of uveitis. It is often caused by an infection or injury.
2. Posterior uveitis: This type affects the back part of the eye and can be caused by a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
3. Intermediate uveitis: This type affects the middle layer of the eye and is often caused by an autoimmune disorder.
4. Panuveitis: This type affects the entire uvea and can be caused by a systemic disease such as vasculitis or Behçet's disease.

Symptoms of uveitis may include:

* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling in the eye
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision)
* Flashes of light

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible. Uveitis can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medication to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to remove any diseased tissue.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness. If you have uveitis, it is important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring to protect your vision.

Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)

In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:

* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock

Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:

* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly

Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

In animals, toxoplasmosis can cause a variety of clinical signs depending on the severity of the infection and the immune status of the host. Some common symptoms include diarrhea, lethargy, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can lead to respiratory failure, neurological disorders, and death.

Toxoplasmosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology, and imaging studies such as radiography or ultrasonography. Treatment for toxoplasmosis in animals is largely supportive, aimed at managing symptoms and preventing complications.

Prevention of toxoplasmosis in animals involves good hygiene practices, such as avoiding contact with cat feces and contaminated food or water, and vaccination of cats against toxoplasmosis to reduce the risk of oocyst shedding. In some cases, antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections that arise from the immunosuppression caused by the parasite.

In conclusion, toxoplasmosis is a common and widespread infectious disease that affects many animal species, including humans. It can cause a range of clinical signs and symptoms, and diagnosis requires a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Prevention involves good hygiene practices and vaccination of cats against toxoplasmosis.

There are several different forms of leishmaniasis, including:

* Cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes skin sores, which can be painful and disfiguring.
* Visceral leishmaniasis: Also known as kala-azar, this form of the disease affects the internal organs and can be fatal if left untreated.
* Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes sores on the skin and mucous membranes.
*Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: This form of the disease causes widespread skin lesions.

Leishmaniasis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Physical examination and medical history: A doctor may look for signs of the disease, such as skin sores or swelling, and ask about the patient's travel history and exposure to sandflies.
* Laboratory tests: Blood and skin samples can be tested for the presence of the parasite using techniques such as microscopy, PCR, and serology.
* Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can be used to visualize the spread of the disease in the body.

Treatment for leishmaniasis typically involves antiparasitic drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials, miltefosine, and amphotericin B. The specific treatment regimen will depend on the severity and location of the disease, as well as the patient's age, health status, and other factors. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue.

Prevention measures for leishmaniasis include:

* Avoiding sandfly bites: Using insecticides, wearing protective clothing, and staying in well-screened areas can help prevent sandfly bites.
* Eliminating sandfly breeding sites: Removing debris and vegetation, and using insecticides to kill sandflies and their eggs can help reduce the risk of infection.
* Vaccination: There is currently no effective vaccine against leishmaniasis, but research is ongoing to develop one.
* Public education: Raising awareness about the disease and how it is transmitted can help prevent infections and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

Overall, early diagnosis and treatment are key to preventing complications and improving outcomes for patients with leishmaniasis. In addition, public health measures such as insecticide use and vaccination may help reduce the incidence of the disease.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

The term "immune complex disease" was first used in the 1960s to describe a group of conditions that were thought to be caused by the formation of immune complexes. These diseases include:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): an autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple organ systems and is characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints and can lead to joint damage.
3. Type III hypersensitivity reaction: a condition in which immune complexes are deposited in tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage.
4. Pemphigus: a group of autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against desmosomal antigens.
5. Bullous pemphigoid: an autoimmune disease that affects the skin and is characterized by the formation of large blisters.
6. Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disorder that affects the nervous system, causing muscle weakness and fatigue.
7. Goodpasture's syndrome: a rare autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys and lungs, characterized by the presence of immune complexes in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
8. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and waste products accumulate in the kidneys, leading to kidney failure.

Immune complex diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins. Treatment options for these diseases include medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, and plasmapheresis, which is a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood. In some cases, organ transplantation may be necessary.

In conclusion, immune complex diseases are a group of disorders that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues and organs, leading to inflammation and damage. These diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications that suppress the immune system and plasmapheresis.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during a person's lifetime. Some risk factors for developing fibrosarcoma include previous radiation exposure, chronic inflammation, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

The symptoms of fibrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown to a significant size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. If the tumor is near a nerve, it can also cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

Diagnosis of fibrosarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for fibrosarcoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for fibrosarcoma is generally good if the tumor is caught early and treated aggressively. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis is generally poorer. In some cases, the cancer can recur after treatment, so it is important for patients to follow their doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups and follow-up testing.

Overall, fibrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, many people with this condition can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

Symptoms of filarial elephantiasis include swelling and thickening of the skin, especially in the legs, feet, and hands, as well as a loss of sensation in the affected areas. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs to kill the worms, but surgery may be necessary in some cases to remove severely affected tissue.

Preventive measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing, as well as taking antiparasitic medications to prevent infection. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent the development of severe complications and improve quality of life for individuals with filarial elephantiasis.

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CMV infections are more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant. In these individuals, CMV can cause severe and life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia, retinitis (inflammation of the retina), and gastrointestinal disease.

In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually mild and may not cause any symptoms at all. However, in some cases, CMV can cause a mononucleosis-like illness with fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.

CMV infections are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment is generally not necessary for mild cases, but may include antiviral medications for more severe infections. Prevention strategies include avoiding close contact with individuals who have CMV, practicing good hygiene, and considering immunoprophylaxis (prevention of infection through the use of immune globulin) for high-risk individuals.

Overall, while CMV infections can be serious and life-threatening, they are relatively rare in healthy individuals and can often be treated effectively with supportive care and antiviral medications.

The fungus is found in soil and water and is typically contracted through the inhalation of contaminated dust or the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The symptoms of blastomycosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Cough
* Shortness of breath
* Skin lesions
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes

In severe cases, blastomycosis can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory failure, cardiovascular problems, and meningitis.

Diagnosis of blastomycosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be effective in resolving symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and long-term follow-up is often necessary to ensure that the infection has been fully cleared.

Preventive measures for blastomycosis include avoiding contact with contaminated soil and water, wearing protective clothing and equipment when working outdoors in areas where the fungus is prevalent, and taking antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare provider. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing severe complications and improving outcomes for patients with blastomycosis.

The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Symptoms:

* High fever
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Vomiting
* Rash
* Delirium
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure

Causes:

* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports

Treatment:

* Antibiotics
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)

Prevention:

* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:

1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

Plasmacytoma is a type of plasma cell dyscrasia, which is a group of diseases that affect the production and function of plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In plasmacytoma, the abnormal plasma cells grow and multiply out of control, leading to a tumor.

There are several subtypes of plasmacytoma, including:

* solitary plasmacytoma: A single tumor that occurs in one location.
* multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the bones and is characterized by an overgrowth of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow.
* extramedullary plasmacytoma: A tumor that occurs outside of the bone marrow, such as in soft tissue or organs.

Plasmacytoma is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy the abnormal cells. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor.

Plasmacytoma is a relatively rare cancer, but it can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for patients with symptoms of plasmacytoma to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The disease typically presents with symptoms such as fever, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats, and can progress to severe respiratory, cutaneous, and disseminated forms if left untreated. The infection is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, radiological studies, and laboratory tests such as PCR and culture.

Treatment options for paracoccidioidomycosis include antifungal medications such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole, which are often associated with significant side effects and variable efficacy. Surgical debulking may also be considered in certain cases.

The prognosis for paracoccidioidomycosis is generally poor, especially in advanced stages of the disease, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

The infection occurs when a person ingests undercooked or raw meat containing the tapeworm larvae, which then migrate to the intestines and mature into adult worms. The adult tapeworms can live for up to 20 years in the host's intestine, causing no symptoms in some cases, while in others, they may cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

If left untreated, taeniasis can lead to complications such as intestinal blockages, perforation of the intestines, and anemia due to blood loss. Treatment typically involves anti-parasitic drugs to kill the adult worms and larvae. Prevention measures include proper cooking of meat, especially beef, to an internal temperature of at least 160°F (71°C) for a few minutes, as well as good hygiene practices when handling raw meat.

Granulomas are formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and they serve as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent. The granuloma is characterized by a central area of necrosis, surrounded by a ring of immune cells, including macrophages and T-lymphocytes.

Granulomas are commonly seen in a variety of inflammatory conditions, such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and sarcoidosis. They can also occur as a result of infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, and in the context of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

In summary, granuloma is a term used to describe a type of inflammatory lesion that is formed in response to the presence of a foreign substance or an infection, and serves as a protective barrier to prevent the spread of the infection and to isolate the offending agent.

Symptoms of EBV infection can vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, and may include:

* Fatigue
* Fever
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Swollen liver or spleen
* Rash
* Headaches
* Muscle weakness

In some cases, EBV can lead to more serious complications such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which can cause:

* Enlarged liver and spleen
* Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)
* Hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver)
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)

EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

There is no specific treatment for EBV infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few weeks. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or to prevent complications. Rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relief medication can help alleviate symptoms.

During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.

The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.

Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.

The symptoms of bovine tuberculosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:

* Coughing or difficulty breathing
* Weight loss and loss of condition
* Fever
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Poor milk production in lactating cows
* Intestinal problems, such as diarrhea or constipation

If left untreated, bovine tuberculosis can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, pleurisy, and peritonitis. It can also spread to other animals in the herd, making it important to identify and isolate infected animals promptly.

Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Skin tests, such as the Mantoux test or the single-dose intradermal test, can detect exposure to the bacteria, but they may not always provide accurate results in animals with low levels of antibodies. Blood tests, such as the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test or the QuantiFERON® test, can detect the presence of TB antigens in the blood, but these tests may also have limitations.

Treatment of bovine tuberculosis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The most commonly used antibiotics include isoniazid, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention of bovine tuberculosis primarily involves controlling the spread of the disease through control of the mycobacteria that cause it. Measures such as testing and removal of infected animals, use of clean needles and equipment, and proper disposal of animal carcasses can help prevent the spread of the disease. Additionally, vaccination of animals with a live bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing TB infections.

In conclusion, bovine tuberculosis is a significant health concern for cattle and other animals, as well as humans who may be exposed to infected animals or contaminated products. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent the spread of the disease and manage symptoms in affected animals. Prevention measures such as testing and removal of infected animals, use of clean needles and equipment, and proper disposal of animal carcasses can help control the spread of the disease.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, blurred vision, fatigue, weight loss, and skin infections. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, and blindness.

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood glucose measurements and autoantibody tests. Treatment typically involves insulin therapy, which can be administered via injections or an insulin pump, as well as regular monitoring of blood glucose levels and appropriate lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Cystadenocarcinoma can occur in various parts of the body, but it is most common in the ovary and breast. In the ovary, it is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for about 70% of all ovarian cancers. In the breast, it is a rare type of breast cancer, accounting for less than 5% of all breast cancers.

The symptoms of cystadenocarcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include:

* Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* Abdominal swelling or bloating
* Painful urination
* Weakness and fatigue

Cystadenocarcinoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer.

The prognosis for cystadenocarcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, early detection and treatment improve the chances of a successful outcome. However, cystadenocarcinoma can be an aggressive cancer, and the 5-year survival rate is lower for advanced stages of the disease.

In summary, cystadenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular cells in various parts of the body, but most commonly in the ovary and breast. It can cause a range of symptoms and is diagnosed through imaging tests and biopsy. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy, and the prognosis depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis.

The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:

* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women

In eye infections, symptoms can include:

* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light

In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Shortness of breath or wheezing

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.

Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.

Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.

In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.

Once infected, humans can experience a range of symptoms including fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bones and joints, causing swelling and pain. Brucellosis can also lead to complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves) and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord).

Brucellosis in cows is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and blood samples. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but it is important to detect and treat the infection early to prevent complications. Prevention measures include vaccination of animals, proper handling and disposal of animal products, and avoiding contact with infected animals or their products.

In addition to its medical significance, brucellosis has also been associated with significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to reduced milk production and fertility issues in infected animals.

The symptoms of toxocariasis can vary depending on the location of the parasite in the body, but they may include:

* Eye problems, such as blurred vision, eye pain, and inflammation of the retina
* Skin rashes or lesions
* Joint pain and swelling
* Neurological symptoms, such as headaches, seizures, and loss of coordination
* Diarrhea and abdominal pain

Toxocariasis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, which can help to eliminate the parasites from the body. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as eye inflammation or neurological problems.

Preventive measures for toxocariasis include:

* Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or feces
* Washing hands and food thoroughly
* Keeping pets free of parasites through regular deworming and proper sanitation
* Avoiding eating undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game

While toxocariasis is generally not life-threatening, it can cause significant morbidity and vision loss if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Symptoms of fascioliasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and may include:

1. Abdominal pain
2. Diarrhea
3. Vomiting
4. Fatigue
5. Weight loss
6. Anemia
7. Elevated liver enzymes
8. Inflammation of the liver, bile ducts, or pancreas

If left untreated, fascioliasis can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Cholangiohepatitis (inflammation of the bile ducts and liver)
2. Hepatic cysts or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
3. Biliary obstruction or pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)

Diagnosis of fascioliasis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as:

1. Blood tests to detect antibodies against the parasite
2. Detection of the parasite in stool or bile samples
3. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans to visualize the liver and bile ducts

Treatment of fascioliasis usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as triclabendazole or nitazoxanide, to eliminate the parasite from the body. Supportive care may also be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention of fascioliasis primarily involves measures to avoid ingesting contaminated food or water, such as:

1. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly pork or lamb
2. Properly cooking and storing food
3. Avoiding consumption of untreated water
4. Using proper sanitation and hygiene practices
5. Avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water

In areas where fascioliasis is common, it is important to be aware of the risk and take appropriate precautions to prevent infection. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with fascioliasis.

A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected sandfly. The most common form of the disease is characterized by skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring.

Other forms of leishmaniasis include:

1. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar): A severe and potentially fatal form of the disease that affects several internal organs, including the spleen, liver, and bone marrow.
2. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by skin lesions and mucosal involvement, such as nose ulcers and mouth sores.
3. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by widespread skin involvement, often with a diffuse, papular rash.
4. Recidivans leishmaniasis: A form of the disease characterized by repeated episodes of skin lesions, often triggered by exposure to sandflies.

Symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis may include:

* Skin lesions, which may be painful and disfiguring
* Swelling of the affected limb
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss

Diagnosis is made by identifying the parasite in a skin scraping or biopsy specimen. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications, such as pentavalent antimonials or amphotericin B.

Preventive measures include avoiding sandfly bites, wearing protective clothing and insect repellents, and using screens on windows and doors to prevent sandflies from entering homes.

The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.

Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Hepatitis, chronic is a type of liver disease that is characterized by inflammation and damage to the liver, which can lead to scarring, cirrhosis, and potentially liver failure. It is caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as hepatitis B and C), alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders.

Chronic hepatitis can be challenging to diagnose, as its symptoms are often nonspecific and may resemble those of other conditions. However, some common signs and symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

If left untreated, chronic hepatitis can lead to serious complications, such as liver failure, liver cancer, and esophageal varices. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation.

Preventing Chronic Hepatitis:

While some forms of chronic hepatitis are incurable, there are steps you can take to prevent the development of this condition or slow its progression. These include:

* Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
* Practicing safe sex to avoid sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
* Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
* Seeking medical attention if you suspect you have been exposed to hepatitis

Managing Chronic Hepatitis:

If you have chronic hepatitis, managing the condition is crucial to prevent complications and improve quality of life. This may involve:

* Medications to treat the underlying cause of the hepatitis (e.g., antiviral drugs for hepatitis B or C)
* Lifestyle changes, such as avoiding alcohol and maintaining a healthy diet
* Regular monitoring of liver function and viral load
* In some cases, liver transplantation

Living with Chronic Hepatitis:

Living with chronic hepatitis can be challenging, but there are resources available to help you cope. These may include:

* Support groups for people with hepatitis and their families
* Counseling to address emotional and mental health concerns
* Educational resources to help you understand the condition and its management
* Legal assistance to navigate insurance and disability benefits

Conclusion:

Chronic hepatitis is a complex and multifactorial condition that can have serious consequences if left untreated. However, with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and lifestyle changes, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life. By understanding the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of chronic hepatitis, you can take an active role in your healthcare and make informed decisions about your care.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) typically causes cold sores or fever blisters that appear on the lips, mouth, or nose. While herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is responsible for genital herpes which affects the genital area, buttocks, and anal area.

The infection can be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva, mucus, or skin, even if there are no visible sores present. Symptoms of herpes simplex may include itching, burning, tingling, redness, and small blisters that burst and ooze fluid.

There is no cure for herpes simplex, but medications can help manage symptoms and shorten the duration of an outbreak. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir are commonly used to treat herpes simplex.

A thymus neoplasm is a type of cancer that originates in the thymus gland, which is located in the chest behind the sternum and is responsible for the development and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells) of the immune system.

Types of Thymus Neoplasms

There are several types of thymus neoplasms, including:

1. Thymoma: A slow-growing tumor that is usually benign but can sometimes be malignant.
2. Thymic carcinoma: A more aggressive type of cancer that is less common than thymoma.
3. Thymic lymphoma: A type of cancer that arises from the T-cells in the thymus gland and can be either B-cell or T-cell derived.

Symptoms of Thymus Neoplasms

The symptoms of thymus neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Coughing or shortness of breath
3. Fatigue or fever
4. Swelling in the neck or face
5. Weight loss or loss of appetite

Diagnosis of Thymus Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a thymus neoplasm typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment of Thymus Neoplasms

The treatment of thymus neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, but may include:

1. Surgery to remove the tumor
2. Radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells
3. Chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells
4. Targeted therapy to specific molecules involved in the growth and progression of the cancer.

Prognosis of Thymus Neoplasms

The prognosis for thymus neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis.

Prevention of Thymus Neoplasms

There is no known way to prevent thymus neoplasms, as they are rare and can occur in people of all ages. However, early detection and treatment of the cancer can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Current Research on Thymus Neoplasms

Researchers are currently studying new treatments for thymus neoplasms, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapy, which use the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Additionally, researchers are working to develop better diagnostic tests to detect thymus neoplasms at an earlier stage, when they are more treatable.

Conclusion

Thymus neoplasms are rare and complex cancers that require specialized care and treatment. While the prognosis for these cancers can be challenging, advances in diagnosis and treatment have improved outcomes for many patients. Researchers continue to study new treatments and diagnostic tools to improve the chances of a successful outcome for those affected by thymus neoplasms.

The term "lepromatous" is derived from the Latin word "leprum," meaning "scale," which refers to the rough, scaly skin lesions that are a hallmark of this type of leprosy. Lepromatous leprosy is the most severe and disfiguring form of the disease, and it is often associated with a high risk of complications and death.

In medical terms, "lepromatous" is used to describe any condition or lesion that resembles lepromatous leprosy, such as certain types of skin cancer or other inflammatory disorders. However, the term is most commonly associated with leprosy and its severe and debilitating effects on the body.

The diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy is typically made based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and skin biopsy. Treatment for this condition typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In addition, individuals with lepromatous leprosy may require surgery to remove deformities and improve function and mobility.

Overall, the term "lepromatous" is used in the medical field to describe a severe and debilitating form of leprosy that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life and longevity.

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be acute or chronic.
2. Peptic ulcer disease: Ulcers in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that are caused by H. pylori infection.
3. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that is associated with long-term H. pylori infection.
4. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: A rare type of cancer that affects the immune cells in the stomach and small intestine.
5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation.
6. Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis: A type of chronic inflammation of the stomach lining that can lead to stomach ulcers and stomach cancer.
7. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS): A condition that develops after a gastrointestinal infection, characterized by persistent symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Helicobacter infections are typically diagnosed through endoscopy, where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the stomach and small intestine to visualize the mucosa and look for signs of inflammation or ulcers. Laboratory tests such as breath tests and stool tests may also be used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the body. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms.

Preventing Helicobacter Infections:

While it is not possible to completely prevent Helicobacter infections, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions:

1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands regularly, especially before eating and after using the bathroom.
2. Avoid close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections.
3. Avoid sharing food, drinks, or utensils with people who have Helicobacter infections.
4. Avoid consuming undercooked meat, especially pork and lamb.
5. Avoid consuming raw shellfish, especially oysters.
6. Avoid consuming unpasteurized dairy products.
7. Avoid alcohol and caffeine, which can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.
8. Maintain a healthy diet that is high in fiber and low in fat.
9. Manage stress, as stress can exacerbate symptoms of Helicobacter infections.
10. Practice good oral hygiene to prevent gum disease and other oral infections that can increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.

Conclusion:

Helicobacter infections are a common cause of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and other gastrointestinal disorders. These infections are caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which can be found in the stomach lining and small intestine. While these infections can be difficult to diagnose, a combination of endoscopy, blood tests, and stool tests can help confirm the presence of Helicobacter bacteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections, and maintaining a healthy diet.

1. Types of Polyomaviruses: There are several types of polyomaviruses that can infect humans, including the common cold virus (Rhinovirus), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and the newly identified Parechovirus.
2. Infection: Polyomaviruses can be transmitted through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva, or through contaminated surfaces. Inhaling the virus can lead to an infection in the respiratory tract.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of polyomavirus infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual's age and overall health. Common symptoms include runny nose, cough, fever, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, polyomaviruses can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and other respiratory disorders.
4. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of a polyomavirus infection is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual, as well as through laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture.
5. Treatment: There is no specific treatment for polyomavirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers, may also be recommended.
6. Prevention: Preventing the spread of polyomaviruses can be challenging, but good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and disinfecting surfaces can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against certain types of polyomaviruses.
7. Prognosis: In most cases, polyomavirus infections are mild and self-limiting, with symptoms resolving on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe infections can be life-threatening, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.
8. Epidemiology: Polyomaviruses are common and widespread, with the majority of individuals worldwide being infected at some point in their lives. Outbreaks of polyomavirus infections can occur in settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, and daycare centers, where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
9. Research: Research on polyomaviruses is ongoing to better understand the viruses, their transmission, and their clinical impact. This includes development of vaccines and antiviral medications, as well as studies to identify risk factors for severe infections and to improve diagnostic tests.
10. Public health: Polyomaviruses are a public health concern, particularly in settings where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. Prevention strategies include practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.

Overall, polyomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a range of diseases, from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening. Understanding the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, epidemiology, research, and public health implications of polyomavirus infections is essential for providing appropriate care and preventing outbreaks.

Myeloid leukemia can be classified into several subtypes based on the type of cell involved and the degree of maturity of the abnormal cells. The most common types of myeloid leukemia include:

1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This is the most aggressive form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by a rapid progression of immature cells that do not mature or differentiate into normal cells. AML can be further divided into several subtypes based on the presence of certain genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This is a slower-growing form of myeloid leukemia, characterized by the presence of a genetic abnormality known as the Philadelphia chromosome. CML is typically treated with targeted therapies or bone marrow transplantation.
3. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders characterized by the impaired development of immature blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can progress to AML if left untreated.
4. Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML): This is a rare form of myeloid leukemia that is characterized by the accumulation of immature monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. CMML can be treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.

The symptoms of myeloid leukemia can vary depending on the subtype and severity of the disease. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options for myeloid leukemia can include chemotherapy, targeted therapies, bone marrow transplantation, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for myeloid leukemia varies depending on the subtype of the disease and the patient's overall health. With current treatments, many patients with myeloid leukemia can achieve long-term remission or even be cured.

Some of the key features of immediate hypersensitivity include:

1. Rapid onset of symptoms: Symptoms typically occur within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen.
2. IgE antibodies: Immediate hypersensitivity is caused by the binding of IgE antibodies to surface receptors on mast cells and basophils.
3. Mast cell and basophil activation: The activation of mast cells and basophils leads to the release of histamine and other chemical mediators that cause symptoms.
4. Anaphylaxis: Immediate hypersensitivity can progress to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention.
5. Specificity: Immediate hypersensitivity is specific to a particular allergen and does not occur with other allergens.
6. Cross-reactivity: There may be cross-reactivity between different allergens, leading to similar symptoms.
7. Prevention: Avoidance of the allergen is the primary prevention strategy for immediate hypersensitivity. Medications such as antihistamines and epinephrine can also be used to treat symptoms.

The disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, which introduces the parasite into the host's bloodstream. The parasites then multiply within the host's cells, causing damage to the red blood cells and other organs.

There are several species of Theileria that can cause theileriosis, with different species affecting different regions and livestock populations. The most common species is Theileria parva, which is found in sub-Saharan Africa and causes East Coast fever. Other species include Theileria sergenti, which is found in southern Africa, and Theileria taurotragus, which affects wild buffalo.

Theileriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the parasites in the host's bloodstream. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as antibiotics to prevent secondary infections, and in some cases, medication to reduce the number of parasites in the host's body.

Prevention is key to controlling theileriosis, and this includes using acaricides to kill ticks, vaccination, and maintaining good herd health practices. In areas where the disease is common, it is important to monitor livestock regularly for signs of the disease and take prompt action if any are detected.

In summary, theileriosis is a parasitic infection caused by Theileria protozoa that affects cattle and other bovines, causing a range of symptoms including fever, anemia, weight loss, and edema. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick and can be diagnosed through laboratory tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves supportive care and medication to reduce the number of parasites in the host's body, while prevention strategies include the use of acaricides, vaccination, and good herd health practices.

SCC typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on the skin, and may be pink, red, or scaly. The cancer cells are usually well-differentiated, meaning they resemble normal squamous cells, but they can grow rapidly and invade surrounding tissues if left untreated.

SCC is more common in fair-skinned individuals and those who spend a lot of time in the sun, as UV radiation can damage the skin cells and increase the risk of cancer. The cancer can also spread to other parts of the body, such as lymph nodes or organs, and can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and effectively.

Treatment for SCC usually involves surgery to remove the cancerous tissue, and may also include radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Early detection and treatment are important to improve outcomes for patients with SCC.

Hepatitis A is typically spread through contaminated food and water or through close contact with someone who has the infection. The virus can also be spread through sexual contact or sharing of needles.

Symptoms of hepatitis A usually appear two to six weeks after exposure and can last for several weeks or months. In some cases, the infection can lead to complications such as liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is a vaccine available for hepatitis A, which is recommended for individuals traveling to areas where the virus is common, people who engage in high-risk behaviors, and those with chronic liver disease. Treatment for hepatitis A typically focuses on relieving symptoms and supporting the liver as it recovers. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of hepatitis A infection include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially before eating or preparing food; avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, particularly oysters; and avoiding close contact with people who have the infection.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of large, painful blisters on the skin and mucous membranes.
2. Pemphigus foliaceus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of smaller, crusting sores on the skin.
3. Pemphigus erythematosus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of flat, red sores on the skin.
4. Bullous pemphigoid: This is a rare form of pemphigus that is characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as infection and fluid loss.

Prevention of pemphigus is difficult, but avoiding exposure to known triggers such as certain medications and taking steps to maintain good skin care can help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with pemphigus.

Causes:

Reactive arthritis is caused by an immune system response to an infection or inflammation in another part of the body. Common causes include bacterial infections such as chlamydia, salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis B.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of reactive arthritis typically develop within 2-4 weeks after the initial infection or inflammation. They can include:

Pain and stiffness in the affected joints, particularly in the knees, ankles, and feet
Swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joints
Loss of range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Fatigue and general feeling of illness

Diagnosis:

To diagnose reactive arthritis, a healthcare provider will typically begin with a physical examination and medical history. They may also order additional tests to rule out other conditions and confirm the presence of an underlying infection or inflammation. These tests can include:

Blood tests to check for the presence of antibodies or other signs of infection
Joint fluid tests to check for the presence of bacteria or other signs of inflammation
Imaging studies such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out other conditions and assess joint damage

Treatment:

The goal of treatment for reactive arthritis is to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints. Treatment can include:

Antibiotics to treat any underlying bacterial infections
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce inflammation
Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected joints
Physical therapy to improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Joint aspiration to drain fluid from the affected joint and relieve pressure
In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

The disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected blackfly of the genus Simulium. The parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus is deposited into the skin of the human host, where it forms nodules that can migrate to various parts of the body, including the eye and skin.

The symptoms of onchocerciasis can vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. Skin symptoms include a rash, papules, and nodules, while eye symptoms can include vision loss, blurred vision, and blindness. The disease can also cause joint pain and fever.

Onchocerciasis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as skin biopsy or blood testing for antigens. Treatment involves administering the drug ivermectin, which kills the adult worms and reduces symptoms. However, the drug does not kill the microfilariae, which can continue to cause disease for years after treatment.

Prevention of onchocerciasis involves controlling the population of blackflies that transmit the disease. This is achieved through measures such as using insecticides, wearing protective clothing and applying repellents, and draining standing water where blackflies breed. Elimination of the disease requires mass drug administration to all individuals in endemic areas, followed by repeated treatment every 6-12 months for at least 10-15 years.

The Epstein-Barr virus viral-capsid antigen (EBV-VCA) is the viral protein that forms the viral capsid of the Epstein-Barr ... It is the antigen targeted by antibodies that bond to viral capsid antigens (VCA). Such antibodies can be used in serology to ...
... multiple synthetic peptide antigens > single peptide antigen. The scarcity of effective synthetic vaccines for RNA viral ... the rate at which viral RNA or DNA is synthesized intracellularly for viral progeny production), viral load (the total amount ... Viral pathogenesis is influenced by microevolutionary processes in which some viral subpopulations are replaced by others to ... with consequences for viral pathogenesis and the control of viral disease. Detailed studies on quasispecies dynamics in vivo ...
Khalili, K; Sariyer, IK; Safak, M (May 2008). "Small tumor antigen of polyomaviruses: role in viral life cycle and cell ... The genes for the small tumor antigen (STag), middle tumor antigen (MTag), and large tumor antigen (LTag) are encoded in the " ... The middle tumor antigen (also called the middle T-antigen and abbreviated MTag or MT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ... the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen. MTag occurs only in a few known polyomaviruses, while STag and LTag are ...
Khalili, K; Sariyer, IK; Safak, M (May 2008). "Small tumor antigen of polyomaviruses: role in viral life cycle and cell ... The small tumor antigen (also called the small T-antigen and abbreviated STag or ST) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ... "The Oncogenic Small Tumor Antigen of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Is an Iron-Sulfur Cluster Protein That Enhances Viral DNA ... "Polyoma small and middle T antigens and SV40 small t antigen form stable complexes with protein phosphatase 2A". Cell. 60 (1): ...
The OBD binds the viral genome's origin of replication by recognizing specific sequences that occur in the portion of the viral ... The large tumor antigen (also called the large T-antigen and abbreviated LTag or LT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ... SV40 has three early proteins, the large tumor antigen, the small tumor antigen, and a small protein called 17kT that shares ... "Crystal structure of SV40 large T-antigen bound to p53: interplay between a viral oncoprotein and a cellular tumor suppressor ...
After viral maturation, CA forms the viral capsid. CA has two generally recognized domains, the C-terminal domain (CTD) and the ... Cleavage of the CA-SP1 junction is the final step in viral maturation, which allows CA to condense into the viral capsid. SP1 ... forms the viral nucleocapsid. NC recruits full-length viral genomic RNA to nascent virions.[citation needed] Spacer peptide 2 ( ... Group-specific antigen, or gag, is the polyprotein that contains the core structural proteins of an Ortervirus (except ...
"Detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA". www.virology.ws. Retrieved 2017-04-03. Grandien, M. (1996-05-01). "Viral ... By knowing the epitope sequence of the antibody, ELISA can also be used for antigen detection in a sample. Histological methods ... ELISA can also indicate viral presence and is highly specific, having a detection specificity of 10−9-10−12 moles per litre ... Antibodies are added to a bacterial solution, providing an antigen for the binding of fluorescent anti-antibody adherence. ...
If a virus had infected the cell, viral peptides would also be presented, allowing the immune system to recognize and kill the ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly. Lymphocytes are one of the five kinds of white blood cells or ... The bound antigen molecules are engulfed into the B cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The antigen is digested into peptide ... Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. MHC I antigen ...
The carcinoma cells still harbour the viral genes and antigens. As expected T cell responses against antigens encoded by genes ... In some patients, the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to ... Cancer therapy targeted at tumor antigens can involve the direct use of these antigens in vaccines, but also the adoptive ... It is now proven that tumor-specific antigens exist and that patients mount spontaneous T cell responses against such antigens ...
He worked on the mechanism of activation of the immune system by viral antigens. He was awarded a D.Phil. in 1997 for his ... The Gene,' by Siddhartha Mukherjee". Mukherjee, Siddhartha (1997). The processing and presentation of viral antigens (DPhil ... thesis titled The processing and presentation of viral antigens. After graduation, he attended Harvard Medical School, where he ... Mukherjee's lab, with the help of PureTech Health plc, has been investigating chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR ...
This includes testing sera and saliva for viral antigens. Prenatal diagnosis is further complicated when microcephaly manifests ... severe reduction of neural progenitors and neurones as a result of cell cycle arrest and neural progenitor death due to viral ...
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Viral infection and mitogens affect the expression of the Sp100 autoantigen. Cells grown in the presence of interferons (α, β, ... Sp100 nuclear antigen is an interferon stimulated antigen found in the cell nuclei of many human and higher animal cells. ... Szostecki C, Guldner HH, Netter HJ, Will H (1990). "Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human nuclear antigen ...
... antigen presentation in adaptive immunity and viral infection; cystic fibrosis; and bacterial nutrition. In 2019, she was ...
Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... Humans and higher primates also produce "natural antibodies" that are present in serum before viral infection. Natural ... It is important to note that this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by ... This means binding between antibody and antigen is reversible, and the antibody's affinity towards an antigen is relative ...
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DNA vaccines induce antigen production in the host. It is a plasmid that contains a viral, bacterial or parasite gene. The ... or killed viral strains. The inactivation occurs through chemical or physical treatment which either denatures the protein or ... analysis of pathogens and furthered understanding of the mechanisms of pathogens has resulted in the discovery of antigens and ...
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Each adult dose contains 500 U of viral antigen. The pediatric dose contains 250 U of viral antigen. Vaqta: made by Merck. ... Each adult dose contains 1440 ELISA units of viral antigen adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (0.5 mg Al). The pediatric (child) ... doses contain half the amount of viral antigen and aluminium. Healive: made by Sinovac. Inactivated hepatitis A virus cultured ... "Hepatitis, Viral, Type A". Travelers' Health: Yellow Book (CDC). Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 12 ...
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Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral fiber glycoproteins to host ... In addition, virus antigen can be detected double immunodiffusion. Postmortem examination may reveal a variety of clinical ... Diagnosis of aviadenovirus is by histopathology, electron microscopy, viral isolation, ELISA and PCR. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Avian Adenoviruses, reviewed and published by WikiVet at http://en.wikivet.net/ ...
It can only cause infection when encapsulated by hepatitis B virus surface antigens. The vaccine for hepatitis B protects ... Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection. It may present in acute form as a recent infection with ... There also have been scores of recorded cases of viral hepatitis caused by herpes simplex virus. Viral hepatitis is either ... HCV viral levels can be reduced to undetectable levels by a combination of interferon and the antiviral drug ribavirin. The ...
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ... The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... The UTR contains PKS3 pseudoknot structure, which serves as a molecular signal to stall the exonuclease and is the only viral ...
Antigen ELISA - detection of viral protein (antigen) in serum samples. RT-qPCR test - detection of viral RNA in samples, ... CSFV is closely related to the ruminant pestiviruses that cause bovine viral diarrhoea and border disease. The effect of ... This may possibly be followed by emergency vaccination (ATCvet codes: QI09AA06 (WHO) for the inactivated viral vaccine, ... 1 Standard diagnostic tests include: Fluorescent antibody test (FAT) - detection of viral protein using fluorescent labelled ...
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The most variable region of the viral capsid is the P2 domain, which contains antigen-presenting sites and carbohydrate- ... "Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens". Antiviral Res. 133: 14-22 ... The ABH-antigen produced is thought to act as a receptor for human norovirus: A non-functional fucosyltransferase FUT2 provides ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Prasad BV, Crawford S, Lawton JA, ...
Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... This displayed the different peptides on the outer surfaces of the collection of viral clones, where the screening step of the ... The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for ... so that they are displayed on the surface of the viral particle. The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence ...
The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing viral pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. It began in early 2020 as an outbreak in Hubei ... negative PCR test taken within 48 hours must be shown along with a negative antigen test within 24 hours. A ban on residents' ...
The N protein is involved in viral pathogenesis via its effects on components of the immune system. In SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and ... Li, Dandan; Li, Jinming (20 April 2021). "Immunologic Testing for SARS-CoV-2 Infection from the Antigen Perspective". Journal ... Encapsidation of the genome occurs through interactions between N and M. N is essential for viral assembly. N also serves as a ... The N protein binds to RNA to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures for packaging the genome into the viral capsid. The RNP ...
... a volunteer must have begun drug treatment in the first year of infection and have achieved 6 months of stable viral control on ... with improvements to antigen design and manufacturing capabilities. GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. To meet such complicated demands in biological ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ... the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen ...
... incomplete clonal deletion allows for a balance between the host's ability to recognize foreign antigens and self antigens. ... Superantigens are composed of viral or bacterial proteins and can hijack the clonal deletion process when expressed in the ... Thus, the host develops a tolerance for this antigen, or a self tolerance. B and T lymphocytes are tested for their affinity ... B and T cells are presented with self antigen after developing receptors while they are still in the primary lymphoid organs. ...
Viral proteins proven to affect IFN signaling include EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from ... Binding of molecules uniquely found in microbes-viral glycoproteins, viral RNA, bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), ... the discovery was a result of their studies of viral interference. Viral interference refers to the inhibition of virus growth ... virus-encoded genetic elements have the ability to antagonize the IFN response contributing to viral pathogenesis and viral ...
More than 11.7 million RT-PCR tests and more than 7.3 million rapid antigen tests have been processed. An anti-COVID-19 ... Borrelli, Silvia Sciorilli (25 February 2020). "Politics goes viral as Italy struggles with outbreak". Politico. Retrieved 26 ...
Pra1 (pH regulated antigen 1) is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc. Diagnosis is typically made based on ... Changes in intestinal tract absorbability and permeability due, in part, to viral, protozoal, or bacteria pathogens may also ...
Yet those asymptomatic individuals can transmit the viral infection.: 109 [self-published source] Goldman explored the ... probably secondary to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes.: 199-200 [self-published source] Concerning GBS, virtually ...
He took a position in 1968 as chief of the National Cancer Institute's Laboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, staying there until ... where he showed a correlation between a spike in cases and the preparation of antigens in yolk sacs, and he prepared another ... rates of some viral cancers, like that of the liver, have been sharply reduced. ...
Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... 1977;145:1. Dickman, Steven (February 27, 1998). "Viral saboteurs caught in the act". Science. Leavy, Olive (October 2010). " ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ...
He observed that Q fever led to a post-viral illness and hypothesised that it could cause chronic fatigue syndrome. Marmion was ... At Monash, he established the microbiology curriculum for medical students while researching Mycoplasma antigens and hepatitis ...
... that predominantly recognize antigens of class I human leukocyte antigen ( HLA). The genes responsible for coding of KIR ... November 2015). "Selection of an HLA-C*03:04-Restricted HIV-1 p24 Gag Sequence Variant Is Associated with Viral Escape from ... November 2015). "Selection of an HLA-C*03:04-Restricted HIV-1 p24 Gag Sequence Variant Is Associated with Viral Escape from ... The HLA-C molecules are human leukocyte antigens and are the gene complexes to encode major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ...
Médicale Retinal gene therapy using lentiviral vectors Viral vector Lentiviral vector in gene therapy Chimeric antigen receptor ... His discovery of the central DNA-flap structure in the HIV genome, and its role in viral entry into the nucleus of the infected ... thesis in Luc Montagnier's Viral Oncology Lab at the Pasteur Institute on reverse transcription, nuclear import, and mitosis- ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied. The use of nanotrap ... People with high fever for more than two days or whose other symptoms of viral-like illness do not improve despite antibiotic ... Unlike viral meningitis, Lyme lymphocytic meningitis tends to not cause fever, last longer, and recur. Lymphocytic meningitis ... A history of outdoor activities in likely tick habitats in the last 3 months possibly followed by a rash or viral-like symptoms ...
An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... Czaja AJ, Carpenter HA, Santrach PJ, Moore SB (January 1995). "Immunologic features and HLA associations in chronic viral ... A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ... Hirsch TJ, Enlow RW, Bias WB, Arnett FC (October 1981). "HLA-D related (DR) antigens in various kinds of myositis". Hum. ...
Oral LP usually resolve upon removal of the trigger, as is characteristics of oral LP Viral infection Oral LP is considered to ... A potential pathway for CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in oral LP is described as follows: Antigens presented on MHC 1 ... An immune-mediated mechanism where basal keratinocytes are being targeted as foreign antigens by activated T cells, especially ... Autoimmune response to epithelial self-antigens remains a possibility. A single study of cutaneous LP reported evidence in ...
For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc., depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic ... "Viral gene sequences to assist update diagnostics for swine influenza A(H1N1)" (PDF). World Health Organization. 15 April 2009 ... The 1918 flu was an unusually severe and deadly strain of H1N1 avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed from 17 ... 29 June 2020). "Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human ...
"Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein". Nature. 418 (6898): 646-50 ... the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen ... "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the viral Vif protein". Journal of ...
Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers, Biological weapons, Hemorrhagic fevers, Rodent-carried diseases, ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus. Many ... Lassa fever can be difficult to distinguish clinically from other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus disease. A ...
... antigen in an ATL cell line and detection of antibodies to the antigen in human sera". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The term viral tropism refers to which cell types HTLV-I infects. Although HTLV-1 is primarily found in CD4+ T cells, other ... The viral RNA is packed into the icosahedral capsid which is contained inside the protein inner envelope. The lipid outer ... 2005). "Differences in viral and host genetic risk factors for development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)- ...
PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... which may be exploited in therapy of viral infections. It has been suggested that the main antiviral program induced by RLR is ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMC 7169806. PMID 16948640. Bahar O, Pruitt R, Luu DD, ... Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C), and Mincle i.e. macrophage‑inducible C‑type lectin (CLEC4E). The nomenclature (mannose ...
... for which he was co-discoverer of viral infection agent Sanjaya Rajaram - World Food Prize Laureate and the Head of Wheat ... secretes a specific antibody in response to an encounter with a specific foreign antigen Mitchell Notaras - graduate who funded ...
... but is non-infectious because it contains no viral genetic material. It uses recombinant spike proteins derived from SARS-CoV-2 ... reducing the amount of antigen required per dose, thereby facilitating mass production of vaccine doses. In December 2021, ...
171 patients with ALF stemming from viral hepatitis, paracetamol overdose or other drug complications, primary non-function ( ... of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen ... Viral infection Poisoning (paracetamol overdose, mushrooms) Multiorgan dysfunction (severe sepsis) Vascular diseases (Budd ...
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus (biology) - vitamin - vitamin D-dependent ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ...
In October 2014, Corbett became a research fellow working as a viral immunologist at the NIH. Her research aims to uncover ... vaccine antigens. During this time, she identified a simple way to make coronavirus spike proteins that are stabilized in a ... Kizzmekia "Kizzy" Shanta Corbett (born January 26, 1986) is an American viral immunologist. She is an Assistant Professor of ... Kizzmekia Corbett at the Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory at the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institute of ...
Natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells diminishes with age. The age- ... November 2015). "Low Thymic Activity and Dendritic Cell Numbers Are Associated with the Immune Response to Primary Viral ... Hakim FT, Gress RE (September 2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in the elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3 ... specific for the most rare and less frequently present antigens shed the most. However, such a distribution shift leads to ...
Performance Evaluation Programs for Determining HIV-1 Viral Loads, Testing for HIV p24 Antigen, and Identifying Mycobacterium ... The first assesses the performance of laboratories that perform tests to determine the viral RNA copy number (viral load) in ... Results of viral load determinations are being used by physicians treating HIV-infected patients to make decisions regarding ... For laboratories interested in participating in the new PE programs for viral load and p24 Ag testing, or one of the existing ...
Relationship of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen and Reverse Transcription PCR Positivity for Viral Cultures Dustin W. Currie. , Melisa M. ... Positive predictive value of the BinaxNOW COVID-19 Antigen Card Test and RT-PCR relative to viral culture, Winnebago County, ... Relationship of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen and Reverse Transcription PCR Positivity for Viral Cultures. ...
We have created an extracellular vesicle-based technology that allows viral membrane antigens to be selectively recruited onto ... in the case of influenza antigens, protects mice from the lethal viral infection. WAEVs thus represent a versatile platform for ... which through its proline-proline-alanine-tyrosine motif interacts with WW domains to recruit fused viral membrane antigens ... An effective vaccine would require the synthesis and delivery of these native conformational antigens in lipid membranes that ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue using Beta-propiolactone-inactivated Dengue Viral Antigens.. ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue using Beta-propiolactone-inactivated Dengue Viral Antigens.. WHO ...
Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are the main host genetic factors involved in controlling HIV-1 viral load (VL). ... Associations of functional human leucocyte antigen class I groups with HIV viral load in a heterogeneous cohort. ... Associations of functional human leucocyte antigen class I groups with HIV viral load in a ... Infecções por HIV; Soropositividade para HIV; HIV-1; Humanos; Carga Viral; Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico; ...
... more Th2-skewed antigen-specific human T follicular helper cell responses than heterologous viral vectors. ... more Th2-skewed antigen-specific human T follicular helper cell responses than heterologous viral vectors. Journal Article ( ... We demonstrate that the protein/AS01B platform induces a higher-magnitude antigen-specific cTfh cell response and that this ... Using samples from clinical trials performed with the malaria vaccine candidate antigen Plasmodium falciparum merozoite protein ...
VIRAL CAPSID ANTIGEN (VCA) IGM Test in Dhenkanal with Home Sample Collection from Apollo Diagnostics at the best price. Expert ...
viral antigen) ,,,Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the ...
Viral hepatitis and tests for the Australia (hepatitis-associated antigen and antibody. Contributor(s): World Health ... Details for: Viral hepatitis and tests for the Australia (hepatitis-associated antigen and antibody. ... TextPublication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1970. Description: 35 pSubject(s): Hepatitis B surface antigens ... isolation and purification , Hepatitis, Viral, Human -- immunology , Immunologic testsNLM classification: WC 536 ...
Antigen. Phase. * Live-attenuated Viral Vector * rZIKV; NIAID * MV-ZIKV; Themis Bioscience GmbH ...
Antibodies, Viral / immunology* * Antigens, Viral / immunology* * Cell Line * Cross Reactions * Hemagglutination Inhibition ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue using Beta-propiolactone-inactivated Dengue Viral Antigens.  ...
... the rapid antigen assay might not detect early stages of infection represented by low viral load. Therefore, the antigen-based ... The sensitivity of the rapid antigen assay was equivalent to RT-PCR (23/23, 100%) at a higher viral load (Ct value 15�). In ... Viral Load-based Evaluation of the Sensitivity of Antigen-based Rapid Detection Assay for SARS-CoV-2. ... However, the sensitivity of antigen-based rapid assay varied significantly with decreasing viral load. ...
2012] point out, this task potentially exposes workers to both soy hull antigens, which have been reported as a cause of ... Viral-infections; Immunoglobulins; Food-processing-industry; Food-processing-workers; Bronchial-asthma; Allergies; Health- ... inhalable soy antigen (P = 0.33), or peak dust (P = 0.41). When examined linearly, soy-specific IgG was not associated with ... hull antigens and endotoxin) to which the US workers were not exposed. Nevertheless, there was evidence of process-related risk ...
Evaluation of Recombinant Eilat Virus as a Viral Vector for Expression of the Heterologous Antigen Genes Canine Parainfluenza ...
Viral Agents of Gastroenteritis Public Health Importance and Outbreak Management ... Antigen Detection. Commercial antigen-detection kits for rotavirus are widely available, inexpensive, and permit rapid viral ... METHODS OF VIRAL DETECTION. ENDEMIC CONTROL. TREATMENT. SPECIAL HOSTS. SPECIFIC SITUATIONS. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRAL ... However, few studies have addressed the role of the viral agents of gastroenteritis among persons with AIDS. A recent antigen- ...
Proceedings of the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board meeting. St Julians, Malta, Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, 2001. ... Tissue Antigens, 1998, 51:593-604.. *Ramezani A et al. Is Any factor influence on hepatitis B vaccination response in ... Persistence of anti-HBs in children vaccinated against viral hepatitis B in the first year of life: follow-up at 5 and 10 years ... First evaluation of the serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination in Libya ...
... immunization with the chimeric ghosts protected mice against two LD50 hand-foot-and-mouth disease viral infection. In addition ... Taken together, the results of this study verify for the first time that the VP1 chimeric antigens of bacterial ghosts are ... Inoculation of the two VP1 chimeric antigens of bacterial ghosts into BALB/c mice markedly elicited humoral and mucosal immune ... this specific immunity also protected the pups of pregnant mice immunized with the VP1 chimeric antigens of bacterial ghosts ...
Categories: Antigens, Viral Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 119 ...
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells targeting CD19 demonstrated remarkable efficacy for the treatment of B-cell ... Non-viral RNA chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood. 2018; 132:1022-6. ... Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells that target chemokine receptor CCR4 as a therapeutic modality for T-cell ... Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered NK-92 cells: an off-the-shelf cellular therapeutic for targeted elimination of cancer ...
Steps of viral infection. Viruses reproduce by infecting their host cells, providing instructions in the form of viral DNA or ... Humoral immunity begins when an antibody on a B cell binds to an antigen. The B cell then internalizes the antigen and presents ... The RNA genome is copied (this would be done by a viral enzyme, not shown) and translated into viral proteins using a host ... Specific immune responses are triggered by antigens. Antigens are usually found on the surface of pathogens and are unique to ...
One for the viral antigen (nasal specimen), one for the IgM and IgG antibodies (blood specimen). Takes only minutes to get ... Hardys viral specimen transport is ideal for COVID-19 antigen testing. The shelf life has been increased to 180 days at room ... This is the protein to which the viral spike proteins attach in order to gain entry into the cell. ...
Franco A, Ferrari C, Sette A & Chisari FV (1995). Viral mutations, TCR antagonism and escape from the immune response. Current ... T cells recognize antigen via the variable regions of the clonotypic T cell antigen receptor molecule (TCR). Zinkernagels (8) ... CD8+ T cells recognize peptide antigen as 8-10-residue-long peptides embedded into the antigen-binding groove of MHC class I ... Key words: vaccines, MHC, antigen recognition, antigen processing, T cells, molecular evolution ...
Viral, rapid antigen and rapid antibody testing also is available at Kroger Co. pharmacies and The Little Clinic in-store ... Rapid antigen tests detects protein fragments specific to the COVID-19, while the more common molecular PCR (viral) test ... Kroger to roll out OTC rapid antigen COVID-19 self-test kit to stores. Abbotts BinaxNOW test can be conducted at home without ... The rapid antigen test delivers results quickly but can yield false positives, and negative results may need to be confirmed ...
But other viral surface antigens could also elicit neutralizing immunity with less risk for evasion by viral mutations since ... This would certainly have the potential to "offer" all external viral antigens to the immune system to form antibodies. If they ... It must be remembered that all who have survived viral infection were exposed to all those external proteins, and not just the ...
Use of consensus sequence as vaccine antigen to enhance recognition of virulent viral variants. Patent # USPTO 8168771 , 05/01/ ... Center for Viral Hepatitis Research. 855 N. Wolfe St, Rangos bldg. Baltimore, MD 21205 map ... Rays research focuses on viral evolution and human immunology, with a long-term interest in hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequence ... He is a virologist and clinical investigator in the Center for Viral Hepatitis Research in the Division of Infectious Diseases ...
Zimbabwe has upscaled the use of antigen rapid diagnostic tests to reinforce its COVID-19 response, hitting a daily rate of ... Test done with antigen rapid diagnostic tests will most often be positive when viral loads are highest and patients are most ... Antigen rapid diagnostic tests may return false negative results when the viral load falls below the tests detection limit, as ... They detect the COVID-19 viral proteins, specifically the virus antigen. Rapid diagnostic tests are easy to use and do not ...
  • Immunization with influenza and HIV viral membrane proteins displayed on WAEVs elicits production of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies and, in the case of influenza antigens, protects mice from the lethal viral infection. (unl.edu)
  • The immune system responds to antigens by producing cells that directly attack the pathogen, or by producing special proteins called antibodies . (khanacademy.org)
  • Antibodies attach to an antigen and attract cells that will engulf and destroy the pathogen. (khanacademy.org)
  • Cooperative action of antigens results from their different capability to bind or elicit antibodies. (rutgers.edu)
  • Membrane proteins expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses are conformational antigens readily recognized by B cells of the immune system. (unl.edu)
  • This is the protein to which the viral spike proteins attach in order to gain entry into the cell. (constantcontact.com)
  • The steps involved in antigen presentation and recognition by T cells that may influence the selection of antigenic protective epitopes from whole proteins will be reviewed. (who.int)
  • Cleavage site-specific proteases and transporter proteins involved in the processing of protein antigens into peptides also seem to play a role in the selection of antigenic peptides. (who.int)
  • They detect the COVID-19 viral proteins, specifically the virus antigen. (who.int)
  • The TAP1 and TAP2 proteins attach (bind) together to form a protein complex called transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Parcej D, Tampe R. ABC proteins in antigen translocation and viral inhibition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Screening for the virus with either nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or antigen tests is an effective administrative control for early detection of individuals with COVID-19 and allows employers to take steps to prevent workplace spread. (cdc.gov)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies for lymphoma. (nature.com)
  • Budding of WAEVs requires secretory carrier-associated membrane protein 3, which through its proline-proline-alanine-tyrosine motif interacts with WW domains to recruit fused viral membrane antigens onto WAEVs. (unl.edu)
  • Protein/AS01B vaccination elicits stronger, more Th2-skewed antigen-specific human T follicular helper cell responses than heterologous viral vectors. (duke.edu)
  • Using samples from clinical trials performed with the malaria vaccine candidate antigen Plasmodium falciparum merozoite protein (PfRH5), we compare the frequency, phenotype, and gene expression profiles of PfRH5-specific circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells elicited by two leading human vaccine delivery platforms: heterologous viral vector prime boost and protein with AS01B adjuvant. (duke.edu)
  • We demonstrate that the protein/AS01B platform induces a higher-magnitude antigen-specific cTfh cell response and that this correlates with peak anti-PfRH5 IgG concentrations, frequency of PfRH5-specific memory B cells, and antibody functionality. (duke.edu)
  • Furthermore, our data indicate a greater Th2/Tfh2 skew within the polyfunctional response elicited following vaccination with protein/AS01B as compared to a Th1/Tfh1 skew with viral vectors. (duke.edu)
  • Since most immune responses against protein and peptide antigens are T-cell dependent, the molecular target of such vaccines is to generate at least 50-100 complexes between MHC molecule and the antigenic peptide per antigen-presenting cell, sensitizing a T cell population of appropriate clonal size and effector characteristics. (who.int)
  • Rapid antigen tests detects protein fragments specific to the COVID-19, while the more common molecular PCR (viral) test actually detects genetic material (RNA) specific to the virus. (supermarketnews.com)
  • Therefore, antigen-based rapid assays are being used extensively to reduce the time. (who.int)
  • Materials and methods: Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were collected from 366 suspected patients of COVID-19 visiting our institute and subjected to qualitative RT-PCR and antigen-based rapid assays to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus. (who.int)
  • [ 1 ] Initially, stool testing for giardia and cryptosporidium antigens by EIA assays could be done as a point-of-care test. (medscape.com)
  • Further, they also share ease-of-use and rapid turnaround times with parasite antigen assays while requiring less hands-on time by laboratory personnel, compared with direct microscopic examination. (medscape.com)
  • A new approach to analysis of CR suggests the existence of antigenic cooperation among viral variants which form an in-host cross-immunoreactivity network (CRN). (rutgers.edu)
  • Antigenic shift involves an abrupt, major change in one or both surface antigens (H or H-N combination). (cdc.gov)
  • In June 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedure for determining viral load to assess patient prognosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Abbott's BinaxNOW COVID-19 Antigen Self Test, which requires no lab processing and yields results within 15 minutes, has received emergency use authorization from the FDA. (supermarketnews.com)
  • Abbott's OTC SARS-CoV-2 rapid antigen test has received emergency use authorization (EUA) for self-testing from the Food and Drug Administration. (supermarketnews.com)
  • Antigen tests with emergency use authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are listed here . (cdc.gov)
  • Details for: Viral hepatitis and tests for the Australia (hepatitis-associated antigen and antibody. (who.int)
  • Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen were determined in 277 randomly selected children aged 1-12 years. (who.int)
  • He is a virologist and clinical investigator in the Center for Viral Hepatitis Research in the Division of Infectious Diseases. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Dr. Ray's research focuses on viral evolution and human immunology, with a long-term interest in hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequence evolution and persistence. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Test done with antigen rapid diagnostic tests will most often be positive when viral loads are highest and patients are most infectious - typically 1−3 days prior to the onset of symptoms and during the first 5−7 days after the onset of symptoms - and will become negative as the patient clears the infection and recovers. (who.int)
  • Virus RNA, viral antigen, or infectious viral particles could be detected in postmortem tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza is an infectious viral illness. (cdc.gov)
  • WAEVs thus represent a versatile platform for presenting and delivering membrane antigens as vaccines against influenza, HIV, and potentially many other viral pathogens. (unl.edu)
  • Unfortunately, diagnostic technology is insufficiently developed to permit determining the disease burden of each of the known viral pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigens are usually found on the surface of pathogens and are unique to that particular pathogen. (khanacademy.org)
  • For laboratories interested in participating in the new PE programs for viral load and p24 Ag testing, or one of the existing PE programs for HIV-1 antibody testing, human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II antibody testing, and T-lymphocyte immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and alternate methods, an enrollment form and additional information are available by calling (770) 488-4366 or (770) 488-4147 or faxing (770) 488-7693. (cdc.gov)
  • Humoral immunity begins when an antibody on a B cell binds to an antigen. (khanacademy.org)
  • Cross-immunoreactivity (CR) is a phenomenon where an antibody that is specific to one antigen may recognize another antigen. (rutgers.edu)
  • Viral diagnostic and research laboratory testing should be conducted in a biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratory for the following: those rapid tests involving steps that could generate aerosols (e.g. vortexing), direct or indirect fluorescent antibody tests (DFA, IFA) to detect viral antigens in clinical specimens, growth of virus in cell culture or embryonated eggs, molecular-based assays, and general laboratory research. (cdc.gov)
  • Three types of influenza virus are known to affect humans: A, B, and C. Type A influenza has subtypes determined by the surface antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (cdc.gov)
  • Abbott will continue making its BinaxNOW COVID-19 Antigen Self Test available in more national retail settings like Kroger so that people can quickly and easily find the test and get back to living their pre-pandemic lifestyles with more assurance. (supermarketnews.com)
  • By vector type, the non-viral vector segment is the highest Gene Therapy Market Share and accounted for the largest segment in 2020 and is expected and is anticipated to be a lucrative market due to technological advancements in these vectors with positive results during the preclinical and clinical trials for the treatment of various diseases. (medgadget.com)
  • By vector type, the non-viral vector segment was the highest contributor to Gene Therapy Market Size in 2020. (medgadget.com)
  • Researchers are unsure why people with BLS I do not also get viral infections, but they suspect that other immune processes are able to recognize and fight viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Such cooperation allows some antigens to be hidden from the host's immune system, which results in the phenomenon of local immunodeficiency (LI) because there is virtually no immune response to some viruses thanks to their specific positions in the cross-immunoreactivity network. (rutgers.edu)
  • RÉSUMÉ Le calendrier de vaccination contre le virus de l'hépatite B en Libye suit les recommandations internationales (première dose à la naissance, deuxième dose un mois après et troisième dose six mois après). (who.int)
  • The State of Hawaiʻi similarly requires visitors to provide proof of vaccination AND a negative COVID-19 viral test taken within one day of departure. (eastwestcenter.org)
  • However, the rapid antigen assay might not detect early stages of infection represented by low viral load. (who.int)
  • Antigen rapid diagnostic tests detect active SARS- CoV-2 infection and are used as point of care diagnostic tests. (who.int)
  • His laboratory work has focused on the evolution of HCV during acute and chronic infection, developing and applying computational and molecular biology tools to underlying mechanisms including stochastic variation, immune selection, and viral fitness. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • While viral testing using the more sensitive NAATs usually requires laboratory testing, rapid antigen tests that require fewer resources can play an important role in efforts to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Control measures for outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis should focus on the removal of an ongoing common source of infection (e.g., an ill food handler or the contamination of a water supply) and on the interruption of person-to-person transmission that can perpetuate an outbreak in a population after the common source has been removed. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen testing (as well as all viral tests) can identify people with COVID-19 who are not showing signs or symptoms and who have no known contact with people who have infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • The study reiterates that all antigen-based negative tests should be confirmed by RT-PCR. (who.int)
  • Harare - Zimbabwe has upscaled the use of antigen rapid diagnostic tests to reinforce its COVID-19 response, hitting a daily rate of 4000 tests - a fourfold increase reached within just two months after the method was launched in November 2020. (who.int)
  • Viral tests include antigen tests or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). (eastwestcenter.org)
  • Such antigen tests are often the first step because of their ease of use, relatively low expense, reasonably high sensitivity and specificity, and rapid turnaround (as little as 1 hour). (medscape.com)
  • These antigen tests can be an effective tool to help employers prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in their workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen tests are relatively inexpensive, can be easily administered in the workplace or at home by a healthcare provider or the worker, and provide results within minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH researchers also provided a framework (see Figure 2) for using antigen tests to identify SARS-CoV-2 infections in the workforce. (cdc.gov)
  • These rapid antigen tests are being used widely in schools, at various mass gatherings, and by sports organizations [2-5]. (cdc.gov)
  • Worldwide, nearly 100 companies are developing or manufacturing tests for antigen detection [6-7]. (cdc.gov)
  • Health-care facilities involved in the detection of rotavirus or the other viral agents of diarrhea can participate. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral agents (rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, astrovirus, calicivirus, or sapovirus) seem unlikely because of the long symptom duration and the child's preteen age. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, the immunobiology of antigen recognition by T cells must be taken into account when designing new generation peptide- or gene-based vaccines. (who.int)
  • While peptide vaccines may bind directly to the MHC, recombinant vaccines must undergo proteolytic processing through the MHC class II pathway in endosomal vesicles, and expression products of DNA vaccines enter both the cytoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum MHC class I pathway and can also be uptaken by professional antigen-presenting cells (2). (who.int)
  • Eggensperger S, Tampe R. The transporter associated with antigen processing: a key player in adaptive immunity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By gene type, the antigen segment dominated the market in 2020 and the deficiency segment is the fastest-growing segment during the forecast period. (medgadget.com)
  • By gene type, the antigen gene segment type dominated the market in 2020. (medgadget.com)
  • We have evaluated the performance of the antigen-based rapid test for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in comparison with RT-PCR. (who.int)
  • Results: Compared with RT-PCR, sensitivity and specificity of the antigen-based rapid assay were observed to be 70.5% and 98.6%, respectively, in comparison with RT-PCR. (who.int)
  • However, the sensitivity of antigen-based rapid assay varied significantly with decreasing viral load. (who.int)
  • Conclusion: The antigen-based assay could assist in the rapid screening of a large population. (who.int)
  • The rapid antigen test delivers results quickly but can yield false positives, and negative results may need to be confirmed with a molecular test, according to the FDA. (supermarketnews.com)
  • The Gauss COVID-19 Rapid Antigen Test Kit - still awaiting EUA from the FDA - can be performed using a smartphone and a lateral flow assay (similar to an at-home pregnancy test) without involving a lab, a telemedicine visit or specialized electronics. (supermarketnews.com)
  • The test is called Spike Dart, for Direct Antigen Rapid Test, Bosch said. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Inoculation of the two VP1 chimeric antigens of bacterial ghosts into BALB/c mice markedly elicited humoral and mucosal immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Specific immune responses are triggered by antigens . (khanacademy.org)
  • Development of IgM-capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue using Beta-propiolactone-inactivated Dengue Viral Antigens. (who.int)
  • Results of viral load determinations are being used by physicians treating HIV-infected patients to make decisions regarding initiation of antiretroviral therapy and to determine whether current antiretroviral therapy is effective or whether changes in antiretroviral therapy should be implemented based on the amount of virus in the blood of HIV-infected patients (1-4). (cdc.gov)
  • Results of IHC staining of skin, fat, muscle, and bone marrow samples were negative for West Nile Virus antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • Virus surface antigens hemagglutinin and neuraminidase continually change. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral CSF cultures are rarely positive and should not be relied on to confirm the diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • In anticipation of vaccine development and use, CDC recently began national surveillance for the viral agents of gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
  • Transcriptome analyses indicated that MAVS deficiency negatively affected the induction of early anti-viral responses, which resulted in significantly increased TBEV replication. (stanford.edu)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells targeting CD19 demonstrated remarkable efficacy for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. (nature.com)
  • Salter AI, Pont MJ, Riddell SR. Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells: CD19 and the road beyond. (nature.com)
  • A large number of factors influence dominance and crypticity of peptide epitopes, basically availability for MHC binding, MHC binding itself, and the recognition of the MHC:peptide complex by T cells via their antigen receptors (1). (who.int)
  • Associations of functional human leucocyte antigen class I groups with HIV viral load in a heterogeneous cohort. (bvsalud.org)
  • Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are the main host genetic factors involved in controlling HIV-1 viral load (VL). (bvsalud.org)
  • 2012] point out, this task potentially exposes workers to both soy hull antigens, which have been reported as a cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis [Zubeldia et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Employers may choose to use antigen testing with regular frequency, before allowing workers to enter the workplace, while at work (including travel for work), or when returning to work after exposure or self-initiated isolation. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC guidance recommends that serial (or regular) antigen testing for screening unvaccinated workers is an effective way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • We imputed HLA class I alleles from host genetic data (2546 HIV + participants) and sampled immunopeptidomes from 2079 host-paired viral genomes (targeted amplicon sequencing). (bvsalud.org)
  • We have created an extracellular vesicle-based technology that allows viral membrane antigens to be selectively recruited onto the surface of WW domain-activated extracellular vesicles (WAEVs). (unl.edu)
  • Biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) practices are no longer required for viral isolation. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the antigen-based assay could not replace RT-PCR testing. (who.int)
  • You decide to first order giardia and cryptosporidium antigen testing because you are highly suspicious that giardia is the cause, based on wild-water exposure, the presentation, and symptom duration. (medscape.com)
  • In a recent commentary in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health discussed the use of antigen testing in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Programs that use antigen testing for screening workers, along with other preventive measures, can help support a healthy workplace [10]. (cdc.gov)
  • An effective vaccine would require the synthesis and delivery of these native conformational antigens in lipid membranes that preserve specific epitope structures. (unl.edu)
  • Nevertheless, there was evidence of process-related risk (by work classification) and exposure-related risk (by soy-specific IgG tertiles) in our study, suggesting that risk of work-related flu-like illness among soy processing workers is not limited to hull antigen and endotoxin exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • 2003]. The US soy processing plant processed de-hulled soybeans, and a lack of sensitization to soy hull antigens was previously demonstrated [Green et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Provide either a negative result of a COVID-19 viral test * taken within one day of departure OR documentation of recovery from COVID-19 prior to air travel to the US from a foreign country. (eastwestcenter.org)
  • Work-related flu-like illness was not associated with exposure categories for inhalable dust (P = 0.33), inhalable soy antigen (P = 0.33), or peak dust (P = 0.41). (cdc.gov)