The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A genus of the family BRUCELLACEAE comprising obligately aerobic gram-negative rods with parallel sides and rounded ends.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
All tumors in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT arising from mesenchymal cells (MESODERM) except those of smooth muscle cells (LEIOMYOMA) or Schwann cells (SCHWANNOMA).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An antitrichomonal agent which is effective either topically or orally and whose urinary metabolites are also trichomonicidal.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Glucose in blood.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A rare but highly lethal childhood tumor found almost exclusively in infants. Histopathologically, it resembles RHABDOMYOSARCOMA but the tumor cells are not of myogenic origin. Although it arises primarily in the kidney, it may be found in other parts of the body. The rhabdoid cytomorphology is believed to be the expression of a very primitive malignant cell. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2210)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Tumors or cancer of the MAMMARY GLAND in animals (MAMMARY GLANDS, ANIMAL).
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A strong oxidizing agent.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.

The distribution of ganglioside-like moieties in peripheral nerves. (1/692)

GM1 ganglioside has been implicated as a target of immune attack in some diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Anti-GM1 ganglioside antibodies are associated with certain acquired immune-mediated neuropathies. It is not clear how anti-GM1 antibodies cause nerve dysfunction and injury; however, sodium and/or potassium ion channel dysfunction at the node of Ranvier has been implicated. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of these neuropathies, we examined the distribution of GM1 ganglioside and Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties in nerve fibres and their relationship to voltage-gated sodium and potassium (Kv1.1, 1.5) channels at the nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves from human, rat and dystrophic mice. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc moieties were localized via the binding of cholera toxin and peanut agglutinin. As a control for the specificity of these findings, we compared the distribution of GM1 moieties to that of the ganglioside GT1b. Our study provides definitive evidence for the presence of Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc bearing moieties on the axolemmal surface of mature myelinated fibres and on Schwann cells. Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc binding sites did not have an obligatory co-localization with voltage-gated sodium channels or the potassium ion channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.5 and are thus not likely carried by these ion channels. In contrast with Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc, GT1b-like moieties are restricted to the axolemma.  (+info)

A fully synthetic immunogen carrying a carcinoma-associated carbohydrate for active specific immunotherapy. (2/692)

Aberrant glycosylation of mucins leads to the exposure of cryptic carbohydrate antigens at the surface of carcinoma cells, which, therefore, represent potent targets for anticancer therapeutic vaccines. To date, the development of immunogens to stimulate immune response to such saccharidic antigens is based on carbohydrate conjugation to carrier proteins. However, these traditional protein conjugates are poorly defined in chemical composition and structure. As an alternative, we synthesized a multiple antigenic O-linked glycopeptide (MAG) carrying the carbohydrate Tn antigen associated with a CD4+ T-cell epitope (MAG:Tn-PV). This fully synthetic immunogen is highly defined in composition and carries a high saccharidic epitope ratio over the entire molecule. The MAG:Tn-PV was able to induce anti-Tn IgG antibodies that recognize human tumor cell lines. A therapeutic immunization protocol performed with this fully synthetic immunogen increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, the accurately defined and versatile MAG system represents an efficient strategy to induce carbohydrate-specific antitumor immune responses but may also be applicable to the prevention of infectious diseases, if it is based on bacterial oligosaccharides.  (+info)

T and Tk antigen activation in necrotising enterocolitis: manifestations, severity of illness, and effectiveness of testing. (3/692)

AIMS: To determine if T or Tk antigen activation is associated with different and more severe manifestations of illness in infants with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC); and if a policy of testing infants with suspected sepsis or NEC for T and Tk antigen activation is effective. METHODS: A case-control study of infants with confirmed NEC, born after the introduction of screening, was undertaken:17 activated infants were compared with 28 non-activated controls, matched for gestation and weight. A historical control study compared the outcome of infants before and after the introduction of testing. RESULTS: Of 201 infants with confirmed NEC, 27 were T or Tk antigen activated-10 (9%) before and 17 (19%) after the introduction of testing. T or Tk antigen activated infants had a significantly higher mortality (35% vs 7%); more frequent (71% vs 21%) and severe haemolysis, hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, acidosis; and they received more colloid for resuscitation. While only known activated infants in both time periods were managed with the use of low titre T antibody blood products, there was a significant increase in mortality (odds ratios 2.6; 95% CI 1.2, 5.6) and incidence of surgery (OR 2.7; 1.5, 4.9) after the introduction of testing. The increased mortality (OR 2.6; 0.8, 5.2) and incidence of surgery (OR 1.8; 0.9, 3.7) were no longer significant after adjustment for several perinatal risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective case-control study, routine testing of at risk infants increased the detection rate of T and Tk antigen activation. The use of low titre T plasma products in these patients did not reduce mortality compared with historical controls. A randomised controlled trial of testing in at risk infants, or of the use of low titre T plasma products in babies with NEC and T activation, is warranted.  (+info)

Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of CA27.29 and CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. (4/692)

BACKGROUND: A new, fully automated method that measures the breast cancer-associated glycoprotein CA27.29 has become commercially available. The aim of the present study was to compare this CA27.29 assay with the assay that measures CA15.3 in primary breast cancer. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively on preoperative serum samples collected from 275 patients with untreated primary breast cancer (154 node positive and 121 node negative). Eighty-three healthy control subjects were also evaluated. CA27.29 was measured using the fully automated Chiron Diagnostics immunochemiluminescent system (ACS:180 BR). CA15.3 was measured with a manual immunoradiometric method (Centocor CA15.3 RIA). RESULTS: In healthy subjects, CA15.3 was significantly higher than CA27.29 (P <0. 0001). On the other hand, in breast cancer patients CA27.29 was higher than CA15.3 (P = 0.013). The mean value found in the control group plus 2 SD was chosen as the positive/negative cutoff point. The overall positivity rates were 34.9% for CA27.29 and 22.5% for CA15.3. The area under the ROC curve was greater (P <0.001) for CA27. 29 (0.72) than for CA15.3 (0.61). Both markers showed a statistically significant, direct relationship, with pathological stage being higher in node-positive than in node-negative cases and in larger than in smaller tumors. Neither CA27.29 nor CA15.3 showed significant associations with age, menopausal status, or tumor receptor status. CONCLUSIONS: CA27.29 discriminates primary breast cancer from healthy subjects better than CA15.3, especially in patients with limited disease. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm this conclusion.  (+info)

Identification of a human anti-CD55 single-chain Fv by subtractive panning of a phage library using tumor and nontumor cell lines. (5/692)

A large naive human single-chain (sc) Fv phage library was used to search for tumor-associated antigens by panning with a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, 1264, and counter-selecting with a nontumor bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. After three rounds of subtractive panning, 239 of 673 clones analyzed bound selectively to 1264 tumor cells in a phage ELISA. Diversity analysis of these tumor-selective clones by BstNI fingerprinting and nucleotide sequencing revealed 14 distinct scFv fragments. Four clones bound selectively to 1264 over BEAS-2B cells when analyzed by a more discriminating flow cytometric assay using scFv. Moreover, these clones showed only limited cross-reactivity to several primary human cell lines. One clone, LU30, also cross-reacted strongly with the lung adenocarcinoma line, A549. The LU30 antigen was identified as decay-accelerating factor (CD55) by expression cloning from a 1264 cDNA library. The mean number of decay-accelerating factor molecules on the surface of 1264 and BEAS cells used for panning and counter-selection was estimated as 75,000 +/- 5,000 and 13,000 +/- 10,000, respectively. Thus, phage library panning combined with expression cloning permits identification of antibodies and their cognate antigens for proteins that are differentially expressed on the surface of distinct cell populations.  (+info)

The cysteine-rich region of the Entamoeba histolytica adherence lectin (170-kilodalton subunit) is sufficient for high-affinity Gal/GalNAc-specific binding in vitro. (6/692)

Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to colonic mucin, epithelium, and other target cells is mediated by the amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin. We constructed in vitro expression vectors containing full-length (residues 1 to 1280), cysteine-poor (1 to 353 and 1 to 480), and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143 and 480 to 900) fragments of the gene encoding the heavy subunit of the adherence lectin, hgl2. In vitro transcription followed by translation using a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysate system was carried out. Immunoreactivity of in vitro-translated Hgl2 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with lectin-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 1G7 and 8A3, which recognize linear epitopes. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) refolding of Hgl2 enhanced immunoreactivity (P < 0.05) with the conformationally dependent MAb 3F4. Binding of PDI-refolded full-length (P < 0.001) and cysteine-rich (P = 0.005) Hgl2 to CHO cells was galactose dependent and competitively inhibited by native hololectin (50% inhibitory concentration of 39.6 ng/ml). The cysteine-poor region (1 to 353) did not bind CHO cells. Both full-length (1 to 1280) and cysteine-rich (356 to 1143) Hgl2 bound the glyconeoconjugate GalNAc(19)BSA in a GalNAc-specific manner. The smaller cysteine-rich fragment (480 to 900) also exhibited GalNAc-specific binding but to a lesser extent (P < 0.05) than residues 1 to 1280 and 356 to 1143. Neither the cysteine-poor fragment (1 to 480), luciferase (protein control), nor control translation reactions (without hgl2 lectin mRNA) bound GalNAc(19)BSA. Binding to GalNAc(19)BSA was shown to be dependent on the concentration of GalNAc(19)BSA coated in each well or (35)S-lectin added (K(D) = 0.85 +/- 0.37 pM). Binding was competitively inhibited by the terminal GalNAc-containing glycoprotein asialofetuin (P < 0.005). Taken together, these data provide direct evidence that the cysteine-rich region of the Gal/GalNAc lectin heavy subunit contains one or more carbohydrate-binding domains.  (+info)

Malignant Brenner tumors of the ovary and tumor markers: case reports. (7/692)

We investigated the tumor marker for malignant Brenner tumors, which had not been established because of the rarity and variable histological criteria. Representative areas of two cases of malignant Brenner tumor were investigated by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method using monoclonal antibody to CA125 and CA72-4 antigen and the streptavidin-biotin immunoperoxidase complex method using monoclonal antibody to SCC antigen. Based on clinical course and immunohistochemical studies, serum CA125 and CA72-4 for Case 1 and SCC and CA72-4 for Case 2 were appropriate tumor markers for the establishment of the extent of tumor burden before treatment and to monitor the response to therapy. The discrepancy of the tumor markers of the two present cases is considered to be a reflection of the difference in the malignant component of these cases. However, serum CA72-4 was an appropriate tumor marker for both malignant Brenner tumors.  (+info)

The value of CA 125 and CA72-4 in management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. (8/692)

The role of the tumor markers CA125 and CA72-4 has been evaluated in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer. Both markers were measured in 30 patients with proven epithelial ovarian cancer, 30 patients with benign pelvic masses and 30 normal women. CA125 and CA72-4 were measured using the luminometric immunoassay and immunoradiometric assay respectively. All patients with ovarian cancer were submitted to surgical staging and cytoreduction followed by adjuvant platinum based chemotherapy for 3-6 courses. Fixing the specificity at 95%, CA125 had a sensitivity of 76.7% at a cut-off 85 u/ml while CA72-4 had a sensitivity of 70% at a cut-off 8.5 u/ml. The combination of CA72-4 with CA125 increased the sensitivity to 95% while fixing the specificity at 95%. Among seven cases with stage I and II ovarian cancer five cases had CA125 level below 85 U/ml, three patients out of them had CA72-4 above 8.5 U/ml. CA 72-4 could reflect the residual disease following cytoreduction and could improve the detection of relapse by CA125. CONCLUSION: CA72-4 could complement the standard tumor marker CA125 both in diagnosis and follow up of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Targeting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens: a phase I study of a carbohydrate mimetic-peptide vaccine in stage IV breast cancer subjects
3554-90-3 - QCQYVCMYGCHVMR-AAZUGDAUSA-N - Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Glycoconjugate antigens are prepared by preparing a hapten glycoside, especially an alpha glycoside prepared by the Fischer method, with an olefinic aglycon moiety, especially one having a non-terminal double bond, ozonolyzing the hapten glycoside with an olefinic aglycon moiety having a non-terminal double bond to form a hapten-glycoside derivative, preferably without producing Germaldehyde as a by-product, removing by-products of ozonolysis, and conjugating the hapten-glycoside derivative to a carrier.
Background: Pneumococcal hemolytic uremic syndrome (P-HUS) is a rare but severe complication of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young children. Consensual biologic diagnosis criteria are currently lacking. Study design and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 10 children with culture-confirmed IPD. Five presented with full-blown P-HUS, three had an incomplete form with hemolytic anemia and mild or no uremia (P-HA), and two had neither HUS nor HA. Thomsen-Friedenreich (T), Th, and Tk cryptantigens and sialic acid expression were determined on red blood cells (RBCs) with peanut (PNA), Glycine soja (SBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia II, and Maackia amurensis lectins. Plasma concentrations of the major endogenous T-antigen-binding protein, galectin-3 (Gal-3), were analyzed. Results: We found that RBCs strongly reacted with PNA and SBA lectins in all P-HUS and P-HA patients. Three P-HUS and three P-HA patients showed also concomitant Tk activation. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was
The Ca antigen, which can be detected in a wide range of malignant human tumours by means of the Cal antibody, is a glycoprotein of the mucin type. At least 95% of the carbohydrate is 0-glycosidically linked to the polypeptide which contains high proportions of glycine, serine and glutamic acid. The carbohydrate has a very simple structure: it is composed almost entirely of tetra- tri- and disaccharides having the general formula (NeuNac)n leads to [Gal leads to GalNac] alpha leads to, where n = 0, 1 or 2. In many malignant cell lines, the antigen is produced constitutively in vitro; but in one that has been examined, its synthesis can be induced by high concentrations of lactate. Evidence is presented for the view that a primary function of this glycoprotein is to shield the cells that produce it from hydrogen ion concentrations outside of the physiological range. The presence of the Ca antigen in malignant tumours may thus be a reflection of metabolic conditions that are known to be characteristics of
PURPOSE: Sialyl Tn (STn) antigen is a cancer-associated carbohydrate antigen expressed in cancers of the digestive tract. We compared the proportion of specimens of flat-type colorectal cancers...
Carbohydrate antigens recognized by natural or preformed and elicited antibodies are central to transplantation/transfusion rejection across ABO blood group and species (xenotransplantation) barriers and are also promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy (Ramsland 2005). The key carbohydrate determinants (epitopes) recognized by antibodies are synthesized by a series of intracellular glycosyltransferases and are expressed on the surface of cells as glycolipids and glycoproteins. Often the minimal carbohydrate epitopes are located at the terminal end of more complex oligosaccharide chains, which result in these epitopes being displayed at a wide range of surface densities and contexts (e.g., glycolipids or glycoproteins). For example, many tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are broadly expressed at very high densities on the cell surface of primary and metastatic tumors, but the same carbohydrates occur at much lower levels and are typically restricted to a few cell types in healthy ...
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas including colon, stomach, and pancreatic cancers, has long been considered as an attractive target for active and passive vaccination. While progress in antibodies targeting tumor-associated protein antigens resulted in an impressive array of therapeutics for cancer treatment, similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the singular characteristics of these antigens. We have addressed this issue by analyzing antibodies derived from patients immunized with an sLeA/KLH vaccine. These antibodies were engineered to mediate tumor clearance in vivo in preclinical models through Fc-FcγR interactions. However, in contrast to protein antigens in which hFcγRIIIA engagement was both necessary and sufficient to mediate tumor clearance in both preclinical and clinical settings, a ...
Patterns of glycosylation are important in cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that drive changes are often poorly understood. The androgen receptor drives prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression to lethal metastatic castration-resistant disease. Here we used RNA-Seq coupled with bioinformatic analyses of androgen-receptor (AR) binding sites and clinical PCa expression array data to identify ST6GalNAc1 as a direct and rapidly activated target gene of the AR in PCa cells. ST6GalNAc1 encodes a sialytransferase that catalyses formation of the cancer-associated sialyl-Tn antigen (sTn), which we find is also induced by androgen exposure. Androgens induce expression of a novel splice variant of the ST6GalNAc1 protein in PCa cells. This splice variant encodes a shorter protein isoform that is still fully functional as a sialyltransferase and able to induce expression of the sTn-antigen. Surprisingly, given its high expression in tumours, stable expression of ST6GalNAc1 in PCa cells reduced formation
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a distinct molecular subtype of gastric cancer. In recent years, the clinical consequences of MSI and the therapeutic opportunities to target this peculiar cancer subtype became evident. However, despite the importance of MSI for the stratification of patients, the time and resources required for diagnosis still present an obstacle. In an attempt to identify a new marker for MSI in gastric cancer, we evaluated the expression of five cancer-associated glycan epitopes in a cohort of 13 MSI and 17 microsatellite stable (MSS) cases. Our analysis revealed a highly significant (p < 0.001) association between the expression of the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen and MSI status. Hence, we present here the identification of the first single marker for MSI in gastric cancer, excelling with a specificity of 94% (16/17), sensitivity of 69.2% (9/13), negative predictive value of 80% (16/20), and positive predictive value of 90% (9/10). The TF antigen, detected by simple ...
Rahman, A F. and Longenecker, B M., A monoclonal antibody specific for the thomsen-friedenreich cryptic t antigen. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3746 ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 9309422. Hybridoma 1997 Aug;16(4):317-24. We report here the first amino acid sequence of an anti-Tn monoclonal antibody raised against human breast cancer cells and show that a single chain Fv fragment of this IgM retains the Tn-binding specificity as defined by functional assays with asialo-OSM and membrane extracts from MCF-7 cells. Sequence comparisons and molecular modeling of 83D4 indicate that the antibody combining site displays a cavity-like feature primarily defined by the CDR H1 and H2 loops. This pocket could accommodate a single Tn molecule, thus, suggesting a structural explanation for the predominant expression of a particular VH gene segment in a group of antibodies that recognize tumor-associated antigens arising from an aberrant O-glycosylation.. ...
My laboratory, RPCI based for the first 9 years, and now at UB for the last 13 years, has had an emphasis on tumor associated carbohydrate antigens, and recently has been involved in 2 patent applications, Use of anti-TF antibody to block metastasis of TF- antigen bearing tumors (K R Olson, principle inventor of JAA-F11 monoclonal antibody), and Carbohydrate Antigen-Nanoparticle Conjugates and Methods for Inhibiting Metastasis in Cancer (K R Olson, co-inventor). Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-Ag) is a tumor associated antigen that is exposed in many types of carcinoma cells including breast, prostate, colon, and bladder. My laboratory recently reported results from in vitro and in vivo studies that show the anti-metastatic effect of treatment with JAA-F11 antibody to TF- Ag on the mouse metastatic breast carcinoma 4T1 cells.. The anti-TF antibody metastasis work was just published in Neoplasia (vol 8 number 11) and is the featured article, with cover art. A portion of this work involved ...
Springer, G F. and Desai, P R., Cross-reacting carcinoma-associated antigens with blood group and precursor specificities. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2171 ...
An incomplete elongation of O-glycan saccharide chains in mucins have been found in epithelial cancers, leading to the expression of shorter carbohydrate structures, such as the Tn antigen (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr). This antigen is one of the most specific human cancer-associated structures and is capable of inducing effective immune responses against cancer cells. We aimed to investigate the causes of the expression of Tn antigen in the Tn-rich MCF-7 breast cancer cell line focusing on the first step of the O-glycosylation process. Interestingly, amino acid sequences derived from non-mammary apomucins (MUC5B and MUC6) were very good acceptor substrates for ppGalNAc-Ts, which are the enzymes catalyzing the Tn antigen synthesis. MUC6 peptide glycosylation with MCF-7 microsome extracts as source of ppGalNAc-T activity yielded 95% conversion of the peptide into MUC6-Tn. In addition, the MUC6-Tn glycopeptide was a poor acceptor substrate for core 1 beta3Gal-T, the next enzyme involved in the saccharide chain
Polyagglutination refers to red blood cells that agglutinate upon exposure to almost all human sera, but not to autologous serum or the sera of newborns. The condition becomes apparent during blood typing and cross-matching in the laboratory (summary by {1:Beck, 2000}). Tn polyagglutination syndrome is an acquired clonal disorder characterized by the polyagglutination of red blood cells by naturally occurring anti-Tn antibodies following exposure of the Tn antigen on the surface of erythrocytes. Only a subset of red cells express the antigen, which can also be expressed on platelets and leukocytes. This condition may occur in healthy individuals who manifest asymptomatic anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia; however, there is also an association between the Tn antigen and leukemia or myelodysplastic disorders. The Tn antigen is an incompletely glycosylated membrane glycoprotein with an exposed N-acetylgalactosamine residue. The Tn antigen results from inactivation of C1GALT1C1, which encodes ...
Activation of an aberrant glycosylation pathway in cancer cells can lead to expression of the onco-foetal sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen. STn is a truncated O-glycan containing a sialic acid α-2,6 linked to GalNAc α-O-Ser/Thr and is associated with an adverse outcome and poor prognosis in cancer patients. The biosynthesis of the sTn antigen has been linked to the expression of the sialytransferase ST6GalNAc1, and also to mutations in and loss of heterozygosity of the COSMC gene. sTn neo- or over-expression occurs in many types of epithelial cancer including gastric, colon, breast, lung, oesophageal, prostate and endometrial cancer. sTn is believed to be carried by a variety of glycoproteins and may influence protein function and be involved in tumour development. This review discusses how the role of sTn in cancer development and tumour cell invasiveness might be organ specific and occur through different mechanisms depending on each cancer type or subtype. As the sTn-antigen is expressed early in
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 blood test is ordered to monitor pancreatic, liver, gastrointestinal, and colorectal malignancies.
Carbohydrate Antigen (CA) 19-9 (LabCorp). Get know how much does lab test cost. Direct access testing with or without insurance.
CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9) conversion to U/mL, kU/L . Online conversion calculator for many types of measurement units in laboratory and medicine CA 19-9 (Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9), CA 19-9, Cancer Antigen 19-9, Gastrointestinal Cancer Antigen.
Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer : This thesis focuses on the synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the prostate tumor- associated carbohydrate antigen RM2. The author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its analogues as single stereoisomers in every glycosylation step, producing good yields and stereoselectivity. He then introduces the conjugation of the
Amines, aminooxy (also known as oxylamine), hydrazide, azide, alkyne, BCN, and tyramide reactive dyes, as well as dye free acids, are generally stable in aqueous solution when stored at -20°C for 6-12 months or longer, as long as no compounds are present that may react with the dyes functional group. See the product information sheets for specific reactive dyes more information.. Coelenterazines and D-luciferin. Coelenterazines are stable in solid form when stored as recommended; they are not stable in aqueous solution. Concentrated coelenterazine stock solutions (typically 1-100 mg/mL) should be prepared in ethanol or methanol; do not use DMSO or DMF to dissolve coelenterazines, because these solvents will oxidize the compounds. Ethanol or methanol stocks of coelenterazine can be stored at -20°C or below for six months or longer; alcohol stocks may evaporate during storage, so use tightly sealing screw cap vials and wrap the vials with Parafilm for long term storage. Propylene glycol also ...
Cells possess Ca antigen as defined by the Ca1 antibody. The Ca antigen has been shown to be absent in non-malignant human cell strains and is considered to be a marker linked with malignancy. Island cell growth will degenerate if left more than 9 days between passages ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] Glycosylation of proteins affects cell-cell interaction, interactions with the matrix, and the functions of intracellular molecules. ST6GALNAC1 transfers a sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), in an alpha-2,6 linkage to O-linked GalNAc residues. The cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is formed by ST6GALNAC1-catalyzed sialylation of GalNAc residues on mucins (Ikehara et al., 1999 [PubMed 10536037]; Sewell et al., 2006 [PubMed 16319059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
Truncated sialylated O-glycans, such as cell-surface carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Tn (STn) are overexpressed by several cancer types, but not by the respective n
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Principal Investigator:IBAYASHI Yukihiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
This glycoprotein is a mucinous carbohydrate antigen product of the MUC1 gene expressed on various adenocarcinomas, especially breast. It is a high molecular weight (300-450 kDa) 1 polymor... ...
CA50, 0.5 mg. Cancer antigen 50 (CA50), a carcinoma associated carbohydrate antigen, has been found to be elevated in the blood of patients with colorectal cancer and other malignancies.
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Authors: Ju, Tongzhong , Aryal, Rajindra P. , Kudelka, Matthew R. , Wang, Yingchun , Cummings, Richard D. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: The Tn antigen is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen that is not normally expressed in peripheral tissues or blood cells. Expression of this antigen, which is found in a majority of human carcinomas of all types, arises from a blockage in the normal O-glycosylation pathway in which glycans are extended from the common precursor GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (Tn antigen). This precursor is generated in the Golgi apparatus on newly synthesized glycoproteins by a family of polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcTs) and then extended to the common core 1 O-glycan Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (T antigen) by a single enzyme termed the T-synthase (core 1 β3-galactosyltransferase or C1GalT). Formation …of the active form of the T-synthase requires a unique molecular chaperone termed Cosmc, encoded by Cosmc on the X-chromosome (Xq24 in humans, ...
An efficient synthesis of a derivative of monophosphoryl lipid A suitable for coupling to various structures for the construction of glycoconjugate vaccines and its conjugation with an N-modified form of the tumor-associated antigen GM3 is presented.
Using synthetic Tn (GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr) glycopeptide models and a biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy we have determined that isolectin B4 from Vicia villosa (VVLB4) binds to one Tn determinant whereas the anti-Tn monoclonal antibodies 83D4 and MLS128 require at least two Tn residues for recognition. When an unglycosylated amino acid is introduced between the Tn residues, both antibodies do not bind. MLS128 affinity was higher on a glycopeptide with three consecutive Tn residues. These results indicate that Tn residues organized in clusters are essential for the binding of these antibodies and indicate a different Tn recognition pattern for VVLB4.
Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAc), generally known as T-antigen, is expressed in more than 85% of human carcinomas. Therefore, proteins which specifically bind T-antigen have potential diagnostic value. Jacalin, a lectin from jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia ) seeds, is a tetramer of molecular mass 66 kDa. It is one of the very few proteins which are known to bind T-antigen. The crystal structure of the jacalin-T-antigen complex has been determined at 1.62 A° resolution. The interactions of the disaccharide at the binding site are predominantly through the GalNAc moiety, with Gal interacting only through water molecules. They include a hydrogen bond between the anomeric oxygen of GalNAc and the pie electrons of an aromatic side-chain. Several intermolecular interactions involving the bound carbohydrate contribute to the stability of the crystal structure. The present structure, along with that of the Me-alpha-Gal complex, provides a reasonable qualitative explanation for the ...
The CC-1065 and duocarmycin family of compounds are ultrapotent antitumour antibiotics which demonstrate activity in the picomolar range. These agents exert their biological effect through a sequence selective alkylation at the N3 position of adenine resulting in apoptosis. Despite the potential of this family to exert themselves as successful chemotherapeutic agents, a lack of clinical success has been observed for these compounds. This has been attributed to a lack of selectivity resulting in off-target side effects and toxicity. For this reason, research now focuses on ways in which these alkylating agents could realise their potential using tumour specific, targeted delivery strategies.. Herein, we investigate the use of a duocarmycin SA analogue, functionalised for solid phasesynthesis, in the design of conjugates for targeted delivery to cancerous tissue via the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T-antigen). This antigen is overexpressed in 90% of primary human carcinomas, yet is cryptic in ...
Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a carbohydrate-based diet on serotonin blood concentrations in phobic dogs. For this study were recruited, from the public shelter, three dogs (2 neutered females and 1 male), weighing between 15 and 30 kg and living in the shelter for more than six months. Dogs received by a veterinary behaviorist a diagnosis of interspecific social phobia. The dogs fed 2 daily meals (at 8.00 A.M. and 4.00 P.M.), the first exclusively carbohydrate-based (puffed rice) and the second composed by the commercial diet previously eaten during the first 15 days.. Blood was collected every 21 days after 8 hours from carbohydrate meal to determine the levels of serotonin (5-HT), L-tryptophan (TRP) and cortisol. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significative difference between the serum concentrations of 5-Ht, TRP and cortisol, at the different times, despite a tendency to increase during the time.. The results of this research are useful for directing further ...
Carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood when it is shed by tumour cells. It is also found in trace amounts in the pancreas, liver, gall bladder and lungs of healthy adults.
O-Glycopeptide structural studies, specifically related to Tn antigen, have pointed to intramolecular interactions between the GalNAc and the peptide backbone via H-bonding. Although molecular mimics to Tn antigen have been the target of numerous synthetic and immunological studies, many have not considered the established conformational preferences. Initiatives for the development of improved mimetic design are proposed here. Specifically a metabolically robust C-linkage is designed, yet one with a pendant hydroxyl to maintain the key H-bonding network to properly orient the glycan with respect to the peptide. We herein propose to synthesize pure, robust mimics of Tn antigen, with conformational realism, as they may be presented from the backbone of biomedically relevant peptides (such as MUC1) and to compare these mimics with Tn antigen itself, by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations for clarification of the essential structural features necessary to maximize biological activity. The most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced self-association of mucins possessing the T and Tn carbohydrate cancer antigens at the single-molecule level. AU - Haugstad, Kristin E.. AU - Gerken, Thomas A.. AU - Stokke, Bjørn T.. AU - Dam, Tarun K.. AU - Brewer, C. Fred. AU - Sletmoen, Marit. PY - 2012/5/14. Y1 - 2012/5/14. N2 - Mucins are linear O-glycosylated glycoproteins involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, and tumorigenesis. Cancer-associated mucins often possess increased expression of the T (Galβ1,3GalNAcαThr/Ser) and Tn (GalNAcαThr/Ser) cancer antigens, which are diagnostic markers for several cancers, including colon cancer. We have used AFM based single-molecule forced unbinding under near physiological conditions to investigate the self-interactions between porcine submaxillary mucin (PSM) as well as between PSM analogs possessing various carbohydrates including the T- and Tn-antigen. Distributions of unbinding forces and corresponding force loading rates were determined for force loading rates ...
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Fasting Required: No Specimen: Blood Results: 1-2 Business Days Description: Cancer antigen (CA) 27.29 is used to monitor metastatic carcinoma of the...
The Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) disaccharide, galactose (Gal){beta}1- 3GalNAc{alpha}-, is a blood group-related oncofetal antigen with remarkable tumor specificity. Postpartum, carbohydrate structures on the cell walls of the gastrointestinal flora evoke natural antibodies of presumed TF specificity. These antibodies may provide an early barrier against TF-carrying tumor cells. Their possible role, however, has been difficult to assess, since so far only a multivalent immunosorbent, asialoglycophorin (aGP), has been employed for their preparation, and therefore their fine specificities have been only insufficiently defined. We have used a novel immunosorbent consisting of synthetic TF{alpha} disaccharides (Gal{beta}1-3GalNAc{alpha}-) coupled to polyacrylamide (PAA), which itself was covalently bound to cross-linked sepharose. For specificity analyses, aGP and a panel of PAA-conjugated mono- and oligosaccharides were employed. Binding to the PAA moiety was excluded. The affinity-purified ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a carcinoma-associated antigen and is a member of a family that includes at least two type I membrane proteins. This antigen is expressed on most normal epithelial cells and gastrointestinal carcinomas and functions as a homotypic calcium-independent cell adhesion molecule. The antigen is being used as a target for immunotherapy treatment of human carcinomas. Mutations in this gene result in congenital tufting enteropathy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008 ...
Wang, Yu et al Large Scale Identification of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Associated Antigens by Autoantibodies. The Journal of Immunology 169.2 (2002): 1102-1109. Web. 19 April. 2021. ...
TACAS (Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems) is a conference that focuses on the application of and tool support for various formal methods. It is one of the top ranked conferences for software engineering.[1] It was founded by Bernhard Steffen, Rance Cleaveland, Ed Brinksma, and Kim Larsen. The first TACAS was held in 1995 in Aarhus, Denmark followed by the conferences in 1996 in Passau, Germany and 1997 in Enschede, Netherlands. TACAS was one of the first five constituting conferences of ETAPS in 1998.[3] ...
In this essay I suggest that the major difficulty in producing effective anti-cancer vaccines lies in the fact that most cancers have little immunogenicity because of a basic paucity of tumor-specific antigenicity. The lack of antigenicity, despite extensive genomic instability, could be explained if most tumor mutations occur in silenced genes. A further problem is that an immune reaction against tumor antigens, especially in moderate or low amount, may be stimulatory rather than inhibitory to tumor growth.
The immune system is extremely complex and critical to the survival of all species as it protects them from attack by foreign micro-organisms and viruses. However the immune system can also be a foe in that it can sometimes turn against the organism it is designed to protect resulting in a range of autoimmune diseases. Additionally, its design to protect against invasion of foreign antigens, creates a major hurdle for transfusion and transplantation. If the immune system could be manipulated to allow for transfusion and transplantation of incompatible tissues, or turned off against specific targets in the case of autoimmune disease, all the while maintaining normal protective functions, then major advances in human health and well-being could be made. A variety of approaches have been used to try to manipulate the immune system, but with no one approach being the panacea, thus leaving open the opportunity for novel approaches to try and manipulate it towards creating beneficial outcomes. The ...
download The JCT Minor Service at LAC is of more than 160,000 ions of anti-Tn and target, known in precise, diverse and patient-derived bodies. The cytotoxic carbohydrates annotated by Library and Archives Canada are increased for dangers and their alveoli from C5aR-mediated below to monocarboxylate and metabolic resection. generation of various buildings to The transcription Web to Life of a Rock Star, which requires the 27-kDa loricrin of Canada in an effective phosphate.
CA 19.9 is a circulating antigen associated with gastrointestinal cancer, especially the pancreas and colon. This is detected in the serum this ...
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Wilson, R.M., Warren, J.D., Ouerfelli, O., Danishefsky, S.J. 989 258-292
Syntheses and Immunological Evaluation of Self-Adjuvanting Clustered N-Acetyl and N-Propionyl Sialyl-Tn Combined with a T-helper Cell Epitope as Antitumor Vaccine Candidates, Tsung Che Chang, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Yukari Fujimoto, Shino Ohshima, Yoshie Kametani, Kazuya Kabayama, Kazuya Kabayama, Yuka Nimura, Chun Cheng Lin, Koichi Fukase, Koichi Fukase, Angewandte Chemie - International Edition,57 8219-8224, 2018.07, Other. ...
Danish drugmaker Pharmexa says it plans to file for approval to start a second Phase III trial of its peptide anticancer vaccine GV1001 in pancreatic cancer within the next few weeks. - News - PharmaTimes
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The tumor antigens are often proteins or other macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates). Normal antibodies bind to external ... as an aggressive brain tumor were whole tumor lysate, CMV antigen RNA and tumor associated peptides like EGFRvIII. Dendritic ... These antibodies that are specific to the antigens of the tumor, can then be injected into a tumor. Two types are used in ... The dendritic cells are activated in the presence of tumor antigens, which may be a single tumor-specific peptide/protein or a ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer. However, it lacks sensitivity ... Tumors within the pancreas only (localized tumors), or with limited metastases, for example to the liver, may be removed by ... Lanreotide can slow tumor growth. If the tumor is not amenable to surgical removal and is causing symptoms, targeted therapy ... Radiotherapy may form part of treatment to attempt to shrink a tumor to a resectable state, but its use on unresectable tumors ...
He genetically re-engineered carbohydrate specificities of lectins imparting T-antigen tumor recognizing ability to peanut ... He discovered novel blood group and tumor antigen specific lectins and made original contribution towards elucidation of the ... "Imparting exquisite specificity to peanut agglutinin for the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen by redesign of its ... Carbohydrate specificity generated by water bridges". Current Science. 72: 855-861. Reddy GB, Bharadwaj S; Surolia A (1999). " ...
As a Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen (TACA), Globo-H is a promising clinical target for immunotherapy. While absent in ...;2-1 "Selection of tumor antigens as targets for immune attack using immunohistochemistry: I. Focus on gangliosides". ... "Total Synthesis and Proof of Structure of a Human Breast Tumor (Globo-H) Antigen". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... "Total Synthesis of a Human Breast Tumor Associated Antigen". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 117 (29): 7840-7841. doi ...
Engle focused her efforts on probing a specific carbohydrate antigen, CA19-9, released by pancreatic tumor cells. She also ... creating transgenic mouse models of pancreatic cancer that have tumors that express the uniquely human CA19-9 tumor antigen. ... This will allow the lab to better recapitulate the human tumor environment and move towards better diagnostics and treatments ... Cross-Species Single-Cell Analysis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Reveals Antigen-Presenting Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts ...
Glycoproteins are relevant as cell-surface receptors, cell-adhesion molecules, immunoglobulins, and tumor antigens. Glycolipids ... Devising names for a class of carbohydrates Isomaltooligosaccharide - Mixture of short-chain carbohydrates "Definition of ... serves as a precursor for the A and B antigen. Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen ... A person with B blood type will have the B and H antigen present. A person with AB blood type will have A, B, and H antigens ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumor markers are ... whether due to spread of the initial tumor or formation of new tumors . Liver transplantation can also be considered in cases ... In adults, these tumors are more common in males; however, in children they are more common in females. Even with surgery ... These tumors have poor outcomes because they grow rapidly and metastasise easily. They are also hard to diagnose but are ...
... structurally complex carbohydrate tumor antigen and adjuvants synthesis, immunogenic chemotherapeutic agents and chemically ... Survival times increased from 160 to 220 percent, depending on the type of tumor. Therapeutic vaccines treat and immunize ... Provenge is an adoptive cell-transfer therapy in which a patient's antigen-presenting target autologous prostate cancer tissue ... Lavars, Nick (2016-02-24). "Ordinary skin cells turned into brain tumor predators". Gizmag. Retrieved 2016-02- ...
... carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125). These tumour markers are ... Liver tumors (also known as hepatic tumors) are abnormal growth of liver cells on or in the liver. Several distinct types of ... Liver tumors can be broadly classified as benign or malignant: There are several types of benign liver tumors. They are caused ... Like most liver tumors, the anatomy and location of the adenoma determines whether the tumor can removed laparoscopically or if ...
"Involvement of carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis(x) in colorectal cancer metastasis". Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 40 (4 ... Witz IP (2006). "Tumor-Microenvironment Interactions". Tumor-microenvironment interactions: the selectin-selectin ligand axis ... A number of studies have shown increased expression of carbohydrate ligands on metastatic tumor, enhanced E-selectin expression ... Tumor cells exploit the selectin-dependent mechanisms mediating cell tethering and rolling interactions through recognition of ...
Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), also known as sialyl-LewisA, is a tetrasaccharide which is usually attached to O-glycans on ... Sialyl-Lewis X Lewis antigen system Perkins, G.; Slater, E.; Sanders, G.; Prichard, J. (2003). "Serum tumor markers". American ... Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK (April 2007). "Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) as a biochemical marker in ... In patients who lack the Lewis antigen A (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian ...
... a blood group antigen carbohydrate on the cell surface). One study reported the RS cells in HL-RT do not express CD20 but ... The malignant B lymphocytes in DLBCL-RT but not DLBCL unrelated to RT (i.e. DLBCL-not RT) carry an inactivated TP53 tumor ... These symptoms are often accompanied by the development of extra-nodal disease, i.e. swelling or tumors due to the infiltration ... RS cells express CD30 cell surface protein (a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family) and CD15 ( ...
"HuC242 binds to the extracellular domain of the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen known as CanAg (a novel glycoform of MUC1 ... Also known as huC242 it binds the CanAg antigen. It is typically linked to one of several cytotoxic agents, yielding antibody- ... Study of Cantuzumab Mertansine Administered as a Single Intravenous Infusion Once Weekly in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors ...
Levels of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 125 are abnormally high ... The type of surgery and the extent of the resection depend on the location of the tumor and the degree of extension. In some ... A Klatskin tumor (or hilar cholangiocarcinoma) is a cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the biliary tree) occurring at the confluence ... Because of their location, these tumors tend to become symptomatic late in their development and therefore are not usually ...
Tumor-associated and differentiation antigens on the carbohydrate moieties of mucin-type glycoproteins. Biochemical Society ... Hounsell chaired the Royal Society of Chemistry carbohydrate group 1996-97 and was President of the International Carbohydrate ... She was an editor of the scientific journal Carbohydrate Research for over 20 years (1994-2014). Hounsell was the author or co- ... As a result, she contributed and edited several books on techniques for analysis of carbohydrate modifications on proteins and ...
Blood tests for tumor markers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen may be ordered, as their levels ... Dysphagia suggests a tumour in the cardia or extension of the gastric tumour into the esophagus.[citation needed] These can be ... In EMR, the tumor, together with the inner lining of stomach (mucosa), is removed from the wall of the stomach using an ... Most stomach tumors are malignant with evidence of spread to lymph nodes or liver, making treatment difficult. Except for ...
... antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23. - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23. - ca-15-3 antigen ... antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23.050.550.325.050 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.050.550.325.115 - ca-15-3 antigen ... antigens, tumor-associated, carbohydrate MeSH D23.101.840.075.050 - antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.840.075.115 - ca-15-3 antigen ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ...
... ), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9 and CA 724 in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal ... Tumor M2-PK can be elevated in many tumor types, rather than being an organ-specific tumor marker such as PSA. Increased stool ... September 2001). "Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase in plasma of patients with urological tumors". Tumour Biol. 22 (5): 282-5. doi: ... which correlated with the tumor stage. The combination of Tumor M2-PK with the appropriate classical tumor marker, such as CEA ...
"CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... of the gene encoding the human C-type lectin leukocyte receptor AIM/CD69 and functional characterization of its tumor necrosis ... It has been shown that CD69 binds to Gal-1, a carbohydrate binding protein located on some dendritic cells and macrophages, in ... Hamann J, Fiebig H, Strauss M (June 1993). "Expression cloning of the early activation antigen CD69, a type II integral ...
Finally, lentiviruses have been also used to elicit an immune response against tumor antigens. These treatments, like most ... Carbohydrates: Other compounds detected in the particles 3% carbohydrates. Lentivirus is primarily a research tool used to ... Antigen determinants that possess type-specific reactivity are found on the envelope. Antigen determinants that possess type- ... Some groups have cross-reactive gag antigens (e.g., the ovine, caprine, and feline lentiviruses). Antibodies to gag antigens in ...
Dippold, W.; Steinborn, A.; Büschenfelde, K. H. M. z. (1990). "The Role of the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen As a Tumor- ... Yu, Lu-Gang (2007). "The oncofetal Thomsen-Friedenreich carbohydrate antigen in cancer progression". Glycoconjugate Journal. 24 ... Dippold, W; Steinborn, A; Meyer; Büschenfelde, KH (August 1990). "The role of the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen as a tumor- ... First described by Thomsen as a red blood cell's antigen, later research have determined it to be an oncofetal antigen. it is ...
Although the antigen is particularly common in carcinoid tumours, it is found in such a wide range of other conditions that it ... It is expressed as a carbohydrate epitope that contains a sulfoglucuronyl residue in several adhesion molecules of the nervous ... In anatomical pathology, CD57 (immunostaining) is similar to CD56 for use in differentiating neuroendocrine tumors from others ... CD57+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human B3GAT1 genome location and B3GAT1 ...
"Role of tumor cell surface lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1) and its associated carbohydrates in lung metastasis ... Acevedo-Schermerhorn C, Gray-Bablin J, Gama R, McCormick PJ (Nov 1997). "t-complex-associated embryonic surface antigen ... LAMP1 expression on the surface of tumor cells has been observed for a number of different cancer types, particularly in highly ... The structure of LAMP1 correlates with differentiation and metastatic potential of tumor cells as it is thought to help mediate ...
Toxin Antigen Erkes, Dan; Selvan, Senthamil (2014). "Hapten-Induced Contact Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune Reactions, and Tumor ... HPCE is predominantly used in separating carbohydrates with a very high separation capacity. There are numerous advantages to ... but can include absent or insufficient co-stimulatory signals from antigen-presenting cells. Haptens have been used to study ...
... between polyoma virus middle T antigen and insulin and IGF-I receptors is required for oncogene activation and tumour ... doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2009.09.006 PMID 19944284 Biological effects of growth hormone on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. ... doi:10.1016/j.bone.2008.12.012 PMID 19150422 Murine osteosarcoma primary tumour growth and metastatic progression is maintained ... Insulin sensitizing therapy attenuates type 2 diabetes-mediated mammary tumor progression. Fierz Y, Novosyadlyy R, Vijayakumar ...
"Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary in young patient with elevated carbohydrate antigen 19 ... Teratomas belong to a class of tumors known as nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. All tumors of this class are the result of ... These cells can develop into a frankly malignant tumor known as yolk sac tumor or endodermal sinus tumor. Adequate follow-up ... primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Wilm's tumor, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A teratoma with ...
Carbohydrate Antigen". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 124 (42): 12439-12446. doi:10.1021/ja020737j. PMID 12381184. ... that are selective for melanoma and breast tumor cells. The Janda laboratory has also identified a scFv specific for the ... "De novo identification of tumor-specific internalizing human antibody-receptor pairs by phage-display methods". Journal of ...
TPA Tumor antigen List of cancer types "Tumor markers Cancer screening". Retrieved December 28, 2013. Kilpatrick, E. S; Lind, M ... On the basis of their chemical nature, tumor markers can be proteins, conjugated proteins, peptides and carbohydrates. Proteins ... Tumor markers can be produced directly by the tumor or by non-tumor cells as a response to the presence of a tumor. Although ... Diagnosis of specific tumor types, particularly in certain brain tumors and other instances where biopsy is not feasible. ...
T cells become activated by recognising foreign antigens bound to antigen presenting cells (APC), in particular, dendritic ... The MECA-79 carbohydrate epitope decorates a family of HEV counter-receptors for L-selectin, both in mouse and human16. Another ... in mucosal HEVs and in venules of intestinal lamina propria but can be induced in nonmucosal endothelial cells by tumor ... Since antigen levels are usually low, contact in blood circulation would be unlikely. Therefore, T cells need a region where ...
Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen targets CD20 (98.3%), CD22 (88.3%), CD40 (83.3%), CD52 (77.4%), IgM ( ... binding water through their carbohydrate component and by their interaction with blood cells. A diagnosis of Waldenström ... Blood tests show the level of IgM in the blood and the presence of proteins, or tumor markers, that are the key signs of ... ISBN 978-0-8151-8698-4. Raje N, Hideshima T, Anderson KC (2003). "Plasma Cell Tumors". In Kufe DW, Pollock RE, Weichselbaum RR ...
Antigens,+CD34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... In tumors, CD34 is found in alveolar soft part sarcoma, preB-ALL (positive in 75%), AML (40%), AML-M7 (most), ... "Complexity and differential expression of carbohydrate epitopes associated with L-selectin recognition of high endothelial ... CD34 derives its name from the cluster of differentiation protocol that identifies cell surface antigens. CD34 was first ...
Generally there is a large group, which recognizes and binds carbohydrates, so called carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) ... Another possible exploitation of PRRs in human medicine is also related to tumor malignancies of the intestines. Helicobacter ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMC 7169806. PMID 16948640. Bahar O, Pruitt R, Luu DD, ...
Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or tumor cells ... Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) stimulates cancer development by increasing folate levels, helping the cancer cells ... Little if any evidence associates trans fat, saturated fat, and carbohydrate intake and prostate cancer. Evidence does not ... The grade tells how much the tumor tissue differs from normal prostate tissue and suggests how fast the tumor is likely to grow ...
... carbohydrate - carbon - carbon fixation - carboxylic acid - carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry ... tumor necrosis factors - tumor necrosis factor receptor - tyrosine - tyrosine 3-monooxygenase ubiquitin - urea - urea cycle - ... number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain - CCR5 receptor - CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 ... It deals with the structure and function of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and ...
These include: Carbohydrates - ranging from monosaccharides to polysaccharides and including blood group antigens, hyaluronic ... They have also been used to modify the surface of viruses with the intention of targeting them to be used to attach tumors ( ... In contrast, the FSL Kode construct bound to a microplate presents the antigen away from the surface in an orientation with a ... In a typical immunoassay, the antigen is deposited directly onto the microplate surface and binds to the surface either in a ...
Tumor cells relying on this residual DNA repair mechanism are unable to repair the damage and hence are not able to survive and ... A bypass platform is provided to these polymerases by Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Under normal circumstances, ... Moreover, DNA damaging agents can damage other biomolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and RNA. The accumulation ... Tumor cells with partial loss of DNA damage response (specifically, homologous recombination repair) are dependent on another ...
... solid glomus tumor, solitary glomus tumor) Granular cell tumor (Abrikossoff's tumor, Abrikossov's tumor, granular cell ... system List of spiders associated with cutaneous reactions List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of target antigens in ... carbohydrates, and lipids. Acute intermittent porphyria Adrenoleukodystrophy (Schilder's disease) Alkaptonuria Aminolevulinic ... pilar tumor, proliferating follicular cystic neoplasm, proliferating pilar tumor, proliferating trichilemmal tumor) Pseudocyst ...
... (marketed under the trade name OvaRex) is a mouse monoclonal antibody it binds to the antigen CA125, a carbohydrate ... Monoclonal antibodies for tumors, Experimental cancer drugs, All stub articles, Monoclonal antibody stubs, Antineoplastic and ... antigen. It is designed for the treatment of ovarian cancer. This drug was developed by AltaRex Corp. Statement On A ...
Dietary fibers, when eaten together with carbohydrates, delay the uptake of the carbohydrates. Fluorescein angiography A method ... HLA antigens Proteins on the outer part of body cells that are (effectively) unique to that person. HLA types are inherited, ... Insulinoma A tumor of the beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Although not usually cancerous, ... Ingested carbohydrate calories in non glucose forms are, in a special sense, invisible to the body. There has been recent ...
Fujii Y, Yoshida M, Chien LJ, Kihara K, Kageyama Y, Yasukochi Y, Oshima H (2000). "Significance of carbohydrate antigen sialyl- ... to remove sialic acid from the surface of malignant cells most likely helps to ensure the availability of tumor antigens for ... April 1997). "Involvement of carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis(x) in colorectal cancer metastasis". Diseases of the Colon and ... exposed to a chosen antigen, and a myeloma tumor cell to produce hybridomas, capable of being grown indefinitely and of ...
Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ... March 2006). "Large-scale molecular comparison of human schwann cells to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cell lines and ... CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ...
A new class of cell surface antigens. Quantitative absorption studies defining cell-lineage-specific antigens on hemopoietic ... Kinetin and carbohydrate metabolism in Chinese cabbages. Plant Physiology, 47:562-567 (1971). doi: 10.1104/pp.47.4.562 Berridge ... Reactivation of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase-driven pyrimidine biosynthesis restores tumor growth of respiration-deficient ... in nuclear DNA contribute to the formation of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the role of these complexes in tumour ...
This family also interacts with surfactant protein D. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion (CEACAM) family ... Ca2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding lectin) domains. Example pairs include: CD94/NKG2, expressed in NK and some T cells and ... while those for activating receptors may include signals of abnormality or infection such as proteins from pathogens or tumors ... Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Kammerer, Robert (December 2016). "Coevolution of paired receptors in Xenopus carcinoembryonic antigen- ...
... cells because these antigens are different from person to person. When non-self antigens are encountered, the immune system ... Radiation can cause cancer in most parts of the body, in all animals, and at any age, although radiation-induced solid tumors ... and refined carbohydrates. The evidence to support these dietary changes is not definitive. Alcohol is an example of a chemical ... The main cause of organ transplant associated tumors seems to be malignant melanoma, that was undetected at the time of organ ...
Melanoma - Cancer affecting melanocytes Melanocytic tumors Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential Vitiligo - ... Melanocytes are capable of expressing MHC Class II, a type of MHC expressed only by certain antigen presenting cells of the ... carbohydrates, and lipids present on or in a given pathogen. In addition, cytokine production by melanocytes can be triggered ... In addition to presenting antigen, one of the roles of melanocytes in the immune response is cytokine production. Melanocytes ...
Smart carbohydrate chemistry as a means to understand glycocalyx biology Archived 2016-07-10 at the Wayback Machine - Video by ... Shedding of the glycocalyx can be triggered by inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Whatever the stimulus ... since that would enable passage of some macromolecules or other harmful antigens. Other sources of damage to the endothelial ... Generally, the carbohydrate portion of the glycolipids found on the surface of plasma membranes helps these molecules ...
"Surface-epitope masking and expression cloning identifies the human prostate carcinoma tumor antigen gene PCTA-1 a member of ... Ideo H, Seko A, Ishizuka I, Yamashita K (October 2003). "The N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-8 ... "Molecular characterization of prostate carcinoma tumor antigen-1, PCTA-1, a human galectin-8 related gene". Oncogene. 19 (38): ... Galectins are beta-galactoside-binding animal lectins with conserved carbohydrate recognition domains. The galectins have been ...
"N-linked carbohydrate on human leukocyte antigen-C and recognition by natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". Hum. Immunol. ... preventing dynamic membrane reorganization in CTL/tumor cell interaction". Blood. 100 (8): 2874-81. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-02- ... "N-linked carbohydrate on human leukocyte antigen-C and recognition by natural killer cell inhibitory receptors". Hum. Immunol. ... Fan QR, Wiley DC (1999). "Structure of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw4, a ligand for the KIR2D natural ...
Another carbohydrate intolerance caused by enzyme deficiency is hereditary fructose intolerance. Celiac disease, an autoimmune ... Malignant lymphomas * Small-bowel adenocarcinoma * Oropharyngeal tumors * Unexplained infertility (12%) * Impaired bone health ... "Clinical relevance of IgG antibodies against food antigens in Crohn's disease: a double-blind cross-over diet intervention ... However, further work is urgently needed both to confirm clinical efficacy of fermentable carbohydrate restriction in a variety ...
3.A.1.1 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-1 (CUT1) 3.A.1.2 Carbohydrate Uptake Transporter-2 (CUT2) 3.A.1.3 Polar Amino Acid ... In addition to conferring MDR in tumor cells, ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they ... Gaudet R, Wiley DC (Sep 2001). "Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... Some of these exporters in humans are involved in tumor resistance, cystic fibrosis and a range of other inherited human ...
Due to the high volume of carbohydrates within the cell wall of hyphae and yeast forms of fungi, the Periodic acid -Schiff ... PAS is important because it can detect glycogen granules found in tumors of the ovaries and pancreas of the endocrine system, ... the use of antisera to label specific antigens Ruthenium(II) tris(bathophenanthroline disulfonate), a protein dye. Vital stain ... In biochemistry, it involves adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or ...
SiNW sensors are nanowires that contain specific receptors on their surface that when bound to their respective antigens will ... carbohydrates and DNA at biointerfaces Pathogenesis and pathogen detection Molecularly designed interfaces Nanotube/ ... are often functionalized in order to act as drug delivery agents for cancers because their size allows them to collect at tumor ...
It can be found as a monomer, dimer, or tetramer, allowing it to bind multiple antigens simultaneously. IgA coats pathogenic ... Members of a healthy gut microbiome have been shown to increase interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cells and tumor-infiltrating ... The intestinal epithelium in humans is reinforced with carbohydrates like fucose expressed on the apical surface of epithelial ... Inhibition of HDACs downregulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as well as ...
The antigen in this case is MUC1, known to be overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells and in CVac MUC1 is conjugated to the ... WO application 1995018145, Vasso Apostolopoulos, "Conjugates of human mucin and a carbohydrate polymer and their use in cancer ... "Fraunhofer IZI received manufacturing authorization for tumor vaccine CVac". Fraunhofer IZI press release. 28 October 2011. ... Priming' dendritic cells involves exposing those cells to disease antigens in order to get the immune system to properly ...
In many organisms, including humans, miRNAs are linked to the formation of tumors and dysregulation of the cell cycle. Here, ... These two vaccines use lipid nanoparticles to deliver antigen mRNA. Encapsulating the mRNA molecule in lipid nanoparticles was ... carbohydrates, peptides, aptamers, antibodies). Therapeutics using siRNA conjugates have been developed for rare or genetic ... Numerous studies have demonstrated that RNAi can provide a more specific approach to inhibit tumor growth by targeting cancer- ...
Carbohydrate Antigen / HE4 (ROMA) - ROMA - Other HOT Itmes - ... Ovary Tumor Marker-Carbohydrate Antigen 125/HE4 (ROMA). Ovary ... Ovary Tumor Marker-Carbohydrate Antigen 125/HE4 (ROMA). .thumbnail{ margin-bottom: 0px; border: 0px; } .detail-base tr th:first ... 2 person promo -DEC Vaccines Christmas Promo 2022 World Aids Day 2022 Male mRNA Circulating Tumor Cells Screening Elderly ... Tumor Marker-Carbohydrate Antigen 125/HE4 (ROMA)ROMA. Carbohydrate Antigen / HE4 (ROMA) - ROMA - Other HOT Itmes -. ...
remarks (A. Kobata). 4. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens and modified blood group antigens. (S. Hakomori). 5. Rheumatoid ... Carcinoembryonic antigen. and related normal antigens. (K. Yamashita, A. Kobata). 3. Cancer cells and metastasis. Concluding. ... Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome. Type I (K.. Yamashita, K. Ohno). 16b. Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein ...
Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels are elevated in some patients. Cyst fluid can be sent for CA 19-9 testing at the time of ... With cystic tumors, as with simple cysts, LFT results are normal. There may be mild abnormalities in some patients. ... Improvements in quality of life after surgery for benign hepatic tumors: Results from a dual center analysis. Surgery. 2012 Aug ... Central necrosis of large solid neoplasms can mimic cystic hepatic tumors, in that this area of necrosis appears cystic. ...
Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125; 1,247.7 U/ml) was tens of times higher than the normal reference value (0-35 U/ml), but CA19-9 ... Ovarian collision tumors are rare tumors in which there is no mixture of tumor cells or tissues and they are separated by their ... If the composed tumor contains a malignant tumor, it will exhibit that tumors biological behavior, such as infiltration into ... As ovarian collision tumors have multiple origins, benign tumors may be removed surgically, but malignant tumors may require ...
Tumor-associated antigens. • Bacterial cell-surface antigens. Development of Carbohydrate-based Vaccines. • Synthetic ... Targeting parasitic and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens for basic research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Catalysis. Dr ... Carbohydrate Materials. Dr. Martina Delbianco. • Synthesis of well-defined natural and unnatural polysaccharides. • Structural ... Carbohydrates play crucial roles for structure, energy storage and molecular recognition events that are essential to living ...
Hakomori S-I. Aberrant glycosylation in tumors and tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens. Adv. Cancer Res. ... Tn antigen) to form T antigen. We reasoned that if T antigen is in fact interacting with galectin-3, then both T antigen- ... T Antigen Expression.. The expression of T antigen in breast cancer tissues is well documented and is associated with tumor ... The role for T antigen in tumor cell adhesion and metastasis has been proposed based on the existence of T antigen-mediated ...
... the development of glycopeptide antigens as vaccine candidates against HIV and cancer, as well as the discovery of several ... 1. Multivalent Presentation of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACA) and TACA-Peptide Conjugates as Novel Anticancer ... The binding between tumors and other cell types is often mediated by carbohydrate-protein (lectin) interactions involving the ... Recognition of the Thomsen-Friedenreich pancarcinoma carbohydrate antigen by a lamprey variable lymphocyte receptor Luo M, ...
Biomarkers, Tumor [D23.101.140]. *Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate [D23.101.140.075]. *Lewis X Antigen [D23.101.140.075 ... A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the ... "Lewis X Antigen" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Lewis X Antigen" by people in this website by year, and ...
The tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetal protein, and carbohydrate antigen 125) ... an apparently benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia can be the first clinical sign of a pancreatic tumor, especially in the elderly ...
Serum CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9) is a tumor marker of monosialoganglioside structure. Its level is frequently measured ... for screening purposes in daily practice by physicians, while its main use is in the study of tumor recurrence and follow-up of ...
Antigens, Thy-1 D23.50.301.264.930 D23.101.100.930 Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate D23.101.840.75 D23.101.140.75 ... Tumor Necrosis Factors D12.644.276.972 D12.776.467.972 D23.529.972 Tumor Stem Cell Assay E5.242.388.930 E5.242.417.500 Tumor ... Antigens, CD15 D23.101.840.75.50 D23. Antigens, CD29 D23.50.301.264.129 D23.101.100.129 Antigens, CD30 D23.101. ... Tumor Markers, Biological D23.101.840 D23.101.140 (Replaced for 2015 by Biomarkers, Tumor) Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand ...
Secretors express a diverse set of fucosylated histoblood group antigen carbohydrates (HBGA) on mucosal cells; nonsecretors ( ... Relative survival after diagnosis with a primary brain or other central nervous system tumor in the National Program of Cancer ... Multiple cellular lineages expressing interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α dominated the response. Both T-cell and B-cell ... Conclusions: Survival after diagnosis with primary brain tumor varies by behavior, histology, and age. Using such a database ...
... age and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level in peripheral blood pre-operation of ... Tumor stem cells doctrine that tumor stem cells are primary cell lines in a class of self-renewal, infinite proliferation and ... Heat antigen retrieval was performed in 0.01 M citrate buffer (ph 6.0) at 95˚C for 20 min. Then slices were incubated with ... The results were compared with the clinical data and tumor pathology. The results of this study show that, regardless of gene ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) are the most widely used biomarkers in clinical practices ... Tumor-intrinsic CD47 signal regulates glycolysis and promotes colorectal cancer cell growth and metastasis. Theranostics. 2020; ... 18]. Hobert JA, Eng C. PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome: an overview. Genet Med. 2009;11:687-94.. * Cited Here , ... Recent study revealed that high expression of SFRP2was associated with primary tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastases ...
Tumor Markers. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a sialylated oligosaccharide that is most ... Preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels for the evaluation of curability and ... Carcinoembryonic antigen. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a high-molecular weight glycoprotein found normally in fetal ... Although the tumor was considered to have been fully resected and had not spread to any nodes, the patient died of recurrent ...
The serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was elevated. The clinical diagnosis was a primary adenocarcinoma of the female ... Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the tumor had invaded the bladder neck on the anterior aspect of the urethra. ... Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumor surrounding the urethra. ...
... and SRLGLE from oblique axial T2WI were significantly different between stage N0 and stage N1-2 tumors. The multivariate ... and SRLGLE from oblique axial T2WI were significantly different between stage N0 and stage N1-2 tumors. The multivariate ... Some clinical information such as pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) data and pretreatment carbohydrate antigen 199 ( ... Clinical characteristics including gender, age, tumor location, maximum diameter of tumor, degree of tumor differentiation, and ...
The serum tumor biomarkers currently used for surveillance, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 ( ... Yang XQ, Chen C, Peng CW, Carbohydrate antigen 242 highly consists with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in diagnosis and prognosis of ... CA19-9), and carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242), have limited sensitivity and specificity [7,8]. Thus, it is essential to ... mSEPT9 showed a much better ability to predict recurrence than the 3 tumor biomarkers, with an AUC value of 0.821. Moreover, we ...
Human tumor-associated Lea-Lex hybrid carbohydrate antigen IV3(Gal.beta.1- 3[Fuc.alpha.1-4]GlcNAc)III3FucnLc4 defined by ... as human tumor-associated antigen CT: J Biol Chem (1991) 266: 8439-8446 [PMID:2022659] SC: 4 BS: (CN) human, (disease) cancer ... surface antigens expressed CT: J Cell Biochem (1992) 50: 165-177 [PMID:1429882] TN: Lc6-Cer MT: glycolipid MT: ...
... differs between normal and tumor cells. The UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc ... The carbohydrate antigens on the cell surface are useful for monitoring tumor status in subjects with malignant diseases [21-24 ... of tumor tissue; 2, for samples stained between 40 and 79% of tumor tissue; and 3, for tumors with 80% of stained tumor tissue ... Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are produced due to the deregulation of glycosyltransferases, resulting in changes in ...
carbohydrate molecules), antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells pulsed with tumor derived antigen or nucleic acids, ... bind to its antigen. The specific binding of an antibody to its antigen can be quantitated by any method known to those skilled ... antigens. The antibodies or antigen-binding fragment thereof can be used to stimulate immune response to viruses infectious to ... several murine syngeneic tumor models, blockade of either PD-1 or PD-Li significantly inhibited tumor growth or induced ...
Also known as Cancer Antigen 125 or Carbohydrate Antigen 125, it is a mucin glycoprotein that was identified using monoclonal ... I. Jacobs and R. C. Bast Jr., "The CA 125 Tumour-Associated Antigen: A Review of the Literature," Human Reproduction, Vol. 4, ... Tumor markers can be secreted by the tumor in excess of the normal tissue or cell phenotype. Sometimes, the molecule is ... Even the bodys own antibodies against tumor markers can be markers. Tumor markers can be associated with patient diagnosis, ...
Other names: cancer antigen 19-9, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, CA 199 measurement, CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay (RIA) ... CA 19-9 is a type of tumor marker. Tumor markers are substances made by cancer cells or by normal cells in response to cancer ... Test ID: CA19: Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), Serum: Clinical and Interpretive; [cited 2022 Aug 11]; [about 2 screens]. ... Your levels of CA 19-9 are increasing. This may mean your tumor is growing, and/or your treatment is not working. More tests ...
Antigens, Carbohydrate, Tumor-Associated Antigens, Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate CA Antigen CA Antigens CA(Oxford) Antigen ... Antigens, Carbohydrate, Tumor-Associated. Antigens, Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate. CA Antigen. CA Antigens. CA(Oxford) Antigen ... Carbohydrate Antigens, Cancer-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens, Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens, Tumor-Associated ... Carbohydrate Antigens, Cancer-Associated. Carbohydrate Antigens, Tumor Associated. Carbohydrate Antigens, Tumor-Associated. ...
Cell keratin 19 may be the manifestation item of gene KRT19 (Sunlight and Zhao, 2014). CA125, a carbohydrate antigen, could be ... Background Renal carcinoma is a common urologic tumor, and there is no ideal tumor marker for clinical diagnosis except for ... Background Renal carcinoma is a common urologic tumor, and there is. August 2, 2019. woofahs0 comments ... Conclusion Serum tumor marker genes play a certain part in the genesis and development of renal carcinoma. We preliminarily ...
... analysis of tumor-derived proteins and antigens, validating targets, and investigating the biology of newly discovered genes. ... They can be used in the laboratory to detect carbohydrate structures on, or in, cells and tissues in much the same way that ... These are: (1) tumour angiogenesis, (2) disaggregation of tumour cells from the primary tumour mass, mediated by cadherins and ... Extracellular vesicles released into the blood from tumour cells may offer a snapshot of the whole of the tumour. They ...
Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a type of protein released by pancreatic cancer cells, also referred to as a tumor marker. CA ... If the quantity of tumor material is sufficient, your doctor will discuss a possibility to perform genetic testing of the tumor ... each indicating tumor size and how far the disease has spread. However, for pancreatic cancer, many doctors prefer to classify ... Uses an endoscope and X-ray machine to take pictures of the bile ducts and relieve the obstruction caused by the tumor by ...
The two-component vaccine includes a tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen, Globo H, which is covalently bound to a carrier ... Basel-based Vaxxim is developing an oral T-cell vaccine, VXM01, designed to target the VEGF-receptor 2 antigen on tumour ... The furthest advanced, CV9202 for non-small cell lung cancer, targets six different tumour associated antigens: 5T4, Mage C1, ... aims to train the immune system to generate CD8 T-cells against the tumour-associated antigen survivin, which acts as an ...
231В-232 tumor bearing, 230В-231 tumor regression, 231 Immunohistochemistry (IHC), 251В-254 IMRT. Carbohydrates comprise 4 ... survival and splenic NA concentration in stable mice that received an innocuous antigen at the schedule indicated at near the ... With restricted token of yield of reflex tumor testing in EC, the irregular quality of the prove, and fair aspects even now to ... In the ICON8 trial experience collection (TRICON8), we will-power come paired tumor concatenation samples from all patients ...
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen and related normal antigens. (
  • The tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetal protein, and carbohydrate antigen 125) showed normal ranges (Table 1 ). (
  • Malignancy was suspected, and some tumor markers were examined on the same day, including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA), sialyl Lewis X-i antigen (SLX), and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R). (
  • A 57-year-old male was investigated because of elevation of tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 12.9 mg/ml, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) 658.5 U/ml). (
  • Even tumor markers can be elevated in patients with chronic pancreatitis. (
  • Tumor markers are substances made by cancer cells or by normal cells in response to cancer in your body. (
  • We will review the present knowledge regarding tumor markers, assessing how such markers could be applied to address in screening, diagnosis and monitoring of endometrial carcinoma. (
  • Tumor markers can be secreted by the tumor in excess of the normal tissue or cell phenotype. (
  • Tumor markers might be unique extracellular matrix or cell adhesion molecules, receptors, growth factors, cytokines or products of abnormal metabolism. (
  • Even the body's own antibodies against tumor markers can be markers. (
  • Tumor markers can be associated with patient diagnosis, prognosis, clinical management and follow-up. (
  • In this review, we present an overview of the serum tumor markers in current use in endometrium cancer. (
  • They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies. (
  • We preliminarily illustrated the molecular mechanism of these markers to predict tumor, laying a foundation for further exploration in renal carcinoma. (
  • Other predictive markers such as the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level, the tumor mutational burden (TMB), and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection status could be used to guide clinical application, the ability of these factors to predict the treatment outcomes of immunotherapy is controversial due to lack of an optimal efficacy-related cutoff value or low detection rates [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • The other tumor markers, such as carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) or CA125, were within normal limits. (
  • Serum CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9) is a tumor marker of monosialoganglioside structure. (
  • in these patients with low or absent titer of CA 19-9, monitoring disease with this tumor marker will not be possible. (
  • CA 19-9 is a type of tumor marker. (
  • For these people, a CA 19-9 tumor marker test is not useful. (
  • Rarely, the marker molecules can be released by other tissues and organs in response to signals from tumor. (
  • the marker would correlate with tumor stage and response to treatment, and it could be easily, cheaply, and reproducibly measured. (
  • Background Renal carcinoma is a common urologic tumor, and there is no ideal tumor marker for clinical diagnosis except for imaging diagnosis. (
  • Conclusion Serum tumor marker genes play a certain part in the genesis and development of renal carcinoma. (
  • CA 19-9 RIA test: Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a type of protein released by pancreatic cancer cells, also referred to as a tumor marker. (
  • tumor marker for certain malignancies. (
  • CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis a antigen) is the most commonly used and best validated serum tumor marker for pancreatic cancer diagnosis in symptomatic patients and for monitoring therapy in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (
  • Serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is the glycoprotein tumor marker most often used in the diagnosis of CCA. (
  • Note 1:** Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a tumor marker that has value in the management of certain malignancies. (
  • TA-MUC1 is a novel tumor-specific protein/carbohydrate combined glyco-epitope on the tumor-marker MUC1. (
  • Epidemiology-based assessment of tumor marker overordering in breast cancer: an algorithm to examine different disease conditions. (
  • Abstract Objective: To evaluate the maximum and mean standardized uptake values, together with the metabolic tumor value and the total lesion glycolysis, at the primary tumor site, as determined by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT), performed before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT), as predictors of residual disease (RD) in patients with esophageal cancer. (
  • Carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome. (
  • Also known as Cancer Antigen 125 or Carbohydrate Antigen 125, it is a mucin glycoprotein that was identified using monoclonal antibody OC 125, hence the name. (
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein produced exclusively in the prostate gland. (
  • Because the mucins are tumor-associated antigens and the cancer mucins can express epitopes that are relatively tumor specific, this family of molecules is now being intensively studied. (
  • Glycotope's antibodies target specific tumor-associated carbohydrate structures or protein/carbohydrate combined glyco-epitopes (GlycoTargets). (
  • The present invention relates to stable formulations of antibodies against human programmed death receptor PD-1, or antigen binding fragments thereof. (
  • The present invention further provides methods for treating various cancers and chronic infections with stable formulations of antibodies against human programmed death receptor PD-1, or antigen binding fragments thereof. (
  • Such antibodies may engage two or more antigens at once, serving as force multipliers that can exploit opportunities beyond the reach of monospecific antibodies, whether they are deployed solo or in teams. (
  • When a tumor arises, the body may produce antibodies to fight it by binding to and destroying tumor cells. (
  • 9] For example, antibodies or T cells directed against the tumor may mistakenly attack normal nerve cells. (
  • Glycotope GmbH, a biotechnology company developing antibodies against proteins carrying tumor-specific carbohydrate structures, today announces that is has completed a re-focusing of its strategy to better deliver value from its powerful, proprietary glycobiology-informed technology platform. (
  • Following the recent spin-out of its services business Glycotope is now entirely focused on drug discovery and development, utilizing its proprietary technology platform to develop uniquely tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Based on this unrivalled tumor-specificity, Glycotope's antibodies are highly suitable for a multi-function platform approach with independent modes of action to provide a tailored therapy format for as many patients as possible. (
  • Glycotope is a biotechnology company utilizing a proprietary technology platform to develop uniquely tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Based on their superior tumor-specificity, our antibodies are suitable for development in an array of different modes of action including naked antibodies, bispecifics, antibody-drug-conjugates, cellular therapies or fusion-proteins. (
  • Random combinations of these three cell-derived tumors may generate a variety of collision tumors, the most common of which are combinations of epithelial and germ cell tumors, while the incidence of other combination types is lower ( 4 ). (
  • Globo H is a tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen found in epithelial cells (plasma membrane) that was first isolated in 1983 and observed to be expressed across a variety of cancers. (
  • The target is expressed on many epithelial tumor types including primary tumor, metastases and cancer stem cells, but is virtually absent on normal cells. (
  • Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy studies have contradicted the possible origin of these tumors from ectopic ovarian tissue. (
  • Ovarian collision tumors are uncommon and reports of their radiological appearance are even less frequent. (
  • The present study reported the world's first case of an ovarian collision tumor consisting of an ovarian sclerosing stromal tumor and a mature cystic teratoma and its imaging presentation. (
  • When a cystic solid ovarian mass combined with ascites and elevated CA125 is encountered it is frequently diagnosed as a malignant tumor, but the present case was a benign tumor. (
  • Ovarian collision tumors lack identifiable clinical and imaging signs and are difficult to distinguish from other tumors, even with intraoperative visualization, due to their complex pathological composition ( 3 ). (
  • The purpose of the present report is to analyze the pathologic and imaging data of this rare ovarian collision tumor. (
  • Compared with the corresponding normal tissue, LGR5 is over expressed in human primary colon cancer, ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma [3] [4] , suggesting that there is a certain correlation between LGR5 and tumor. (
  • The risk factors relate to hormonal stimulation of the endometrium, such as unopposed estrogen treatment, polycystic ovarian disease and estrogen-producing tumors. (
  • This self-antigen plays an important role in regulating the invasiveness and development of metastases in ovarian cancer. (
  • Meigs syndrome is a rare neoplastic disease characterized by the triad of benign solid ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion. (
  • TF antigens are also present on the surface of tumor cells in lung, breast, pancreatic, stomach and ovarian cancers. (
  • CA125, a carbohydrate antigen, could be utilized as an unbiased prognostic element for renal carcinoma in auxiliary analysis of the condition. (
  • Tumor stem cells doctrine that tumor stem cells are primary cell lines in a class of self-renewal, infinite proliferation and multi-directional differentiation of cell subsets, is the tumor growth, metastasis, recurrence of the root causes. (
  • The post-translational modification of proteins, including glycosylation, differs between normal and tumor cells. (
  • They are responsible for the initial synthesis of α-GalNAc1,3-O-Ser/Thr, or Tn antigen, at initiation of mucin type O-linked glycosylation. (
  • These changes would be predicted to result in marked alterations in GalNAc O-linked glycosylation, including altered levels of site specific O-linked glycosylation and changes in the glycan structures formed, including, potentially, exposure of truncated O-glycans such as Tn antigen. (
  • It is generally accepted that malignant transformation and progression in tumors are closely related to alterations in cell-surface carbohydrate antigens (CAs) with frequent aberrant glycosylation [ 1 ]. (
  • Precision medicine strategies range from drugs that target specific antigens that are overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells to vaccination programmes that prime the body's own immune system to fight back. (
  • Targeting these specific antigens enables broad indication range, long-term treatment potential and reduced on-target/off tumor toxicity, key elements of highly potent therapies. (
  • The cascade of events leading to tumor metastasis is marked by the alternate adhesion and release of the tumor cell with a variety of surrounding cell types. (
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed that these tumor cells were positive for CK7 (Fig. 3c ) and CK19 and were negative for CK20 (Fig. 3d ), as well as axillary lymph node metastasis. (
  • Carbohydrates are presented on the surface of cells primarily in covalent linkages to proteins (glycoproteins, proteoglycans) or lipids (glycolipids, gangliosides). (
  • It is now clear that this difference lies in the carbohydrate side chains, as the core proteins are identical. (
  • About one third of the proteins molecular mass is composed of carbohydrate s. (
  • A determination of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF) on the circulating tumor cells can give an indication of liver metastases occurring. (
  • With cystic tumors, as with simple cysts, LFT results are normal. (
  • Hepatic (biliary) cystadenomas are rare multilocular cystic tumors of the liver that are derived from the biliary epithelium and are predominantly located in the right hepatic lobe. (
  • Central necrosis of large solid neoplasms can mimic cystic hepatic tumors, in that this area of necrosis appears cystic. (
  • Removing these tumors and making a proper diagnosis is important, rather than monitoring them as is appropriate for other common benign hepatic tumors, such as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), adenoma, and hemangioma. (
  • These tumors account for a very small number of all hepatic tumors. (
  • Extra-hepatic tumors cause increased levels of alkaline phosphate (ALP), conjugated bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) while intra-hepatic have only slightly elevated ALP levels. (
  • Collisional tumors are primary tumors in which two or more separate tissue origins coexist in the same anatomical site and are tightly adherent or partially enveloped. (
  • The primary hepatic sarcoma is a pathology characteristic of pediatric age, in adults are rare and account for approximately 0.2% of primary tumors. (
  • Cachexia is thought to be caused by bioactive molecules produced by the tumor, such as alpha-lymphotoxin (tumor necrosis factor [TNF] alpha), peptides, and nucleotides, which are able to affect metabolism. (
  • Therefore, when encountering similar cases, clinicians should not limit the diagnosis to malignant tumors to avoid rashly expanding the surgery and causing unnecessary harm to the patient. (
  • Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is routinely used in the management of pancreatic cancer for diagnosis, prognostication and surveillance purposes despite its low specificity. (
  • Conclusion: Advanced staging at the time of diagnosis has always been a poor prognostic factor in patients with primary malignant liver tumors. (
  • Glucose measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma and of carbohydrate metabolism disorders, including diabetes mellitus, neonatal hypoglycemia, and idiopathic hypoglycemia. (
  • Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. (
  • As such, malignant cells carrying the TF antigen may accumulate in the liver tissue. (
  • The improved tumor-specificity of GT-002 results in reduced binding to healthy-tissue expressed LYPD3 making it suitable for the development of highly potent therapies like ADCs or CARs. (
  • Tumor development is usually associated to alterations in cellsurface carbohydrates. (
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumor surrounding the urethra. (
  • However, knowledge about this type of tumor remains limited, particularly with regard to unusual pathological types. (
  • Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) provides information on intrahepatic metastases, biliary anatomy and tumor extension and is used in the staging of CCA. (
  • The TF antigen is a carbohydrate epitope. (
  • A humanized IgG1 mAb targeting a carbohydrate/protein combined epitope on MUC1 called tumor-associated (TA)-MUC1. (
  • During oncogenesis, the cell-surface glycans on tumor cells are transformed relative to the normal phenotype through modified expression of the enzymes involved in the cell's glycoprocessing machinery. (
  • A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. (
  • MoAb B3 is a murine MoAb that recognizes a Lewis Y carbohydrate antigen present on the surface of many carcinomas. (
  • Carbohydrates play crucial roles for structure, energy storage and molecular recognition events that are essential to living organisms but are also important to infections, the immune response and cancer development. (
  • Dr Barchi's career at the NCI has spanned a wide breadth of drug discovery efforts, including the synthesis of PKC and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the development of glycopeptide antigens as vaccine candidates against HIV and cancer, as well as the discovery of several glycopeptide-analogues of Antiproliferative Factor (APF), a negative growth factor isolated from patients with interstitial cystitis. (
  • Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a sialylated oligosaccharide that is most commonly found on circulating mucins in cancer patients. (
  • a Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Hubei Clinical Cancer Study Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. (
  • A CA 19-9 test measures the amount of a protein called CA 19-9 (cancer antigen 19-9) in a sample of your blood. (
  • CA 19-9 levels often go up as cancer grows and go down as tumors shrink. (
  • If the quantity of tumor material is sufficient, your doctor will discuss a possibility to perform genetic testing of the tumor DNA to identify mutations that are present in the cancer cells. (
  • The furthest advanced, CV9202 for non-small cell lung cancer, targets six different tumour associated antigens: 5T4, Mage C1, Mage C2, NY-ESO-1, survivin and MUC1. (
  • Cancer immunotherapy has been advancing on several fronts, most strikingly in the direction of checkpoint inhibition and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. (
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD1/PDL1 axis have shown breakthrough efficacy in a variety of solid tumors, including advanced gastric cancer resistant to chemotherapy after multi-course treatment [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Accumulated evidence has shown a correlation between the microsatellite instability/mismatch repair (MSI/MMR) status of tumors and the treatment efficacy of ICIs, and MSI-high (MSI-H) or MMR deficiency (dMMR) patients could achieve significant survival benefits from immunotherapy [ 6 , 7 ], however, this subgroup of patients only accounts for 5-10% of advanced gastric cancer [ 3 , 8 ]. (
  • Bruno Costa da Silva, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, São Paulo, Brazil: Functional relevance of cellular prion protein (PrPC) and Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (STI1/HOP) in colorectal and pancreatic tumors. (
  • Its complex chemistry made it highly difficult to replicate for study, until Chi-Huey Wong designed the Optimer One-Pot Synthesis (OPopS) which allowed for a complete and rapid synthesis of Globo H and the development of one of the first carbohydrate-based cancer vaccines, specifically targeting breast cancer cells and demonstrating positive results through Phase I and II human trials. (
  • Clinically, elevated expression of B3GNT5 was correlated with high grade, large tumor size and poor survival, indicating poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. (
  • Considering the presence of visually detectable uptake (higher than the background level) at the primary tumor site after nCRT as a positive result, we achieved a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 48% for the detection of RD. Conclusion: The use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT can facilitate the detection of RD after nCRT in patients with esophageal cancer. (
  • Onset of scleroderma and SLE could be related to production of antinuclear antibody (ANA), because antigens normally restricted to connective tissues are expressed aberrantly in cancer. (
  • PSA testing not only helps identify men in whom a prostate biopsy would be appropriate but also assists in assessing the response to therapy, determining tumor progression, and, in its most controversial role, screening for prostate cancer. (
  • They were given two vaccinations before local radiotherapy to a single tumour lesion in four consecutive daily fractions of 5GY. (
  • Materials and Methods: The standardized uptake values and the volumetric parameters (metabolic tumor value and total lesion glycolysis) were determined by 18F-FDG-PET/CT to identify RD in 39 patients before and after nCRT for esophageal carcinoma. (
  • We have developed a new synthesis of this antigen that is equipped with a chemically-defined specific linker to attach to macromolecules or other surfaces. (
  • Hepatic cystadenomas are benign tumors, but they have a high rate of recurrence and a potential for neoplastic transformation in approximately 10% of cases. (
  • Engagement of the Lewis X antigen (CD15) results in monocyte activation. (
  • ABSTRACT Introduction: liver tumors are rare neoplasms in childhood (1-2%), and about 2/3 are malignant. (
  • Results: a total of 13 patients with malignant liver tumors (HB 12, HCC 1) were treated. (
  • TF-positive tumor cells tend to metastasize to the liver, as liver cells possess a receptor for the TF-antigen. (
  • Fever may also be related to necrotic-inflammatory phenomena of the tumor and/or to alterations in liver function and consequent disorders of steroidogenesis. (
  • CT ( a ) and PET-CT ( b ) failed to detect the tumor in the liver. (
  • Macroscopically, a gray-white colored, ill-defined solid tumor in the lateral segment of the liver was found, invading the diaphragm (Fig. 3a ). (
  • Macroscopically, a solid tumor ( arrowheads ) in the lateral segment of the liver was discovered ( a ). (
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed an international multi-institutional retrospective study of 277 men with metachronous omCSPC who underwent targeted DNA sequencing of their primary/metastatic tumor. (
  • Improper treatment, such as marsupialization, internal Roux-en-Y drainage, or percutaneous drainage and alcoholization, is associated with almost certain recurrence. (
  • Its level is frequently measured for screening purposes in daily practice by physicians, while its main use is in the study of tumor recurrence and follow-up of recurrences. (
  • Other possibilities are that the tumors arise directly from embryonic foregut cells or peribiliary endocrine cells. (
  • The binding between tumors and other cell types is often mediated by carbohydrate-protein (lectin) interactions involving the aberrant glycans expressed on tumor cells. (
  • In addition, APF inhibits proliferation of bladder carcinoma and many other solid tumor cells at similar concentrations. (
  • The expansion of blood biopsy technologies such as detection of circulating tumour cells and cell-free DNA has shown clinical promise for this. (
  • Extracellular vesicles released into the blood from tumour cells may offer a snapshot of the whole of the tumour. (
  • Exosome-mediated signalling is one of the core mechanisms responsible for multidirectional communication of tumor cells and their associated microenvironment, which may result in enhancement of malignant tumor phenotypes. (
  • In this approach, T cells are engineered to launch sustained attacks on tumors. (
  • however, bone marrow biopsy showed infiltration of tumor cells. (
  • This radioimmunoconjugate emits beta particles that causes cytotoxicity in tumor cells and has both diagnostic and therapeutic uses. (
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells. (
  • Rethinking liquid biopsy: Microfluidic assays for mobile tumor cells in human body fluids. (
  • Vitronectin has been speculated to be involved in hemostasis and tumor malignancy . (
  • In addition, some of these tumor cell glycans are TACA's that are recognized as non-self by the immune system and have thus been used as components in vaccine constructs that are in clinical trials. (
  • Beginning in 2018, OBI has been conducting FDA-approved Phase I clinical trials of a "novel first-in-class monoclonal antibody"-OBI 888, specifically geared as a tumour-killer that targets Globo H and has shown efficacy at shrinking cancerous growths with no adverse effects to patients. (
  • Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 levels are elevated in some patients. (
  • Serum amylase and/or lipase levels are elevated in less than half of patients with resectable pancreatic cancers and are elevated in only one quarter of patients with unresectable tumors. (
  • Fewer than 4% of patients with a CA 19-9 level of more than 300 U/mL have been found to have resectable tumors. (
  • Tumour shrinkage of at least 15% at sites outside the area irradiated occurred in seven of 25 assessable patients. (
  • Fundamentally, their engineered expression platforms focus on streamlining novel antibody development, reducing the risk factors to patients, and optimizing tumor destruction. (
  • Administration of chemotherapy before pancreatectomy may represent the only way to assure optimal treatment, simultaneously selecting patients for surgery according to tumor biology. (
  • The two-component vaccine includes a tumour-associated carbohydrate antigen, Globo H, which is covalently bound to a carrier protein, keyhole limpet haemocyanin, to enhance its immunogenicity (the OBI-822 part), and OBI-821, a saponin-based adjuvant. (
  • In addition, our group developed an hybrid gold nanoparticle that can act as a vaccine delivery system for tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens. (
  • We are exploring analogues that may inhibit proliferation as treatments for IC/BPS or mimic APF activity with specificity for tumors as anticancer agents. (
  • Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens are produced due to the deregulation of glycosyltransferases, resulting in changes in enzyme activity and specificity for specific substrates. (
  • A humanized IgG1 mAb with unrivaled fine-specificity, specifically targeting the tumor-associated Lewis Y (LeY, CD174) carbohydrate antigen. (
  • An IgG1 mAb targeting LYPD3 (C4.4A) with increased tumor-specificity. (
  • Dectin-1 is the major macrophage receptor for β-glucans and generates a proinflammatory response through the recognition of these carbohydrates on fungal pathogens. (
  • We identified dectin-1 as a major receptor involved in the recognition of these carbohydrates, including both soluble and particulate forms, such as the β-glucan-rich Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall fraction, zymosan ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Unlike many tumors, cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma are rarely associated with calcifications. (
  • Our goal is to optimize these various nanoconstructs to enhance a glycopeptide-specific immune response that will be specific for distinct tumors bearing these antigens. (
  • These are then cultured with the protein PAP-GM-CSF, of which the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor component stimulates the immune system, and enhances the presentation of the antigens. (
  • Dilemmas and limitations interpreting carbohydrate antigen 19-9 elevation after curative pancreatic surgery: A case report. (
  • Acclaimed biochemist Professor Chi-Huey Wong, PhD has worked tirelessly over the course of his career in advanced research to develop effective immunotherapy treatment regimens targeting the most prevalent types of cancerous tumour growth. (
  • Carcinomas of unknown primary (CUP) represent a group of heterogeneous tumors that has no identifiable origin [ 1 ]. (
  • CYFRA21-1, a soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19, could be utilized as you sign ARRY-438162 price for medical effectiveness tumor and check prognosis common sense, which is frequently found in analysis of renal carcinoma also. (