Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Experimental induction of retinal ganglion cell death in adult mice. (1/841)

PURPOSE: Retinal ganglion cells die by apoptosis during development and after trauma such as axonal damage and exposure to excitotoxins. Apoptosis is associated with changes in the expression of genes that regulate this process. The genes that regulate apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells have not been characterized primarily because previous studies have been limited to animal models in which gene function is not easily manipulated. To overcome this limitation, the rate and mechanism of retinal ganglion cell death in mice was characterized using optic nerve crush and intravitreal injections of the glutamate analog N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). METHODS: To expose retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to excitotoxins, adult CB6F1 mice were injected intravitreally in one eye with NMDA. In an alternative protocol to physically damage the axons in the optic nerve, the nerve was crushed using self-closing fine forceps. Each animal had one or the other procedure carried out on one eye. Loss of RGCs was monitored as a percentage of cells lost relative to the fellow untreated eye. Thy1 expression was examined using in situ hybridization. DNA fragmentation in dying cells was monitored using terminal transferase-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS: RGCs comprise 67.5% +/- 6.5% (mean +/- SD) of cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of control mice based on nuclear morphology and the presence of mRNA for the ganglion cell marker Thy1. One week after optic nerve crush, these cells started to die, progressing to a maximum loss of 57.8% +/- 8.1% of the cells in the GCL by 3 weeks. Cell loss after NMDA injection was dose dependent, with injections of 10 nanomoles having virtually no effect to a maximum loss of 72.5% +/- 12.1% of the cells in the GCL within 6 days after injection of 160 nanomoles NMDA. Cell death exhibited features of apoptosis after both optic nerve crush and NMDA injection, including the formation of pyknotic nuclei and TUNEL staining. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative RGC death can be induced in mice using two distinct signaling pathways, making it possible to test the roles of genes in this process using transgenic animals.  (+info)

Gastrointestinal epithelium is an early extrathymic site for increased prevalence of CD34(+) progenitor cells in contrast to the thymus during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (2/841)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on the prevalence and phenotype of progenitor cells present in the gastrointestinal epithelia of SIV-infected rhesus macaques, a primate model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. The gastrointestinal epithelium was residence to progenitor cells expressing CD34 antigen, a subset of which also coexpressed Thy-1 and c-kit receptors, suggesting that the CD34(+) population in the intestine comprised a subpopulation of primitive precursors. Following experimental SIVmac251 infection, an early increase in the proportions of CD34(+) Thy-1(+) and CD34(+) c-kit+ progenitor cells was observed in the gastrointestinal epithelium. In contrast, the proportion of CD34(+) cells in the thymus declined during primary SIV infection, which was characterized by a decrease in the frequency of CD34(+) Thy-1(+) progenitor cells. A severe depletion in the frequency of CD4-committed CD34(+) progenitors was observed in the gastrointestinal epithelium 2 weeks after SIV infection which persisted even 4 weeks after infection. A coincident increase in the frequency of CD8- committed CD34(+) progenitor cells was observed during primary SIV infection. These results indicate that in contrast to the primary lymphoid organs such as the thymus, the gastrointestinal epithelium may be an early extrathymic site for the increased prevalence of both primitive and committed CD34(+) progenitor cells. The gastrointestinal epithelium may potentially play an important role in maintaining T-cell homeostasis in the intestinal mucosa during primary SIV infection.  (+info)

Recapitulation of normal and abnormal BioBreeding rat T cell development in adult thymus organ culture. (3/841)

Congenitally lymphopenic diabetes-prone (DP) BioBreeding (BB) rats develop spontaneous T cell-dependent autoimmunity. Coisogenic diabetes-resistant (DR) BB rats are not lymphopenic and are free of spontaneous autoimmune disease, but become diabetic in response to depletion of RT6+ T cells. The basis for the predisposition to autoimmunity in BB rats is unknown. Abnormal T cell development in DP-BB rats can be detected intrathymically, and thymocytes from DR-BB rats adoptively transfer diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these T cell developmental abnormalities are not known. To study these processes, we established adult thymus organ cultures (ATOC). We report that cultured DR- and DP-BB rat thymi generate mature CD4 and CD8 single-positive cells with up-regulated TCRs. DR-BB rat cultures also generate T cells that express RT6. In contrast, DP-BB rat cultures generate fewer CD4+, CD8+, and RT6+ T cells. Analysis of the cells obtained from ATOC suggested that the failure of cultured DP-BB rat thymi to generate T cells with a mature phenotype is due in part to an increased rate of apoptosis. Consistent with this inference, we observed that addition of the general caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK substantially increases the number of both mature and immature T cells produced by DP-BB rat ATOC. We conclude that cultured DR-BB and DP-BB rat thymi, respectively, recapitulate the normal and abnormal T cell developmental kinetics and phenotypes observed in these animals in vivo. Such cultures should facilitate identification of the underlying pathological processes that lead to immune dysfunction and autoimmunity in BB rats.  (+info)

Maturation of the axonal plasma membrane requires upregulation of sphingomyelin synthesis and formation of protein-lipid complexes. (4/841)

Neuronal maturation is a gradual process; first axons and dendrites are established as distinct morphological entities; next the different intracellular organization of these processes occurs; and finally the specialized plasma membrane domains of these two compartments are formed. Only when this has been accomplished does proper neuronal function take place. In this work we present evidence that the correct distribution of a class of axonal membrane proteins requires a mechanism which involves formation of protein-lipid (sphingomyelin/cholesterol) detergent-insoluble complexes (DIGs). Using biochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy we now show that in developing neurons the randomly distributed Thy-1 does not interact with lipids into DIGs (in fully developed neurons the formation of such complexes is essential for the correct axonal targeting of this protein). Using lipid mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography we show that the DIG lipid missing in the developing neurons is sphingomyelin, but not cholesterol or glucosylceramide. Finally, by increasing the intracellular levels of sphingomyelin in the young neurons the formation of Thy-1/DIGs was induced and, consistent with a role in sorting, proper axonal distribution was facilitated. These results emphasize the role of sphingomyelin in axonal, and therefore, neuronal maturation.  (+info)

Negative selection of immature B cells by receptor editing or deletion is determined by site of antigen encounter. (5/841)

Immature B cells that encounter self-antigen are eliminated from the immune repertoire by negative selection. Negative selection has been proposed to take place by two distinct mechanisms: deletion by apoptosis or alteration of the antigen receptor specificity by receptor editing. While convincing evidence exists for each, the two models are inherently contradictory. In this paper, we propose a resolution to this contradiction by demonstrating that the site of first antigen encounter dictates which mechanism of negative selection is utilized. We demonstrate that the bone marrow microenvironment provides signals that block antigen-induced deletion and promote RAG reinduction. In the periphery, the absence of these signals allows the immature B cell to default to apoptosis as a result of BCR engagement.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide analysis and molecular modeling of soluble forms of glycoproteins belonging to the Ly-6, scavenger receptor, and immunoglobulin superfamilies expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (6/841)

Most cell surface molecules are glycoproteins consisting of linear arrays of globular domains containing stretches of amino acid sequence with similarities to regions in other proteins. These conserved regions form the basis for the classification of proteins into superfamilies. Recombinant soluble forms of six leukocyte antigens belonging to the Ly-6 (CD59), scavenger receptor (CD5), and immunoglobulin (CD2, CD48, CD4, and Thy-1) superfamilies were expressed in the same Chinese hamster ovary cell line, thus providing an opportunity to examine the extent to which N-linked oligosaccharide processing might vary in a superfamily-, domain-, or protein-dependent manner in a given cell. While we found no evidence for superfamily-specific modifications of the glycans, marked differences were seen in the types of oligosaccharides attached to individual proteins within a given superfamily. The relative importance of local protein surface properties versus the overall tertiary structure of the molecules in directing this protein-specific variation was examined in the context of molecular models. These were constructed using the 3D structures of the proteins, glycan data from this study, and an oligosaccharide structural database. The results indicated that both the overall organization of the domains and the local protein structure can have a large bearing on site-specific glycan modification of cells in stasis. This level of control ensures that the surface of a single cell will display a diverse repertoire of glycans and precludes the presentation of multiple copies of a single oligosaccharide on the cell surface. The glycans invariably shield large regions of the protein surfaces although, for the glycoproteins examined here, these did not hinder the known active sites of the molecules. The models also indicated that sugars are likely to play a role in the packing of the native cell surface glycoproteins and to limit nonspecific protein-protein interactions. In addition, glycans located close to the cell membrane are likely to affect crucially the orientation of the glycoproteins to which they are attached.  (+info)

Cleavage of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor affects the reactivity of thy-1 with antibodies. (7/841)

Thy-1 protein, a member of the Ig superfamily, is bound to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. We demonstrate that following anchor cleavage by phospholipase C, the reactivity of the solubilized Thy-1 with several mAbs is lost, and its reactivity with polyclonal anti-Thy-1 Abs is markedly decreased. Hence, solubilized Thy-1 cannot be detected by a range of mAbs. In contrast, enzymatic cleavage of biotinylated Thy-1 yields an intact solubilized protein that can be detected by streptavidin. These results exclude a possible proteolytic degradation of solubilized Thy-1 and suggest that the marked decrease in Thy-1 immunoreactivity following delipidation is due to conformational changes in the Thy-1 protein. We further demonstrate that addition of phospholipase C to preformed Ab-Ag complexes causes dissociation and removal of Thy-1 from the complex, indicating that delipidation of Thy-1 induces a conformational change in Thy-1 that is sufficient to dissociate bound Ab. The possibility should therefore be considered that the GPI anchor affects the conformation of a protein to which it is linked.  (+info)

Assessment of Thy-1 mRNA levels as an index of retinal ganglion cell damage. (8/841)

PURPOSE: Thy-1 is primarily, if not entirely, expressed by the ganglion cells within the retina. This knowledge was used to index ganglion cell death after ischemia and excitotoxicity by studying changes in Thy-1 mRNA levels. METHODS: Insults to the rat retina were delivered either by elevation of intraocular pressure for 60 minutes or by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). After a defined period, changes in Thy-1 immunoreactivity and mRNA levels of Thy-1 and NR1 (NMDA receptor subunit) were used to index ganglion cell sensitivity to damage. Opsin mRNA levels were used as an internal control because photoreceptors lack NMDA receptors. RESULTS: Retinal Thy-1 immunoreactivity, associated with the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers, is reduced by ischemia or intravitreal injections of NMDA in a dose-dependent manner. Using a semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) methodology, the levels of total retinal Thy-1 and NR1 mRNAs were shown to be dramatically reduced after both transient ischemia and intravitreal injection of NMDA. The effect of NMDA was found to be both time- and dose-dependent. In contrast, no change occurred in the levels of opsin mRNA unless high levels of NMDA (200 nmoles) were administered. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemia and NMDA-induced excitotoxicity caused retinal ganglion cell destruction, but the photoreceptors were unaffected. Measurement of total retinal Thy-1 mRNA levels provides a useful way of following ganglion cell death especially when combined with immunohistochemical localization of Thy-1. Additionally, the effect on other retinal cell types such as the photoreceptors can be followed in concert using this technique.  (+info)

*CD90

The antigen Thy-1 was the first T cell marker to be identified. Thy-1 was discovered by Reif and Allen in 1964 during a search ... Thy 1b, CD90.2). They differ by only one amino acid at position 108; an arginine in Thy-1.1 and a glutamine in Thy-1.2. Thy 1.2 ... It was originally named theta (θ) antigen, then Thy-1 (THYmocyte differentiation antigen 1) due to its prior identification in ... originally discovered as a thymocyte antigen. Thy-1 can be used as a marker for a variety of stem cells and for the axonal ...

*Alan Williams (immunologist)

doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90063-7. Campbell DG, Gagnon J, Reid KB, Williams AF (1981). "Rat brain Thy-1 glycoprotein. The amino ... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... Williams AF, Gagnon J (1982). "Neuronal cell Thy-1 glycoprotein: homology with immunoglobulin". Science. 216: 696-703. doi: ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ...

*Arnold E. Reif

Reif is best known for his 1964 discovery of the first T cell marker, an antigen he later named Thy-1. His Google Scholar H- ... Reif A., Allen J. (1964). "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120 (3): ... Reif A., Allen J. (1966). "Mouse Thymic Iso-antigens". Nature. 209 (5022): 521-523. doi:10.1038/209521b0. PMID 5919593. h-index ...

*ASCL1

doi:10.1089/thy.2005.15.511. PMID 16029117. Renault B, Lieman J, Ward D, Krauter K, Kucherlapati R (Nov 1995). "Localization of ... and proximal to tumor rejection antigen (TRA1) on chromosome 12q22-q23". Genomics. 30 (1): 81-3. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.0012. ... Achaete-scute homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ASCL1 gene. Because it was discovered subsequent to ... 122 (1): 100-5. doi:10.1309/QD0K-9Q1J-BH6B-5GQQ. PMID 15272537. ASCL1 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine ...

*CD7

Aruffo A, Seed B (November 1987). "Molecular cloning of two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system ... structural similarity with the murine Thy-1 gene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Baker E, Sandrin MS, Garson OM, Sutherland GR, McKenzie IF, Webber LM (1990). "Localization of the cell surface antigen CD7 by ... Subrahmanyam G, Rudd CE, Schneider H (January 2003). "Association of T cell antigen CD7 with type II phosphatidylinositol-4 ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd147 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.264 --- antigens, cd164 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.270 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.050.301.264.920 --- antigens, ly MeSH D23.050.301.264.930 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.050.301.264.965 ... antigens, cd147 MeSH D23.101.100.110.264 --- antigens, cd164 MeSH D23.101.100.110.270 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.101.100.110. ... antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 --- antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 --- antigens, thy-1 MeSH D23.101.840.050 --- alpha- ...

*CD48

... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... "The association of the protein tyrosine kinases p56lck and p60fyn with the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins Thy- ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...

*Stem cell marker

CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... "Hepatic progenitor cells in human fetal liver express the oval cell marker Thy-1". American Journal of Physiology. 291 (1): G45 ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ...

*Basophil

... s of mice and humans have consistent immunophenotypes, including FcεRI+, CD123, CD49b(DX-5)+, CD69+, Thy-1.2+, 2B4+, ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells. However, ... CD11bdull, CD117(c-kit)−, CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3−, γδTCR−, αβTCR ...

*Medullary thyroid cancer

doi:10.1089/thy.1996.6.305. PMID 8875751. Quayle FJ, Moley JF (2005). "Medullary thyroid carcinoma: including MEN 2A and MEN 2B ... A second marker, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), also produced by medullary thyroid carcinoma, is released into the blood and ... The prognostic value of measuring calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentrations in the blood was studied in 65 ... "Prognostic Impact of Serum Calcitonin and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Doubling-Times in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma ...

*Gamma delta T cell

The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... Jul 1985). "Origin and function of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells in mice". J Invest Dermatol. 85 (1 Suppl): 85s-90s. doi: ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ...

*Lck

Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ... Thomas PM, Samelson LE (Jun 1992). "The glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored Thy-1 molecule interacts with the p60fyn protein ... When the T cell receptor is engaged by the specific antigen presented by MHC, Lck acts to phosphorylate the intracellular ... 183 (1): 169-78. doi:10.1084/jem.183.1.169. PMC 2192399 . PMID 8551220. Taher TE, Smit L, Griffioen AW, Schilder-Tol EJ, Borst ...

*CD97

Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Wandel E, Saalbach A, Sittig D, Gebhardt C, Aust G (Feb 2012). "Thy-1 (CD90) is an interacting partner for CD97 on activated ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Thy-1) with the GAIN domain.[22] N-glycosylation of CD97 within the EGF domains is crucial for CD55 binding.[23] ...

*Thyroid cancer

doi:10.1089/thy.2009.0110. PMID 19860577. British Thyroid Association, Royal College of Physicians, Perros P (2007). Guidelines ... "Prognostic Impact of Serum Calcitonin and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Doubling-Times in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma ... ISBN 1-4160-2973-7. 8th edition. Schlumberger M, Carlomagno F, Baudin E, Bidart JM, Santoro M (2008). "New therapeutic ... Thyroid cancer accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases and deaths in the UK. Around 2,700 people were diagnosed with thyroid ...

*Serpin

Examples of cross-class inhibitory serpins include serpin B4 a squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA-1) and the avian serpin ... doi:10.1089/thy.1992.2.237. PMID 1422238. Persani L (September 2012). "Clinical review: Central hypothyroidism: pathogenic, ... Takeda A, Yamamoto T, Nakamura Y, Takahashi T, Hibino T (February 1995). "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is a potent inhibitor ... "Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 2 is a novel serpin that inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteinases cathepsin G and mast cell ...

*Yersinia enterocolitica

doi:10.1089/thy.2006.16.225. PMID 16571084. Tomer Y, Davies T (1993). "Infection, thyroid disease, and autoimmunity" (PDF). ... surface antigen. Five of the six biogroups (1B and 2-5) are regarded as pathogens. However, only a few of these serogroups have ... 30 (1): 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.eimc.2011.07.017. PMID 22019131. Goljan, Edward F. Rapid Review Pathology. Second Edition. Page ... 14 (1): 107-20. doi:10.1210/er.14.1.107. PMID 8491150. Toivanen P, Toivanen A (1994). "Does Yersinia induce autoimmunity?". Int ...

*Semen

Balk, S. P.; Ko, YJ; Bubley, GJ (2003). "Biology of Prostate-Specific Antigen". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 21 (2): 383-91. ... Thy people shall be willing in the day Bible Gateway Walker, Barbara (October 19, 1988). The Woman's Dictionary of Symbols and ... After a period typically ranging from 15 - 30 minutes, prostate-specific antigen present in the semen causes the decoagulation ... Retrieved 1 December 2016. Rafik, Amal. Passion Masters: Sex Secrets of a Forbidden Cult. Google Books: Blue Moon Books. ISBN ...

*Chemorepulsion

2002). "Role for CCR7 ligands in the emigration of newly generated T lymphocytes from the neonatal thy mus". Immunity. 16 (2): ... Certain body tissues are able to tolerate antigens without an inflammatory immune response. Immune privilege is thought to be ... T-cells are formed in the bone marrow and subsequently migrate to the cortex of the thymus where they can mature in an antigen- ... antigens, cytokines, steroids, receptor antagonists, adhesion molecules, etc.). As a result, ...

*NAA15

15 (10): 1131-6. doi:10.1089/thy.2005.15.1131. PMID 16279846. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann ... N-alpha-acetyltransferase 15, NatA auxiliary subunit also known as gastric cancer antigen Ga19 (GA19), NMDA receptor-regulated ... "Regulation of osteocalcin gene expression by a novel Ku antigen transcription factor complex". The Journal of Biological ... Norwitz ER, Xu S, Xu J, Spiryda LB, Park JS, Jeong KH, McGee EA, Kaiser UB (2002). "Direct binding of AP-1 (Fos/Jun) proteins ...

*Hematopoietic stem cell

hematopoietic cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of Immunology. 133 (1 ... To prove this, several hundred experimental repopulation kinetics from clonal Thy-1lo SCA-1+ lin− c-kit+ HSC were translated ... Loken M. Shah V. Civin CI.. (1987). ""Characterization of myeloid antigens on human bone marrow using multicolour ... HSCs constitute 1:10.000 of cells in myeloid tissue. HSC studies through much of the past half century have led to a much ...

*Thymidine kinase in clinical chemistry

doi:10.1089/thy.1991.1.347. PMID 1841732. Pikner R, Ludvíkova M, Ryska A, Kholova I, Holubec L, Topolcan O, Pecen L, Fínek J ( ... Thymidine kinase has been suggested as a supplement to PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen), the tumor marker most frequently used ... Björklund B (1978). "Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA): Biology, biochemistry, improved assay methodology, clinical significance ... 13 (1): 145-9. doi:10.3892/or.13.1.145. PMID 15583816. Chen F, Tang L, Xia T, He E, Hu G, Li Y, Zhang M, Zhou J, Eriksson S, ...

*c-Raf

doi:10.1089/thy.2005.15.511. Vanjske veze[uredi - уреди , uredi izvor]. *MeSH c-raf+Proteins ... 1]. [2]. RAF proto-onkogena serin/treoninska proteinska kinaza (proto-onkogen c-RAF ili c-Raf) je enzim[1] koji je kod ljudi ... Dhillon AS, Kolch W (2002). "Untying the regulation of the Raf-1 kinase". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 404 (1): 3-9. PMID 12127063. ... 2004). "HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication". J. Biosci. 28 (3): ...

*c-Raf - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

doi:10.1089/thy.2005.15.511.. CS1 одржавање: Вишеструка имена: списак аутора (веза) ... Goodpasture-antigen-vezujuća proteinska kinaza (EC 2.7.11.9). -. IκB kinaza (EC 2.7.11.10). CHUK, IKK2, TBK1, IKBKE, IKBKG, ... 1]. [2]. RAF proto-onkogena serin/treoninska proteinska kinaza (proto-onkogen c-RAF ili c-Raf) je enzim[1] koji je kod ljudi ... Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). „Structure-function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO Rep. 2 (7): 580-5. PMC 1083955 ...

*Tüümus - Vikipeedia

Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... D. PALADINI, How to identify the thymus in the fetus: the thy-box, Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 37. väljaanne, nr 4, ... Ana C. Anderson ja Vijay K. Kuchroo, Expression of Self-antigen in the Thymus A Little Goes a Long Way, 1. detsember 2003 // ... D. PALADINI, How to identify the thymus in the fetus: the thy-box, Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 37. väljaanne, nr 4, ...

*Basophil

Thy-1.2+, 2B4+, CD11bdull, CD117(c-kit)−, CD24−, CD19−, CD80−, CD14−, CD23−, Ly49c−, CD122−, CD11c−, Gr-1−, NK1.1−, B220−, CD3− ... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes, representing about 0.5 to 1% of circulating white blood cells.[3] However, ...

*Hypothyroidism

doi:10.1089/thy.2012.0205. PMID 22954017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-14. Chakera, AJ; Pearce, SH; Vaidya, B ( ... is characterized by infiltration of the thyroid gland with T lymphocytes and autoantibodies against specific thyroid antigens ... doi:10.1089/thy.2011.0087. PMC 3472679 . PMID 21787128. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) So, M; MacIsaac, RJ; ... doi:10.1089/thy.2006.16.949. PMID 17042677. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) American Academy of Pediatrics; Rose ...

*Graves' disease

doi:10.1089/thy.1998.8.539. PMID 9669294.. *^ Tan NY, Leong YY, Lang SS, Htoon ZM, Young SM, Sundar G (May 2017). "Radiologic ... Human leukocyte antigen DR (especially DR3) appears to play a role.[10] To date, no clear genetic defect has been found to ... 8 (7): 571-6. doi:10.1089/thy.1998.8.571. PMID 9709909.. *^ Wallaschofski H, Kuwert T, Lohmann T (April 2004). "TSH-receptor ... 1: 43-45 [45].. *^ "水嶋ヒロ・絢香、2ショット会見で結婚報告 絢香はバセドウ病を告白、年内で休業へ" (in Japanese). Oricon. April 3, 2009. Archived from the

*Graves' disease

Human leukocyte antigen DR (especially DR3) appears to play a role. To date, no clear genetic defect has been found to point to ... doi:10.1089/thy.1998.8.539. ISSN 1050-7256. PMID 9669294. Tan, Nicholas Y. Q.; Leong, Yuan-Yuh; Lang, Stephanie S.; Htoon, Zin ... 10.1089/thy.1998.8.571, PMID 9709909. Wallaschofski H, Kuwert T, Lohmann T (2004). "TSH-receptor autoantibodies - ... and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, among others. Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears ...
Expression of Thy-1 on hematopoietic cells from human fetal liver (FL), cord blood (CB), and bone marrow (BM) was studied with a novel anti-Thy-1 antibody, 5E10. Specificity of 5E10 for human Thy-1 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of a 25-35-kD molecule, and the sequence of a cDNA that was cloned by immunoselection of COS cells transfected with a cDNA library derived from a 5E10+ cell line. Two- and three-color immunofluorescence staining experiments revealed that the Thy-1 expression is restricted to, an average, 1-4% of FL, CB, and BM cells, and binding to these cell types is essentially restricted to a very small subset of lymphoid cells and approximately 25% of CD34+ cells. Thy-1+ CD34+ cells were further characterized as CD38lo/CD45RO+/CD45RA-/CD71lo/c-kit(lo) and rhodamine 123dull. When CD34+ cells were sorted on the basis of Thy-1 expression, the majority of clonogenic cells were recovered in the CD34+Thy-1- fraction, whereas the majority of cells capable of producing myeloid ...
Buy THY1 elisa kit, Human Thy-1 membrane glycoprotein ELISA Kit-NP_001298089.1 (MBS2883482) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Transcripomics; European eel; Water dams; Microarray; Synaptic plasticity; Fish brain; CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS; SURFACE GLYCOPROTEIN THY-1; MEDIATED ACTIN DYNAMICS; GENOMIC REACTION NORMS; ANGUILLA-ANGUILLA; SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY; HABITAT FRAGMENTATION; PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY; LOCOMOTOR-ACTIVITY; NEURAL PLASTICITY ...
The aim of this study was to develop new qPCR mixes capable of amplifying difficult DNA templates, such as those in whole blood, of medium size and/or GC-rich, in the presence of various DNA dyes. First, we assessed the properties of seven different DNA dyes in four widely used PCR buffers differing in salt composition. Our data indicate that the performance of various DNA dyes in qPCR is differently affected by salt composition of the PCR mixes. When genomic DNA fragment of mouse Thy-1 (864 bp) was amplified, SGI completely inhibited PCR in most of the PCR mixes. The only PCR mix which allowed efficient amplification of the Thy-1 fragment in the presence of SGI was mix IV, which differed from other mixes by the presence of both KCl and (NH4)2SO4 and the substitution of MgSO4 for MgCl2. This mix had pH 8.8, which also contributed to its performance; when pH of this mix was decreased to 8.0, SGI-mediated inhibition of PCR was noticed (data not shown). Besides pH, salt composition also plays a ...
Hintergrund. L-Arginin spielt eine komplexe Rolle in der renalen Matrixexpansion, eingeschlossen der endogene Stoffwechsel der Aminosäure in Stickoxid (NO), Polyamine, L-Prolin und Agmatin. Bei Ratten mit einer induzierten Anti-Thy1-Glomerulonephritis (GN) ist gezeigt worden, dass die diätetische Gabe von L-Arginin die Überproduktion von transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta sowie die Matrixakkumulation limitieren konnte. Die vorliegende Studie testet die Hypothese, dass die günstigen Effekte auf die Überexpression von TGF-beta in vivo durch die Generierung von NO vermittelt wird. Methoden. Einen Tag nach Induktion einer Anti-Thy-1-Glomerulonephritis wurden männliche Wistar Ratten, die mit normal proteinhaltigen Futter ernährt worden sind, in die folgenden Gruppen zugeordnet worden: (1) normale Kontrollen; (2) GN; (3) GN-Arg [plus 500 mg L-Arginin/die]; (4) GN-Arg-NAME [plus 500 mg L-Arginin/die und 75 mg/die des NO-Synthase-Inhibitors Nitro-L-Arginin-Methyl-Ester (L-NAME) im Trinkwasser] ...
Rat monoclonal CD200 / OX2 antibody [MRC OX90] validated for ELISA, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. With 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding to…
Ia8, a cell membrane antigen controlled by gene(s) located in the I region of the H-2 complex, was found on 9 of 26 murine leukemia cell lines. In addition, 3 of the 9 Ia8-bearing lines had a membrane receptor for antigen-antibody-complement complexes. Six of 26 lines bore the Thy-1.2 antigen. Ia8 and Thy-1.2 antigens were mutually exclusive on the cell lines studied. The strain of virus used to induce the leukemia, the H-2 type of the cells, and the techniques of leukemia cell propagation all appeared to influence the antigenic characteristics of the cell lines obtained. Production of infectious murine leukemia virus in vitro and expression of leukemia virus-induced membrane antigens did not appear to correlate with the presence of Ia8 or Thy-1.2 antigens or with the H-2 type of the cells.. ...
After immunization, activated splenic T cells proliferate in periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) and subsequently migrate to the lymphoid follicle where they enter nascent germinal centers. Analysis of TCR V(D)J gene rearrangements indicates extensive emigration, frequently involving more than a single white pulp region. These migrants constitute a unique set of T helper cells that express antigen-specific alpha beta TCR, CD3, and CD4, but little or no Thy-1, a differentiation antigen present on the great majority of peripheral murine T lymphocytes. The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular T cells appears to be the Thy+ population in the PALS, as both sets commonly share identical V(D)J rearrangements. ...
We have shown previously that 131I-labeled antibodies against the Thy-1.1 differentiation antigen can cure AKR/Cum (Thy-1.2+) mice bearing AKR/J (Thy-1.1+) SL2 T-cell lymphoma. In the present study we have extended these studies to the therapy of SL2 lymphoma in AKR/J mice, where 131I-anti-labeled Thy-1.1 antibodies react with both tumor and normal T-lymphocytes.. A single 25-µg bolus of 131I-labeled anti-Thy-1.1 antibody was rapidly cleared from serum by binding to spleen cells (t½ , 3 h) and only low concentrations (,2% injected dose/g) were present in tumor 24 h after infusion. Doses of 0.5-5.0 mg antibody saturated cells in the spleen but only slightly increased the proportion of antibody in tumor. In contrast, pretreatment of mice with 1.0 mg of unlabeled anti-Thy-1.1 antibody 24 h prior to 131I-labeled antibody resulted in a tumor concentration of 9.7% injected dose/g 24 h after infusion of the radiolabeled antibody. With this latter regimen, biodistribution approximated that seen in ...
This abstract was presented today at the 2014 Association for Research in Vision and Opthalmology (ARVO) meetings in Orlando, Florida by Haibo Wang, Yanchao Jiang and M. Elizabeth Hartnett. Thy-1 regulates VEGF-induced choroidal endothelial cell migration Dept of Ophthalmology, John A. Moran Eye Center, The University of Utah-Salt Lake City. Purpose: Choroidal endothelial cell (CEC) activation and migration […]. ...
Adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) involving transfer of tumor-sensitized T lymphocytes in combination with cyclophosphamide (CY)-injection results in the eradication of the C57BL/6J (B6) rhabdomyosarcoma, 76-9 and is associated with the accumulation of a large number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Using immune spleen cells (ISC) from B6 and congenic B6. PL. Thy-1a mice, it was shown that most (| or = 97%) of the TIL were donor-derived. This in situ increase in donor-derived T cells was confirmed by using positively-selected Thy- 1.1+ and Thy- 1.2+ TIL for AIT after isolating them from regressing tumors and expanding them in rIL-2. The extent of CD8+ TIL expansion in vivo correlated with the numbers of TIL adoptively transferred and this in turn determined the degree of anti-tumor effects. It was evident, however, that these in vitro-expanded TIL expressing mRNA for TNF alpha and IFN gamma were qualitatively different and therapeutically less efficacious than the T cells associated with
Thy1 - Thy1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat Thy-1 cell surface antigen (Thy1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity of macrophage activation in anti-Thy-1.1 nephritis. AU - Minto, A.. AU - Erwig, Lars Peter. AU - Rees, Andrew Jackson. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Macrophages infiltrating glomeruli in telescoped nephrotoxic nephritis are programmed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether macrophages infiltrating glomeruli of rats with passively induced injury become similarly programmed, and to determine whether macrophage commitment is an early event. Glomerular macrophages isolated from rats with resolving and proliferative anti-Thy-1 nephritis were examined for nitric oxide (NO) generation and expression of lysosomal hydrolases. After a single injection of Thy-1 antibody the cells generated large amounts of NO that was attenuated ex vivo by transforming growth factor-beta and other anti-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast macrophages infiltrating glomeruli immediately after a second injection of Thy-1 antibody generated No spontaneously and were unresponsive to ...
Fig. 5 Shenhua Tablet downregulates p-Erk1/2 and cyclin D1 while upregulating p21 in the renal cortex of rats with anti-Thy-1 nephritis. a Western blot was performed to detect the expression levels of p-Erk1/2, cyclin D1 and p21 in all drug-treated groups as well as the controls. b Quantification of the cyclin D1, p21 and p-Erk1/2. Expression level of p-Erk1/2 was normalized with total Erk1/2 while cyclin D1 and p21 were normalized with beta-actin. Each bar represents the mean ± SD of six rats. * p, 0.05, ** p, 0.01 vs. Thy-1; # p, 0.05, ## p, 0.01 vs. Irb group. Discussion. Abnormal proliferation of mesangial cells is an important pathological feature of multiple immune-mediated glo-merular diseases; continuous mesangial cell proliferation eventually leads to irreversible glomerulosclerosis, and even progresses to renal failure [4]. MsPGN, including IgAN and non-IgA MsPGN, is the most common glo-merulonephritis and the primary cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) [10]. Therefore, inhibition ...
Three Philosophers Belgian Style Blend (Quadrupel) is a Quadrupel (Quad) style beer brewed by Brewery Ommegang in Cooperstown, NY. 4.15 average with 6480 ratings, reviews and opinions.
In this study, we have shown that Thy-1 functions in cell-cell signaling via dual interaction with αvβ3 integrin and syndecan-4. Engagement of these two receptors leads to FA and SF formation in astrocytes, increasing their adhesion to the underlying matrix. To date, the following cooperative interactions of integrins and syndecans with the extracellular matrix have been reported to increase adhesion: (1) α5β1 integrin and syndecan-4 with fibronectin (Bloom et al., 1999; Woods et al., 1986); (2) αvβ3 integrin, αvβ5 integrin and syndecan-1 with vitronectin (Beauvais et al., 2004; McQuade et al., 2006), and (3) α2β1 integrin, α6β4 integrin and syndecans with laminin (Hozumi et al., 2006; Ogawa et al., 2007). These examples underscore the fact that cooperation between these types of receptors has so far been viewed as a matrix-rather than a cell-initiated signaling process. Interestingly, despite the distinct nature of the ligand implicated in this case, namely Thy-1, similar signaling ...
Four glycopeptides (I, IIA, IIB, III) with different oligosaccharide structures were isolated from purified mouse thymocyte Thy-1 glycoprotein. The glycoprotein was digested with Pronase, and the glycopeptide fraction was isolated by gel filtration and acetylated with [3H]acetic anhydride. The different glycan structures were separated by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B and lentil lectin-Sepharose 4B. Size determinations of intact and exoglycosidase- and endoglycosidase-digested glycopeptides were performed by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, calibrated with glycopeptides of known structure. On the basis of these experiments and on the behaviour of the glycopeptides on the lectin columns, the following structures of the oligosaccharide chains were proposed: I, triantennary complex-type with terminal fucose; IIA, biantennary complex-type without fucose; IIB, biantennary complex-type with fucose; III, a mixture of high-mannose chains containing either five or six ...
Dear lab-mates We are interested to get diffusion clean for a few 12 inch Silicon wafers. Please let us know, if there is a facility or company who can do it for us. thanks ~gaurav ...
Background Controversial effects of L-arginine-NO pathway have been shown on renal disease. The present study analyzes the main downstream of L-arginine-NO pathway, the NO-cGMP signaling in and the effect of the specific sGC stimulator Bay 41-2272 on the injury, matrix expansion and progression phases in the rat model of anti-thy1-induced renal disease. Methods The injection of anti-thy1 antibody into rats with two kidneys or nephrectomized rats caused a sequence of the injury, matrix expansion and progression phases. The effects of Bay 41-2272 (10 mg/kg body weight/d) treatment on systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, kidney function, glomerular and tubulointerstitial matrix protein accumulation, expression of TGF- beta1, fibronectin and PAI-1, macrophage infiltration, alpha1sGC and beta1sGC mRNA expression and basal and NO-stimulated renal cGMP production were determined. In the chronic anti-thy1 model, the effect of Bay 41-2272 was compared side-by-side to the sole vasodilator hydralazine (15 ...
Taylor, SRJ, Turner, CM, Elliott, JI, McDaid, J, Hewitt, R, Smith, J, Pickering, MC, Whitehouse, DL, Cook, HT, Burnstock, G et al, Pusey, CD, Unwin, RJ and Tam, FWK. (2009) P2X(7) Deficiency Attenuates Renal Injury in Experimental Glomerulonephritis ...
Anti-Thy1.1 antibody conjugated to Allophycocyanin [HIS51] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse and Rat. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or virus
Purpose: Phosphorylation is a major type of protein post-translational modification. In this study, we evaluated the phosphoproteomic changes in the retina induced by optic nerve crush (ONC) in the mouse, an acute model of central nervous system (CNS) axonal injury. The functional role of an identified major phosphoprotein was further studied. Methods: Intraorbital ONC was performed in adult C57BL/6J mice. Retinas were collected at 0, 6, and 12 h following optic nerve injury. Retinal proteins labeled with CyDye-C2 were subjected to 2D-PAGE. 2D gel phosphoprotein staining was performed, followed by in-gel and cross-gel image analysis. The ratio change of protein differential phosphorylation following ONC was obtained. Proteins with significant changes in phosphorylation (ratios ≥ 1.5) in retinas of the injured eyes compared to the control eyes were spot-picked, tryptic digested, and peptide fragments were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS) and TOF/TOF (tandem MS/MS). Proteins identity was based on 10 or more
Definition of proliferative glomerulonephritis. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
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V 4 ? . , " .-.-. ..;.t.w:.-- ..v.- V e3 jhi! fify&&fyrf ..- t.- "1 1:." -.1 :J A ?.: jl . W AT 37 ? " ii in f in r n i in i tkmtmmmmmjm0 J 7m i n" j - - " " "" 1 r; V - TT1 , It P 7 I I I " Tims! siir i -Iut j i . . i a g i r ? o ti i , fT;wv.,iM; ;ri! TT! in r$&jpxhU of boyhood lotti "- ! ,1. it : :: 1 ,.Bot fBfttOOt Kplwq btforp lp--,i.) ,..., 1 trrr$Uin i (;.!.! : r ;;. ,i:a-.-M On whtf bar IISsIm mould - , 1I4i4lti,WTglT rireat; :i . ..vj. nit MrAr emtkt! 1 ..rr T.1 1 1 l -1 "at L : Ooave to beaven I y, la baaven i fin rf ; ; -UefrpirU liriri ber layj - - a Ior m earth aha plumed her pinionaL-! 1 Y (iil t 1 ( ! - h othr aaed W pray t " 1 1 r TbtA, my heart, renoane thy- aadaaea ! vfi. J . i-Thv Voaa ia ber areai cala r ? ! vH At. f - i. ,dnr-. -Piaa,praH forward laber fjotprtatar i i n-i;:( I.svh, mother eat,Vg-3 J j- 7 V : 7 i . r . - - -i.ir"ti;.A.i. .Writ ti Jt. l araoa f -a w u uut! U , . uras. !ij wr Hi I . a 3h ca ..4- ...

T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. | JEMT helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. | JEM

T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1.. B Zheng, S Han, G Kelsoe ... T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. ... a differentiation antigen present on the great majority of peripheral murine T lymphocytes. The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular ... These migrants constitute a unique set of T helper cells that express antigen-specific alpha beta TCR, CD3, and CD4, but little ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/184/3/1083

Detection of MHC, Thy-1, Lyt-1 And Lyt-2 Antigens in the Developing Mouse Thymus | SpringerLinkDetection of MHC, Thy-1, Lyt-1 And Lyt-2 Antigens in the Developing Mouse Thymus | SpringerLink

1,2). Functional distinct subclasses of T lymphocytes differentiate within the thymic... ... van Ewijk W., Jenkinson E.J., van Soest P.L., Owen J.J.T. (1982) Detection of MHC, Thy-1, Lyt-1 And Lyt-2 Antigens in the ... These cells can be identified by virtue of the expression of Lyt antigens. Thus, T helper and T amplifier cells carry the Lyt-1 ... Detection of MHC, Thy-1, Lyt-1 And Lyt-2 Antigens in the Developing Mouse Thymus. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-9066-4_33

T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. | Journal of Experimental...T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. | Journal of Experimental...

T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. B Zheng B Zheng ... B Zheng, S Han, G Kelsoe; T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1.. J ... a differentiation antigen present on the great majority of peripheral murine T lymphocytes. The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular ... These migrants constitute a unique set of T helper cells that express antigen-specific alpha beta TCR, CD3, and CD4, but little ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/184/3/1083/50943/T-helper-cells-in-murine-germinal-centers-are

Pronuclear injection for the production of transgenic mice.  - PubMed - NCBIPronuclear injection for the production of transgenic mice. - PubMed - NCBI

Thy-1 Antigens/genetics. *Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer/methods. Substance. *Thy-1 Antigens ... Ittner LM1, Götz J.. Author information. 1. Alzheimers & Parkinsons Disease Laboratory, Brain & Mind Research Institute, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17546016

AMJ2-C8  ATCC ® CRL-2455™ Mus musculus lungAMJ2-C8 ATCC ® CRL-2455™ Mus musculus lung

Antigen Expression MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/By_Tissue/Lung/CRL-2455.aspx?slp=1

Recombinant Human CD90 / Thy1 protein (Fc Chimera) (ab157072)Recombinant Human CD90 / Thy1 protein (Fc Chimera) (ab157072)

Theta antigen. *Thy 1. *Thy 1 cell surface antigen. *Thy 1 membrane glycoprotein ... Thy-1 (~13kDa) + Fc fusion (~29.3kDa) = ~42kDa. Higher due to post-translational modifications given that Thy-1 is a ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cd90-thy1-protein-fc-chimera-ab157072.html

Recombinant Human CD90 / Thy1 protein (ab126017) | AbcamRecombinant Human CD90 / Thy1 protein (ab126017) | Abcam

Theta antigen. *Thy 1. *Thy 1 cell surface antigen. *Thy 1 membrane glycoprotein ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cd90-thy1-protein-ab126017.html

Impact of PSCA gene polymorphisms in modulating gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population | Bioscience Reports | Portland...Impact of PSCA gene polymorphisms in modulating gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population | Bioscience Reports | Portland...

PSCA gene is a member of LY-6/Thy-1 family of cell surface antigens, and PSCA protein was reported as a cell surface marker ... Human Ly-6 antigen E48 (Ly-6D) regulates important interaction parameters between endothelial cells and head-and-neck squamous ... The PSCA gene is located on chromosome 8q24.2, encoding a 123-amino acid glycoprotein, a cell surface antigen [8]. PSCA gene ... Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7-containing nicotinic receptors and ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/bioscirep/article/39/9/BSR20181025/220398/Impact-of-PSCA-gene-polymorphisms-in-modulating

Breast Cancer Research | ArticlesBreast Cancer Research | Articles

Serially transplantable mammary epithelial cells express the Thy-1 antigen Recent studies in murine mammary tissue have ... After the publication of this article [1], we noticed that in Fig. 2, the survival curve images (C and D, lower panel) were ... Early analyses of human breast cancer identified high expression of the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) ... Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported a typesetting error in the spelling of the second ...
more infohttps://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles?tab=keyword

Metezeau P[au] - PubMed - NCBIMetezeau P[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Heterogeneity of mouse Thy 1.2 antigen expression revealed by monoclonal antibodies.. Del Guercio P, Motta I, Metezeau P, ... The activation of protein kinase C is not necessary for the monoclonal antibody-induced modulation of CD3 and CD4 antigens. ... The gene for catalase is assigned between the antigen loci MIC4 and MIC11. ... Purification of chromosomes X and ISO-1 from cell lines with Robertsonian translocations. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Metezeau+P%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Intraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the Third Way in immunology | Nature ImmunologyIntraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the Third Way in immunology | Nature Immunology

T cells primed to conventional antigen in the systemic compartment and T cells with ill-defined reactivities and origins, whose ... Limited diversity of γ δ antigen receptor genes of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell 55, 837-847 (1988). ... Havran, W., Chien, Y. & Allison, J. Recognition of self antigens by skin derived T cells with invariant γδ antigen receptors. ... Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells express T3 antigen and the T-cell receptor γ chain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84, 4586-4590 ( ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/ni1101-997?error=cookies_not_supported&code=db2f95e2-d8fd-4d16-af76-491c80ce0db9

CD90/Thy1 Antibody (2Q1792) [PE] (NB200-529PE): Novus BiologicalsCD90/Thy1 Antibody (2Q1792) [PE] (NB200-529PE): Novus Biologicals

Directed against the Thy 1.1 antigenic determinant which is a monomorphic determinant within rat strains but polymorphic in the ... FAQs for CD90/Thy1 Antibody (NB200-529PE). (Showing 1 - 1 of 1 FAQ).. * We are interested in CD90 antibodies that could react ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd90-thy1-antibody-2q1792_nb200-529pe

SCH-C (SCH 351125), an orally bioavailable, small molecule antagonist of the chemokine receptor CCR5, is a potent inhibitor of...SCH-C (SCH 351125), an orally bioavailable, small molecule antagonist of the chemokine receptor CCR5, is a potent inhibitor of...

SCID-hu Thy/Liv Mouse Model.. Homozygous C.B-17 scid/scid mice were implanted with human fetal thymus and liver as described ( ... 4). No p24 antigen was detected in the implants of the seven mice treated with 30 mg/kg per day of SCH-C, and viral RNA was ... Antiviral Activity of SCH-C in SCID-hu Thy/Liv Mice.. The in vivo antiviral potency of SCH-C was investigated in the SCID-hu ... We therefore used the SCID-hu Thy/Liv mouse model because this has previously proven to be useful for the evaluation of ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/98/22/12718?ijkey=02263bb362ba04c13eccb11b395309d02e9f24cd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Transcriptomic effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in Syrian hamster embryo cells: an important role of early cytoskeleton...Transcriptomic effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in Syrian hamster embryo cells: an important role of early cytoskeleton...

Barker TH, Grenett HE, MacEwen MW, Tilden SG, Fuller GM, Settleman J, Woods A, Murphy-Ullrich J, Hagood JS: Thy-1 regulates ... Rege TA, Hagood JS: Thy-1 as a regulator of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in axon regeneration, apoptosis, adhesion, ... and Thy-1, which mediates fibroblastic adhesion [51] and is Thbs1 expression-dependent [52]. On the other hand, DEHP effects ... 1997, 379 (Suppl 1): S195-View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. James NH, Roberts RA: Species differences in response to peroxisome ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-12-524

Frontiers | Novel Methodology for Creating Macaque Retinas with Sortable Photoreceptors and Ganglion Cells | NeuroscienceFrontiers | Novel Methodology for Creating Macaque Retinas with Sortable Photoreceptors and Ganglion Cells | Neuroscience

... and Thy-1 cell surface antigen (THY1; retinal ganglion cell-specific) was evaluated. Additionally a subset of samples was ... Miranda L. Scalabrino1, Julie Lynch Hill4, Daniel T. Kasuga4, C. Douglas Witherspoon4, Sanford L. Boye1, Paul D. Gamlin3† and ... FIGURE 1. Figure 1. Details of tissue processing from OD and OS eyes of animal AV263. Anterior segment and vitreous were ... 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. *2Department of Psychology, University of Alabama at ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2016.00551/full

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding ...IJMS | Free Full-Text | SLM Produced Porous Titanium Implant Improvements for Enhanced Vascularization and Osteoblast Seeding ...

The following proangiogenic factors were examined: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 ... Chen, X.D.; Qian, H.Y.; Neff, L.; Satomura, K.; Horowitz, M.C. Thy-1 antigen expression by cells in the osteoblast lineage. J. ... Figure 1. Representative Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) micrographs of non-coated (A,B) and polycaprolactone ... Figure 1. Representative Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) micrographs of non-coated (A,B) and polycaprolactone ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/4/7478/htm

Transgenic Strategies to Study Podocyte Loss and RegenerationTransgenic Strategies to Study Podocyte Loss and Regeneration

35] generated transgenic mice that ectopically express a mouse-human chimeric Thy-1.1 antigen. Some of these transgenic mice ... Thy-1.1 Model. In their endeavor to study the function of the Thy-1 antigen, Kollias et al. [ ... With lower doses (100 μg) of anti-Thy-1.1 mAb, on the contrary, the developed albuminuria rapidly dropped and returned to ... B. Smeets, H. B. P. M. Dijkman, N. A. J. M. te Loeke et al., "Podocyte changes upon induction of albuminuria in Thy-1.1 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/678347/

Cutaneous immunosurveillance by self-renewing dermal γδ T cells | JEMCutaneous immunosurveillance by self-renewing dermal γδ T cells | JEM

Limited diversity of [gamma][delta] antigen receptor genes of thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell. 55:837-847. doi:10.1016/ ... Recognition of self antigens by skin-derived T cells with invariant gamma delta antigen receptors. Science. 252:1430-1432. doi: ... Thymus-independent generation of Thy-1+ epidermal cells from a pool of Thy-1- bone marrow precursors. J. Invest. Dermatol. 95: ... Thymic selection determines gammadelta T cell effector fate: antigen-naive cells make interleukin-17 and antigen-experienced ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/208/3/505

anti-CD90 Antikörper (DyLight 405) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4262477anti-CD90 Antikörper (DyLight 405) | Produkt Nr. ABIN4262477

Antigen CD90 (THY1) Synonyme für dieses Antigen anzeigen * CD90 * CD7 * T25 * Thy-1 ... anti-CD74 Antigen (Invariant Polypeptide of Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II Antigen-Associated) Antikörper ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/antibody/4262477/anti-CD90+THY1+antibody+DyLight+405/

Prostate stem cell antigen: A cell surface marker overexpressed in prostate cancer | PNASProstate stem cell antigen: A cell surface marker overexpressed in prostate cancer | PNAS

Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a prostate-specific gene with 30% homology to stem cell antigen 2, a member of the Thy-1/ ... stem cell antigen 2;. PLC,. phospholipase C;. PSCA,. prostate stem cell antigen;. GPI,. glycosylphosphatidylinositol. ... prostate-specific antigen;. PSMA,. prostate-specific membrane antigen;. RDA,. representational difference analysis;. RT-PCR,. ... nucleotide homology with stem cell antigen 2 (SCA-2), a member of the Thy-1/Ly-6 superfamily of GPI-anchored cell surface ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/95/4/1735?ijkey=6fec0b4f31c0cbac47904579c93af963e9ad6807&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts | SpringerLinkDifferential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts | SpringerLink

24.1D5 and 5.1H11, and rabbit anti-Thy-1 and rabbit anti-N-CAM. The chosen test systems were cell cultures of human muscle that ... Walsh F.S., Moore S.E., Nayak R. (1985) Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and ... We have produced a panel of antibodies (Abs) that define muscle differentiation antigens in an attempt to produce antigenic ... Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5006-4_21

Professor Colin Dayan - People - Cardiff UniversityProfessor Colin Dayan - People - Cardiff University

10.1089/thy.2019.0036). *Wilson, N.et al. 2019. Role of Hyaluronan in Human Adipogenesis: Evidence from in-Vitro and in-Vivo ... Antigen-specific immunotherapy for autoimmune disease: fighting fire with fire?. Immunology 104(4), pp. 361-366. (10.1046/j. ... 10.1089/thy.2019.0036). *Wilson, N.et al. 2019. Role of Hyaluronan in Human Adipogenesis: Evidence from in-Vitro and in-Vivo ... 10.1089/thy.2013.0194). *Taylor, P.et al. 2013. A review of the clinical consequences of variation in thyroid function within ...
more infohttps://www.cardiff.ac.uk/people/view/78690-dayan-colin

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T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. Han, S; Kelsoe, Garnett; ... In the murine spleen, germinal centers are the anatomic sites for antigen-driven hypermutation and selection of immunoglobulin ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/2841/discover?field=affiliation&filtertype_0=dateIssued&filter_relational_operator_0=equals&filter_0=%5B1990+TO+1999%5D&filtertype=affiliation&filter_relational_operator=equals&filter=Basic+Science+Departments

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T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1. Han, S; Kelsoe, Garnett; ... Affinity-dependent, antigen-driven B cell apoptosis in germinal centers as a mechanism for maintaining self-tolerance. Dal ... Germinal centers (GCs) are the sites of antigen-driven V(D)J gene hypermutation and selection necessary for the generation of ... In the murine spleen, germinal centers are the anatomic sites for antigen-driven hypermutation and selection of immunoglobulin ...
more infohttps://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/handle/10161/2840/discover?rpp=10&filtertype_0=affiliation&filtertype_1=affiliation&filter_relational_operator_1=equals&filter_relational_operator_0=equals&filter_1=Duke&filter_0=Institutes+and+Centers&filtertype=dateIssued&filter_relational_operator=equals&filter=%5B1990+TO+1999%5D

KAKEN - Research Projects | Studies on the structure of reticular framework and its micro-environment in the lymphoid (KAKENHI...KAKEN - Research Projects | Studies on the structure of reticular framework and its micro-environment in the lymphoid (KAKENHI...

Publications] A.Ueda et al: Thy-1 antigen dendritic cell and rejection of composite tissue limb allografts in rats ... 2 ; Each reticular frameworks in the lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues had specific antigens to react with the corresponded ... Publications] A.Ueda et al.: Thy-1 antigen dendritic cell and rejection of composite tissue limb allografts in rats ... Publications] Atsushi Ueda et al: Thy-1 antigen dendritic cells and rejection of composite tissue Limb allografts in rats ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-04670203/
  • Contains 1 Ig-like V-type (immunoglobulin-like) domain. (abcam.com)
  • Structural study of Thy-1 led to the foundation of the Immunoglobulin superfamily, of which it is the smallest member, and led to some of the initial biochemical description and characterization of a vertebrate GPI anchor and also the first demonstration of tissue specific differential glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of cell surface antigens is critical to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for the management of prostate cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is effective at identifying men who may have prostate cancer but is often elevated in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, and other nonmalignant disorders ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Directed against the Thy 1.1 antigenic determinant which is a monomorphic determinant within rat strains but polymorphic in the mouse (positive to AKR strain, negative to CVA and BALB/c). (novusbio.com)
  • We are developing large scale data linkage projects to define the outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes and the potential benefits of beta cell preservation. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular T cells appears to be the Thy+ population in the PALS, as both sets commonly share identical V(D)J rearrangements. (rupress.org)
  • Cantor and Boyse (3) have provided evidence that these cells originate from a precursor cell expressing the Lyt-1 + , 2 + , 3 + phenotype (Lyt-123 + cells). (springer.com)
  • explore the role of Transient Receptor Potential channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1) in T cells and its possible role in immunological disorders. (portlandpress.com)
  • This compound specifically inhibits HIV-1 infection mediated by CCR5 in U-87 astroglioma cells but has no effect on infection of CXCR4-expressing cells. (pnas.org)
  • The process of HIV-1 entry into target cells is an attractive target for antiviral intervention ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we consider that most IEL compartments comprise a variable mixture of two cell types: T cells primed to conventional antigen in the systemic compartment and T cells with ill-defined reactivities and origins, whose properties seem to place them mid-way between the adaptive and innate immune responses. (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, several studies have suggested that podocyte stem/progenitor cells exist in humans providing a possible explanation for the podocyte regeneration observed in several clinical and experimental situations [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Is Thy1 expressed only by ganglion cells and their axons in the retina and optic nerve? (deepdyve.com)
  • The composition of Thy-1 carbohydrate moieties varies considerably between different tissues or even among cells of the same lineage at different stages of differentiation: e.g., galactosamine only in brain Thy-1, sialic acid in thymic Thy-1 in far excess than brain Thy-1, that too increasing in parallel with T cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential for entry inhibitors to be useful drugs has been established by the T-20 peptide, which blocks the conformational changes in HIV-1 gp41 that are necessary for virus-cell fusion ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our group is committed to finding low-risk immunotherapies able to preserve beta cell function in type 1 diabetes and introduce these therapies into clinic care. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • We collaborate with colleagues across the UK in the Type 1 Diabetes Immunotherapy Consortium to conduct clinical trials in adults and children with new-onset type 1 diabetes and develop new approaches to beta cell preservation (www.type1diabetesresearch.org.uk). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) spans the lipid bilayer and contains a cytoplasmic domain of 80,000 Mr". Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural genetic absence of CCR5 from humans (the CCR5-Δ32 homozygous genotype) has little impact on health while being strongly protective against HIV-1 infection ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Antibody‐secreting clones were found to be specific for Thy1 by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western transfer and immunoblotting. (deepdyve.com)
  • The Thy-1 gene is located at human chromosome 11q22.3 (mouse chromosome 9qA5.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 25-kDa core protein (excluding the heavy glycosylation) of rodent Thy-1 is 111 or 112 amino acids in length, and is N-glycosylated at three sites (In contrast to only two glycosylation sites for human Thy-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. (atcc.org)
  • Development of novel platforms for antigen specific immunotherapy and monitoring in type 1 diabetes including microneedle delivery and direct lymph node sampling in humans. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • He has a long established interest in translational research in the immunopathology of type 1 diabetes and is currently conducting early phase clinical trials in the development of antigen specific immunotherapy. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • One stage in the HIV-1 entry process that is a particularly plausible site for pharmacological intervention is the CD4-dependent interaction between HIV-1 gp120 and the CCR5 chemokine receptor, which serves as a viral coreceptor ( 12 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • The following proangiogenic factors were examined: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12). (mdpi.com)
  • Development of data-linkage cohorts with SAIL (Farr Institute) covering subjects with thyroid disease and all children in Wales with type 1 diabetes (Brecon cohort): demonstration that variation in thyroid function even within the laboratory reference range affects a large range of clinical outcomes including miscarriage, obesity and fracture and that there is a persistent 4 fold excessive in admission rates for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in childhood. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Figure 1: A hypothesis for the development of an epithelium-associated repertoire of autoreactive type b IELs. (nature.com)
  • Demonstration of the safety and potential for efficacy of peptide based immunotherapy for type 1 diabetes in man including two first-in-man studies. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • From an antiviral perspective, CCR5 is the coreceptor used by the most commonly transmitted HIV-1 strains, which predominate during the early stages of HIV-1 infection-the so-called macrophage-tropic viruses (now designated R5 strains) ( 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • This peptide can cause reductions in plasma viremia when delivered i.v. or s.c. to HIV-1-infected individuals ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Despite the tremendous progress that has been made over the past decade in antiretroviral research and therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals, there remains a need for more potent and less toxic therapies. (pnas.org)
  • We describe here the identification and properties of SCH-C (SCH 351125), a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CCR5 coreceptor. (pnas.org)
  • In 2012, an estimated 951600 new gastric cancer cases and 723100 gastric cancer deaths occurred globally [ 1 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Although hormone ablation therapy can palliate these patients, the majority inevitably progress to develop incurable androgen-independent disease ( 1 ). (pnas.org)