The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Glucose in blood.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)

The distribution of ganglioside-like moieties in peripheral nerves. (1/692)

GM1 ganglioside has been implicated as a target of immune attack in some diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies are associated with certain acquired immune-mediated neuropathies. It is not clear how anti-GM1 antibodies cause nerve dysfunction and injury; however, sodium and/or potassium ion channel dysfunction at the node of Ranvier has been implicated. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, we examined the distribution of GM1 ganglioside and Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties in nerve fibres and their relationship to voltage-gated sodium and potassium (Kv1.1, 1.5) channels at the nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves from human, rat and dystrophic mice. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties were localized via the binding of cholera toxin and peanut agglutinin. As a control for the specificity of these findings, we compared the distribution of GM1 moieties to that of the ganglioside GT1b. Our study provides definitive evidence for the presence of Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc bearing moieties on the axolemmal surface of mature myelinated fibres and on Schwann cells. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc binding sites did not have an obligatory co-localization with voltage-gated sodium channels or the potassium ion channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.5 and are thus not likely carried by these ion channels. In contrast with Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc, GT1b-like moieties are restricted to the axolemma.  (+info)

A fully synthetic immunogen carrying a carcinoma-associated carbohydrate for active specific immunotherapy. (2/692)

Aberrant glycosylation of mucins leads to the exposure of cryptic carbohydrate antigens at the surface of carcinoma cells, which, therefore, represent potent targets for anticancer therapeutic vaccines. To date, the development of immunogens to stimulate immune response to such saccharidic antigens is based on carbohydrate conjugation to carrier proteins. However, these traditional protein conjugates are poorly defined in chemical composition and structure. As an alternative, we synthesized a multiple antigenic O-linked glycopeptide (MAG) carrying the carbohydrate Tn antigen associated with a CD4+ T-cell epitope (MAG:Tn-PV). This fully synthetic immunogen is highly defined in composition and carries a high saccharidic epitope ratio over the entire molecule. The MAG:Tn-PV was able to induce anti-Tn IgG antibodies that recognize human tumor cell lines. A therapeutic immunization protocol performed with this fully synthetic immunogen increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, the accurately defined and versatile MAG system represents an efficient strategy to induce carbohydrate-specific antitumor immune responses but may also be applicable to the prevention of infectious diseases, if it is based on bacterial oligosaccharides.  (+info)

T and Tk antigen activation in necrotising enterocolitis: manifestations, severity of illness, and effectiveness of testing. (3/692)

AIMS: To determine if T or Tk antigen activation is associated with different and more severe manifestations of illness in infants with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); and if a policy of testing infants with suspected sepsis or NEC for T and Tk antigen activation is effective. METHODS: A case-control study of infants with confirmed NEC, born after the introduction of screening, was undertaken:17 activated infants were compared with 28 non-activated controls, matched for gestation and weight. A historical control study compared the outcome of infants before and after the introduction of testing. RESULTS: Of 201 infants with confirmed NEC, 27 were T or Tk antigen activated-10 (9%) before and 17 (19%) after the introduction of testing. T or Tk antigen activated infants had a significantly higher mortality (35% vs 7%); more frequent (71% vs 21%) and severe haemolysis, hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, acidosis; and they received more colloid for resuscitation. While only known activated infants in both time periods were managed with the use of low titre T antibody blood products, there was a significant increase in mortality (odds ratios 2.6; 95% CI 1.2, 5.6) and incidence of surgery (OR 2.7; 1.5, 4.9) after the introduction of testing. The increased mortality (OR 2.6; 0.8, 5.2) and incidence of surgery (OR 1.8; 0.9, 3.7) were no longer significant after adjustment for several perinatal risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective case-control study, routine testing of at risk infants increased the detection rate of T and Tk antigen activation. The use of low titre T plasma products in these patients did not reduce mortality compared with historical controls. A randomised controlled trial of testing in at risk infants, or of the use of low titre T plasma products in babies with NEC and T activation, is warranted.  (+info)

Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of CA27.29 and CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. (4/692)

BACKGROUND: A new, fully automated method that measures the breast cancer-associated glycoprotein CA27.29 has become commercially available. The aim of the present study was to compare this CA27.29 assay with the assay that measures CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively on preoperative serum samples collected from 275 patients with untreated primary breast cancer (154 node positive and 121 node negative). Eighty-three healthy control subjects were also evaluated. CA27.29 was measured using the fully automated Chiron Diagnostics immunochemiluminescent system (ACS:180 BR). CA15.3 was measured with a manual immunoradiometric method (Centocor CA15.3 RIA). RESULTS: In healthy subjects, CA15.3 was significantly higher than CA27.29 (P <0. 0001). On the other hand, in breast cancer patients CA27.29 was higher than CA15.3 (P = 0.013). The mean value found in the control group plus 2 SD was chosen as the positive/negative cutoff point. The overall positivity rates were 34.9% for CA27.29 and 22.5% for CA15.3. The area under the ROC curve was greater (P <0.001) for CA27. 29 (0.72) than for CA15.3 (0.61). Both markers showed a statistically significant, direct relationship, with pathological stage being higher in node-positive than in node-negative cases and in larger than in smaller tumors. Neither CA27.29 nor CA15.3 showed significant associations with age, menopausal status, or tumor receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: CA27.29 discriminates primary breast cancer from healthy subjects better than CA15.3, especially in patients with limited disease. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this conclusion.  (+info)

Identification of a human anti-CD55 single-chain Fv by subtractive panning of a phage library using tumor and nontumor cell lines. (5/692)

A large naive human single-chain (sc) Fv phage library was used to search for tumor-associated antigens by panning with a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, 1264, and counter-selecting with a nontumor bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. After three rounds of subtractive panning, 239 of 673 clones analyzed bound selectively to 1264 tumor cells in a phage ELISA. Diversity analysis of these tumor-selective clones by BstNI fingerprinting and nucleotide sequencing revealed 14 distinct scFv fragments. Four clones bound selectively to 1264 over BEAS-2B cells when analyzed by a more discriminating flow cytometric assay using scFv. Moreover, these clones showed only limited cross-reactivity to several primary human cell lines. One clone, LU30, also cross-reacted strongly with the lung adenocarcinoma line, A549. The LU30 antigen was identified as decay-accelerating factor (CD55) by expression cloning from a 1264 cDNA library. The mean number of decay-accelerating factor molecules on the surface of 1264 and BEAS cells used for panning and counter-selection was estimated as 75,000 +/- 5,000 and 13,000 +/- 10,000, respectively. Thus, phage library panning combined with expression cloning permits identification of antibodies and their cognate antigens for proteins that are differentially expressed on the surface of distinct cell populations.  (+info)

The cysteine-rich region of the Entamoeba histolytica adherence lectin (170-kilodalton subunit) is sufficient for high-affinity Gal/GalNAc-specific binding in vitro. (6/692)

Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to colonic mucin, epithelium, and other target cells is mediated by the amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. We constructed in vitro expression vectors containing full-length (residues 1 to 1280), cysteine-poor (1 to 353 and 1 to 480), and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143 and 480 to 900) fragments of the gene encoding the heavy subunit of the adherence lectin, hgl2. In vitro transcription followed by translation using a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysate system was carried out. Immunoreactivity of in vitro-translated Hgl2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with lectin-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 1G7 and 8A3, which recognize linear epitopes. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) refolding of Hgl2 enhanced immunoreactivity (P < 0.05) with the conformationally dependent MAb 3F4. Binding of PDI-refolded full-length (P < 0.001) and cysteine-rich (P = 0.005) Hgl2 to CHO cells was galactose dependent and competitively inhibited by native hololectin (50% inhibitory concentration of 39.6 ng/ml). The cysteine-poor region (1 to 353) did not bind CHO cells. Both full-length (1 to 1280) and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143) Hgl2 bound the glyconeoconjugate GalNAc(19)BSA in a GalNAc-specific manner. The smaller cysteine-rich fragment (480 to 900) also exhibited GalNAc-specific binding but to a lesser extent (P < 0.05) than residues 1 to 1280 and 356 to 1143. Neither the cysteine-poor fragment (1 to 480), luciferase (protein control), nor control translation reactions (without hgl2 lectin mRNA) bound GalNAc(19)BSA. Binding to GalNAc(19)BSA was shown to be dependent on the concentration of GalNAc(19)BSA coated in each well or (35)S-lectin added (K(D) = 0.85 +/- 0.37 pM). Binding was competitively inhibited by the terminal GalNAc-containing glycoprotein asialofetuin (P < 0.005). Taken together, these data provide direct evidence that the cysteine-rich region of the Gal/GalNAc lectin heavy subunit contains one or more carbohydrate-binding domains.  (+info)

Malignant Brenner tumors of the ovary and tumor markers: case reports. (7/692)

We investigated the tumor marker for malignant Brenner tumors, which had not been established because of the rarity and variable histological criteria. Representative areas of two cases of malignant Brenner tumor were investigated by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method using monoclonal antibody to CA125 and CA72-4 antigen and the streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex method using monoclonal antibody to SCC antigen. Based on clinical course and immunohistochemical studies, serum CA125 and CA72-4 for Case 1 and SCC and CA72-4 for Case 2 were appropriate tumor markers for the establishment of the extent of tumor burden before treatment and to monitor the response to therapy. The discrepancy of the tumor markers of the two present cases is considered to be a reflection of the difference in the malignant component of these cases. However, serum CA72-4 was an appropriate tumor marker for both malignant Brenner tumors.  (+info)

The value of CA 125 and CA72-4 in management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. (8/692)

The role of the tumor markers CA125 and CA72-4 has been evaluated in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer. Both markers were measured in 30 patients with proven epithelial ovarian cancer, 30 patients with benign pelvic masses and 30 normal women. CA125 and CA72-4 were measured using the luminometric immunoassay and immunoradiometric assay respectively. All patients with ovarian cancer were submitted to surgical staging and cytoreduction followed by adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy for 3-6 courses. Fixing the specificity at 95%, CA125 had a sensitivity of 76.7% at a cut-off 85 u/ml while CA72-4 had a sensitivity of 70% at a cut-off 8.5 u/ml. The combination of CA72-4 with CA125 increased the sensitivity to 95% while fixing the specificity at 95%. Among seven cases with stage I and II ovarian cancer five cases had CA125 level below 85 U/ml, three patients out of them had CA72-4 above 8.5 U/ml. CA 72-4 could reflect the residual disease following cytoreduction and could improve the detection of relapse by CA125. CONCLUSION: CA72-4 could complement the standard tumor marker CA125 both in diagnosis and follow up of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects
3554-90-3 - QCQYVCMYGCHVMR-AAZUGDAUSA-N - Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The Ca antigen, which can be detected in a wide range of malignant human tumours by means of the Cal antibody, is a glycoprotein of the mucin type. At least 95% of the carbohydrate is 0-glycosidically linked to the polypeptide which contains high proportions of glycine, serine and glutamic acid. The carbohydrate has a very simple structure: it is composed almost entirely of tetra- tri- and disaccharides having the general formula (NeuNac)n leads to [Gal leads to GalNac] alpha leads to, where n = 0, 1 or 2. In many malignant cell lines, the antigen is produced constitutively in vitro; but in one that has been examined, its synthesis can be induced by high concentrations of lactate. Evidence is presented for the view that a primary function of this glycoprotein is to shield the cells that produce it from hydrogen ion concentrations outside of the physiological range. The presence of the Ca antigen in malignant tumours may thus be a reflection of metabolic conditions that are known to be characteristics of
PURPOSE: Sialyl Tn (STn) antigen is a cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed in cancers of the digestive tract. We compared the proportion of specimens of flat-type colorectal cancers...
Carbohydrate antigens recognized by natural or preformed and elicited antibodies are central to transplantation/transfusion rejection across ABO blood group and species (xenotransplantation) barriers and are also promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy (Ramsland 2005). The key carbohydrate determinants (epitopes) recognized by antibodies are synthesized by a series of intracellular glycosyltransferases and are expressed on the surface of cells as glycolipids and glycoproteins. Often the minimal carbohydrate epitopes are located at the terminal end of more complex oligosaccharide chains, which result in these epitopes being displayed at a wide range of surface densities and contexts (e.g., glycolipids or glycoproteins). For example, many tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are broadly expressed at very high densities on the cell surface of primary and metastatic tumors, but the same carbohydrates occur at much lower levels and are typically restricted to a few cell types in healthy ...
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas including colon, stomach, and pancreatic cancers, has long been considered as an attractive target for active and passive vaccination. While progress in antibodies targeting tumor-associated protein antigens resulted in an impressive array of therapeutics for cancer treatment, similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the singular characteristics of these antigens. We have addressed this issue by analyzing antibodies derived from patients immunized with an sLeA/KLH vaccine. These antibodies were engineered to mediate tumor clearance in vivo in preclinical models through Fc-FcγR interactions. However, in contrast to protein antigens in which hFcγRIIIA engagement was both necessary and sufficient to mediate tumor clearance in both preclinical and clinical settings, a ...
Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular subtype of gastric cancer. In recent years, the clinical consequences of MSI and the therapeutic opportunities to target this peculiar cancer subtype became evident. However, despite the importance of MSI for the stratification of patients, the time and resources required for diagnosis still present an obstacle. In an attempt to identify a new marker for MSI in gastric cancer, we evaluated the expression of five cancer-associated glycan epitopes in a cohort of 13 MSI and 17 microsatellite stable (MSS) cases. Our analysis revealed a highly significant (p < 0.001) association between the expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen and MSI status. Hence, we present here the identification of the first single marker for MSI in gastric cancer, excelling with a specificity of 94% (16/17), sensitivity of 69.2% (9/13), negative predictive value of 80% (16/20), and positive predictive value of 90% (9/10). The TF antigen, detected by simple ...
Rahman, A F. and Longenecker, B M., A monoclonal antibody specific for the thomsen-friedenreich cryptic t antigen. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3746 ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9309422. Hybridoma 1997 Aug;16(4):317-24. We report here the first amino acid sequence of an anti-Tn monoclonal antibody raised against human breast cancer cells and show that a single chain Fv fragment of this IgM retains the Tn-binding specificity as defined by functional assays with asialo-OSM and membrane extracts from MCF-7 cells. Sequence comparisons and molecular modeling of 83D4 indicate that the antibody combining site displays a cavity-like feature primarily defined by the CDR H1 and H2 loops. This pocket could accommodate a single Tn molecule, thus, suggesting a structural explanation for the predominant expression of a particular VH gene segment in a group of antibodies that recognize tumor-associated antigens arising from an aberrant O-glycosylation.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9309422 ...
My laboratory, RPCI based for the first 9 years, and now at UB for the last 13 years, has had an emphasis on tumor associated carbohydrate antigens, and recently has been involved in 2 patent applications, Use of anti-TF antibody to block metastasis of TF- antigen bearing tumors (K R Olson, principle inventor of JAA-F11 monoclonal antibody), and Carbohydrate Antigen-Nanoparticle Conjugates and Methods for Inhibiting Metastasis in Cancer (K R Olson, co-inventor). Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag) is a tumor associated antigen that is exposed in many types of carcinoma cells including breast, prostate, colon, and bladder. My laboratory recently reported results from in vitro and in vivo studies that show the anti-metastatic effect of treatment with JAA-F11 antibody to TF- Ag on the mouse metastatic breast carcinoma 4T1 cells.. The anti-TF antibody metastasis work was just published in Neoplasia (vol 8 number 11) and is the featured article, with cover art. A portion of this work involved ...
Springer, G F. and Desai, P R., Cross-reacting carcinoma-associated antigens with blood group and precursor specificities. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2171 ...
Polyagglutination refers to red blood cells that agglutinate upon exposure to almost all human sera, but not to autologous serum or the sera of newborns. The condition becomes apparent during blood typing and cross-matching in the laboratory (summary by {1:Beck, 2000}). Tn polyagglutination syndrome is an acquired clonal disorder characterized by the polyagglutination of red blood cells by naturally occurring anti-Tn antibodies following exposure of the Tn antigen on the surface of erythrocytes. Only a subset of red cells express the antigen, which can also be expressed on platelets and leukocytes. This condition may occur in healthy individuals who manifest asymptomatic anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia; however, there is also an association between the Tn antigen and leukemia or myelodysplastic disorders. The Tn antigen is an incompletely glycosylated membrane glycoprotein with an exposed N-acetylgalactosamine residue. The Tn antigen results from inactivation of C1GALT1C1, which encodes ...
Activation of an aberrant glycosylation pathway in cancer cells can lead to expression of the onco-foetal sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen. STn is a truncated O-glycan containing a sialic acid α-2,6 linked to GalNAc α-O-Ser/Thr and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The biosynthesis of the sTn antigen has been linked to the expression of the sialytransferase ST6GalNAc1, and also to mutations in and loss of heterozygosity of the COSMC gene. sTn neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of epithelial cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, oesophageal, prostate and endometrial cancer. sTn is believed to be carried by a variety of glycoproteins and may influence protein function and be involved in tumour development. This review discusses how the role of sTn in cancer development and tumour cell invasiveness might be organ specific and occur through different mechanisms depending on each cancer type or subtype. As the sTn-antigen is expressed early in
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 blood test is ordered to monitor pancreatic, liver, gastrointestinal, and colorectal malignancies.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9) conversion to U/mL, kU/L . Online conversion calculator for many types of measurement units in laboratory and medicine CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9), CA 19-9, Cancer Antigen 19-9, Gastrointestinal Cancer Antigen.
Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer : This thesis focuses on the synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the prostate tumor- associated carbohydrate antigen RM2. The author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its analogues as single stereoisomers in every glycosylation step, producing good yields and stereoselectivity. He then introduces the conjugation of the
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
Cells possess Ca antigen as defined by the Ca1 antibody. The Ca antigen has been shown to be absent in non-malignant human cell strains and is considered to be a marker linked with malignancy. Island cell growth will degenerate if left more than 9 days between passages ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Glycosylation of proteins affects cell-cell interaction, interactions with the matrix, and the functions of intracellular molecules. ST6GALNAC1 transfers a sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), in an alpha-2,6 linkage to O-linked GalNAc residues. The cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is formed by ST6GALNAC1-catalyzed sialylation of GalNAc residues on mucins (Ikehara et al., 1999 [PubMed 10536037]; Sewell et al., 2006 [PubMed 16319059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Truncated sialylated O-glycans, such as cell-surface carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (STn) are overexpressed by several cancer types, but not by the respect
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Principal Investigator:IBAYASHI Yukihiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
This glycoprotein is a mucinous carbohydrate antigen product of the MUC1 gene expressed on various adenocarcinomas, especially breast. It is a high molecular weight (300-450 kDa) 1 polymor... ...
CA50, 0.5 mg. Cancer antigen 50 (CA50), a carcinoma associated carbohydrate antigen, has been found to be elevated in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer and other malignancies.
Mobil 1™ ESP 0W-40 is a fully synthetic engine oil designed to help provide exceptional cleaning power, wear protection and overall performance.
Authors: Ju, Tongzhong , Aryal, Rajindra P. , Kudelka, Matthew R. , Wang, Yingchun , Cummings, Richard D. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: The Tn antigen is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen that is not normally expressed in peripheral tissues or blood cells. Expression of this antigen, which is found in a majority of human carcinomas of all types, arises from a blockage in the normal O-glycosylation pathway in which glycans are extended from the common precursor GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen). This precursor is generated in the Golgi apparatus on newly synthesized glycoproteins by a family of polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcTs) and then extended to the common core 1 O-glycan Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (T antigen) by a single enzyme termed the T-synthase (core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase or C1GalT). Formation …of the active form of the T-synthase requires a unique molecular chaperone termed Cosmc, encoded by Cosmc on the X-chromosome (Xq24 in humans, ...
Using synthetic Tn (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) glycopeptide models and a biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we have determined that isolectin B4 from Vicia villosa (VVLB4) binds to one Tn determinant whereas the anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies 83D4 and MLS128 require at least two Tn residues for recognition. When an unglycosylated amino acid is introduced between the Tn residues, both antibodies do not bind. MLS128 affinity was higher on a glycopeptide with three consecutive Tn residues. These results indicate that Tn residues organized in clusters are essential for the binding of these antibodies and indicate a different Tn recognition pattern for VVLB4.
Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc), generally known as T-antigen, is expressed in more than 85% of human carcinomas. Therefore, proteins which specifically bind T-antigen have potential diagnostic value. Jacalin, a lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia ) seeds, is a tetramer of molecular mass 66 kDa. It is one of the very few proteins which are known to bind T-antigen. The crystal structure of the jacalin-T-antigen complex has been determined at 1.62 A° resolution. The interactions of the disaccharide at the binding site are predominantly through the GalNAc moiety, with Gal interacting only through water molecules. They include a hydrogen bond between the anomeric oxygen of GalNAc and the pie electrons of an aromatic side-chain. Several intermolecular interactions involving the bound carbohydrate contribute to the stability of the crystal structure. The present structure, along with that of the Me-alpha-Gal complex, provides a reasonable qualitative explanation for the ...
The CC-1065 and duocarmycin family of compounds are ultrapotent antitumour antibiotics which demonstrate activity in the picomolar range. These agents exert their biological effect through a sequence selective alkylation at the N3 position of adenine resulting in apoptosis. Despite the potential of this family to exert themselves as successful chemotherapeutic agents, a lack of clinical success has been observed for these compounds. This has been attributed to a lack of selectivity resulting in off-target side effects and toxicity. For this reason, research now focuses on ways in which these alkylating agents could realise their potential using tumour specific, targeted delivery strategies.. Herein, we investigate the use of a duocarmycin SA analogue, functionalised for solid phasesynthesis, in the design of conjugates for targeted delivery to cancerous tissue via the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen). This antigen is overexpressed in 90% of primary human carcinomas, yet is cryptic in ...
Carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood when it is shed by tumour cells. It is also found in trace amounts in the pancreas, liver, gall bladder and lungs of healthy adults.
O-Glycopeptide structural studies, specifically related to Tn antigen, have pointed to intramolecular interactions between the GalNAc and the peptide backbone via H-bonding. Although molecular mimics to Tn antigen have been the target of numerous synthetic and immunological studies, many have not considered the established conformational preferences. Initiatives for the development of improved mimetic design are proposed here. Specifically a metabolically robust C-linkage is designed, yet one with a pendant hydroxyl to maintain the key H-bonding network to properly orient the glycan with respect to the peptide. We herein propose to synthesize pure, robust mimics of Tn antigen, with conformational realism, as they may be presented from the backbone of biomedically relevant peptides (such as MUC1) and to compare these mimics with Tn antigen itself, by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations for clarification of the essential structural features necessary to maximize biological activity. The most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced self-association of mucins possessing the T and Tn carbohydrate cancer antigens at the single-molecule level. AU - Haugstad, Kristin E.. AU - Gerken, Thomas A.. AU - Stokke, Bjørn T.. AU - Dam, Tarun K.. AU - Brewer, C. Fred. AU - Sletmoen, Marit. PY - 2012/5/14. Y1 - 2012/5/14. N2 - Mucins are linear O-glycosylated glycoproteins involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, and tumorigenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often possess increased expression of the T (Galβ1,3GalNAcαThr/Ser) and Tn (GalNAcαThr/Ser) cancer antigens, which are diagnostic markers for several cancers, including colon cancer. We have used AFM based single-molecule forced unbinding under near physiological conditions to investigate the self-interactions between porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) as well as between PSM analogs possessing various carbohydrates including the T- and Tn-antigen. Distributions of unbinding forces and corresponding force loading rates were determined for force loading rates ...
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Fasting Required: No Specimen: Blood Results: 1-2 Business Days Description: Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 is used to monitor metastatic carcinoma of the...
The Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) disaccharide, galactose (Gal){beta}1- 3GalNAc{alpha}-, is a blood group-related oncofetal antigen with remarkable tumor specificity. Postpartum, carbohydrate structures on the cell walls of the gastrointestinal flora evoke natural antibodies of presumed TF specificity. These antibodies may provide an early barrier against TF-carrying tumor cells. Their possible role, however, has been difficult to assess, since so far only a multivalent immunosorbent, asialoglycophorin (aGP), has been employed for their preparation, and therefore their fine specificities have been only insufficiently defined. We have used a novel immunosorbent consisting of synthetic TF{alpha} disaccharides (Gal{beta}1-3GalNAc{alpha}-) coupled to polyacrylamide (PAA), which itself was covalently bound to cross-linked sepharose. For specificity analyses, aGP and a panel of PAA-conjugated mono- and oligosaccharides were employed. Binding to the PAA moiety was excluded. The affinity-purified ...
Wang, Yu et al Large Scale Identification of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Associated Antigens by Autoantibodies. The Journal of Immunology 169.2 (2002): 1102-1109. Web. 19 April. 2021. ...
TACAS (Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems) is a conference that focuses on the application of and tool support for various formal methods. It is one of the top ranked conferences for software engineering.[1] It was founded by Bernhard Steffen, Rance Cleaveland, Ed Brinksma, and Kim Larsen. The first TACAS was held in 1995 in Aarhus, Denmark followed by the conferences in 1996 in Passau, Germany and 1997 in Enschede, Netherlands. TACAS was one of the first five constituting conferences of ETAPS in 1998.[3] ...
download The JCT Minor Service at LAC is of more than 160,000 ions of anti-Tn and target, known in precise, diverse and patient-derived bodies. The cytotoxic carbohydrates annotated by Library and Archives Canada are increased for dangers and their alveoli from C5aR-mediated below to monocarboxylate and metabolic resection. generation of various buildings to The transcription Web to Life of a Rock Star, which requires the 27-kDa loricrin of Canada in an effective phosphate.
CA 19.9 is a circulating antigen associated with gastrointestinal cancer, especially the pancreas and colon. This is detected in the serum this ...
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Wilson, R.M., Warren, J.D., Ouerfelli, O., Danishefsky, S.J. 989 258-292
Syntheses and Immunological Evaluation of Self-Adjuvanting Clustered N-Acetyl and N-Propionyl Sialyl-Tn Combined with a T-helper Cell Epitope as Antitumor Vaccine Candidates, Tsung Che Chang, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yukari Fujimoto, Shino Ohshima, Yoshie Kametani, Kazuya Kabayama, Kazuya Kabayama, Yuka Nimura, Chun Cheng Lin, Koichi Fukase, Koichi Fukase, Angewandte Chemie - International Edition,57 8219-8224, 2018.07, Other. ...
Danish drugmaker Pharmexa says it plans to file for approval to start a second Phase III trial of its peptide anticancer vaccine GV1001 in pancreatic cancer within the next few weeks. - News - PharmaTimes
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[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/BXXXX/B-3501-2.pdf]Anti-Tn Salvia sclarea Lectin -SS
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 is a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who receive gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy. T2 - A pooled analysis of 6 prospective trials. AU - Bauer, Todd M.. AU - El-Rayes, Bassel F.. AU - Li, Xiaobai. AU - Hammad, Nazik. AU - Philip, Philip A.. AU - Shields, Anthony F.. AU - Zalupski, Mark M.. AU - Bekaii-Saab, Tanios. PY - 2013/1/15. Y1 - 2013/1/15. N2 - Background: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is a widely used biomarker in pancreatic cancer. There is no consensus on the interpretation of the change in CA19-9 serum levels and its role in the clinical management of patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Individual patient data from 6 prospective trials evaluating gemcitabine-containing regimens from 3 different institutions were pooled. CA19-9 values were obtained at baseline and after successive cycles of treatment. The objective of this study was to correlate a decline in CA19-9 with outcomes while ...
Application of 18F-FDG PET/CT combined with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 for differentiating pancreatic carcinoma from chronic mass-forming pancreatitis in Chinese elderly Xinjin Gu,1 Rong Liu2 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital and Hainan Branch, Sanya, 2Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgical Oncology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The current study was designed to analyze the value of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in differentiating pancreatic carcinoma (PC) from chronic mass-forming pancreatitis (CMFP) in Chinese elderly. Methods: As it is impossible to differentially diagnose PC from CMFP, 60 participants older than 65 years with focal pancreatic lesions were scanned by 18F-FDG PET/CT and their CA19-9 levels were tested. Diagnoses of all participants were
The World Health Organisation in 1997 recognised the need for the development of new drugs to combat the imminent threat of mass infection by multi-drug resistant strains of pathogenic micro-organisms that spread diseases such as tuberculosis (TB). With this in mind, the work covered in this thesis focused on the preparation of novel carbohydrate-based compounds as potential anti-bacterial agents, in particular targeted to mycobacterial infection. An essential cell wall structural component of various mycobacteria (including M. tuberculosis) is the galactofuranose (Galf) residue, which forms part of the polysaccharide connection between the mycolic acids and the peptidoglycan layer. Interference with the incorporation of Galf into this polysaccharide was expected to compromise the physical integrity of the bacterial cell wall leading to cell death. With minimal projected side-effects, owing to the lack of Galf residues in mammalian systems, hydrolytically-stable Galf analogues were selected as ...
Artur » Lista över publikationer » Tsuji-Wacker-Type Oxidation beyond Methyl Ketones: Reacting Unprotected Carbohydrate-Based Terminal Olefins through the Uemura System to Hemiketals and α,β-Unsaturated Diketones ...
Praxis Pharmaceuticals and Fairchild International Corporation had a joint development agreement covering the carbohydrate-based anti-inflammatories being
Alt. Names/Synonyms: ACSTD1; Adenocarcinoma-associated antigen; carcinoma-associated antigen GA733-2; Cell surface glycoprotein Trop-1; CO-17A; CO17-1A; DIAR5; EGP; EGP-2; EGP314; EGP34; EGP40; Ep-CAM; EPCAM; Epithelial cell adhesion molecule; Epithelial cell surface antigen; Epithelial glycoprotein; Epithelial glycoprotein 314; ESA; GA733-2; hEGP-2; hEGP314; HNPCC8; human epithelial glycoprotein-2; KS 1/4 antigen; KS1/4; KSA; M1S2; M4S1; Major gastrointestinal tumor-associated protein GA733-2; membrane component, chromosome 4, surface marker (35kD glycoprotein); MIC18; MK-1; TACST-1; TACSTD1; TROP1; Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1 ...
TACAS is a forum for researchers, developers and users interested in rigorously based tools and algorithms for the construction and analysis of systems. The conference serves to bridge the gaps between different communities that share common interests in, and techniques for, tool development and its algorithmic foundations. The research areas covered by such communities include but are not limited to formal methods, software and hardware verification, static analysis, programming languages, software engineering, real-time systems, communications protocols, and biological systems. The TACAS forum provides a venue for such communities at which common problems, heuristics, algorithms, data structures and methodologies can be discussed and explored. In doing so, TACAS aims to support researchers in their quest to improve the utility, reliability, flexibility and efficiency of tools and algorithms for building systems. Tool descriptions and case studies with a conceptual message, as well as ...
IMPFSTOFFE + VAKZINE (PHARMAZIE); OBERFLÄCHENANTIGENE (IMMUNOLOGIE); ORGANISCHE SYNTHESE (CHEMIE); PROTEIN-MIKROARRAY-TECHNOLOGIE (MOLEKULARGENETISCHE TECHNIKEN); VACCINES (PHARMACY); SURFACE ANTIGENS (IMMUNOLOGY); ORGANIC SYNTHESIS (CHEMISTRY); PROTEIN MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY (MOLECULAR GENETIC TECHNIQUES ...
The importance of a raised serum CA 125 concentration for subsequent diagnosis of disease other than ovarian cancer has not been well documented to date. Of the 767 volunteers with a serum CA 125 concentration ,/=30 U/ml, only 49 developed cancer of the ovary or fallopian tube. We have previously reported that on serial sampling, serum CA 125 concentrations in most individuals with initially raised concentrations fall to ,30 U/ml.14 A minority of postmenopausal women, however, have persistently raised concentrations. Not all of these women will develop ovarian cancer, and the cause of the raised concentration in those who do not is currently unclear. The volunteers with one or more serum CA 125 concentrations ,/=30 U/ml are therefore being followed up closely to establish whether raised concentration is associated with subsequent development of benign or malignant disease other than an index cancer. There is no doubt that raised serum CA 125 concentration occurs in the advanced clinically ...
Results. Rustin GJ, van der Burg ME, Griffin CL, Guthrie D, Lamont A, Jayson GC, Kristensen G, Mediola C, Coens C, Qian W, Parmar MK, Swart AM, , , Early versus delayed treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer (MRC OV05/EORTC 55955): a randomised trial., Lancet, 2010, 376, 9747, 1155-1163, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61268-8.. ...
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Certificates of Analysis are associated not only with a product, but also with a specific lot of that product. For a given product, there may be several Certificates of Analysis, especially if it is an older product line and has had several lots produced over the years. Using the Certificate of Analysis search tool, you can enter the catalog number and lot/control number for the specific product you have on hand and download the exact Certificate of Analysis you need.. ...
TAG72, 0.1 mg. Tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG) 72 is a tumor marker, identified and characterized using two different monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and CC49.
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Using a stepwise approach which combined genome-wide expression profiling and TaqMan real-time PCR, we could identify five new tumor markers for the monitoring of MRD in AML. In combination with WT1 and PRAME, these markers should allow a more sensitive and specific monitoring of MRD than WT1 or PRAME alone. Combining all seven markers, 28 patients (54%) expressed at least one gene at a level of ,100 units. In 18 patients (35%), the level of the strongest marker ranged between 10 and 100 units. In only six patients (11%) were all marker genes expressed at levels of ,10 units.. Prospective studies are needed to determine what level of overexpression of a gene is necessary for a clinically useful monitoring of MRD. In patients B, E, and G (Fig. 3), the pending relapse was indicated by genes that were expressed with ,100 units in the leukemic cells at the time of relapse. The total amount of RNA in leukemic cells is higher than in most healthy cells. Furthermore, the leukemic cells are enriched by ...
detects O-GlcNAc (ß-O-linked N- acetylglucosamine) and Thr-O-GlcNAc but shows no cross reactivity with peptide determinants or other closely-related carbohydrate antigens ...
Isolation and characterization of ovarian cancer antigen CA 125 using a new monoclonal antibody (VK-8): identification as a mucin-type molecule. (1997 ...
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We are a leading specialist in the design, synthesis and characterization of carbohydrate-based systems and stable isotope-labeled molecules.
We are a leading specialist in the design, synthesis and characterization of carbohydrate-based systems and stable isotope-labeled molecules.
Research Interest. We strive to exploit the power of synthetic small molecules for development of tools for glycomics/glycoproteomics, carbohydrate-based inhibitors, and synthetic oligosaccharide-based conjugate vaccines. Using chemical biology approaches we are investigating structure-function relationships of glycoforms of leukocyte antigens, engineering of glycans in central nervous system (CNS), and glycopeptidomimetics based anti-metastatic agents.. Group Members. Ms. Surbhi Goswami, Ms. Vandita Dwivedi, Ms. Pratima Saini, Ms. Ahana Addhya, Ms. Anam Tasneem, Mr. Shubham Parashar, and Ms. Charu Chauhan. Technical Support - Ms. Archana Ranjan, Mr. Mohd. Aslam, Mr. P. Rajkumar. Past Members - Dr. Kavita Agarwal, Dr. Asif Shajahan, Dr. Syed Meheboob Ahmed, Dr. Rachna Kaul, Ms. Monika Garg, Ms. Deepshikha Singh, Ms. Priti Singh, Ms. Hemaswasthi, Mr. Saroj Kumar Jha, Mr. Sebanta (Sanjay) Pokhrel, Mr. Arnob Nandi.. Summary of Research. We are interested in the investigation of the ...
Carbohydrate recognition is central to many, perhaps most, microbial infection events - bacterial, fungal, viral, parasite. We are working towards better understanding of these binding events so that we can exploit them in a diagnostic context or address them by intervention through diet, with small molecule therapeutics or carbohydrate-based vaccines. Translational aspects of this work is being taken on through our spin-out company, Iceni Diagnostics. ...
A dedicated glycoscience company, manufacturing glyco-enzymes and carbohydrate-based biochemicals for the glycobiology research community.
Glycoproteins are relevant as cell-surface receptors, cell-adhesion molecules, immunoglobulins, and tumor antigens.[12] ... Protein-Carbohydrate bonding is often mediated by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces.[citation needed] ... serves as a precursor for the A and B antigen.[7] Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen ... A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood type will have A, B, and H antigens ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer. However, it lacks sensitivity ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors *^ Tejani MA, Saif MW (2014). "Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Does chemotherapy work?". ... Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®) Incidence and Mortality "Archived copy". Archived from ... Cross section of a human liver, at autopsy, showing many large pale tumor deposits, that are secondary tumors derived from ...
... carbohydrates, or antigens. ... "Dendritic cell vaccines for brain tumors". Neurosurgery ... Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater action than the simple aqueous tetanus toxoid. People who have ... First, the antigen itself is generated. Viruses are grown either on primary cells such as chicken eggs (e.g., for influenza) or ...
Blood tests for tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA) may be ordered, as their ... Dysphagia suggests a tumour in the cardia or extension of the gastric tumour into the esophagus. ... If the mucus remains inside the tumour cell, it pushes the nucleus to the periphery: "signet-ring cell". ... The prognosis of stomach cancer is generally poor, due to the fact the tumour has often metastasised by the time of discovery ...
Examples of some of the most prostate specific proteins are enzymes, such as the prostate specific antigen (PSA), and the ACPP ... Tsukise, A.; Yamada, K. (1984). "Complex carbohydrates in the secretory epithelium of the goat prostate". The Histochemical ... a distinct tumor type with poor prognostic features". The Journal of Urology. 179 (5): 1762-7, discussion 1767. doi:10.1016/j. ... A Tumor Specific Urinary Biomarker for the Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 17 (5): 1090-8. doi: ...
... antigens[edit]. There are five (HNA 1-5) sets of neutrophil antigens recognized.[49] The three HNA-1 antigens (a-c) ... Neutrophils have a preference to engulf refined carbohydrates[16][17][18] (from ingested glucose, fructose, sucrose, honey and ... "The potential role of neutrophils in promoting the metastatic phenotype of tumors releasing interleukin-8". Clinical Cancer ... The HNA-3 antigen system has two antigens (3a and 3b) which are located on the seventh exon of the CLT2 gene (SLC44A2). The HNA ...
Pancreatic amylase breaks down some carbohydrates (notably starch) into oligosaccharides. Other carbohydrates pass undigested ... They are part of the lymphatic system, and provide a site for antigens from potentially harmful bacteria or other ... Metastatic tumors, especially SCLC or melanoma. *Developmental, congenital or genetic conditions *Duodenal (intestinal) atresia ... Some carbohydrates, such as cellulose, are not digested at all, despite being made of multiple glucose units. This is because ...
Generally, the carbohydrate portion of the glycolipids found on the surface of plasma membranes helps these molecules ... Shedding of the glycocalyx can be triggered by inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Whatever the stimulus ... since that would enable passage of some macromolecules or other harmful antigens.[9] ... Smart carbohydrate chemistry as a means to understand glycocalyx biology - Video by the Lindhorst group at Beilstein TV ...
Betton GR (1976). "Agglutination reactions of spontaneous canine tumour cells, induced by concanavalin a, demonstrated by an ... Goldstein IJ, Poretz RD (1986). "Isolation, physicochemical characterization, and carbohydrate-binding specificity of lectins ... "Concanavalin A receptors, immunoglobulins, and theta antigen of the lymphocyte surface. Interactions with concanavalin A and ... a erradicación do tumor no modelo de hepatoma murino in situ utilizado neste estudo foi atribuída adicionalmente á acción ...
... trafficking is carbohydrate independent. In an effort to localize the amino acid motif responsible for granule targeting, we ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1F, Tumor necrosis factor alpha. ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) ...
... which bind to lipids and carbohydrates in the epithelial cell membrane. One such adhesin, BabA, binds to the Lewis b antigen ... pyrene-induced stomach tumors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (11): 7610-5. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.7610F. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... The O antigen of LPS may be fucosylated and mimic Lewis blood group antigens found on the gastric epithelium.[16] The outer ... Noninvasive tests for H. pylori infection may be suitable and include blood antibody tests, stool antigen tests, or the carbon ...
Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene.[ ... carbohydrate binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • ... negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production. • cell-matrix adhesion. • cell proliferation. • positive regulation of ... In tumors, CD34 is found in alveolar soft part sarcoma, preB-ALL (positive in 75%), AML (40%), AML-M7 (most), ...
Within the first several months, carbohydrate and amino acid absorptive capacity should normalize, followed by the absorptive ... such as intraabdominal tumors that have not yet metastasized, extensive venous thrombosis or arterial ischemia of the mesentery ... T-lymphocytes are able to distinguish between self and non-self by recognizing human leukocyte antigens (HLA) bound to the ... tumors, and volvulus. Regardless of the underlying condition, the loss of intestinal function does not necessarily necessitate ...
A low-carbohydrate diet, exercise, and medications are useful in type 1 DM.[53] There are camps for children to teach them how ... Brentjens R, Saltz L (2001). "Islet cell tumors of the pancreas: the medical oncologist's perspective". Surgical Clinics of ... that suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens.[26 ... January 2015). "Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence ...
Tumor markers. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... saturated fat and carbohydrate intake and risk of prostate cancer.[83][84] Evidence regarding the role of omega-3 fatty acids ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor ...
ABC-type uptake permeases 3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A ... In addition to conferring MDR in tumor cells, ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they ... Gaudet R, Wiley DC (Sep 2001). "Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... Some of these exporters in humans are involved in tumor resistance, cystic fibrosis and a range of other inherited human ...
Tumor markersEdit. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[72] This protein ... saturated fat and carbohydrate intake and risk of prostate cancer.[80][81] Evidence regarding the role of omega-3 fatty acids ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor ...
Carbohydrates: Other compounds detected in the particles 3% carbohydrates.. Use as gene delivery vectors[edit]. Main article: ... Antigen determinants that possess type-specific reactivity are found on the envelope. Antigen determinants that possess type- ... Some groups have cross-reactive gag antigens (e.g., the ovine, caprine, and feline lentiviruses). Antibodies to gag antigens in ... Serological Relationships: Antigen determinants are type-specific and group-specific. ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... carbohydrate binding. • monocarboxylic acid transmembrane transporter activity. • cadherin binding. • protein binding involved ... 1995). "The human tumor cell-derived collagenase stimulatory factor (renamed EMMPRIN) is a member of the immunoglobulin ... 1998). "Characterization of the gene for human EMMPRIN, a tumor cell surface inducer of matrix metalloproteinases". Gene. 220 ( ...
sialyl Lewis X antigen on the surface of leukocytes.. H antigen of the ABO blood compatibility antigens. Other examples of ... Carbohydrates Can Be Attached to Proteins to Form Glycoproteins. *Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology: A Web Tour SPECIAL ... Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell adhesion lectins), antibodies Receptor Various proteins involved ... The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as ...
T stands for tumor stage and ranges from 0, no evidence of primary tumor, to T4 when the tumor penetrates the surface of the ... It has been suggested that the presence of antibodies to Streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus antigens or the antigens themselves ... "Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses". Lancet. 393 (10170): 434-445. doi ... including both tumor cells and how the tumor invades into healthy tissues and finally if the tumor appears to be completely ...
Secondary hypercortisolism (pituitary tumor resulting in Cushing's disease,[53][54] pseudo-Cushing's syndrome) ... Cortisol has wide-ranging effects, including alterations of carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism; catabolic effects on ... alpha by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T helper (Th)1 cells, but upregulates IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. This ... It inhibits production of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha, and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)- ...
Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, Gjoerup O, Moore PS, Chang Y. T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for ... the lipid membrane itself and any carbohydrates present originate entirely from the host. The influenza virus and HIV use this ... a b Temin HM, Baltimore D. RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 1972;17:129-86. doi: ... Cells such as the macrophage are specialists at this antigen presentation.[192] The production of interferon is an important ...
"Aggressive Breast Tumors Linked to Vitamin D Deficiency - News Room - University of Rochester Medical Center". Urmc.rochester. ... Calorie or carbohydrate restriction is an interesting subject (check out Michael Ristows work), but let's stick to discussion ... "The common Scandinavian human leucocyte antigen ancestral haplotype 62.1 as prognostic factor in patients with advanced ... Rochester Medical Center found that low vitamin D levels among women with breast cancer correlate with more aggressive tumors ...
This can be done by spreading carbohydrate intake over meals and snacks throughout the day, and using slow-release carbohydrate ... Multivariate stepwise regression analysis reveals that, in combination with other placental hormones, leptin, tumor necrosis ... islet cell antibodies and/or insulinoma antigen-2), women with more than two previous pregnancies, and women who were obese (in ... During the three previous days the subject must have an unrestricted diet (containing at least 150 g carbohydrate per day) and ...
Like velcro, carbohydrate ligands on the circulating leukocytes bind to selectin molecules on the inner wall of the vessel, ... and is independent of specific cellular antigens. Cytokines released in the initial immune response induce vasodilation and ... For example, the carbohydrate ligand for P-selectin, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), is expressed by different types ... Endothelial selectins bind carbohydrates on leukocyte transmembrane glycoproteins, including sialyl-LewisX. ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
Its activity in tumor metastasis has been probed by the addition of heparin that functions to blocks tumor metastasis. In ... carbohydrate binding. • sialic acid binding. • protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... it has been known that platelet facilitates tumor metastasis by forming complexes with tumor cells and leukocytes in the ...
... a pituitary tumour). This will lead to a fall in testosterone or oestrogen levels and infertility.[13][16] ... haematocrit and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If injections are used, trough levels are taken to ensure an adequate level of ... Carbohydrate metabolism: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. *Danon disease/ ...
Generally there is a large group, which recognizes and binds carbohydrates, so called carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) ... Another possible exploitation of PRRs in human medicine is also related to tumor malignancies of the intestines. Helicobacter ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ...