The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Glucose in blood.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)

The distribution of ganglioside-like moieties in peripheral nerves. (1/692)

GM1 ganglioside has been implicated as a target of immune attack in some diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies are associated with certain acquired immune-mediated neuropathies. It is not clear how anti-GM1 antibodies cause nerve dysfunction and injury; however, sodium and/or potassium ion channel dysfunction at the node of Ranvier has been implicated. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, we examined the distribution of GM1 ganglioside and Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties in nerve fibres and their relationship to voltage-gated sodium and potassium (Kv1.1, 1.5) channels at the nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves from human, rat and dystrophic mice. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties were localized via the binding of cholera toxin and peanut agglutinin. As a control for the specificity of these findings, we compared the distribution of GM1 moieties to that of the ganglioside GT1b. Our study provides definitive evidence for the presence of Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc bearing moieties on the axolemmal surface of mature myelinated fibres and on Schwann cells. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc binding sites did not have an obligatory co-localization with voltage-gated sodium channels or the potassium ion channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.5 and are thus not likely carried by these ion channels. In contrast with Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc, GT1b-like moieties are restricted to the axolemma.  (+info)

A fully synthetic immunogen carrying a carcinoma-associated carbohydrate for active specific immunotherapy. (2/692)

Aberrant glycosylation of mucins leads to the exposure of cryptic carbohydrate antigens at the surface of carcinoma cells, which, therefore, represent potent targets for anticancer therapeutic vaccines. To date, the development of immunogens to stimulate immune response to such saccharidic antigens is based on carbohydrate conjugation to carrier proteins. However, these traditional protein conjugates are poorly defined in chemical composition and structure. As an alternative, we synthesized a multiple antigenic O-linked glycopeptide (MAG) carrying the carbohydrate Tn antigen associated with a CD4+ T-cell epitope (MAG:Tn-PV). This fully synthetic immunogen is highly defined in composition and carries a high saccharidic epitope ratio over the entire molecule. The MAG:Tn-PV was able to induce anti-Tn IgG antibodies that recognize human tumor cell lines. A therapeutic immunization protocol performed with this fully synthetic immunogen increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, the accurately defined and versatile MAG system represents an efficient strategy to induce carbohydrate-specific antitumor immune responses but may also be applicable to the prevention of infectious diseases, if it is based on bacterial oligosaccharides.  (+info)

T and Tk antigen activation in necrotising enterocolitis: manifestations, severity of illness, and effectiveness of testing. (3/692)

AIMS: To determine if T or Tk antigen activation is associated with different and more severe manifestations of illness in infants with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); and if a policy of testing infants with suspected sepsis or NEC for T and Tk antigen activation is effective. METHODS: A case-control study of infants with confirmed NEC, born after the introduction of screening, was undertaken:17 activated infants were compared with 28 non-activated controls, matched for gestation and weight. A historical control study compared the outcome of infants before and after the introduction of testing. RESULTS: Of 201 infants with confirmed NEC, 27 were T or Tk antigen activated-10 (9%) before and 17 (19%) after the introduction of testing. T or Tk antigen activated infants had a significantly higher mortality (35% vs 7%); more frequent (71% vs 21%) and severe haemolysis, hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, acidosis; and they received more colloid for resuscitation. While only known activated infants in both time periods were managed with the use of low titre T antibody blood products, there was a significant increase in mortality (odds ratios 2.6; 95% CI 1.2, 5.6) and incidence of surgery (OR 2.7; 1.5, 4.9) after the introduction of testing. The increased mortality (OR 2.6; 0.8, 5.2) and incidence of surgery (OR 1.8; 0.9, 3.7) were no longer significant after adjustment for several perinatal risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective case-control study, routine testing of at risk infants increased the detection rate of T and Tk antigen activation. The use of low titre T plasma products in these patients did not reduce mortality compared with historical controls. A randomised controlled trial of testing in at risk infants, or of the use of low titre T plasma products in babies with NEC and T activation, is warranted.  (+info)

Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of CA27.29 and CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. (4/692)

BACKGROUND: A new, fully automated method that measures the breast cancer-associated glycoprotein CA27.29 has become commercially available. The aim of the present study was to compare this CA27.29 assay with the assay that measures CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively on preoperative serum samples collected from 275 patients with untreated primary breast cancer (154 node positive and 121 node negative). Eighty-three healthy control subjects were also evaluated. CA27.29 was measured using the fully automated Chiron Diagnostics immunochemiluminescent system (ACS:180 BR). CA15.3 was measured with a manual immunoradiometric method (Centocor CA15.3 RIA). RESULTS: In healthy subjects, CA15.3 was significantly higher than CA27.29 (P <0. 0001). On the other hand, in breast cancer patients CA27.29 was higher than CA15.3 (P = 0.013). The mean value found in the control group plus 2 SD was chosen as the positive/negative cutoff point. The overall positivity rates were 34.9% for CA27.29 and 22.5% for CA15.3. The area under the ROC curve was greater (P <0.001) for CA27. 29 (0.72) than for CA15.3 (0.61). Both markers showed a statistically significant, direct relationship, with pathological stage being higher in node-positive than in node-negative cases and in larger than in smaller tumors. Neither CA27.29 nor CA15.3 showed significant associations with age, menopausal status, or tumor receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: CA27.29 discriminates primary breast cancer from healthy subjects better than CA15.3, especially in patients with limited disease. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this conclusion.  (+info)

Identification of a human anti-CD55 single-chain Fv by subtractive panning of a phage library using tumor and nontumor cell lines. (5/692)

A large naive human single-chain (sc) Fv phage library was used to search for tumor-associated antigens by panning with a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, 1264, and counter-selecting with a nontumor bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. After three rounds of subtractive panning, 239 of 673 clones analyzed bound selectively to 1264 tumor cells in a phage ELISA. Diversity analysis of these tumor-selective clones by BstNI fingerprinting and nucleotide sequencing revealed 14 distinct scFv fragments. Four clones bound selectively to 1264 over BEAS-2B cells when analyzed by a more discriminating flow cytometric assay using scFv. Moreover, these clones showed only limited cross-reactivity to several primary human cell lines. One clone, LU30, also cross-reacted strongly with the lung adenocarcinoma line, A549. The LU30 antigen was identified as decay-accelerating factor (CD55) by expression cloning from a 1264 cDNA library. The mean number of decay-accelerating factor molecules on the surface of 1264 and BEAS cells used for panning and counter-selection was estimated as 75,000 +/- 5,000 and 13,000 +/- 10,000, respectively. Thus, phage library panning combined with expression cloning permits identification of antibodies and their cognate antigens for proteins that are differentially expressed on the surface of distinct cell populations.  (+info)

The cysteine-rich region of the Entamoeba histolytica adherence lectin (170-kilodalton subunit) is sufficient for high-affinity Gal/GalNAc-specific binding in vitro. (6/692)

Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to colonic mucin, epithelium, and other target cells is mediated by the amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. We constructed in vitro expression vectors containing full-length (residues 1 to 1280), cysteine-poor (1 to 353 and 1 to 480), and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143 and 480 to 900) fragments of the gene encoding the heavy subunit of the adherence lectin, hgl2. In vitro transcription followed by translation using a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysate system was carried out. Immunoreactivity of in vitro-translated Hgl2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with lectin-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 1G7 and 8A3, which recognize linear epitopes. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) refolding of Hgl2 enhanced immunoreactivity (P < 0.05) with the conformationally dependent MAb 3F4. Binding of PDI-refolded full-length (P < 0.001) and cysteine-rich (P = 0.005) Hgl2 to CHO cells was galactose dependent and competitively inhibited by native hololectin (50% inhibitory concentration of 39.6 ng/ml). The cysteine-poor region (1 to 353) did not bind CHO cells. Both full-length (1 to 1280) and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143) Hgl2 bound the glyconeoconjugate GalNAc(19)BSA in a GalNAc-specific manner. The smaller cysteine-rich fragment (480 to 900) also exhibited GalNAc-specific binding but to a lesser extent (P < 0.05) than residues 1 to 1280 and 356 to 1143. Neither the cysteine-poor fragment (1 to 480), luciferase (protein control), nor control translation reactions (without hgl2 lectin mRNA) bound GalNAc(19)BSA. Binding to GalNAc(19)BSA was shown to be dependent on the concentration of GalNAc(19)BSA coated in each well or (35)S-lectin added (K(D) = 0.85 +/- 0.37 pM). Binding was competitively inhibited by the terminal GalNAc-containing glycoprotein asialofetuin (P < 0.005). Taken together, these data provide direct evidence that the cysteine-rich region of the Gal/GalNAc lectin heavy subunit contains one or more carbohydrate-binding domains.  (+info)

Malignant Brenner tumors of the ovary and tumor markers: case reports. (7/692)

We investigated the tumor marker for malignant Brenner tumors, which had not been established because of the rarity and variable histological criteria. Representative areas of two cases of malignant Brenner tumor were investigated by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method using monoclonal antibody to CA125 and CA72-4 antigen and the streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex method using monoclonal antibody to SCC antigen. Based on clinical course and immunohistochemical studies, serum CA125 and CA72-4 for Case 1 and SCC and CA72-4 for Case 2 were appropriate tumor markers for the establishment of the extent of tumor burden before treatment and to monitor the response to therapy. The discrepancy of the tumor markers of the two present cases is considered to be a reflection of the difference in the malignant component of these cases. However, serum CA72-4 was an appropriate tumor marker for both malignant Brenner tumors.  (+info)

The value of CA 125 and CA72-4 in management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. (8/692)

The role of the tumor markers CA125 and CA72-4 has been evaluated in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer. Both markers were measured in 30 patients with proven epithelial ovarian cancer, 30 patients with benign pelvic masses and 30 normal women. CA125 and CA72-4 were measured using the luminometric immunoassay and immunoradiometric assay respectively. All patients with ovarian cancer were submitted to surgical staging and cytoreduction followed by adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy for 3-6 courses. Fixing the specificity at 95%, CA125 had a sensitivity of 76.7% at a cut-off 85 u/ml while CA72-4 had a sensitivity of 70% at a cut-off 8.5 u/ml. The combination of CA72-4 with CA125 increased the sensitivity to 95% while fixing the specificity at 95%. Among seven cases with stage I and II ovarian cancer five cases had CA125 level below 85 U/ml, three patients out of them had CA72-4 above 8.5 U/ml. CA 72-4 could reflect the residual disease following cytoreduction and could improve the detection of relapse by CA125. CONCLUSION: CA72-4 could complement the standard tumor marker CA125 both in diagnosis and follow up of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects
3554-90-3 - QCQYVCMYGCHVMR-AAZUGDAUSA-N - Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Glycoconjugate antigens are prepared by preparing a hapten glycoside, especially an alpha glycoside prepared by the Fischer method, with an olefinic aglycon moiety, especially one having a non-terminal double bond, ozonolyzing the hapten glycoside with an olefinic aglycon moiety having a non-terminal double bond to form a hapten-glycoside derivative, preferably without producing Germaldehyde as a by-product, removing by-products of ozonolysis, and conjugating the hapten-glycoside derivative to a carrier.
Background: Pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome (P-HUS) is a rare but severe complication of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young children. Consensual biologic diagnosis criteria are currently lacking. Study design and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 10 children with culture-confirmed IPD. Five presented with full-blown P-HUS, three had an incomplete form with hemolytic anemia and mild or no uremia (P-HA), and two had neither HUS nor HA. Thomsen-Friedenreich (T), Th, and Tk cryptantigens and sialic acid expression were determined on red blood cells (RBCs) with peanut (PNA), Glycine soja (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia II, and Maackia amurensis lectins. Plasma concentrations of the major endogenous T-antigen-binding protein, galectin-3 (Gal-3), were analyzed. Results: We found that RBCs strongly reacted with PNA and SBA lectins in all P-HUS and P-HA patients. Three P-HUS and three P-HA patients showed also concomitant Tk activation. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was
The Ca antigen, which can be detected in a wide range of malignant human tumours by means of the Cal antibody, is a glycoprotein of the mucin type. At least 95% of the carbohydrate is 0-glycosidically linked to the polypeptide which contains high proportions of glycine, serine and glutamic acid. The carbohydrate has a very simple structure: it is composed almost entirely of tetra- tri- and disaccharides having the general formula (NeuNac)n leads to [Gal leads to GalNac] alpha leads to, where n = 0, 1 or 2. In many malignant cell lines, the antigen is produced constitutively in vitro; but in one that has been examined, its synthesis can be induced by high concentrations of lactate. Evidence is presented for the view that a primary function of this glycoprotein is to shield the cells that produce it from hydrogen ion concentrations outside of the physiological range. The presence of the Ca antigen in malignant tumours may thus be a reflection of metabolic conditions that are known to be characteristics of
PURPOSE: Sialyl Tn (STn) antigen is a cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed in cancers of the digestive tract. We compared the proportion of specimens of flat-type colorectal cancers...
Carbohydrate antigens recognized by natural or preformed and elicited antibodies are central to transplantation/transfusion rejection across ABO blood group and species (xenotransplantation) barriers and are also promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy (Ramsland 2005). The key carbohydrate determinants (epitopes) recognized by antibodies are synthesized by a series of intracellular glycosyltransferases and are expressed on the surface of cells as glycolipids and glycoproteins. Often the minimal carbohydrate epitopes are located at the terminal end of more complex oligosaccharide chains, which result in these epitopes being displayed at a wide range of surface densities and contexts (e.g., glycolipids or glycoproteins). For example, many tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are broadly expressed at very high densities on the cell surface of primary and metastatic tumors, but the same carbohydrates occur at much lower levels and are typically restricted to a few cell types in healthy ...
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas including colon, stomach, and pancreatic cancers, has long been considered as an attractive target for active and passive vaccination. While progress in antibodies targeting tumor-associated protein antigens resulted in an impressive array of therapeutics for cancer treatment, similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the singular characteristics of these antigens. We have addressed this issue by analyzing antibodies derived from patients immunized with an sLeA/KLH vaccine. These antibodies were engineered to mediate tumor clearance in vivo in preclinical models through Fc-FcγR interactions. However, in contrast to protein antigens in which hFcγRIIIA engagement was both necessary and sufficient to mediate tumor clearance in both preclinical and clinical settings, a ...
Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular subtype of gastric cancer. In recent years, the clinical consequences of MSI and the therapeutic opportunities to target this peculiar cancer subtype became evident. However, despite the importance of MSI for the stratification of patients, the time and resources required for diagnosis still present an obstacle. In an attempt to identify a new marker for MSI in gastric cancer, we evaluated the expression of five cancer-associated glycan epitopes in a cohort of 13 MSI and 17 microsatellite stable (MSS) cases. Our analysis revealed a highly significant (p < 0.001) association between the expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen and MSI status. Hence, we present here the identification of the first single marker for MSI in gastric cancer, excelling with a specificity of 94% (16/17), sensitivity of 69.2% (9/13), negative predictive value of 80% (16/20), and positive predictive value of 90% (9/10). The TF antigen, detected by simple ...
Rahman, A F. and Longenecker, B M., A monoclonal antibody specific for the thomsen-friedenreich cryptic t antigen. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3746 ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9309422. Hybridoma 1997 Aug;16(4):317-24. We report here the first amino acid sequence of an anti-Tn monoclonal antibody raised against human breast cancer cells and show that a single chain Fv fragment of this IgM retains the Tn-binding specificity as defined by functional assays with asialo-OSM and membrane extracts from MCF-7 cells. Sequence comparisons and molecular modeling of 83D4 indicate that the antibody combining site displays a cavity-like feature primarily defined by the CDR H1 and H2 loops. This pocket could accommodate a single Tn molecule, thus, suggesting a structural explanation for the predominant expression of a particular VH gene segment in a group of antibodies that recognize tumor-associated antigens arising from an aberrant O-glycosylation.. ...
My laboratory, RPCI based for the first 9 years, and now at UB for the last 13 years, has had an emphasis on tumor associated carbohydrate antigens, and recently has been involved in 2 patent applications, Use of anti-TF antibody to block metastasis of TF- antigen bearing tumors (K R Olson, principle inventor of JAA-F11 monoclonal antibody), and Carbohydrate Antigen-Nanoparticle Conjugates and Methods for Inhibiting Metastasis in Cancer (K R Olson, co-inventor). Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag) is a tumor associated antigen that is exposed in many types of carcinoma cells including breast, prostate, colon, and bladder. My laboratory recently reported results from in vitro and in vivo studies that show the anti-metastatic effect of treatment with JAA-F11 antibody to TF- Ag on the mouse metastatic breast carcinoma 4T1 cells.. The anti-TF antibody metastasis work was just published in Neoplasia (vol 8 number 11) and is the featured article, with cover art. A portion of this work involved ...
Springer, G F. and Desai, P R., Cross-reacting carcinoma-associated antigens with blood group and precursor specificities. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2171 ...
An incomplete elongation of O-glycan saccharide chains in mucins have been found in epithelial cancers, leading to the expression of shorter carbohydrate structures, such as the Tn antigen (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr). This antigen is one of the most specific human cancer-associated structures and is capable of inducing effective immune responses against cancer cells. We aimed to investigate the causes of the expression of Tn antigen in the Tn-rich MCF-7 breast cancer cell line focusing on the first step of the O-glycosylation process. Interestingly, amino acid sequences derived from non-mammary apomucins (MUC5B and MUC6) were very good acceptor substrates for ppGalNAc-Ts, which are the enzymes catalyzing the Tn antigen synthesis. MUC6 peptide glycosylation with MCF-7 microsome extracts as source of ppGalNAc-T activity yielded 95% conversion of the peptide into MUC6-Tn. In addition, the MUC6-Tn glycopeptide was a poor acceptor substrate for core 1 beta3Gal-T, the next enzyme involved in the saccharide chain
Polyagglutination refers to red blood cells that agglutinate upon exposure to almost all human sera, but not to autologous serum or the sera of newborns. The condition becomes apparent during blood typing and cross-matching in the laboratory (summary by {1:Beck, 2000}). Tn polyagglutination syndrome is an acquired clonal disorder characterized by the polyagglutination of red blood cells by naturally occurring anti-Tn antibodies following exposure of the Tn antigen on the surface of erythrocytes. Only a subset of red cells express the antigen, which can also be expressed on platelets and leukocytes. This condition may occur in healthy individuals who manifest asymptomatic anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia; however, there is also an association between the Tn antigen and leukemia or myelodysplastic disorders. The Tn antigen is an incompletely glycosylated membrane glycoprotein with an exposed N-acetylgalactosamine residue. The Tn antigen results from inactivation of C1GALT1C1, which encodes ...
Activation of an aberrant glycosylation pathway in cancer cells can lead to expression of the onco-foetal sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen. STn is a truncated O-glycan containing a sialic acid α-2,6 linked to GalNAc α-O-Ser/Thr and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The biosynthesis of the sTn antigen has been linked to the expression of the sialytransferase ST6GalNAc1, and also to mutations in and loss of heterozygosity of the COSMC gene. sTn neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of epithelial cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, oesophageal, prostate and endometrial cancer. sTn is believed to be carried by a variety of glycoproteins and may influence protein function and be involved in tumour development. This review discusses how the role of sTn in cancer development and tumour cell invasiveness might be organ specific and occur through different mechanisms depending on each cancer type or subtype. As the sTn-antigen is expressed early in
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 blood test is ordered to monitor pancreatic, liver, gastrointestinal, and colorectal malignancies.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9) conversion to U/mL, kU/L . Online conversion calculator for many types of measurement units in laboratory and medicine CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9), CA 19-9, Cancer Antigen 19-9, Gastrointestinal Cancer Antigen.
Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer : This thesis focuses on the synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the prostate tumor- associated carbohydrate antigen RM2. The author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its analogues as single stereoisomers in every glycosylation step, producing good yields and stereoselectivity. He then introduces the conjugation of the
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
Cells possess Ca antigen as defined by the Ca1 antibody. The Ca antigen has been shown to be absent in non-malignant human cell strains and is considered to be a marker linked with malignancy. Island cell growth will degenerate if left more than 9 days between passages ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Glycosylation of proteins affects cell-cell interaction, interactions with the matrix, and the functions of intracellular molecules. ST6GALNAC1 transfers a sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), in an alpha-2,6 linkage to O-linked GalNAc residues. The cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is formed by ST6GALNAC1-catalyzed sialylation of GalNAc residues on mucins (Ikehara et al., 1999 [PubMed 10536037]; Sewell et al., 2006 [PubMed 16319059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Truncated sialylated O-glycans, such as cell-surface carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (STn) are overexpressed by several cancer types, but not by the respective n
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Principal Investigator:IBAYASHI Yukihiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
This glycoprotein is a mucinous carbohydrate antigen product of the MUC1 gene expressed on various adenocarcinomas, especially breast. It is a high molecular weight (300-450 kDa) 1 polymor... ...
CA50, 0.5 mg. Cancer antigen 50 (CA50), a carcinoma associated carbohydrate antigen, has been found to be elevated in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer and other malignancies.
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Authors: Ju, Tongzhong , Aryal, Rajindra P. , Kudelka, Matthew R. , Wang, Yingchun , Cummings, Richard D. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: The Tn antigen is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen that is not normally expressed in peripheral tissues or blood cells. Expression of this antigen, which is found in a majority of human carcinomas of all types, arises from a blockage in the normal O-glycosylation pathway in which glycans are extended from the common precursor GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen). This precursor is generated in the Golgi apparatus on newly synthesized glycoproteins by a family of polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcTs) and then extended to the common core 1 O-glycan Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (T antigen) by a single enzyme termed the T-synthase (core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase or C1GalT). Formation …of the active form of the T-synthase requires a unique molecular chaperone termed Cosmc, encoded by Cosmc on the X-chromosome (Xq24 in humans, ...
An efficient synthesis of a derivative of monophosphoryl lipid A suitable for coupling to various structures for the construction of glycoconjugate vaccines and its conjugation with an N-modified form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3 is presented.
Using synthetic Tn (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) glycopeptide models and a biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we have determined that isolectin B4 from Vicia villosa (VVLB4) binds to one Tn determinant whereas the anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies 83D4 and MLS128 require at least two Tn residues for recognition. When an unglycosylated amino acid is introduced between the Tn residues, both antibodies do not bind. MLS128 affinity was higher on a glycopeptide with three consecutive Tn residues. These results indicate that Tn residues organized in clusters are essential for the binding of these antibodies and indicate a different Tn recognition pattern for VVLB4.
Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc), generally known as T-antigen, is expressed in more than 85% of human carcinomas. Therefore, proteins which specifically bind T-antigen have potential diagnostic value. Jacalin, a lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia ) seeds, is a tetramer of molecular mass 66 kDa. It is one of the very few proteins which are known to bind T-antigen. The crystal structure of the jacalin-T-antigen complex has been determined at 1.62 A° resolution. The interactions of the disaccharide at the binding site are predominantly through the GalNAc moiety, with Gal interacting only through water molecules. They include a hydrogen bond between the anomeric oxygen of GalNAc and the pie electrons of an aromatic side-chain. Several intermolecular interactions involving the bound carbohydrate contribute to the stability of the crystal structure. The present structure, along with that of the Me-alpha-Gal complex, provides a reasonable qualitative explanation for the ...
The CC-1065 and duocarmycin family of compounds are ultrapotent antitumour antibiotics which demonstrate activity in the picomolar range. These agents exert their biological effect through a sequence selective alkylation at the N3 position of adenine resulting in apoptosis. Despite the potential of this family to exert themselves as successful chemotherapeutic agents, a lack of clinical success has been observed for these compounds. This has been attributed to a lack of selectivity resulting in off-target side effects and toxicity. For this reason, research now focuses on ways in which these alkylating agents could realise their potential using tumour specific, targeted delivery strategies.. Herein, we investigate the use of a duocarmycin SA analogue, functionalised for solid phasesynthesis, in the design of conjugates for targeted delivery to cancerous tissue via the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen). This antigen is overexpressed in 90% of primary human carcinomas, yet is cryptic in ...
Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a carbohydrate-based diet on serotonin blood concentrations in phobic dogs. For this study were recruited, from the public shelter, three dogs (2 neutered females and 1 male), weighing between 15 and 30 kg and living in the shelter for more than six months. Dogs received by a veterinary behaviorist a diagnosis of interspecific social phobia. The dogs fed 2 daily meals (at 8.00 A.M. and 4.00 P.M.), the first exclusively carbohydrate-based (puffed rice) and the second composed by the commercial diet previously eaten during the first 15 days.. Blood was collected every 21 days after 8 hours from carbohydrate meal to determine the levels of serotonin (5-HT), L-tryptophan (TRP) and cortisol. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significative difference between the serum concentrations of 5-Ht, TRP and cortisol, at the different times, despite a tendency to increase during the time.. The results of this research are useful for directing further ...
Carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood when it is shed by tumour cells. It is also found in trace amounts in the pancreas, liver, gall bladder and lungs of healthy adults.
O-Glycopeptide structural studies, specifically related to Tn antigen, have pointed to intramolecular interactions between the GalNAc and the peptide backbone via H-bonding. Although molecular mimics to Tn antigen have been the target of numerous synthetic and immunological studies, many have not considered the established conformational preferences. Initiatives for the development of improved mimetic design are proposed here. Specifically a metabolically robust C-linkage is designed, yet one with a pendant hydroxyl to maintain the key H-bonding network to properly orient the glycan with respect to the peptide. We herein propose to synthesize pure, robust mimics of Tn antigen, with conformational realism, as they may be presented from the backbone of biomedically relevant peptides (such as MUC1) and to compare these mimics with Tn antigen itself, by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations for clarification of the essential structural features necessary to maximize biological activity. The most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced self-association of mucins possessing the T and Tn carbohydrate cancer antigens at the single-molecule level. AU - Haugstad, Kristin E.. AU - Gerken, Thomas A.. AU - Stokke, Bjørn T.. AU - Dam, Tarun K.. AU - Brewer, C. Fred. AU - Sletmoen, Marit. PY - 2012/5/14. Y1 - 2012/5/14. N2 - Mucins are linear O-glycosylated glycoproteins involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, and tumorigenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often possess increased expression of the T (Galβ1,3GalNAcαThr/Ser) and Tn (GalNAcαThr/Ser) cancer antigens, which are diagnostic markers for several cancers, including colon cancer. We have used AFM based single-molecule forced unbinding under near physiological conditions to investigate the self-interactions between porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) as well as between PSM analogs possessing various carbohydrates including the T- and Tn-antigen. Distributions of unbinding forces and corresponding force loading rates were determined for force loading rates ...
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Fasting Required: No Specimen: Blood Results: 1-2 Business Days Description: Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 is used to monitor metastatic carcinoma of the...
The Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) disaccharide, galactose (Gal){beta}1- 3GalNAc{alpha}-, is a blood group-related oncofetal antigen with remarkable tumor specificity. Postpartum, carbohydrate structures on the cell walls of the gastrointestinal flora evoke natural antibodies of presumed TF specificity. These antibodies may provide an early barrier against TF-carrying tumor cells. Their possible role, however, has been difficult to assess, since so far only a multivalent immunosorbent, asialoglycophorin (aGP), has been employed for their preparation, and therefore their fine specificities have been only insufficiently defined. We have used a novel immunosorbent consisting of synthetic TF{alpha} disaccharides (Gal{beta}1-3GalNAc{alpha}-) coupled to polyacrylamide (PAA), which itself was covalently bound to cross-linked sepharose. For specificity analyses, aGP and a panel of PAA-conjugated mono- and oligosaccharides were employed. Binding to the PAA moiety was excluded. The affinity-purified ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a carcinoma-associated antigen and is a member of a family that includes at least two type I membrane proteins. This antigen is expressed on most normal epithelial cells and gastrointestinal carcinomas and functions as a homotypic calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule. The antigen is being used as a target for immunotherapy treatment of human carcinomas. Mutations in this gene result in congenital tufting enteropathy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008 ...
Wang, Yu et al Large Scale Identification of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Associated Antigens by Autoantibodies. The Journal of Immunology 169.2 (2002): 1102-1109. Web. 19 April. 2021. ...
TACAS (Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems) is a conference that focuses on the application of and tool support for various formal methods. It is one of the top ranked conferences for software engineering.[1] It was founded by Bernhard Steffen, Rance Cleaveland, Ed Brinksma, and Kim Larsen. The first TACAS was held in 1995 in Aarhus, Denmark followed by the conferences in 1996 in Passau, Germany and 1997 in Enschede, Netherlands. TACAS was one of the first five constituting conferences of ETAPS in 1998.[3] ...
In this essay I suggest that the major difficulty in producing effective anti-cancer vaccines lies in the fact that most cancers have little immunogenicity because of a basic paucity of tumor-specific antigenicity. The lack of antigenicity, despite extensive genomic instability, could be explained if most tumor mutations occur in silenced genes. A further problem is that an immune reaction against tumor antigens, especially in moderate or low amount, may be stimulatory rather than inhibitory to tumor growth.
The immune system is extremely complex and critical to the survival of all species as it protects them from attack by foreign micro-organisms and viruses. However the immune system can also be a foe in that it can sometimes turn against the organism it is designed to protect resulting in a range of autoimmune diseases. Additionally, its design to protect against invasion of foreign antigens, creates a major hurdle for transfusion and transplantation. If the immune system could be manipulated to allow for transfusion and transplantation of incompatible tissues, or turned off against specific targets in the case of autoimmune disease, all the while maintaining normal protective functions, then major advances in human health and well-being could be made. A variety of approaches have been used to try to manipulate the immune system, but with no one approach being the panacea, thus leaving open the opportunity for novel approaches to try and manipulate it towards creating beneficial outcomes. The ...
download The JCT Minor Service at LAC is of more than 160,000 ions of anti-Tn and target, known in precise, diverse and patient-derived bodies. The cytotoxic carbohydrates annotated by Library and Archives Canada are increased for dangers and their alveoli from C5aR-mediated below to monocarboxylate and metabolic resection. generation of various buildings to The transcription Web to Life of a Rock Star, which requires the 27-kDa loricrin of Canada in an effective phosphate.
CA 19.9 is a circulating antigen associated with gastrointestinal cancer, especially the pancreas and colon. This is detected in the serum this ...
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Wilson, R.M., Warren, J.D., Ouerfelli, O., Danishefsky, S.J. 989 258-292
Syntheses and Immunological Evaluation of Self-Adjuvanting Clustered N-Acetyl and N-Propionyl Sialyl-Tn Combined with a T-helper Cell Epitope as Antitumor Vaccine Candidates, Tsung Che Chang, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yukari Fujimoto, Shino Ohshima, Yoshie Kametani, Kazuya Kabayama, Kazuya Kabayama, Yuka Nimura, Chun Cheng Lin, Koichi Fukase, Koichi Fukase, Angewandte Chemie - International Edition,57 8219-8224, 2018.07, Other. ...
Danish drugmaker Pharmexa says it plans to file for approval to start a second Phase III trial of its peptide anticancer vaccine GV1001 in pancreatic cancer within the next few weeks. - News - PharmaTimes
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The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates). Normal antibodies bind to external ... as an aggressive brain tumor were whole tumor lysate, CMV antigen RNA and tumor associated peptides like EGFRvIII. Dendritic ... These antibodies that are specific to the antigens of the tumor, can then be injected into a tumor. Two types are used in ... The dendritic cells are activated in the presence of tumor antigens, which may be a single tumor-specific peptide/protein or a ...
Glycoproteins are relevant as cell-surface receptors, cell-adhesion molecules, immunoglobulins, and tumor antigens.[12] ... Protein-Carbohydrate bonding is often mediated by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.[citation needed] ... serves as a precursor for the A and B antigen.[7] Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen ... A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood type will have A, B, and H antigens ...
He genetically re-engineered carbohydrate specificities of lectins imparting exquisite T-antigen tumor recognizing ability to ... He discovered novel blood group and tumor antigen specific lectins and made original contribution towards elucidation of the ... "Imparting exquisite specificity to peanut agglutinin for the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen by redesign of its ... Carbohydrate specificity generated by water bridges". Current Science. 72: 855-861. Reddy GB, Bharadwaj S; Surolia A (1999). " ...
As a Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen (TACA), Globo-H is a promising clinical target for immunotherapy. While absent in ...;2-1 "Selection of tumor antigens as targets for immune attack using immunohistochemistry: I. Focus on gangliosides". ... "Total Synthesis and Proof of Structure of a Human Breast Tumor (Globo-H) Antigen". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... "Total Synthesis of a Human Breast Tumor Associated Antigen". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 117 (29): 7840-7841. doi ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumor markers are ... whether due to spread of the initial tumor or formation of new tumors . Liver transplantation can also be considered in cases ... These tumors have poor outcomes because they grow speedily. They are also hard to diagnose but are typically suspected on CT or ... Tumor markers, chemicals sometimes found in the blood of people with cancer, can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring the ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer. However, it lacks sensitivity ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors *^ Tejani MA, Saif MW (2014). "Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Does chemotherapy work?". ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality "Archived copy". Archived from ... Cross section of a human liver, at autopsy, showing many large pale tumor deposits, that are secondary tumors derived from ...
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), also known as sialyl-LewisA, is a tetrasaccharide which is usually attached to O-glycans on ... Sialyl-Lewis X Lewis antigen system Perkins, G.; Slater, E.; Sanders, G.; Prichard, J. (2003). "Serum tumor markers". American ... Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK (April 2007). "Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) as a biochemical marker in ... In patients who lack the Lewis antigen A (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian ...
"Involvement of carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis(x) in colorectal cancer metastasis". Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 40 (4 ... Witz IP (2006). "Tumor-Microenvironment Interactions". Tumor-microenvironment interactions: the selectin-selectin ligand axis ... A number of studies have shown increased expression of carbohydrate ligands on metastatic tumor, enhanced E-selectin expression ... Tumor cells exploit the selectin-dependent mechanisms mediating cell tethering and rolling interactions through recognition of ...
Tumor-associated and differentiation antigens on the carbohydrate moieties of mucin-type glycoproteins. Biochemical Society ... Hounsell chaired the Royal Society of Chemistry carbohydrate group 1996-97 and was President of the International Carbohydrate ... She was an editor of the scientific journal Carbohydrate Research for over 20 years (1994-2014). Hounsell was the author or co- ... As a result, she contributed and edited several books on techniques for analysis of carbohydrate modifications on proteins and ...
Blood tests for tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen may be ordered, as their levels ... Dysphagia suggests a tumour in the cardia or extension of the gastric tumour into the esophagus. These can be symptoms of other ... In EMR, the tumor, together with the inner lining of stomach (mucosa), is removed from the wall of the stomach using an ... Most stomach tumors are malignant with evidence of spread to lymph nodes or liver, making treatment difficult. Except for ...
... antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23. - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23. - ca-15-3 antigen ... antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23.050.550.325.050 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.550.325.115 - ca-15-3 antigen ... antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23.101.840.075.050 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.840.075.115 - ca-15-3 antigen ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ...
"HuC242 binds to the extracellular domain of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen known as CanAg (a novel glycoform of MUC1 ... Also known as huC242 it binds the CanAg antigen. It is typically linked to one of several cytotoxic agents, yielding antibody- ... Study of Cantuzumab Mertansine Administered as a Single Intravenous Infusion Once Weekly in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumour markers are ... Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Liver tumors can be broadly classified as benign or malignant: There are several types of benign liver tumors. They are caused ... Like most liver tumors, the anatomy and location of the adenoma determines whether the tumor can removed laparoscopically or if ...
... ), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9 and CA 724 in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal ... Tumor M2-PK can be elevated in many tumor types, rather than being an organ-specific tumor marker such as PSA. Increased stool ... September 2001). "Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase in plasma of patients with urological tumors". Tumour Biol. 22 (5): 282-5. doi: ... which correlated with the tumor stage. The combination of Tumor M2-PK with the appropriate classical tumor marker, such as CEA ...
"CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... of the gene encoding the human C-type lectin leukocyte receptor AIM/CD69 and functional characterization of its tumor necrosis ... It has been shown that CD69 binds to Gal-1, a carbohydrate binding protein located on some dendritic cells and macrophages, in ... Hamann J, Fiebig H, Strauss M (June 1993). "Expression cloning of the early activation antigen CD69, a type II integral ...
... (cancer antigen 125, carcinoma antigen 125, or carbohydrate antigen 125) also known as mucin 16 or MUC16 is a protein ... Boivin M, Lane D, Piché A, Rancourt C (Dec 2009). "CA125 (MUC16) tumor antigen selectively modulates the sensitivity of ovarian ... Since mesothelin is also expressed by tumor cells, MUC16 and mesothelial interactions may aid in the gathering of other tumor ... "Characterization of the tumor marker muc16 (ca125) expressed by murine ovarian tumor cell lines and identification of a panel ...
Finally, lentiviruses have been also used to elicit an immune response against tumor antigens. These treatments, like most ... Carbohydrates: Other compounds detected in the particles 3% carbohydrates. Lentivirus is primarily a research tool used to ... Antigen determinants that possess type-specific reactivity are found on the envelope. Antigen determinants that possess type- ... Some groups have cross-reactive gag antigens (e.g., the ovine, caprine, and feline lentiviruses). Antibodies to gag antigens in ...
"Role of tumor cell surface lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1) and its associated carbohydrates in lung metastasis ... Acevedo-Schermerhorn C, Gray-Bablin J, Gama R, McCormick PJ (Nov 1997). "t-complex-associated embryonic surface antigen ... LAMP1 expression on the surface of tumor cells has been observed for a number of different cancer types, particularly in highly ... The structure of LAMP1 correlates with differentiation and metastatic potential of tumor cells as it is thought to help mediate ...
Although the antigen is particularly common in carcinoid tumours, it is found in such a wide range of other conditions that it ... It is expressed as a carbohydrate epitope that contains a sulfoglucuronyl residue in several adhesion molecules of the nervous ... In anatomical pathology, CD57 (immunostaining) is similar to CD56 for use in differentiating neuroendocrine tumors from others ... CD57+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human B3GAT1 genome location and B3GAT1 ...
Carbohydrate Antigen". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 124 (42): 12439-12446. doi:10.1021/ja020737j. Gao, Changshou; ... that are selective for melanoma and breast tumor cells. The Janda laboratory has also identified a scFv specific for the ... "De novo identification of tumor-specific internalizing human antibody-receptor pairs by phage-display methods". Journal of ...
Toxin Antigen Erkes, Dan; Selvan, Senthamil (2014). "Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor ... HPCE is predominantly used in separating carbohydrates with a very high separation capacity. There are numerous advantages to ... but can include absent or insufficient co-stimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells. Haptens have been used to study ...
... between polyoma virus middle T antigen and insulin and IGF-I receptors is required for oncogene activation and tumour ... doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2009.09.006 PMID 19944284 Biological effects of growth hormone on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. ... doi:10.1016/j.bone.2008.12.012 PMID 19150422 Murine osteosarcoma primary tumour growth and metastatic progression is maintained ... Insulin sensitizing therapy attenuates type 2 diabetes-mediated mammary tumor progression. Fierz Y, Novosyadlyy R, Vijayakumar ...
TPA Tumor antigen List of cancer types "Tumor markers Cancer screening". Retrieved December 28, 2013. Kilpatrick, E. S; Lind, M ... On the basis of their chemical nature tumor markers can be proteins, conjugated proteins, peptides and carbohydrates. Proteins ... Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Although ... Diagnosis of specific tumor types, particularly in certain brain tumors and other instances where biopsy is not feasible. ...
"Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary in young patient with elevated carbohydrate antigen 19 ... Teratomas belong to a class of tumors known as nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. All tumors of this class are the result of ... These cells can develop into a frankly malignant tumor known as yolk sac tumor or endodermal sinus tumor. Adequate follow-up ... primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Wilm's tumor, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A teratoma with ...
T cells become activated by recognising foreign antigens bound to antigen presenting cells (APC), in particular, dendritic ... The MECA-79 carbohydrate epitope decorates a family of HEV counter-receptors for L-selectin, both in mouse and human16. Another ... in mucosal HEVs and in venules of intestinal lamina propria but can be induced in nonmucosal endothelial cells by tumor ... Since antigen levels are usually low, contact in blood circulation would be unlikely. Therefore, T cells need a region where ...
... hypothesis is that persistent pathogens and aggressive tumor cells are able to either mimic or acquire the same carbohydrate ... antigens or more specifically in humans as human leukocyte antigens (HLA)). Therefore, a major question is how are human ... The major carbohydrate sequence linked to glycodelin-A also profusely coats the surface of schistosomes. The profile of the ... For example, human gametes are coated with carbohydrate sequences that have been implicated in the suppression of NK cell ...
... histone deacetylases and histone-modifying genes are de-regulated.Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen ... binding water through their carbohydrate component and by their interaction with blood cells. A diagnosis of Waldenström ... Blood tests show the level of IgM in the blood and the presence of proteins, or tumor markers, that are the key signs of WM. A ... ISBN 978-0-8151-8698-4. Raje N, Hideshima T, Anderson KC (2003). "Plasma Cell Tumors". In Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR ...
"N-linked carbohydrate on human leukocyte antigen-C and recognition by natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". Hum. Immunol. ... preventing dynamic membrane reorganization in CTL/tumor cell interaction". Blood. 100 (8): 2874-81. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-02- ... "N-linked carbohydrate on human leukocyte antigen-C and recognition by natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". Hum. Immunol. ... Fan QR, Wiley DC (1999). "Structure of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw4, a ligand for the KIR2D natural ...
SP-A can also bind to TLR2 (toll-like receptor 2). This interaction causes decrease of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) ... SP-D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic ... Collectins can bind to the surface of microorganisms and between carbohydrate ligands. Due to these properties, the interaction ... "Physical characterization and crystallization of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of a mannose-binding protein from rat". ...
... especially those mediated by proteins binding to carbohydrates. Multivalent protein-carbohydrate interactions play roles in ... Carlson, Coby; Mowery, Patricia; Owen, Robert; Dykhuizen, Emily; Kiessling, Laura (2007). "Selective Tumor Cell Targeting Using ... Courtney, Adam; Puffer, Erik; Pontrello, Jason; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Kiessling, Laura (2009). "Sialylated multivalent antigens ... "Multivalent Carbohydrates As New and Powerful Probes of Signal Transduction , MIT Department of Chemistry". ...
... a pituitary tumour). This will lead to a fall in testosterone or oestrogen levels and infertility.[13][16] ... haematocrit and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If injections are used, trough levels are taken to ensure an adequate level of ... Carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Danon disease/ ...
... which is used to synthesize carbohydrates such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water; these carbohydrates are stored as food ... or tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... A molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, notably the citric ...
... trafficking is carbohydrate independent. In an effort to localize the amino acid motif responsible for granule targeting, we ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
Its activity in tumor metastasis has been probed by the addition of heparin that functions to blocks tumor metastasis. In ... carbohydrate binding. • sialic acid binding. • protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... it has been known that platelet facilitates tumor metastasis by forming complexes with tumor cells and leukocytes in the ...
Tumor markers. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... saturated fat and carbohydrate intake and risk of prostate cancer.[83][84] Evidence regarding the role of omega-3 fatty acids ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
Generally, the carbohydrate portion of the glycolipids found on the surface of plasma membranes helps these molecules ... Shedding of the glycocalyx can be triggered by inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Whatever the stimulus ... since that would enable passage of some macromolecules or other harmful antigens.[9] ... Smart carbohydrate chemistry as a means to understand glycocalyx biology - Video by the Lindhorst group at Beilstein TV ...
ABC-type uptake permeases 3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A ... In addition to conferring MDR in tumor cells, ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they ... Gaudet R, Wiley DC (Sep 2001). "Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... Some of these exporters in humans are involved in tumor resistance, cystic fibrosis and a range of other inherited human ...
T stands for tumor stage and ranges from 0, no evidence of primary tumor, to T4 when the tumor penetrates the surface of the ... It has been suggested that the presence of antibodies to Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus antigens or the antigens themselves ... "Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Lancet. 393 (10170): 434-445. doi ... including both tumor cells and how the tumor invades into healthy tissues and finally if the tumor appears to be completely ...
Betton GR (1976). "Agglutination reactions of spontaneous canine tumour cells, induced by concanavalin a, demonstrated by an ... Goldstein IJ, Poretz RD (1986). "Isolation, physicochemical characterization, and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins ... "Concanavalin A receptors, immunoglobulins, and theta antigen of the lymphocyte surface. Interactions with concanavalin A and ... a erradicación do tumor no modelo de hepatoma murino in situ utilizado neste estudo foi atribuída adicionalmente á acción ...
A low-carbohydrate diet, exercise, and medications are useful in type 1 DM.[53] There are camps for children to teach them how ... Brentjens R, Saltz L (2001). "Islet cell tumors of the pancreas: the medical oncologist's perspective". Surgical Clinics of ... that suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens.[26 ... January 2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence ...
... antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... Neutrophils have a preference to engulf refined carbohydrates[16][17][18] (from ingested glucose, fructose, sucrose, honey and ... "The potential role of neutrophils in promoting the metastatic phenotype of tumors releasing interleukin-8". Clinical Cancer ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ...
Like velcro, carbohydrate ligands on the circulating leukocytes bind to selectin molecules on the inner wall of the vessel, ... and is independent of specific cellular antigens. Cytokines released in the initial immune response induce vasodilation and ... For example, the carbohydrate ligand for P-selectin, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), is expressed by different types ... Endothelial selectins bind carbohydrates on leukocyte transmembrane glycoproteins, including sialyl-LewisX. ...
This can be done by spreading carbohydrate intake over meals and snacks throughout the day, and using slow-release carbohydrate ... Multivariate stepwise regression analysis reveals that, in combination with other placental hormones, leptin, tumor necrosis ... islet cell antibodies and/or insulinoma antigen-2), women with more than two previous pregnancies, and women who were obese (in ... During the three previous days the subject must have an unrestricted diet (containing at least 150 g carbohydrate per day) and ...
Secondary hypercortisolism (pituitary tumor resulting in Cushing's disease,[53][54] pseudo-Cushing's syndrome) ... Cortisol has wide-ranging effects, including alterations of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism; catabolic effects on ... alpha by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T helper (Th)1 cells, but upregulates IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. This ... It inhibits production of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)- ...
Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y. T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for ... the lipid membrane itself and any carbohydrates present originate entirely from the host. The influenza virus and HIV use this ... a b Temin HM, Baltimore D. RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 1972;17:129-86. doi: ... Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation.[192] The production of interferon is an important ...
Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene.[ ... carbohydrate binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • ... negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production. • cell-matrix adhesion. • cell proliferation. • positive regulation of ... In tumors, CD34 is found in alveolar soft part sarcoma, preB-ALL (positive in 75%), AML (40%), AML-M7 (most), ...
Examples of some of the most prostate specific proteins are enzymes, such as the prostate specific antigen (PSA), and the ACPP ... Tsukise, A.; Yamada, K. (1984). "Complex carbohydrates in the secretory epithelium of the goat prostate". The Histochemical ... a distinct tumor type with poor prognostic features". The Journal of Urology. 179 (5): 1762-7, discussion 1767. doi:10.1016/j. ... A Tumor Specific Urinary Biomarker for the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 17 (5): 1090-8. doi: ...
... carbohydrates, or antigens. ... "Dendritic cell vaccines for brain tumors". Neurosurgery ... Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have ... First, the antigen itself is generated. Viruses are grown either on primary cells such as chicken eggs (e.g., for influenza) or ...
Pancreatic amylase breaks down some carbohydrates (notably starch) into oligosaccharides. Other carbohydrates pass undigested ... They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site for antigens from potentially harmful bacteria or other ... Metastatic tumors, especially SCLC or melanoma. *Developmental, congenital or genetic conditions *Duodenal (intestinal) atresia ... Some carbohydrates, such as cellulose, are not digested at all, despite being made of multiple glucose units. This is because ...
A diet that supports the immune system and is not high in simple carbohydrates contributes to a healthy balance of the oral and ... "Yeast metabolic products, yeast antigens and yeasts as possible triggers for irritable bowel syndrome" (PDF). European Journal ... Diets high in simple carbohydrates have been found to affect rates of oral candidiases.[49] ...
... which bind to lipids and carbohydrates in the epithelial cell membrane. One such adhesin, BabA, binds to the Lewis b antigen ... pyrene-induced stomach tumors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (11): 7610-5. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.7610F. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... The O antigen of LPS may be fucosylated and mimic Lewis blood group antigens found on the gastric epithelium.[16] The outer ... Noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection may be suitable and include blood antibody tests, stool antigen tests, or the carbon ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... carbohydrate binding. • monocarboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity. • cadherin binding. • protein binding involved ... 1995). "The human tumor cell-derived collagenase stimulatory factor (renamed EMMPRIN) is a member of the immunoglobulin ... 1998). "Characterization of the gene for human EMMPRIN, a tumor cell surface inducer of matrix metalloproteinases". Gene. 220 ( ...
sialyl Lewis X antigen on the surface of leukocytes.. H antigen of the ABO blood compatibility antigens. Other examples of ... Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins. *Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology: A Web Tour SPECIAL ... Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies Receptor Various proteins involved ... The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as ...
"Aggressive Breast Tumors Linked to Vitamin D Deficiency - News Room - University of Rochester Medical Center". Urmc.rochester. ... Calorie or carbohydrate restriction is an interesting subject (check out Michael Ristows work), but let's stick to discussion ... "The common Scandinavian human leucocyte antigen ancestral haplotype 62.1 as prognostic factor in patients with advanced ... Rochester Medical Center found that low vitamin D levels among women with breast cancer correlate with more aggressive tumors ...
Tumor markersEdit. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[72] This protein ... saturated fat and carbohydrate intake and risk of prostate cancer.[80][81] Evidence regarding the role of omega-3 fatty acids ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor ...
SDH mutations have also been identified in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, renal tumors, thyroid tumors, testicular seminomas ... Succinate may enhance adaptive immunity by triggering the activity of antigen-presenting cells that, in turn, activate T-cells. ... including the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and heme, rely on the temporary formation of ... Other inflammatory cytokines produced by activated macrophages such as tumor necrosis factor or interleukin 6 are not directly ...
Blood tests for tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) may be ordered, as their ... Dysphagia suggests a tumour in the cardia or extension of the gastric tumour into the esophagus. ... If the mucus remains inside the tumour cell, it pushes the nucleus to the periphery: "signet-ring cell". ... The prognosis of stomach cancer is generally poor, due to the fact the tumour has often metastasised by the time of discovery ...
Aberrant glycosylation in tumors and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.. Hakomori S1. ...
Glycoconjugate antigens are prepared by preparing a hapten glycoside, especially an alpha glycoside prepared by the Fischer ... Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigenic Determinants . Numerous antigens of clinical significance bear carbohydrate ... Carbohydrate -Protein Conjugates . Because the tumor-associated antigens are useful in diagnosis and monitoring of many types ... While synthesizing the tumor associated carbohydrate antigens this linkage must be preserved. Fischer glycosidation imposes ...
... to various structures for the construction of glycoconjugate vaccines and its conjugation with an N-modified form of the tumor- ... carbohydrate. antigen. GM3 Q. Wang, J. Xue and Z. Guo, Chem. Commun., 2009, 5536 DOI: 10.1039/B907351E ... Synthesis of a monophosphoryl lipid A derivative and its conjugation to a modified form of a tumor-associated ... Synthesis of a monophosphoryl lipid A derivative and its conjugation to a modified form of a tumor-associated ...
Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 125 Predicts Adverse Outcome After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. May 20, 2013 ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 125 Predicts Adverse Outcome After Transcatheter ... What is the predictive value of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) before and after transcatheter aortic valve ...
Tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is an emerging cardiac biomarker. In heart failure (HF), CA125 has shown to be ... Objectives This study sought to predict the value of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) before and after ... Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 125 Predicts Adverse Outcome After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation ... Tumor Marker Carbohydrate Antigen 125 Predicts Adverse Outcome After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation ...
Development of immunotherapy for brain tumors targeting carbohydrate antigens of glycolipids. Research Project ... Publications] T.Yamaki: The requirement of host immune response to tumor cells to achieve tumor eradication by intratumoral ... Publications] Yamaki T.: The requirement of host immune response to tumor cells to achieve tumor eradication by intratumoral ... Publications] T.Yamaki: The requirement of host immune response to tumor cells to achieve tumor eradication by intratumoral ...
Application of novel tumor associated carbohydrate antigen as tumor marker. Research Project ... We aimed to generate monoclonal antibodies specifically recognize tumor associated carbohydrate antigen, Sialyl Type 1H (ST1H ...
Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate" was a ... Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of ... "Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus ... Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate*Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate. *Carbohydrate Antigens, Tumor-Associated ...
"Carbohydrate Antigen MCA Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen MCA" ... mucinlike carcinoma-associated antigen), a carbohydrate-related tumor marker. The detection of the tumor marker MCA is mostly ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen MCA. Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen MCA ...
Tumor Markers. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9. The CA 19-9 antigen is a sialylated oligosaccharide that is most commonly found on ... Preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels for the evaluation of curability and ... Carcinoembryonic antigen. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a high-molecular weight glycoprotein found normally in fetal ... Although the tumor was considered to have been fully resected and had not spread to any nodes, the patient died of recurrent ...
Carbohydrate Antigen 50) Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 50" ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 50. Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 50 ... a carbohydrate-related tumor marker. The detection of the tumor marker CA 50 is mostly in diagnosis and monitoring of ...
Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3) Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 15-3" ... a carbohydrate-related antigen tumor marker. The detection of the tumor marker CA 15 is mostly used in monitoring therapy and ... Home > Specialties > IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 15-3 ... IVD Test Reagent/Kits, Immunoassay, Tumor Marker, Carbohydrate Antigen CA 15-3. ...
Carbohydrates are molecules with essential roles in biology and also serve as renewable resources for the generation of new ... exo-glycal chemistry and bioengineering of carbohydrate synthases. Then, synthesis and structure of multivalent and ... innovative synthetic methodology and design of carbohydrate architectures for medicinal and biological chemistry.Green ... Volume 40 of Carbohydrate Chemistry: Chemical and Biological Approaches demonstrates the importance of the glycosciences for ...
... by Guy 3 ... Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 come to share garlands like a WARFARE would. ... The critical Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen nostro is non Fresh Air from the ... How several receive the horizons in your Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from ...
block to the fatty Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated severely. ... Lance Kilkenny continues the fastest Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate in the West, but ... so a Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from while we use you in to your fights ... Synthesis And Vaccine Evaluation Of The Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen Rm2 From Prostate Cancer. by August 3.6 ...
Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). 002261 - The CA 19-9 is used to monitor gastrointestinal, pancreatic, liver and colorectal ... 002139 - Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein found in many types of cells but associated with tumors and the developing ... AFP, Tumor Marker (Serial). 480012 - This is a lab test for Alpha-Fetoprotein tumor marker. AFP is found mainly in liver cancer ... Cancer Antigen (CA) 125. 002303 - A CA 125 test measures the amount of the protein CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in your blood. A ...
... antigens associated with autoimmune disease; allergens; tumor antigens; streptococcus Group B antigen; HIV I or HIV II antigen ... an antigen; enzyme; hormone; polysaccharide; protein; lipid; carbohydrate; drug or nucleic acid; Salmonella species; Candida ... antigens associated with autoimmune disease; allergens; tumor antigens; streptococcus Group B antigen; HIV I or HIV II antigen ... carcinoembryonic antigen; streptococcus Group A antigen; viral antigens; ...
The tumor-associated carbohydrate Tn antigens include two variants, alphaGalNAc- O-Thr and alphaGalNAc- O-Ser. In solution, ... Water Sculpts the Distinctive Shapes and Dynamics of the Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Tn Antigens: Implications for Their ... Tn antigens are promising biomarkers to identify cancer cells and attractive targets for cancer therapy. We report, using ... In contrast, the serine-linked Tn antigen is flexible in solution. These differences were not observed in gas phase where both ...
... a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects ... a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects ... Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast ... Hakomori S. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens defining tumor malignancy: basis for development of anti-cancer vaccines. ...
It may be found in the blood when it is shed by tumour cells. It is also found in trace amounts in the pancreas, liver, gall ... Carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. ... Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). CA19-9 is the common term for carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a. It is a protein found on ... Cancer information / Diagnosis and treatment / Tests and procedures / Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) ...
Nipple fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and prostate-specific antigen in cancer-bearing and tumor-free breasts. J Clin Oncol 2001 ... The Thomsen-Freidenreich (TF) and Tn antigens are aberrantly glycosylated carbohydrate cancer-associated antigens found in ∼80 ... Thomsen-Friedenreich and Tn Antigens in Nipple Fluid: Carbohydrate Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Detection. Senthil R. Kumar, ... Therefore, it was of interest to explore antigens that have been more closely associated with breast cancer, in terms of tumor ...
Antigen-Carbohydrate Conjugates. January, 2009. Hacohen et al.. 20070298008. Method of bowel cleansing. December, 2007. Dennett ... Procedure 5: Analysis of Cell Surface Antigens The samples collected for cell surface antigen analysis in Procedure 3 were ... CANINE TUMOR TREATMENT METHOD, PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION APPLIED THERETO, AND METHOD OF CRYOGENICALLY PRESERVING CELLS USED ... disappearance of tumor). 7. Golden. 35.6 kg F. 12 years. blood vessel sarcoma. 1.9 × 108. 5. Maintained coat quality and vigor ...
... on antigen‑presenting cells (APCs) is a pivotal step for T‑cell activation and the promotion of antitumor immunity. However, it ... The interaction between tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (OX40) on T cells and the OX40 ligand (OX40L) ... Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / blood * C-Reactive Protein / metabolism * Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood ... Blood sOX40 levels were positively correlated with the blood levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19‑9, carcinoembryonic antigen ...
This thesis focuses on the synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the prostate tumor- associated carbohydrate antigen RM2. The ... author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its ... Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer : ... Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer Hong-Yang Chuang - ...
... sialosyl-Tn antigen, detected by monoclonal antibody TKH2, was uniformly found in the bronchus, uterus, salivary gland, ... Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis* * Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate* * Biomarkers, Tumor * Humans * Immunohistochemistry ... These results indicate that sialosyl-Tn antigen is a useful tumor marker, especially in adenocarcinomas of the mucin-producing ... The antigen was absent in the other organs. Even in the organs showing positive findings, the antigen was observed only in the ...
Importantly, B cells can present cognate tumour-derived antigens to T cells, with the functional consequences of such ... In tumour-associated tertiary lymphoid structures, T cells and B cells interact and undergo cooperative selection, ... Here we summarize our current knowledge of the roles of B cells and antibodies in the tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we ... Recent data show that B cells and plasma cells located in tumours or in tumour-draining lymph nodes can have important roles in ...
Immune response to a given antigen, particularly in cancer patients, is complex and is controlled by various genetic and ... Given the involvement of DNA methylation in the development of lymphocytes, tumorigenicity and tumor progression, we aimed to ... Given the involvement of DNA methylation in the development of lymphocytes, tumorigenicity and tumor progression, we aimed to ... Immune response to a given antigen, particularly in cancer patients, is complex and is controlled by various genetic and ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carbohydrate antigen 72-4 levels in gastric cancer / 대한외과학회지 ... 5 YRR for carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA 72-4) TMR were 15.2% and 33.6% for TMR or = 1.0, respectively. We defined high TMR (TMR ... Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Cinnarizine , Gastrectomy , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , ... Clinical utility of tumor marker cutoff ratio and a combination scoring system of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, ...
... of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in patients with periampullary tumors ... The importance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and carbohydrate ant The importance ...
Background Detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising method for postoperative surveillance of lung cancer. ... including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA-199), cytokeratin 19 ... Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a kind of tumor-specific DNA derived from tumor cells, which in principle contains the same ... Circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA: challenges and opportunities on the path to clinical utility. Clin Cancer ...
  • 002139 - Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein found in many types of cells but associated with tumors and the developing fetus. (
  • Blood sOX40 levels were positively correlated with the blood levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19‑9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C‑reactive protein (CRP) and soluble programmed cell death ligand‑1 (PD‑L1) in patients but negatively correlated with the blood levels of albumin. (
  • Five-year risk of recurrence (5 YRR) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) TMRs were 18.3%, 29.8%, 61.4% for TMR or = 2.0 respectively. (
  • This so-called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is also present in other adenocarcinomas of entodermally derived digestive system epithelium, as well as in human fetal and embryonic gut, pancreas, and liver during the first two trimesters of pregnancy (4). (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker belonging to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily of adhesion molecules. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen functions as an accessory adhesion molecule mediating colon epithelial cell interactions. (
  • Jothy S, Yuan SY, Shirota K. Transcription of carcinoembryonic antigen in normal colon and colon carcinoma. (
  • Bergman B, Brezicka FT, Engstrom CP, Larson S. Clinical usefulness of serum assays of neuron-specific enolase, carcinoembryonic antigen and CA-50 in the diagnosis of lung cancer. (
  • Evaluation of neuron-specific enolase, tissue polypeptide antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen as markers for staging and monitoring response to therapy of lung cancer. (
  • Superiority of tissue polypeptiode antigene to carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigenic determinant 19.9. (
  • Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level in surgically resected clinical stage I patients with non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • Plusa T, Bejm J, Jozefczak E, Swierz J, Drzewiecki Z. Concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with lung cancer. (
  • The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein that is overexpressed in nearly 50% of all human and veterinarian tumors. (
  • The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) represents a tumor-associated antigen frequently expressed on adenocarcinomas of various tissue origin and constitutes a 180-kDa glycoprotein with ∼50% carbohydrates ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) an oncofetal glycoprotein antigen originally thought to be specific for adenocarcinoma of the colon, but now known to be found in many other cancers and some nonmalignant conditions. (
  • The main objective of this project is to develop a novel immunotherapy for gliomas, in which glycolipid antigens are analyzed and quantified systematically and a set of appropriate antibodies would be selected according to the antigenic profile of an individual glioma. (
  • The reactivity of monoclonal antibodies against those gangliosides was examined next either as chemically isolated antigens or cell surface ones. (
  • We aimed to generate monoclonal antibodies specifically recognize tumor associated carbohydrate antigen, Sialyl Type 1H (ST1H), which are expressed in cancers of Lewis-negative individuals. (
  • They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) support cell survival that could be interrupted by anti-TACA antibodies. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to some TACAs, like those directed to the ganglioside GD2 and the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY), are known to inhibit cell signaling that influences cell survival [ 2 - 3 ]. (
  • The induction of antibodies to these antigens and related types would therefore be of clinical benefit by providing sustained immunity to inhibit metastatic outgrowth. (
  • Antigen capture immunoassays were done on the samples using monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized either TF or Tn antigen in NAF. (
  • Our preliminary data utilizing these novel highly specific STn antibodies suggests that STn is present in a significant subset of OvCa cells and tumors. (
  • Here we summarize our current knowledge of the roles of B cells and antibodies in the tumour microenvironment. (
  • Fig. 1: Antitumour roles of tumour-infiltrating B cells and intratumourally produced antibodies. (
  • But TACAs are also associated with cell signaling activities whereby anti-TACA antibodies are capable of direct induction of cell death of number of tumor cell lines, but this activity has not been investigated in great detail ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • PR92 monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridoma cell line ATCC HB 9390) are employed in immunoassays performed on patient body fluids and for purification of tumor-associated antigen compositions. (
  • e) determining the extent to which labeled monoclonal antibodies are bound in said second reaction mixture, thereby detecting prostate or breast tumor-associated antigens in the fluid sample. (
  • A variety of high-throughput approaches, including SEREX, 1 phage display, 2 , 3 and peptide/protein arrays, 4 , 5 have been developed to identify disease specific antibodies to protein and peptide antigens from the repertoire of antibodies present in serum. (
  • Antibodies to carbohydrates play a direct role in many clinical areas including blood transfusions, organ transplants, and responses to vaccines. (
  • Antibodies to carbohydrates also have tremendous potential as diagnostic and prognostic markers (for some recent examples see 6 - 9 ). (
  • Recently, carbohydrate arrays (also referred to as glycan arrays) have emerged as powerful tools for evaluating binding of lectins, monoclonal antibodies, whole cells, viruses, and serum antibodies to carbohydrates. (
  • We assessed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity mediated by the induced antibodies on CEA-expressing HT29 tumor cells. (
  • The mimotope-induced antibodies recognize CEA and do effectively inhibit growth of CEA-positive tumors. (
  • It can be hypothesized that such antibodies would not be restricted to a single isotype antibody (sub)class but would instead initiate the whole spectrum of antibody-mediated immune functions against tumors. (
  • Passive or "adoptive" immunotherapy is based on administration of antitumor antibodies or transfer of tumor-reactive lymphocytes. (
  • Mouse hybridomas (hybrid cells of a myeloma tumour cell and lymphocyte merging) produce anti-A and anti-B monoclonal antibodies. (
  • The antibodies are made by immunizing with either red cells or synthetic carbohydrates. (
  • In addition to their use in blood grouping, these monoclonal antibodies can be of use in defining the hereditary background (heterogenicity) and structure of the red cell antigen . (
  • for example, group A blood contains A antigens on red cell surfaces and anti-B antibodies in the surrounding serum. (
  • If these antibodies combine with the appropriate antigen, the result is hemolytic transfusion reaction and possibly death. (
  • Siamab will apply its proprietary technology platform to generate TACA-specific antibodies for use in multiple solid tumor applications. (
  • Siamab has developed a platform that enables the rapid discovery and development of therapeutic antibodies that bind with unprecedented specificity and affinity to this novel class of carbohydrate antigens. (
  • Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. (
  • The present paper examines the role of O -acetyl-GD2 in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical data of anti- O -acetyl-GD2 monoclonal antibodies. (
  • More than half of the antibodies considered to be specific for their designated antigen were found to cross-react with other glycans. (
  • Antibodies/Antigens e. (
  • Since RP215 was shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in nude mouse models, the effects of RP215 and antibodies against antigen receptors on the gene regulations of cultured OC-3-VGH ovarian and C-33A cervical cancer cells were investigated through semi-quantitative RT-PCR. (
  • Normal antibodies bind to external pathogens, but the modified immunotherapy antibodies bind to the tumor antigens marking and identifying the cancer cells for the immune system to inhibit or kill. (
  • Even tumor markers can be elevated in patients with chronic pancreatitis. (
  • Clinical and biological relevance of lung tumor markers. (
  • Niklinski J, Furman M. Clinical tumor markers in lung cancer. (
  • CD antigen any of a number of cell-surface markers expressed by leukocytes and used to distinguish cell lineages, developmental stages, and functional subsets. (
  • Immunoassay determinations of the serum levels of certain proteins or carbohydrates serve as tumor markers. (
  • When elevated, serum concentration of these markers may reflect tumor size and grade. (
  • Multiple tumor markers are available for monitoring the response of certain malignancies to therapy and assessing whether residual tumor exists post-surgical therapy. (
  • Do You Know All of These 16 Kinds of Tumor Markers? (
  • Discovered in 1978, tumor markers can be detected in the tumor-related substances in the blood, body fluids and tissues, and to a certain level, they can reflect the presence of certain tumors. (
  • 8 Nerve specific enolase (NSE) Small cell lung cancer is the most sensitive and the most specific tumor markers. (
  • The expression of T and Tn antigens has pathogenic and clinical consequences, and the antigens themselves are powerful histological markers in carcinoma diagnosis and frequently in prognosis. (
  • The roles of these tumor markers in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this tumor and associations between clinical characteristics, tumor pathologic features, and prognosis are discussed. (
  • Active cellular therapies aim to destroy cancer cells by recognition of distinct markers known as antigens. (
  • Gal β1→3GalNAc-) antigen and its biosynthetic precursor, Tn (GalNAc-), are displayed on cell-surface proteins and lipids in 70% to 90% of adenocarcinomas including those of the breast, prostate, and ovary ( 6 - 10 ). (
  • The finding that TF and Tn carbohydrates are present on both epithelial cell surface proteins and lipids ( 6 ) prompted us to question whether NAF from breast cancer patients may contain high levels of TF and Tn compared with normal NAF. (
  • My group molecularly interrogates gynecologic tumors to identify genes or proteins and their corresponding signaling pathways that contribute to malignant transformation, the pathology of the disease, recurrence and/or resistance to therapy. (
  • A unique advantage in targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) is that multiple proteins and lipids on cancer cells can be modified with the same carbohydrate structure which might be shared with bacterial antigens ( 2 ). (
  • Researchers found that HIV, aggressive cancer cells, H. pylori, and parasitic worms known as schistosomes carry the same carbohydrate sequences as many proteins produced in human sperm. (
  • Our study demonstrated the usefulness of carbohydrate-ligand mimicry peptide for the identification of novel carbohydrate-binding proteins. (
  • Fukuda MN, Yoneyama T (2010) Identification of carbohydrate-binding proteins by carbohydrate mimicry peptides. (
  • Carbohydrates are presented on the surface of cells primarily in covalent linkages to proteins (glycoproteins, proteoglycans) or lipids (glycolipids, gangliosides). (
  • Lectin concept defines a class of proteins or glycoproteins with agglutinating properties on other cells that can reversibly bind carbohydrates without altering their structure. (
  • Lectins are a group of specific proteins that preferentially bind to carbohydrates inside and outside cells. (
  • Carbohydrates in living cells and organisms are involved in various physiological and pathogenic processes through specific interactions with proteins. (
  • RP215 is a monoclonal antibody generated against a carbohydrate-associated epitope of glycoproteins designated as CA215, which consists mainly of immunoglobulin superfamily proteins expressed by cancer cells including antigen receptors such as immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. (
  • Subsequently, it was further documented that RP215 not only reacts with the epitope of immunoglobulin heavy chains, but also many other immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins including antigen receptors, such as immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors, as well as cell adhesion molecules [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Cancer immunotherapy exploits the fact that cancer cells often have tumor antigens, molecules on their surface that can be detected by the antibody proteins of the immune system, binding to them. (
  • The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates). (
  • [7] Lectins , or proteins that bind carbohydrates, can recognize specific oligosaccharides and provide useful information for cell recognition based on oligosaccharide binding. (
  • Cancer cells actively take part in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, which then become deposited into the tumor stroma. (
  • There should be a variety of factors that influence the antibody reactions against glycolipid antigens. (
  • We are now focusing on the glycolipid analysis of surgical specimens of glioma tissue as well as on the factors participating in the antibody reactivity against those antigens. (
  • This mechanism is supported by trapping, for the first time, such localized water in the crystal structures of an antibody bound to two glycopeptides that comprise fluorinated Tn antigens in their structure. (
  • 5. A murine-derived hybridoma cell line ATCC HB 9390, wherein antibody produced by said cell line reacts with a tumor-associated antigen having a molecular weight of about 420,000 to about 520,000 daltons under non-reducing conditions. (
  • We also report antibody profiles for 48 human subjects and evaluate for the first time the effects of age, race, sex, geographic location, and blood type on antibody profiles for a large set of carbohydrate antigens. (
  • We found significant dependence on age and blood type of antibody levels for a variety of carbohydrates. (
  • Finally, we conducted a longitudinal study with a separate group of 7 serum donors to evaluate the variation in anti-carbohydrate antibody levels within an individual over a period ranging from 3 to 13 weeks and found that, for nearly all antigens on our array, antibody levels are generally stable over this period. (
  • In basic and preclinical research, serum antibody profiling can facilitate the discovery of new antigens and guide vaccine design. (
  • antigen-antibody reaction the reversible binding of antigen to homologous antibody by the formation of weak bonds between antigenic determinants on antigen molecules and antigen binding sites on immunoglobulin molecules. (
  • 1. one that combines with antibody produced in response to a different but related antigen, owing to similarity of antigenic determinants. (
  • 2. identical antigens in two bacterial strains, so that antibody produced against one strain will react with the other. (
  • They are important target antigens for antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human melanoma and neuroblastoma cells. (
  • Antibody made in response to a foreign red cell antigen is usually not harmful but does require subsequent transfusions to be antigen-negative. (
  • Extent of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis of ICC was evaluated by quantifying microlymphatic vessel density (MLVD) from immunohistochemical staining of a lymphatic endothelial-specific antibody (podoplanin). (
  • GD2 is the first ganglioside proven to be an effective target antigen for cancer immunotherapy with the regulatory approval of dinutuximab, a chimeric anti-GD2 therapeutic antibody. (
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (
  • A method for treating a tumor by administering an antibody or antibody fragment that binds specifically to stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, and an agent. (
  • RP215 is a monoclonal antibody (Mab) generated against an ovarian cancer cell line, OC-3-VGH in 1987 and shown to react with the carbohydrate-associated epitope of glycoproteins known as CA215 expressed by cancer cells [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • NEWTON, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Siamab Therapeutics, Inc. and Boehringer Ingelheim announced today that they have entered into a strategic discovery collaboration with the goal of developing anti-cancer therapeutics targeting tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). (
  • Siamab Therapeutics, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company developing novel cancer immunotherapies targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) seen in multiple solid tumors. (
  • Tn antigens are promising biomarkers to identify cancer cells and attractive targets for cancer therapy. (
  • Moreover, we discuss the potential of using immunoglobulin repertoires as a source of tumour-specific receptors for immunotherapy or as biomarkers to predict the efficacy of immunotherapeutic interventions. (
  • Publications] T.Yamaki: 'The requirement of host immune response to tumor cells to achieve tumor eradication by intratumoral LAK cell infusion immunotherapy' Oncol. (
  • These changes allow considering some gangliosides as tumor-associated antigens and they have been selected as possible target for active and passive immunotherapy [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • This study aims to establish an active immunotherapy for the poorly immunogenic CEA glycoprotein by generating antigen surrogates. (
  • Based on these finding, we suggest that the generated mimotopes are candidates for active immunotherapy of CEA-expressing tumors. (
  • In view of the foregoing, GM2 is expected to be an ideal antigen for specific immunotherapy of human cancers with either vaccination or MAbs. (
  • Active immunotherapy is aimed either at eliciting a specific de novo host immune response against selected tumor antigens (Ags) by employing cancer vaccines or at amplifying the existing antitumor immune response by administering nonspecific proinflammatory molecules or adjuvants. (
  • In this respect, gangliosides, a broad family of structurally related glycolipids, were suggested as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy based on their higher abundance in tumors when compared with the matched normal tissues. (
  • Cancer immunotherapy comprises different strategies that use distinct effector mechanisms of the immune system to specifically target and eliminate tumor cells. (
  • Active immunotherapy specifically targets tumor cells via the immune system. (
  • In contrast, passive immunotherapy does not directly target tumor cells, but enhances the ability of the immune system to attack cancer cells. (
  • Abnormal expression of many self molecules through pre- and post-translational modifications generates a spectrum of tumor-specific epitopes. (
  • Tumor-associated glycoprotein antigens that do not show mutations in their peptide sequence could also be targeted via aberrantly glycosylated and thus tumor-specific glycopeptide epitopes. (
  • Short peptide sequences containing MHC class I and/or class II epitopes linked to nano-beads induce strong immunity and inhibition of growth of antigen-specific tumour challenge in mice. (
  • In most of these tumors, T and Tn antigens, whose epitopes have been synthesized, are uncovered and immunoreactive. (
  • Epitopes/Antigens c. (
  • Publications] Y.Ibayashi: 'Effect of local administration of lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 on malignant brain tumor patients' Neurologia medico-chirurgica. (
  • Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. (
  • However, many of the biochemical characteristics initially thought to be closely associated with the malignant phenotype of cells in culture were subsequently found to be dissociable from the ability of those cells to produce tumors in animals. (
  • Furthermore, individual cells of malignant tumors growing in animals or in humans exhibit marked biochemical heterogeneity, as reflected in their cell surface composition, enzyme levels, immunogenicity, response to anticancer drugs, and so on. (
  • Recently, however, Hahn and colleagues 28 showed that ectopic expression of the human telomerase catalytic subunit (human telomerase reverse transcriptase [hTERT]) in combination with the oncogenes h- ras and SV40 virus large-T antigen can induce tumorigenic conversion in normal human epithelial and fibroblast cells, suggesting that disruption of the intracellular pathways regulated by these gene products is sufficient to produce a malignant cell. (
  • CEA was identified for the first time in 1965 in colorectal cancer ( 4 , 5 ) and has since been found in 80% to 90% of all colorectal cancers as well as in up to 50% of all breast cancers, in non-small-cell lung cancers, in esophageal, pancreatic, and gastric malignancies, as well as in malignant tumors of the thyroid and female reproductive tract ( 6 ). (
  • Levels of CEA are up to 100 times higher in tissue samples derived from malignant tumors as compared with healthy tissues ( 7 ). (
  • Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) has become a common malignant tumor accounting for 8%-10% of digestive system malignancy. (
  • In this study, we evaluated impact of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in patients with ICC, a highly malignant and aggressive primary liver cancer. (
  • Primary and metastatic carcinomas are epithelial in origin and comprise by far the largest group of malignant tumors in humans. (
  • Full Text Available Carcinosarcoma of the uterus is a rare gynaecological neoplasm, which is also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor. (
  • Carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed Müllerian tumors or MMMT) are rare malignant tumors in the female genital tract composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal components. (
  • We have developed potential TACA-directed vaccines based on carbohydrate-mimetic peptides (CMPs) that induce anti-tumor-reactive humoral [ 7 - 9 ] and cellular [ 10 , 11 ] responses in mice. (
  • Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. (
  • peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. (
  • Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. (
  • wherein said adjuvant is capable of increasing the binding of said peptides to cells of said individual and/or the entry of said peptides into the antigen-presenting cells of said individual, and wherein said adjuvant thereby brings about an increase in the immunomodulatory activity of said peptides. (
  • 7. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said peptides are derived from a tumor antigen. (
  • 13. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 1 , wherein said composition comprises one or more peptides which are derived from a naturally occurring immunogenic protein or tumor antigen, or a cellular breakdown product thereof. (
  • The only approved cellular cancer therapy based on dendritic cells is sipuleucel-T. One method of inducing dendritic cells to present tumor antigens is by vaccination with autologous tumor lysates or short peptides (small parts of protein that correspond to the protein antigens on cancer cells). (
  • These peptides are often given in combination with adjuvants (highly immunogenic substances) to increase the immune and anti-tumor responses. (
  • For both cell lines, RP215 and anti-antigen receptors were found to regulate similarly and consistently a number of genes including NFκB-1, IgG, P21, Cyclin D1, ribosomal P1 and c-fos with only exceptions for EGFR and ribosomal P0. (
  • RP215 and anti-antigen receptors were found to up-regulate TLR-2 and/or TLR-3, whereas those of TLR-4 and TLR-9 were down regulated for both cancer cells. (
  • Based on these preliminary observations, it can be proposed that apoptosis of the two cancer cell lines was induced similarly by RP215 and anti-antigen receptors through consistent regulations of the same groups of genes. (
  • Therefore, the anti-cancer therapy of RP215 Mab may be, in part related to the surface bound antigen receptors and/or toll-like receptors in the innate immunity system, all of which may be involved in the growth and survival of cancer cells. (
  • Glycoproteins are relevant as cell-surface receptors , cell-adhesion molecules, immunoglobulins , and tumor antigens. (
  • He is known for his work on lectin structure and interactions, orientation and dynamics of cell surface carbohydrate receptors and protein folding, diabetes, anti-malarials and anti-cancer agents based on curcumin, flavonoids, etc. (
  • Aberrant glycosylation in tumors and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. (
  • The author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its analogues as single stereoisomers in every glycosylation step, producing good yields and stereoselectivity. (
  • Epithelial cancer cells exhibit increased cell surface expression of mucin-type antigens with aberrant O-glycosylation. (
  • It is reported that abnormal glycosylation is correlated with the tumor cell growth. (
  • Aberrant glycosylation in ∼90% of adenocarcinomas reveals the Tn and T antigens ( 18 ) and allows tumor-associated MUC1 glycopeptides carrying these core glycans to be processed by antigen-presenting cells (APC) and presented on class I and class II MHC, making them targets for T-cell recognition and antitumor immunity ( 19 - 21 ). (
  • Hakomori, S. I. (1989): Aberrant glycosylation in tumors and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. (
  • In human tumors, glycoproteins often exhibit abnormal glycosylation patterns, e.g. certain Lewis structures, TF antigen, Tn antigen and/or their sialylated forms, creating additional binding sites for glycoreceptors. (
  • In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic molecule, creating structures such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. (
  • From the data presented here indicating the importance of carbohydrate structures for monocyte activation we conclude that altered glycosylation of cell surface molecules of tumour cells might be responsible for tumour cell-induced monocyte stimulation. (
  • Among TACAs that mediate cell survival signals are the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY) and the ganglioside GD2. (
  • Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs) mediate important signaling effects that underlie their role in tumor biology. (
  • We have developed and are clinically testing a cancer vaccine that targets tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs), using a carbohydrate-mimicking peptide (CMP) as an immunogen ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are promising therapeutic targets. (
  • Thus, targeting TACAs has the potential to broaden the spectrum of antigens recognized by the immune response, thereby lowering the risk of developing resistant tumors due to the loss of a given protein antigen. (
  • TACAs represent unique cancer-selective targets that are present in the majority of solid tumors including ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, colon, gastric and breast, and are exploited by tumor cells to suppress innate immune function, enable tissue invasion and metastasis, resist chemotherapy and promote a stem-cell phenotype. (
  • TACAs are an exciting cancer target class due to their cancer specificity, association with a chemoresistant phenotype, and ability to suppress immune function in the region of solid tumors. (
  • TNM: Tumor-node-metastasis. (
  • Several reports suggested that abnormal expression of LeY was associated with tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug resistance ( 10 - 13 ). (
  • Coagulation and fibrinolysis activation is frequently observed in cancer patients, and the tumors in these cases are thought to be associated with a higher risk of invasion, metastasis, and worse long-term outcome. (
  • Although the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) staging system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is the most widely used system, there is no worldwide consensus on the optimal system or marker for preoperatively predicting the prognosis of patients with GBC. (
  • When there is a late tumor stage, loaded tumor, or tumor metastasis, there will be increased CEA. (
  • To investigate the mechanisms underlying cell surface carbohydrate-dependent cancer metastasis, we developed a 7-mer peptide, designated as I-peptide, which is capable of inhibiting FUT3-transfected B16 cell colonization of lung in the mouse. (
  • Borsig L, Wong R, Hynes RO, Varki NM, Varki A (2002) Synergistic effects of L- and P-selectin in facilitating tumor metastasis can involve non-mucin ligands and implicate leukocytes as enhancers of metastasis. (
  • Our study reveals that tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis is significantly associated with increased lymphatic metastasis, recurrence of the tumor, and reduced overall survival in patients with ICC, thus providing guidance when estimating postresection prognosis. (
  • The cascade of events leading to tumor metastasis is marked by the alternate adhesion and release of the tumor cell with a variety of surrounding cell types. (
  • Biological Modulation by Lectins and Their Ligands in Tumor Progression and Metastasis. (
  • To this end we utilize a well-established in vivo experimental system in which primary tumors collected from ovarian and endometrial cancer patients at the time of initial surgery are grown in NOD/SCID mice. (
  • Increased presence of Sialyl-Thomsen-nouveau antigen (STn), a TACA, correlates with worsened outcome and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer (OvCa). (
  • 3) ovarian tumors with primitive neuroectodermal components for postmenopausal women are extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. (
  • LeY is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) and its abnormal expression is frequently found in various cancers, such as breast, pancreas, gastric, ovarian and skin cancers ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • Elevated levels are seen in association with epithelial ovarian carcinomas, particularly nonmucinous tumors, as well as with some other malignancies, various benign pelvic disorders, tuberculosis, and cirrhosis. (
  • 3 Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) The most important clinical significance of CA125 is to reflect the ovarian cancer, with positive rate of 61.4%, and CA125 is a good indicator of the treatment efficacy and recurrence of ovarian cancer. (
  • The company's lead program, ST1, targets Sialyl-Tn (STn), a tumor specific antigen seen in multiple solid tumors, including ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate and colon cancers. (
  • Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum) to determine MCA (i.e., mucinlike carcinoma-associated antigen), a carbohydrate-related tumor marker. (
  • Serum amylase and/or lipase levels are elevated in less than half of patients with resectable pancreatic cancers and are elevated in only one quarter of patients with unresectable tumors. (
  • In this report, we describe the characterization of a carbohydrate antigen array and assay for profiling human serum. (
  • In recent years, carbohydrate arrays have seen applications in comparative human serum profiling. (
  • On the other hand, O group individuals lack both the A and the B antigen and thus have both anti-A and anti-B in their serum. (
  • However, only a small set of breast tumor-associated antigens have been identified and their use in noninvasive breast cancer screening has been surprisingly limited ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • The detection of the tumor marker CA 50 is mostly in diagnosis and monitoring of colorectal and pancreatic carcinomas. (
  • We observed high reactivity with CHO-131 mAb in approximately 70% of colorectal carcinomas and 87% of metastatic liver tumors but a lack of reactivity in colorectal adenomas and normal colonic and liver tissues. (
  • Lymphocyte subset infiltration patterns and HLA antigen status in colorectal carcinomas and adenomas. (
  • Malignancies of the digestive system have received special attention in this regard, especially since 1965, when Gold and Freedman (3) identified a tumor-specific glycoprotein antigen in human colonic carcinomas. (
  • Thus, carcinomas have antigens recognized as foreign by the patients' immune system. (
  • Used to detect tumors that mark cancers of the liver, testes, and ovaries. (
  • O -Acetyl-GD2, the O -acetylated-derivative of GD2, has recently received attention as novel antigen to target GD2-positive cancers. (
  • More recently, the study was extended to cutaneous melanomas and their metastases [ 12 ] and to epithelial tumors of the digestive system [ 13 ]. (
  • Multifocal staining for neuron specific enolase (NSE) and mesothelin and focal high molecular weight (HMW)+low molecular weight cytokeratin (CK), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), synaptophysin (SYNP), WT1 positivity was detected (Figure 1, 2). (
  • CEA is synthesized by epithelial and tumor cells. (
  • Three murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV)-producing epithelial cell lines derived from murine mammary tumors were examined in order to identify the MuMTV-specific cell surface antigens and their distribution on the cell surface, to study the kinetics of the MuMTV envelope precursor processing, virus assembly, and release, and to characterize the soluble MuMTV antigens that are shed into culture medium. (
  • To induce sustained immunity against both LeY and GD2, we developed a carbohydrate mimicking peptide (CMP) as a surrogate pan-immunogen that mimics both. (
  • Given the involvement of DNA methylation in the development of lymphocytes, tumorigenicity and tumor progression, we aimed to analyze pre-vaccination DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from breast cancer subjects vaccinated with a novel peptide-based vaccine referred to as P10s-PADRE. (
  • Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate-peptide mimicry. (
  • MUC1 VNTR peptide-specific CD8 + CTL are found in patients with MUC1 + tumors, indicating that an immune response can be generated against them ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • I-peptide inhibited lung colonization of FUT3-B16 cells in E-/P-selectin doubly deficient mutant mice, suggesting the existence of an as yet unidentified carbohydrate-binding endothelial receptor distinct from E-/P-selectins. (
  • Fukuda MN, Ohyama C, Lowitz K, Matsuo O, Pasqualini R, Ruoslahti E, Fukuda M (2000) A peptide mimic of E-selectin ligand inhibits sialyl Lewis X-dependent lung colonization of tumor cells. (
  • The peptide is derived from a pathogenic agent or a tumour antigen. (
  • The present study is to investigate the clinical utility of tumor marker cutoff ratio (TMR) and develop a TMR combination scoring system based on preoperative tumor marker (TM) levels to prognosis prediction in gastric cancer . (
  • Early detection and timely therapy would be facilitated by the identification and utilization of breast cancer-associated antigens in clinical testing of NAF. (
  • Our work to date provides evidence to suggest the clinical course of the primary tumor mimics the behavior and responses we have seen in our explants further supporting the potential clinical utility of our xenograft model. (
  • Immunotype and immunohistologic characteristics of tumor-infiltrating immune cells are associated with clinical outcome in metastatic melanoma. (
  • A 50-gene signature is a novel scoring system for tumor-infiltrating immune cells with strong correlation with clinical outcome of stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer. (
  • 4 Carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) CA15-3 has great clinical significance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. (
  • 6 Carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242) The clinical application of CA242 is relatively less, and it is significantly increased in adenocarcinoma, while in non-squamous tissue the level of CA242 is higher than that of squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • Furthermore the potential to pharmacologically impede tumor growth by administration of an agent that interrupts a specific PTM driving oncogenic progression has been the basis of numerous clinical trials currently underway. (
  • In addition, some of these tumor cell glycans are TACA's that are recognized as non-self by the immune system and have thus been used as components in vaccine constructs that are in clinical trials. (
  • The appearance of breast tumour and its progression poses great clinical unpredictability before and after diagnosis, therapy and appearance of recurrent secondary deposits. (
  • Both basic and clinical research rely heavily on identifying and monitoring expression levels of carbohydrates. (
  • 51.9% of [Coley's] patients with inoperable soft-tissue sarcomas showed complete tumour regression and survived for more than 5 years, and 21.2% of the patients had no clinical evidence of tumour at least 20 years after this treatment…" Immunotherapies can be categorized as active or passive. (
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  • He then introduces the conjugation of the synthetic RM2 antigen to the carrier protein CRM197 in an average number of 1-10 to create the prostate cancer vaccine candidate, which is combined with a-galactosylceramide C1, its analogue C34, or Alu. (
  • Among the most challenging of antigen targets for vaccine design are glycans ( 1 ). (
  • Immune response to the hepatitis B antigen in the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine, and co-administration with pneumococcal conjugate and rotavirus vaccines in African children: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • Dr Barchi's career at the NCI has spanned a wide breadth of drug discovery efforts, including the synthesis of PKC and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the development of glycopeptide antigens as vaccine candidates against HIV and cancer, as well as the discovery of several glycopeptide-analogues of Antiproliferative Factor (APF), a negative growth factor isolated from patients with interstitial cystitis. (
  • In addition, our group developed an hybrid gold nanoparticle that can act as a vaccine delivery system for tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens. (
  • The composition is particularly intended for use as a vaccine, e.g. as a tumour vaccine. (
  • In cancer vaccines, the goal is to generate an immune response to these antigens through a vaccine. (
  • The interaction between tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (OX40) on T cells and the OX40 ligand (OX40L) on antigen‑presenting cells (APCs) is a pivotal step for T‑cell activation and the promotion of antitumor immunity. (
  • Specialized carbohydrates modified with sialyl Lewis x (sLex) antigens on leukocyte membranes are ligands for selectin adhesion molecules on activated vascular endothelial cells at inflammatory sites. (
  • The ultimate criterion that establishes whether or not cells have been transformed, however, is their ability to form a tumor in an appropriate host animal. (
  • Some of these characteristics may be seen both in transformed cells in culture and in tumors growing in vivo in experimental animals or patients. (
  • Recent data show that B cells and plasma cells located in tumours or in tumour-draining lymph nodes can have important roles in shaping antitumour immune responses. (
  • In tumour-associated tertiary lymphoid structures, T cells and B cells interact and undergo cooperative selection, specialization and clonal expansion. (
  • Importantly, B cells can present cognate tumour-derived antigens to T cells, with the functional consequences of such interactions being shaped by the B cell phenotype. (
  • They are ubiquitous in nature and can be considered as one of the unique antigens expressed across pathogens and cancer cells. (
  • The tumor was characterized by a proliferation of small, round, primitive cells with a diffuse growth pattern. (
  • The tumor cells were also positive for p53. (
  • Furthermore, after immunization, the BALB/c mice were transplanted s.c. with Meth-A/CEA tumor cells. (
  • Furthermore, when MAM-immunized mice were transplanted s.c. with Meth-A/CEA cells expressing human CEA, a suppressed tumor growth was observed. (
  • In contrast to this perception, tumor cells are generally well tolerated by the immune system and elicit only weak and ineffective immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • On normal cells, these core carbohydrates are further glycosylated to form complex oligosaccharides and thus are not exposed. (
  • TnMUC1-specific RFT CD4 T cells, however, respond equally well in WT and MUC1-Tg mice, thereby mimicking the behavior of OTII CD4 T cells specific for the foreign antigen ovalbumin (ova). (
  • The human immunodeficiency virus binds to this antigen and infects and kills T cells bearing this antigen, thus gradually destroying the body's ability to resist infection. (
  • class II a's major histocompatibility antigens found only on immunocompetent cells, primarily B lymphocytes and macrophages. (
  • Expression and disposition of the murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) envelope gene products by murine mammary tumor cells. (
  • In particular, in the elimination phase, cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses may eradicate the developing tumor and protect the host from tumor formation. (
  • If the elimination process is not successful, the tumor cells may enter the equilibrium phase and be immunologically shaped by immune "editors" to produce new populations of tumor variants. (
  • CD4 + Th1 and CD8 + T cells) immune systems, whose final goal is to kill the antigen-bearing tumor cells. (
  • RATIONALE: Vaccines may make the body build an immune response to kill tumor cells. (
  • Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from. (
  • Hatakeyama S, Sugihara K, Nakayama J, Akama TO, Wong SM, Kawashima H, Zhang J, Smith DF, Ohyama C, Fukuda M et al (2009) Identification of mRNA splicing factors as the endothelial receptor for carbohydrate-dependent lung colonization of cancer cells. (
  • Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. (
  • Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. (
  • Vaccines that facilitate antigen entry into dendritic cells. (
  • Most patients distinguish their carcinoma from all other cells, as shown by strong autoimmune responses to T antigen. (
  • During oncogenesis, the cell-surface glycans on tumor cells are transformed relative to the normal phenotype through modified expression of the enzymes involved in the cell's glycoprocessing machinery. (
  • The binding between tumors and other cell types is often mediated by carbohydrate-protein (lectin) interactions involving the aberrant glycans expressed on tumor cells. (
  • In addition, APF inhibits proliferation of bladder carcinoma and many other solid tumor cells at similar concentrations. (
  • In cell-mediated therapies like CAR-T cell therapy, immune cells are extracted from the patient, genetically engineered to recognize tumor specific antigens, and returned to the patient. (
  • Dendritic cell therapy provokes anti-tumor responses by causing dendritic cells to present tumor antigens to lymphocytes, which activates them, priming them to kill other cells that present the antigen. (
  • Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. (
  • Pancreatic cancer shows a highly aggressive and infiltrative growth pattern and is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma known to interact with the cancer cells, and to influence tumor growth and drug resistance. (
  • Tumor cells are known to activate monocytes/macrophages and it has been shown that this stimulation was conferred by tumour-cell membranes. (
  • In order to analyse the relevant structures for tumor cell-specific TNF-induction monocytes from healthy donors were cultured in the presence of plasma membrane preparations from Jurkat or K562 cells. (
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (
  • In the present study, we have analyzed the carbohydrate specificity of the. (
  • 480012 - This is a lab test for Alpha-Fetoprotein tumor marker. (
  • Tissue Antigens. (
  • To be sure of a pancreatic cancer diagnosis, your doctors must get information from imaging tests and tumor tissue samples. (
  • The only way for your doctor to know if a mass or tumor is cancer is to get a tissue sample, called a biopsy . (
  • After getting a tumor tissue sample, your doctor may run tests to understand your tumor's biological details. (
  • This type of tumor is broadly divided into two groups, homologous and heterologous, depending on the characteristics of the stroma or mesenchymal components of endometrial tissue. (
  • At the time of PDAC diagnosis, miRNA levels are altered both in plasma and tumour tissue. (
  • Remarkably, the vast majority of these strategies have focused on protein antigens and recently mAbs recognizing cell surface gangliosides have recently proven to be effective for cancer therapeutic targets [ 1 ]. (
  • There is a growing list of tumor-associated fetal substances that show diagnostic promise and may in time have immunotherapeutic and prophylactic value (1, 2). (
  • Not all pancreatic tumors release these substances, and other cancer types and illnesses can also release them. (
  • The variables identified as the main predictors of 1-year mortality were presence of residual tumor, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System risk score, pathologic tumor staging, Charlson Comorbidity Index, intraoperative complications, adjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence of tumor. (
  • The highest levels of this antigen are most commonly seen in people with advanced pancreatic cancer. (
  • Development of clickable monophosphoryl lipid As towards semi-synthetic conjugates with tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. (
  • We have coated the TF antigen to gold surfaces and Quantum Dots (QDs) in a variety of different presentations (simple linked TF, TF-amino acid conjugates and larger TF-containing glycopeptides) and showed that some of these construct have very interesting biological functions. (
  • Using CHO-131 mAb, we investigated whether C2-O-sLex was present in 113 human primary colorectal adenocarcinomas, 10 colorectal adenomas, 46 metastatic liver tumors, 28 normal colorectal tissues, and 5 normal liver tissues by immunohistochemistry. (
  • The most intense staining with CHO-131 mAb was observed at the advancing edge of tumors with the deepest invasive components.Finally, we analyzed C2GnT1 mRNA levels in 37 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 5 normal colorectal tissues by RT-PCR. (
  • C2-O-sLex, detected by the CHO-131 mAb, is a tumor associated antigen whose expression is highly upregulated in colorectal adenocarcinomas and metastatic liver tumors compared to normal tissues. (
  • Blood samples will be collected both before and after surgery (during the follow-up period), while matching tumor tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues will be collected during surgery. (
  • However, studies in transgenic and knockout mice indicate that antitumor immunity may be hindered by central and/or peripheral self-tolerance through self-tumor antigen expressed on normal tissues ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) a glycoprotein antigen found in normal adult tissues such as the epithelium of the fallopian tubes, the endometrium, the endocervix, the pleura, and the peritoneum. (
  • Forssman antigen a heterogenetic antigen discovered in guinea pig tissues, capable of lysing sheep erythrocytes in the presence of complement. (
  • An efficient synthesis of a derivative of monophosphoryl lipid A suitable for coupling to various structures for the construction of glycoconjugate vaccines and its conjugation with an N-modified form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3 is presented. (
  • Development of cancer vaccines from fully synthetic mucin-based glycopeptide antigens. (
  • However, while vaccines have proven to be effective in combating pathogenic microorganisms, based on the immune recognition of these foreign antigens, vaccines aimed at inducing effective antitumor activity are still unsatisfactory. (
  • This review aims to describe the vast spectrum of tumor antigens and strategies to develop cancer vaccines. (
  • In this context, considering the disappointing results up to now, the quest for specific and selective tumor antigens for developing tumor-specific cancer vaccines, optimal delivery systems (i.e., dendritic cell [DC]-based vaccines), adjuvants, and strategies to overcome immune tolerance and regulatory T (Treg) cell responses is the main goal for several research groups and leading health care companies. (
  • Since the large proportion of BC is due to over-expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), multi-epitope cancer vaccines are considered as a promising therapeutic approach. (
  • We found that Rg3 did not only inhibit A375 melanoma cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, but also decreased the expression of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic product Lewis Y (LeY), a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA). (
  • This book covers broad topics in carbohydrate including quality carbohydrates on the prevention and therapy of noncommunicable diseases, lactate, and glycolysis, as biomass in biofuel production, targets for cancer treatment and as biomaterial. (
  • These provide potential targets for eliciting tumor immunity without the risk of autoimmunity that is associated with breaking tolerance to self ( 5 ). (
  • Progress toward understanding the biological roles of carbohydrates has been remarkably slow, and efforts to exploit this class of biopolymers as diagnostic and therapeutic targets have proven extremely challenging. (
  • tumor marker for certain malignancies. (
  • Tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis is considered significant in number of solid malignancies. (
  • 140293 - Quantitative measurement of Cancer Antigen 27.29. (
  • As indicated by previous studies ( 15 , 17 ), mimotopes have the advantage to imitate antigenic structures without being identical, indicating that they may be ideal antigen surrogates in tumor immunology able to break tolerance toward self. (
  • C2GnT1 is essential for the synthesis of core 2-branched O-linked carbohydrates terminated with sLex (C2-O-sLex). (
  • The synthesis of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, including LeY, is controlled by the specific glycosyltransferases. (
  • We have developed a new synthesis of this antigen that is equipped with a chemically-defined specific linker to attach to macromolecules or other surfaces. (
  • The Thomsen-Freidenreich (TF) and Tn antigens are aberrantly glycosylated carbohydrate cancer-associated antigens found in ∼80% of adenocarcinomas. (
  • Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. (
  • Our goal is to optimize these various nanoconstructs to enhance a glycopeptide-specific immune response that will be specific for distinct tumors bearing these antigens. (
  • Significant improvements may result from the selection of the appropriate tumor-specific target antigen (to overcome the peripheral immune tolerance) and/or the development of immunization strategies effective at inducing a protective immune response. (
  • There is not one specific blood test that can find or diagnose pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) . (
  • According to several reported X-ray structures, installing oxygenated amino acids in specific regions of the receptor capable of displacing the bridging water molecule to the bulk-solvent may facilitate the molecular recognition of the Tn antigen with threonine. (
  • A sensitive and specific antigen capture immunoassay for TF and Tn detection in NAF was developed for this purpose. (
  • Demonstration at tumor specific antigens in human colonic carcinomata by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. (
  • However, on antigen-specific stimulation, their proliferation in MUC1-Tg mice was attenuated compared with proliferation in WT mice. (
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein produced exclusively in the prostate gland. (
  • 7 Prostate specific antigen (PSA) PSA is the most specific indicators of the prostate, the positive rate can be as high as 50% to 80%, but in prostate hyperplasia, prostatitis, kidney and urogenital diseases, PSA can also be seen increased. (
  • Assess postimmunization changes in prostate specific antigen levels and other objective parameters of disease in these patients. (
  • Each one of these approaches holds promise, but their generalized success has been impaired by the paucity of specific tumor antigens resulting in suboptimal tumor efficacy and unpredictable side effects. (
  • The detection of the tumor marker MCA is mostly used in monitoring therapy and disease progression in metastatic breast cancer and not to diagnose primary breast cancer. (
  • The role of the immune system in tumor containment and/or "rejection" has been studied for decades, showing the possibility of inducing an immune response able to reject an experimentally transplanted tumor. (
  • Predictive value of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen activation for Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and severity in pediatric lobar pneumonia. (
  • Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TA) is present on erythrocytes, platelets and glomeruli, and it can be activated du. (
  • Preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels was associated with tumor progression and may be an independent marker of poor prognosis in GBC patients. (
  • However, information regarding the role of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in progression and prognosis of ICC remains poor. (
  • ST1 is in late-stage preclinical studies for the treatment of solid tumors. (
  • Mechanism Targeted to solid tumors (e.g. , and ) Bind extracellular s and receptor binding sites IV. (
  • CA19-9 is the common term for carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a. (