Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Heterogeneity in the ability of cytotoxic murine NK cell clones to enhance Ig secretion in vitro. (1/168)We recently described a panel of cytotoxic murine NK cell clones that also enhanced Ig secretion by B cells activated in an in vitro model of T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) responses. We employed dextran-conjugated anti-IgD (alphadelta-dex) as a model antigen. Here we study the mechanism of Ig induction by these clones. Addition of the various NK clones to sort-purified B cells stimulated with alphadelta-dex and IL-2 resulted in a markedly heterogeneous increase in Ig secretion, which varied from 3-fold, as mediated by clone PKO 56, to 15-fold, as induced by clone PKO 101. The other NK cells showed intermediate levels of Ig induction. Furthermore, while addition of as few as 0.04% of PKO 101 cells stimulated significant increases and 1% induced near maximum Ig production, a 3% addition of PKO 56 cells was required for significant enhancement of Ig secretion. Supernatant material collected from the NK clones mediated Ig production at levels that mirrored the induction by the corresponding cells. Cytokine analysis showed that while all members of the NK panel produced IFN-gamma only two secreted granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and that the levels of Ig induction mediated by the NK clones correlated only with their levels of IFN-gamma secretion. Culture of B and NK cells in the presence of anti-IFN-gamma demonstrated that IFN-gamma was the critical cytokine in NK-induced Ig production. These findings establish heterogeneity in the ability of NK cells to increase Ig secretion in vitro and show that NK-produced IFN-gamma is an important factor in determining this heterogeneity. (+info)
Impaired allostimulatory capacity of peripheral blood dendritic cells recovered from hepatitis C virus-infected individuals. (2/168)In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, Th responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of liver disease. The dendritic cell (DC) is the most potent activator of CD4 T cells for supporting Th1 differentiation. To clarify the roles of DC of HCV-infected individuals in the development of CD4 T cell responses, we generated peripheral DC with GM-CSF and IL-4 from 24 chronic hepatitis C patients and 14 healthy donors. We then compared their potentials for stimulating allogeneic CD4 T cells, autologous CD4 T cells against influenza A or HCV core Ags, and cytokine production. The DC from the patients (HCV-DC) expressed lower degrees of CD86 than DC from the donors (N-DC), whereas no difference was found in the HLA molecules and other costimulators. HCV-DC stimulated allogeneic T cells less than N-DC; however, influenza A- or core-pulsed HCV-DC retained the potentials for autologous T cell proliferation. In allogeneic DC/T cell cultures, the IFN-gamma levels with HCV-DC were lower than those with N-DC, which may be related to the low expressions of IL-12 p35 and p40 transcripts in HCV-DC. The stimulation with LPS disclosed that HCV-DC is less potent in IL-12 p70 production than N-DC. In the autologous cultures, the pulsing of the Ags to HCV-DC increased the IL-12 p40 and IFN-gamma production and up-regulated the transcription of both IL-12 subunits. Exogenous IL-2 or IL-12 restored the low allogeneic T cell proliferation with HCV-DC in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, low expression of CD86 and/or IL-12 is crucially involved in the low allostimulatory capacity of HCV-DC. Low IL-12 and low IFN-gamma milieu with HCV-DC on encounters with alloantigens may impede Th1 polarization. (+info)
Elderly immune response to a TI-2 antigen: heavy and light chain use and bactericidal activity to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C polysaccharide. (3/168)Previous studies of the elderly immune response to TI-2 antigens failed to correlate specific antibody levels with function and to compare responses with those of young adults. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C capsular polysaccharide (MCPS) was used as a model TI-2 antigen. Anti-MCPS antibody levels were determined in elderly individuals and correlated with bactericidal activity. The anti-MCPS response in most persons was characterized by predominant IgG usage, with IgG2>IgG1. No light chain or IgA subclass predominated, but some responses showed a particular chain type. Bactericidal activity correlated best with IgG2 levels. Elderly subjects had lower anti-MCPS responses than the young adults did in all chain-specific anti-MCPS levels, and levels declined more rapidly. Bactericidal activity following immunization was significantly lower in the elderly persons. These results suggest the anti-MCPS antibody repertoire in the elderly is likely maintained, and the lower level of function is related to the lower antibody levels. (+info)
Genetic dissection of Sle pathogenesis: Sle3 on murine chromosome 7 impacts T cell activation, differentiation, and cell death. (4/168)Polyclonal, generalized T cell defects, as well as Ag-specific Th clones, are likely to contribute to pathology in murine lupus, but the genetic bases for these mechanisms remain unknown. Mapping studies indicate that loci on chromosomes 1 (Sle1), 4 (Sle2), 7 (Sle3), and 17 (Sle4) confer disease susceptibility in the NZM2410 lupus strain. B6.NZMc7 mice are C57BL/6 (B6) mice congenic for the NZM2410-derived chromosome 7 susceptibility interval, bearing Sle3. Compared with B6 controls, B6.NZMc7 mice exhibit elevated CD4:CD8 ratios (2.0 vs 1.34 in 1- to 3-mo-old spleens); an age-dependent accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells (33.4% vs 21.9% in 9- to 12-mo-old spleens); a more diffuse splenic architecture; and a stronger immune response to T-dependent, but not T-independent, Ags. In vitro, Sle3-bearing T cells show stronger proliferation, increased expansion of CD4+ T cells, and reduced apoptosis (with or without anti-Fas) following stimulation with anti-CD3. With age, the B cells in this strain acquire an activated phenotype. Thus, the NZM2410 allele of Sle3 appears to impact generalized T cell activation, and this may be causally related to the low grade, polyclonal serum autoantibodies seen in this strain. Epistatic interactions with other loci may be required to transform this relatively benign phenotype into overt autoimmunity, as seen in the NZM2410 strain. (+info)
Deficiency in Msh2 affects the efficiency and local sequence specificity of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination: parallels with somatic hypermutation. (5/168)During maturation of the immune response, IgM+ B cells switch to expression of one of the downstream isotypes (IgG, A or E). This class switching occurs by region-specific recombination within the IgH locus through an unknown mechanism. A lack of switch recombination in mice deficient in components of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-Ku complex has pointed to a role for non-homologous end joining. Here we characterize a switching defect in mice lacking a protein involved in DNA mismatch recognition. Mice deficient in Msh2 give diminished IgG (but not IgM) responses following challenge with both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens. This appears to reflect a B cell-intrinsic defect since B cells from Msh2-deficient mice also exhibit impaired switching (but not blasting or proliferation) on in vitro culture with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, those switches that do occur in Msh2-deficient B cells reveal a shift in the distribution of recombination sites used: the breakpoints are more likely to occur in consensus motifs. These results, which intriguingly parallel the effects of Msh2 deficiency on hypermutation, suggest a role for Msh2 in the mechanics of class-switch recombination. (+info)
Cutting edge: CD40 ligand is a limiting factor in the humoral response to T cell-dependent antigens. (6/168)CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays a crucial role in T cell-dependent B cell responses, but whether its abundance is a limiting factor in their development is unclear. This question was addressed in transgenic mice expressing the murine CD40L gene under the control of the IL-2-promoter (CD40Ltg+). The fraction of activated T cells from the CD40Ltg+ mice with detectable levels of surface CD40L was modestly greater (1.1- to 2-fold) than littermate controls and paralleled an approximately 1.8-fold increase in CD40L mRNA abundance. In response to trinitrophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin and tetanus/diphtheria vaccine, CD40Ltg+ mice developed higher titers of high-affinity IgG and IgG1 Ab than wild-type mice. In contrast, the Ab response of CD40Ltg+ and control mice was similar in response to the T-independent Ag TNP-Ficoll. These results suggest that a modest increment in expression of CD40L accelerates the development of T-dependent responses, and that CD40L plays a limiting role in the induction of high-affinity Ab and Ab-class switching. (+info)
Comparative contribution of CD1 on the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. (7/168)CD1 molecules are MHC class I-like glycoproteins whose expression is essential for the development of a unique subset of T cells, the NK T cells. To evaluate to what extent CD1 contributes to the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we generated CD1oIIo and CD1oTAPo mice and compared the generation of T cells in these double-mutant mice and IIo or TAPo mice. FACS analysis showed that the number of CD4+ T cells in CD1oIIo mice was reduced significantly compared with the corresponding population in IIo mice. Both CD4+ NK1.1+ and the CD4+ NK1.1- population were reduced in CD1oIIo mice, suggesting that CD1 can select not only CD4+ NK1.1+ T cells but also some NK1.1- CD4+ T cells. Functional analysis showed that the residual CD4+ cells in CD1oIIo can secrete large amounts of IFN-gamma and a significant amount of IL-4 during primary stimulation with anti-CD3, suggesting that this population may be enriched for NK T cells restricted by other class I molecules. In contrast to the CD4+ population, no significant differences in the CD8+ T cell compartment can be detected between TAPo and CD1oTAPo mice in all lymphoid tissues tested, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Our data suggest that, unlike other MHC class I molecules, CD1 does not contribute in a major way to the development of CD8+ T cells. (+info)
Ox40-ligand has a critical costimulatory role in dendritic cell:T cell interactions. (8/168)The tumor necrosis factor family molecule Ox40-ligand (Ox40L) has been identified as a potential costimulatory molecule and also has been implicated in T cell homing and B cell activation. To ascertain the essential functions of Ox40L, we generated and characterized Ox40L-deficient mice. Mice lacking Ox40L exhibit an impaired contact hypersensitivity response, a dendritic cell-dependent T cell-mediated response, due to defects in T cell priming and cytokine production. In contrast, Ox40L-deficient mice do not have defects in T cell homing or humoral immune responses. In vitro, Ox40L-deficient dendritic cells are defective in costimulating T cell cytokine production. Thus, Ox40L has a critical costimulatory function in vitro and in vivo for dendritic cell:T cell interactions. (+info)
The 3BP2 Adapter Protein Is Required for Optimal B-Cell Activation and Thymus-Independent Type 2 Humoral Response | Molecular...
In this report, we showed that 3BP2 is required for optimal signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor and is part of the CD19 costimulatory complex. 3BP2 has a distinctive function in B lymphocytes involved in the TI-2 humoral response. Mice lacking 3BP2 have diminished peritoneal B1 B cells and accumulate MZ B cells which demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to antigen receptor-induced cell death in vitro.. B1 B cells and MZ B cells control the humoral response to TI-2 multivalent antigens (22, 25). TI-2 immune responses occur in the absence of T-cell help but are dependent on optimal activation of the BCR together with BAFF signals elaborated by macrophages and dendritic cells (5, 9, 24, 48). We have shown that 3BP2−/− splenic B cells and MZ B cells fail to proliferate, survive, and signal optimally following antigen receptor activation. Consistent with these data, overexpression of 3BP2 augmented BCR-mediated NFAT activation as measured by a luciferase reporter assay, while treatment of ...
SH2D3C - SH2 domain-containing protein 3C - Homo sapiens (Human) - SH2D3C gene & protein
Acts as an adapter protein that mediates cell signaling pathways involved in cellular functions such as cell adhesion and migration, tissue organization, and the regulation of the immune response (PubMed:12432078, PubMed:20881139). Plays a role in integrin-mediated cell adhesion through BCAR1-CRK-RAPGEF1 signaling and activation of the small GTPase RAP1 (PubMed:12432078). Promotes cell migration and invasion through the extracellular matrix (PubMed:20881139). Required for marginal zone B-cell development and thymus-independent type 2 immune responses (By similarity). Mediates migration and adhesion of B cells in the splenic marginal zone via promoting hyperphosphorylation of NEDD9/CASL (By similarity). Plays a role in CXCL13-induced chemotaxis of B-cells (By similarity). Plays a role in the migration of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) into the forebrain and the innervation of the olfactory bulb by the OSN axons during development (By similarity). Required for the efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of
rian.ie - Results
Up to now long-term in vitro growth of pro-B cells was thought to require stromal cells. However, here we show that fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (BM) derived pro-B cells can be propagated long-term in stromal cell-free cultures supplemented with IL-7, stem cell factor and FLT3 ligand. Within a week, most cells expressed surface CD19, CD79A, Î»5, and VpreB antigens and had rearranged immunoglobulin D-J heavy chain genes. Both FL and BM pro-B cells reconstituted the B-cell compartments of immuno-incompetent Rag2-deficient mice, with FL pro-B cells generating follicular, marginal zone (MZB) and B1a B cells, and BM pro-B cells giving rise mainly to MZB cells. Reconstituted Rag2-deficient mice generated significant levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to a type II T-independent antigen; mice reconstituted with FL pro-B cells generated surprisingly high IgG1 titers. Finally, we show for the first time that mice reconstituted with mixtures of pro-B and pro-T cells propagated in stromal cel... ...
"The murine b cell responsive to human b cell activating factor (baf) i" by P M. Cameron and D D. Wood
Deltex-3-like (DTX3L) stimulates metastasis of melanoma through FAK/PI3K/AKT but not MEK/ERK pathway - Site Title
Deltex-3-like (DTX3L), an E3 ligase, is a member of the Deltex (DTX) family and is also called B-lymphoma and BAL-associated protein (BBAP). Previously, we established RFP/RET-transgenic mice, in which systemic hyperpigmented skin, benign melanocytic tumor(s) and melanoma(s) develop stepwise. Here we showed that levels of Dtx3l/DTX3L in spontaneous melanoma in RFP/RET-transgenic mice and human melanoma…
HIV - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Pada saat paling awalpun deteksi HIV dapat dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan darah, walaupun tidak ada gejala apapun. Pada tahap kedua telah ada gejala klinis, misalnya kulitnya jelek, gatal-gatal dan batuk pilek seperti flu biasa. Pada tahap ketiga akan mengalami penurunan berat badan dan terkena TBC. Dan pada tahap keempat telah mengalami komplikasi, sulit disembuhkan dan biasanya diikuti dengan kematian.. Umumnya, ada tiga tipe deteksi HIV, yaitu tes PCR, tes antibodi HIV, dan tes antigen HIV. Tes reaksi berantai polimerase (PCR) merupakan teknik deteksi berbasis asam nukleat (DNA dan RNA) yang dapat mendeteksi keberadaan materi genetik HIV di dalam tubuh manusia. Tes ini sering pula dikenal sebagai tes beban virus atau tes amplifikasi asam nukleat (HIV NAAT). PCR DNA biasa merupakan metode kualitatif yang hanya bisa mendeteksi ada atau tidaknya DNA virus. Sedangkan, untuk deteksi RNA virus dapat dilakukan dengan metode real-time PCR yang merupakan metode kuantitatif. ...
Involvement of complement in B-cell, T-cell and monocyte/macrophage activation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of complement in B-cell, T-cell and monocyte/macrophage activation. AU - Dierich, M. P.. AU - Erdei, A.. AU - Huemer, H.. AU - Petzer, A.. AU - Stauder, R.. AU - Schulz, T. F.. AU - Gergely, J.. PY - 1987/2. Y1 - 1987/2. N2 - In the early 70s it had been shown, that for the immune response against T-dependent antigens C3 was necessary, while T-independent antigens, although activating the alternative pathway of complement, triggered antibody formation also in C-deficient mice. During recent years functional and biochemical knowledge about complement binding structures on B-cells and monocytes/macrophages continuously increased and, also, on T-cells C3 binding entities have been detected. In the case of B-cells and, at least in special experimental conditions, in the case of T-cells C3 can exert a proliferative response as long as the cells are prestimulated (excited) by anti-Ig or IL-2, respectively. Monocytes can bind C3b- or iC3b-carrying particles, but only when ...
Hair Care Appliances For Less
Marginal Zone B Cells - PubMed
Our views regarding the origins and functions of splenic marginal zone B cells have changed considerably over the past few years. Perspectives regarding the development and function of these cells vary considerably between investigators studying human and rodent immunology. Marginal zone B cells are …
March | 2020 | PLK1 Kinase Assay
The observation of a current-independent point in ρ xx which corresponds to its temperature-independent counterpart suggests that applying a high current is equivalent see more to heating up the graphene lattice. Conclusions In conclusion,. we have presented magnetoresistivity measurements on multilayer epitaxial graphene. It is found that a relation between the effective Dirac fermion temperature and the driving current can be given by T DF ∝ I ≈0.5 in the low magnetic field regime. With increasing magnetic field, an I-independent point in ρ xx is observed which is equivalent to its T-independent counterpart in the low current limit. Evidence for direct I-QH transition has been reported in four different graphene samples. Near the crossing field where the longitudinal resistivity is approximately T-independent, ρ xx is at least two times larger than ρ xy. Moreover, the product of Drude mobility and B c is smaller than 1. We suggest that further studies are required to obtain a complete ...
Biomedical Discovery Network - Microbiome Meetings
Various studies have shown that dietary, environmental, and host-derived factors have a strong effect on the makeup and action of this significant microbial organ (De Filippo et al., 2010; Maurice et al., 2013; Goodrich et al., 2014). This homeostatic role of IgA in regulating commensal bacteria was lately confirmed in people using IgA deficiency (Fadlallah et al., 2018). In reality, a substantial portion of commensal bacteria has been proven to be coated with IgA and stably maintained in homeostatic conditions (van der Waaij et al., 1996). More recently, we demonstrated that diversification and choice of IgA repertoires at a T-cell-dependent manner in germinal centres of the Peyers patches contribute to improving the diversity and stability of both gut-resident species (Kawamoto et al., 2014). Additionally, T-independent pathways, likely originating from the lamina propria, have already been shown to contribute to the generation of an IgA repertoire thats polyreactive into a wide swathe of ...
Scientific Papers/Award | The Institute of Medical Science, The University Of Tokyo
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
Complement-dependent and -independent pathways of T cell-B cell cooperation.
The Actin-Bundling Protein L-Plastin Is Essential for Marginal Zone B Cell Development | The Journal of Immunology
In this article, we demonstrate the requirement for the actin-bundling protein LPL in splenic maturation of B cells. LPL−/− mice have significantly reduced numbers of splenic FO and MZ B cells, despite normal bone marrow development and apparently normal splenic entry of immature B cells. Furthermore, B cell entry into the lymph nodes and bone marrow was partially impaired by LPL deficiency. Splenic B cell development and lymphoid organ entry are both regulated by chemokine receptor signaling. Normal chemokine-mediated motility of B cells required LPL. Furthermore, the addition of an integrin ligand to the Transwell assay did not promote the transmigration of LPL−/− cells as it did for WT cells. Interestingly, MZ B cells that did develop in LPL−/− mice appeared less dependent on LPL for CXCL12- and CXCL13-induced motility than did newly forming and FO splenic B cell subsets. A diminished requirement for LPL in chemokine-mediated motility in MZ B cells from LPL−/− mice may ...
TI-84 Plus Silver Edition
Gentaur Molecular :Exbio \ NTAL LAB \ 11-485-C025
Preventing an identity crisis in the immune system
As with people, identity is vital to cells. When a cell loses its identity, it can stop working properly and a range of illnesses can result. The immune system, which protects our bodies from disease, includes cells with many different identities. When these cells lose their identity it can cause certain cancers or increase the risk of infections.. Complex networks of signals and genes create and maintain the identity of different cells. New research from the Babraham Institute, Cambridge and the University of Birmingham has revealed how a protein called ZFP36L1 helps cells known as marginal zone B cells (MZ B cells) to maintain their identity.. For cells, identity describes how they are adapted to have a specialised function. Blood cells are specialised for transportation, nerve cells for communication and the immune system fights infections. Each cell becomes specialised to do its job as a result of unique combinations of genetic instructions, which influence how the cell works.. MZ B cells ...
Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme. 27/Apr/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 8/Mar/2010, 15/Mar, 17/Mar, 20/Mar, 27/Mar or 1/Apr. 19/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers were high (142) and included 99 Culex quinquefasciatus. 12/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers were low. 30/Mar/2010: Mosquito numbers were high (309) and included 222 Culex annulirostris. 23/Mar/2010: The first mosquito collection produced a high yield of 120 mosquitoes, dominated by 74 Culex annulirostris. 10/Mar/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 16/Feb/2010, 23/Feb or 28/Feb. 16/Jan/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 3/Jan/2010, 10/Jan, 17/Jan, 24/Jan, 31/Jan or 8/Feb. 7/Jan/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 6/Dec/2009, 13/Dec or 20/Dec.. 5/Jan/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV ...
Psychosocial factors are associated with the antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccines -...
The present study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionnaires at baseline in 75 (41 females) healthy students. Antibody status was assessed at baseline, 4 and 18 weeks following vaccination with formaldehyde inactivated hepatitis A virus and pneumococcal polysaccharides, which induce thymus-dependent and -independent antibody responses respectively. Controlling for baseline antibody status, life event stress was negatively associated with antibody response to the hepatitis A vaccine at the 18-week follow-up; participants reporting a greater number of stressful life events had a poorer antibody response. There was no relationship between psychological stress and antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Social support was not associated with the antibody response to ...
B52 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister type of B51. B*5201 likely formed as a result of a gene ... Takayasu's arteritis appears to have an independent link to B52 associated disease. The association with B*5201 increases risk ... January 2003). "Cloning and sequencing full-length HLA-B and -C genes" (PDF). Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j. ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ...
A24 is a split antigen of the broad antigen HLA-A9 and it is a sister serotype of HLA-A23. A*2402 has one of the highest "A" ... are secondary independent susceptibility markers to ankylosing spondylitis in Basque patients". Hum Immunol. 65 (2): 175-80. ... Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in ... HLA-A24 (A24) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ...
1996). "Alcohol-metabolising genes and alcoholism among Taiwanese Han men: independent effect of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2". British ... 2007). "Usefulness of human leucocyte antigen-B27 subtypes in predicting ankylosing spondylitis: Taiwan experience". Internal ... Tissue Antigens. 74 (6): 499-507. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2009.01366.x. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) Chen; et al. ( ...
The ABH antigen produced is thought to act as receptors for human norovirus. Homozygous carriers of any nonsense mutation in ... "Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak with a secretor-independent susceptibility pattern, Sweden". Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16 (1): 81- ... Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ... GII.4 includes global epidemic strains and binds to more Histo-blood group antigens than other genogroups. A Japanese study in ...
Mond JJ, Lees A, Snapper CM (1995). "T cell-independent antigens type 2". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13: 655-92. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... These and other polysaccharides have been classified as T cell independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens based on their inability to ... TI-2 antigens generally are incapable of stimulating an immune response in neonatal humans under 18 months of age. This has ... stimulate an immune response in animals that carry an X-linked immune B-cell defect (xid). TI-2 antigens tend to be ...
I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. J. Exp. Med. ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... Independent differentiative pathways of Ly1 and Ly23 subclasses of T-cells. Experimental production of mice deprived of ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Although these signals require this pre-TCR at the cell surface, they are independent of ligand binding to the pre-TCR. These ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic, and it becomes more ...
The rate of the tumor growth, however, is independent of the gender or hormonal status of the host. Wu et al. (1994) reproduced ... LNCaP cells also express Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). In vivo, Male mice develop tumors earlier and at a greater frequency ... Wu HC, Hsieh JT, Gleave ME, Brown NM, Pathak S, Chung LW (May 1994). "Derivation of androgen-independent human LNCaP prostatic ... While LNCaP-AI are wholly androgen independent, they retain high expression of Androgen receptor, low expression of AR-V7, and ...
B-cell activating factor
"BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells". ... B-cell maturation antigen), all of which have differing binding affinities for it. These receptors are expressed mainly on ... CD257 antigen; cluster of differentiation 257). BAFF is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand ... "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells". Biological Chemistry. 380 (12): 1443 ...
Circulating tumor cell
... (DQ8) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... Many disease associated with DQ8 have dual linkage with DR4, and certain DR4 (*0405) have independent and dependent risk ... These split antigens are the allele products of the DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0305, respectively. DQB1*0302 and is found most often in ... and 2.Zhou L, Lin B, Xie Y, Liu Z, Yan W, Xu A (2005). "Polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 genes of ...
... increasing evidence implicates antigen-independent self-association of BCRs as a key feature in a growing number of B-cell ... When a B cell is activated by its first encounter with an antigen that binds to its receptor (its "cognate antigen"), the cell ... "Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is driven by antigen-independent cell-autonomous signalling". Nature. 489 (7415): 309-12. Bibcode ... Corcos D (1990). "Oncogenic potential of the B-cell antigen receptor and its relevance to heavy chain diseases and other B-cell ...
Antigens that activate B cells without T cell help are known as T cell-independent (TI) antigens and include foreign ... Antigens that activate B cells with the help of T-cell are known as T cell-dependent (TD) antigens and include foreign proteins ... Positive selection occurs through antigen-independent signaling involving both the pre-BCR and the BCR. If these receptors do ... As with TD antigens, B cells activated by TI antigens need additional signals to complete activation, but instead of receiving ...
Secretin receptor family
These androgen-independent LNCaP cells have elevated AR expression and express prostate specific antigen upon androgen ... Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) stimulates the development of prostate cancer by increasing folate levels for the ... Some androgen-independent LNCaP sublines have been developed from the ATCC androgen-dependent LNCaP cells after androgen ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality. The United States ...
Pravatchai W. Boonlayangoor IFI Independent Forensics Berti A, Virgili A, D'Errico G, Vespi G, Lago G, Cavazzana A (September ... 2005). "Expression of seminal vesicle-specific antigen in serum of lung tumor patients". J. Forensic Sci. 50 (5): 1114-5. doi: ... Pravatchai W. Boonlayangoor IFI Independent Forensics Prof. A.Maelicke, Dr. Karl Reich, Dr. Pravatchai W. Boonlayangoor IFI ... Independent Forensics Prof. A.Maelicke, Dr. Karl Reich, Dr. ...
Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... Interestingly the response of TLR4 to opioid drugs has been found to be enantiomer-independent, so the "unnatural" enantiomers ... TLR4 has been shown to interact with: Lymphocyte antigen 96, Myd88, and TOLLIP. Nickel, Intracellular trafficking of TLR4 is ... coli-containing phagosomes and subsequent reduced signal transduction through the MyD88-independent pathway. Various single ...
Transmembrane activator and CAML interactor
Cao J, Gao T, Giuliano AE, Irie RF (Feb 1999). "Recognition of an epitope of a breast cancer antigen by human antibody". Breast ... This protein, in turn, serves as a bridging molecule to recruit HDACs and, in addition, provides a second HDAC-independent ... independent repression activities to retinoblastoma family proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (10): 6632-41. doi: ... independent repression activities to retinoblastoma family proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (10): 6632-41. doi: ...
... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ... Hirsch TJ, Enlow RW, Bias WB, Arnett FC (October 1981). "HLA-D related (DR) antigens in various kinds of myositis". Hum. ...
... pneumoniae strains and provide broad-spectrum serotype-independent protection. Antigen specific CD4 T cells also limit ... Antigen specific Th17 cells were also shown to recognize conserved protein antigens among different K. ... Malley R, Srivastava A, Lipsitch M, Thompson CM, Watkins C, Tzianabos A, Anderson PW (April 2006). "Antibody-independent, ... The role of adaptive immune responses mediated by antigen specific Th17 has been investigated more recently. ...
Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation (stimulation of a B cell that does not require the involvement ... Surface antigens. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
These heightened levels of collagen helped facilitate adhesions and anchorage-independent cell growth and provided evidence of ... Peyriéras N, Louvard D, Jacob F (December 1985). "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal ... "The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ...
"The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. 25 people in Bakaklion, Cameroon killed due to eating of ape. ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... "The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.. ... "Independent Monitoring Board Recommends Early Termination of Ebola Therapeutics Trial in DRC Because of Favorable Results with ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... This view regarded the evolution of parasites from independent organisms to a parasitic species as "devolution" or " ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ...
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... which is a basic line of defence that is independent of the more advanced lymphocyte-related systems. Many of these conditions ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
As a private, non-profit organization, the Institut Pasteur is governed by an independent Board of Directors, currently chaired ... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ...
DNA paternity testing
ஏபிஓ குருதி குழு முறைமை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
"Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ... Sarode, R; Goldstein J, Sussman II, Nagel RL, Tsai HM (June 2000). "Role of A and B blood group antigens in the expression of ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... are degraded in a ubiquitin-independent manner. The most well-known example of a ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrate is ... or highly oxidized proteins are also subject to ubiquitin-independent and 19S-independent degradation under conditions of ... In 2012, two independent efforts have elucidated the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome by single particle electron ...
Innate immune system
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... their function is similar to that of independent, single-cell organisms. Most leukocytes are able to move freely and interact ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ...
Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Multiple independent studies have documented a steady increase in the worldwide incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. Some relevant ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucins may aid in diagnosis. Most tumors (,90%) are adenocarcinomas. ...
T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... Tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... ADCC is independent of the immune complement system that also lyses targets but does not require any other cell. ADCC requires ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... IgE was simultaneously discovered in 1966 and 1967 by two independent groups: Kimishige Ishizaka and his wife Teruko ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ... Schilte C, Buckwalter MR, Laird ME, Diamond MS, Schwartz O, Albert ML (April 2012). "Cutting edge: independent roles for IRF-3 ... an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to diminish. However ... lack of clearance of the antigen, or both, contribute to joint pain. The inflammation response during both the acute and ...
... and treated all of the mice as statistically independent. The original researchers pointed out negative results in the ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). ... known to be established and modified in response to environmental factors by a complex interplay of at least three independent ...
... independent, suggesting P-selectin binding is Ca2+-independent and sulfation-dependent. One of the sulfated ligands is ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... trigger which can stimulate endothelial-cell release of P-selectin and recent studies suggest an additional Ca2+-independent ...
Kevin Cooper (prisoner)
Assessment by courts, governors, and independent groups. California Supreme Court upholds stay on execution. ... and when Judge Huff did order retesting she limited the testing to hairs that were proven not to have Antigen roots ( ... 7 Assessment by courts, governors, and independent groups *7.1 California Supreme Court upholds stay on execution ...
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N
سرطان پروستات - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
These androgen-independent LNCaP cells have elevated AR expression and express prostate specific antigen upon androgen ... Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity. This protein ... The paradox is that androgens inhibit the proliferation of these androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. ... Elevation of AR expression is often observed in advanced prostate tumors in patients. Some androgen-independent LNCaP ...
Red blood cell
Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among ... down their concentration gradients in an energy independent manner. There is still considerable debate ongoing regarding the ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens *^ a b Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery ... Kidd antigen protein - urea transporter;. *RhAG - gas transporter, probably of carbon dioxide, defines Rh Blood Group and the ...
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
... that can recognize a tumor cell antigen in a manner that is independent of the major histocompatibility complex and which can ... Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
Zhang Z, Wang H, Li M, Rayburn E, Agrawal S, Zhang R (2005). "Novel MDM2 p53-independent functions identified through RNA ... p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in ... Podust VN, Podust LM, Goubin F, Ducommun B, Huebscher U (1995). "Mechanism of inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- ... with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (4): 2766-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
The 3BP2 Adapter Protein Is Required for Optimal B-Cell Activation and Thymus-Independent Type 2 Humoral Response | Molecular...
3BP2−/− mice were challenged with TNP-Ficoll, a classical T-cell-independent antigen (27). Serum anti-TNP antibodies in 3BP2−/− ... T cell-independent antigens type 2. Annu. Rev. Immunol.13:655-692. ... 3BP2+/+ and 3BP2−/− mice were immunized with the TI-2 antigen TNP-Ficoll and the TI-1 antigen TNP-LPS. Serum anti-TNP ... and have a diminished thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigen response. 3BP2−/− B cells demonstrate diminished proliferation ...
rian.ie - Results
Reconstituted Rag2-deficient mice generated significant levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to a type II T-independent antigen; ... Within a week, most cells expressed surface CD19, CD79A, Î»5, and VpreB antigens and had rearranged immunoglobulin D-J heavy ... polarizing macrophages and inhibiting intra-graft infiltration of antigen presenting cells. More in depth analysis is required ...
T independent antigen (TI) - Wikipedia
... so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens. T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... An example of TI-1 antigen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial DNA. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly ...
B Cell-Intrinsic IDO1 Regulates Humoral Immunity to T Cell-Independent Antigens. - PubMed - NCBI
B Cell-Intrinsic IDO1 Regulates Humoral Immunity to T Cell-Independent Antigens.. Shinde R1, Shimoda M1, Chaudhary K1, Liu H1, ... B cell-intrinsic Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 regulates humoral immunity to T cell independent antigens ... B cell-intrinsic Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 regulates humoral immunity to T cell independent antigens ... B cell-intrinsic Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 regulates humoral immunity to T cell independent antigens ...
Role of antigen receptor affinity in T cell-independent antibody responses in vivo | Nature Immunology
However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and ... To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, we ... Role of antigen receptor affinity in T cell-independent antibody responses in vivo. *Tien-An Yang Shih1. , ...
JCI - Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling
Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling. Kylie M. Quinn,1 Daniel E. Zak ... Data represent (B and G) 3 independent experiments with n = 3-6 or (C-F) 5 to 10 pooled dLNs per group. ... Data represent (B and G) 3 independent experiments with n = 3-6 or (C-F) 5 to 10 pooled dLNs per group. ... Nevertheless, STING gt/gt mice were capable of type I IFN production through STING-independent innate pathways. Bypassing STING ...
Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience. -...
Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Further comments. [Jpn J ... Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience.. Wang ... Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is considered as a factor predictive of survival in colorectal cancer ... the preoperative CEA levels are also an independent prognostic factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients after ...
A purified saponin acts as an adjuvant for a T-independent antigen
Three strains of mice were injected with a T-independent antigen, Escherichia coli 055:B5 polysaccharide (PS) combined with ... A purified saponin acts as an adjuvant for a T-independent antigen Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;303:207-10. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684- ... Three strains of mice were injected with a T-independent antigen, Escherichia coli 055:B5 polysaccharide (PS) combined with ...
The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens. | JEM
The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens.. I M Zitron, D E Mosier, W E Paul ... The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens. ... except at limiting antigen concentrations. Both TNP-AECM-Ficoll and TNP-BA are T-I antigens, but they differ in that TNP-AECM- ...
p56lck-independent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk by T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 stimulation
Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine ... p56lck-independent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk by T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 stimulation Proc Natl Acad ... Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine ...
Modulation of T-cell Reactivity During Equine Pregnancy is Antigen Independent.
Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 | PNAS
Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19. J A ... Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 ... Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 ... Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 ...
A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. | The Journal of Immunology
A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens.. C M Snapper and J J Mond ... A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. ... A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. ... A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. ...
Sheepish B cells: evidence for antigen-independent antibody diversification in humans and mice | JEM
This is independent of antigen (Ag) binding to the BCR. These cells then enter the peripheral pool, where they are available ... for the IgM+CD27+ B cell subpopulation in humans (4), these gut B cells may have undergone antigen-independent diversification ... This is an interesting argument that supports the idea of repertoire diversification by V gene SHM in an antigen-independent ... Sheepish B cells: evidence for antigen-independent antibody diversification in humans and mice. David Tarlinton ...
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes form an antigen-independent ring junction
... dc.contributor.author. Somersalo, Kristina. en_US. ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes form an antigen-independent ring junction. J Clin Invest. 2004;113(1):49-57.. en_US. ... This result has specific implications for the mechanism of effective CTL hunting for antigen in tissues. Abnormalities in this ... The ring junction contained lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 and talin, but did not trigger polarization and granule ...
What Is and What Should Always Have Been: Long-Lived Plasma Cells Induced by T Cell-Independent Antigens | The Journal of...
What Is and What Should Always Have Been: Long-Lived Plasma Cells Induced by T Cell-Independent Antigens. Alexandra Bortnick ... Long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are induced early in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent antigens. J. ... Survival of long-lived plasma cells is independent of antigen. Int. Immunol. 10: 1703-1711. ... What Is and What Should Always Have Been: Long-Lived Plasma Cells Induced by T Cell-Independent Antigens ...
Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells | Science Translational...
Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ... Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ... Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ... Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ...
T independent antigen | Article about T independent antigen by The Free Dictionary
Although all animals have... Explanation of T independent antigen ... Find out information about T independent antigen. see immunity ... antigen. (redirected from T independent antigen). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. antigen:. see immunityimmunity ... T independent antigen , Article about T independent antigen by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ... the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). Other antigens either are excreted by the cell ...
CiNii 論文 - Antigen-specific activation thresholds of CD8^+ T cells are independent of IFN-I...
Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell...
Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell ... Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is driven by antigen-independent cell-autonomous signalling. Nature. 2012;489(7415):309-312. ... Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell ... Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell ...
High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain | Journal...
High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain. Nilah ... High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain ... High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain ... High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain ...
pRB-Dependent, J Domain-Independent Function of Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen in Override of p53 Growth Suppression | Journal...
TAg, T antigen. (D) The two models outlined may explain how LT can relieve pRB repression in a partially J domain-independent ... pRB-Dependent, J Domain-Independent Function of Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen in Override of p53 Growth Suppression. Ole ... The LT K1 mutant can also be complemented for p53 override by small t antigen (st) in a manner independent of its J domain. Our ... 1993) Independent expression of the transforming amino-terminal domain of SV40 large I antigen from an alternatively spliced ...
CD8+ T cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner in HIV-infected individuals - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
CD8+ T cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner in HIV-infected individuals ... CD8+ T cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner in HIV-infected individuals. Journal of Immunology, 192(4):1732- ... Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent ... Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent ...
Thymic requirement for cyclical idiotypic and reciprocal anti-idiotypic immune responses to a T-independent antigen.
Thymic requirement for cyclical idiotypic and reciprocal anti-idiotypic immune responses to a T-independent antigen. ... 1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes. 2. The ... for cyclical idiotypic and anti-idiotypic responses to immunization with a T-independent antigen and suggest that the cyclical ... Antigens, Bacterial. Female. Immunoglobulin Idiotypes. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Spleen. Streptococcus ...
Andrew Lees - T cell-independent antigens type 2 | ACS Network
Andrew Lees - T cell-independent antigens type 2. Document created by Andrew Lees on Oct 19, 2017 ... There is evidence implicating the NK cell and T cell as playing this important role in response to TI antigens. Furthermore, we ... One of the most critical properties of this group of antigens is their ability to deliver prolonged and persistent signaling to ... In this review we have attempted to define the characteristics of TI-2 antigens that enable them to stimulate antibody ...
Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against...
PnuBioVax (PBV) is being developed as a multi-antigen, serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against S. pneumoniae disease ... Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against ... Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against ... Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against ...
News for Medical Independent Sales Representatives and Medical Distributors: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)...
Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Expression in Neovasculature Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma is Characterized ... In contrast to other prostate-related antigens such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ... Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Expression in Neovasculature Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma is Characterized. ... In the study, independent investigators at the Cleveland Clinic evaluated PSMA expression in normal kidneys and tissue samples ...
Antigen Testing Is Here. But There's a Catch. - Mother Jones
But she also said that we had to have a breakthrough in antigen […] ... Independent. In print. In your mailbox.. Inexpensive, too! Subscribe today and get a full year of Mother Jones for just $12. ... for the first antigen test for the Covid-19 virus-a step that could escalate the nations ability to test for the disease. It ... And antigen testing is faster and more convenient than PCR testing: it still requires a nasal swab, but results are returned in ...
TAP-independent human histocompatibility complex-Cw1 antigen processing of an HIV envelope protein conserved peptide
Individuals with nonfunctional transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) complexes are not particularly susceptible ... TAP-independent human histocompatibility complex-Cw1 antigen processing of an HIV envelope protein conserved peptide ... αβ T subpopulation specific for TAP-independent antigens may be sufficient to establish an immune defense protecting against ... A conserved TAP-independent HLA peptide ligand endogenously processed and presented in infected human cells was identified. ...
High avidity antigen-specific CTL identified by CD8-independent tetramer staining. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
High avidity antigen-specific CTL identified by CD8-independent tetramer staining. Choi EM-L., Chen J-L., Wooldridge L., Salio ... Animals, Antigens, Neoplasm, Binding Sites, CD8 Antigens, Cell Line, Cell Line, Tumor, Clone Cells, Cytotoxicity, Immunologic, ... Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte, H-2 Antigens, HLA-A2 Antigen, Humans, Immunization, Secondary, Jurkat Cells, Lymphocyte Activation, ...
Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Marker of Disease Activity in Prostate Cancer: Part 2 | Cancer Network | The Oncology Journal
Despite the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on the detection and management of prostate cancer, controversy ... prostate-specific antigen level and survival in patients with. androgen-independent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 91:244- ... ABSTRACT: Despite the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on the detection and management of prostate cancer, ... Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Marker of Disease Activity in Prostate Cancer: Part 2 ...
Immunization against GAD induces antibody binding to GAD-independent antigens and brainstem GABAergic neuronal loss. - Nuffield...
... a role for humoral autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of SPS and suggests that the mechanisms may involve spread to antigens ... Immunization against GAD induces antibody binding to GAD-independent antigens and brainstem GABAergic neuronal loss. ... Immunization against GAD induces antibody binding to GAD-independent antigens and brainstem GABAergic neuronal loss. ... a role for humoral autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of SPS and suggests that the mechanisms may involve spread to antigens ...
LymphocytesReceptorAntibodiesCellsReceptorsSelf-antigenProteinsProteinImmunizationInduceLymphocyteInducesBacterialSimian Virus 40 Large TPolysaccharide antigensVaccinesAbstractTumorsResponsesCarcinoembryonic antigen levelMoleculesImmunogenEpitopesGroup of antigensImmune responseAntigenicHuman leukocyClass II antigensCellularPrognosticLigandsViralCognate antigenHistocompatibilityMechanismsEndogenousAutoantigensBindAdjuvantsMiceStimulationImmunogensProstate-specific membraneModulationStimulatePeptidesGenes
- T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. (wikipedia.org)
- There are 2 distinct subgroups of TI antigens, different in mechanism of activating B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
- TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
- In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. (nih.gov)
- 4 ) on p. 1331 of this issue identify a subset of B lymphocytes in human infants that undergoes repertoire diversification via antigen-independent V gene SHM. (rupress.org)
- Peripheral tolerance occurs at mature lymphocytes encounter self-antigens in peripheral tissues. (intechopen.com)
- In contrast, the adaptive immune response is made up of B and T lymphocytes that have unique receptors specific to various microbial antigens. (jyi.org)
- Cell surface antigens can stimulate the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and cytotoxic responses by white blood cells, e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. (tabers.com)
- We report here that human T lymphocytes have the capacity of acquiring large amounts of MHC class II molecules from various types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in an antigen-independent manner. (elsevier.com)
- CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes. (duke.edu)
- Gene rearrangement and the establishment of a memory cell population are features which are shared by B lymphocytes, whose antigen receptor (BCR) consists in membrane-bound immunoglobulins. (hindawi.com)
- After the first encounter with the antigen, B lymphocytes proliferate as well, giving rise to expanded populations of cells sharing the same antigen receptor. (hindawi.com)
- Upon antigen contact, epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and dendritic cells (DC) leave peripheral organs and home to lymph nodes via the afferent lymphatic vessels and then assemble in the paracortical T cell zone and present antigen to T lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
- Antigen processing , or the cytosolic pathway , is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes . (wikipedia.org)
- To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, we produced mice with antibodies that showed a 40-fold difference in affinity for the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP). (nature.com)
- Rearrangement and assembly of B cell antigen receptor genes generates a diverse antibody repertoire in humans and mice. (rupress.org)
- These V segment substitutions occur independently of antigen binding to the B cell receptor (BCR), although gut bacteria provide an antigen-independent proliferative stimulus. (rupress.org)
- To date, there has been no definitive demonstration of antigen-independent postrearrangement diversification in mice, although mouse B cells undergo postrearrangement V gene replacement in the bone marrow in response to interactions with self-antigen, a process referred to as receptor editing ( 10 ). (rupress.org)
- The past two decades of lymphoma research have uncovered the essential role of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) pathway in lymphoma biology. (haematologica.org)
- 1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes. (duke.edu)
- Until recently, however, CAR-T cells had shown little evidence of antitumor activity against solid tumors and had only brief persistence in vivo.5C7 It has been believed that engagement of the chimeric receptor by tumor antigens failed to provide the requisite costimulatory signals necessary for optimal expansion, function, and persistence because tumor cells, unlike professional antigen-presenting cells, lack costimulatory ligands and may express inhibitory ligands. (researchhunt.com)
- In immunology , antigens ( Ag ) are structures (aka substances) specifically bound by antibodies (Ab) or a cell surface version of Ab ~ B cell antigen receptor (BCR). (wikipedia.org)
- It was expanded later to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment after processing the native antigen that can be recognized by T-cell receptor (TCR). (wikipedia.org)
- Although naturally generated in the thymus, these TCRs resemble re-engineered therapeutic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in their specificity for MHC-independent ligands. (frontiersin.org)
- It was expanded to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment that can be recognized by highly variable antigen receptors (B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor) of the adaptive immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- An antigen binds the highly variable immunoreceptor products (B-cell receptor or T-cell receptor) once these have been generated. (wikipedia.org)
- Normally immature B cells recognizing self-antigens are forced to undergo receptor editing or eliminated during negative selection ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. (duke.edu)
- Absent B-cell MHC class I, or B-cell receptor restriction to an irrelevant specificity, blunted the expansion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells, suggesting B-cell antigen capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for CD8 activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In activated B cells lacking TRPM7 or TRPM7 kinase activity, more antigen accumulated on the cell surface and activated stronger B cell receptor-dependent signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- DT40 B cells deficient in TRPM7 or expressing a kinase-deficient mutant of TRPM7 showed defective gathering of antigen and prolonged B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. (sciencemag.org)
- When coligated to the B-cell receptor (BCR) through the binding of antigen-containing immune complexes (ICs), the FcγRIIB inhibits antigen-specific antibody responses by blocking BCR signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
- The T cell receptor: The α and β chains define idiotype, and antigen and MHC specificity. (springer.com)
- The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor in T cells. (springer.com)
- Genetic markers of the antigen-specific T cell receptor locus. (springer.com)
- We offer IGF-II R/Mannose 6 Phosphate Receptor (Cation independent) Peptides and IGF-II R/Mannose 6 Phosphate Receptor (Cation independent) Proteins for use in common research applications: Blocking/Neutralizing, Control, ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
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- Androgen receptor-independent prostate cancer: an emerging clinical entity. (bioportfolio.com)
- The growing knowledge of androgen receptor-independent (i. (bioportfolio.com)
- The non-protein microbial antigens can not stimulate classical T cell response by themselves, but they are able to elicit the production of antibodies, so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Microbial antigens prepared to induce protective antibodies are termed vaccines. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Sera from PBV immunised rabbits contained high levels of IgG antibodies to the PBV vaccine, and pneumococcal antigens PspA, Ply, PsaA and PiuA which are components of PBV, when compared with control sera. (synbiosis.com)
- Although immunization with GAD65 did not produce any behavioral abnormality in the mice, the induction of neuronal-surface antibodies and the trend towards loss of GABAergic neurons in the brainstem, supports a role for humoral autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of SPS and suggests that the mechanisms may involve spread to antigens expressed on the surface of these neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
- Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- because of this, many different antibodies are produced, each able to bind a different antigen while sharing the same basic structure. (wikipedia.org)
- in some instances, however, antibodies may cross-react and bind more than one antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- But, by 1903, he understood that an antigen induces the production of immune bodies (antibodies) and wrote that the word antigen is a contraction of antisomatogen ( Immunkörperbildner ). (wikipedia.org)
- Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is specific to one of the antigen's epitopes. (wikipedia.org)
- Different antibodies have the potential to discriminate among specific epitopes present on the antigen surface. (wikipedia.org)
- We posit that chronic exposure or multiple acute exposures to viral antigen may redirect B cells from production of antiviral antibodies to antibodies, specific to myelin antigen. (frontiersin.org)
- We suggest that induction of MBP-reactive antibodies in LMP1-immunized mice may be caused by either Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) or by T cells that are primed by myelin antigens directly in CNS. (frontiersin.org)
- This hypothesis suggests that B cells initially recruited to neutralize external pathogens after somatic mutations and maturation start to produce low-to-middle affinity cross-reactive antibodies able to recognize self-antigens. (frontiersin.org)
- Most serological tests for Brucella infection use antibodies against common antigens of Brucella [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Immunointerventions with anti-CD3 antibodies (Abs) ( 2 , 3 ), rituximab ( 4 ), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin fusion protein ( 5 ) transiently preserved β-cell function, preferentially in a patient subgroup with younger age at diagnosis and with relatively preserved residual functional β-cell mass ( 3 ), hereby opening perspectives for future trials at the preclinical stage ( 3 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Antibodies to capsular polysaccharide antigens of S. pneumoniae provide serotype-specific protection against pneumococcal infections. (who.int)
- Antigen-specific immunoprotection can be achieved through several different mechanisms, such as production of protective antibodies, deletion or inactivation (anergy) of pathogenic T-cell clones, or induction of suppressive cellular immunity mediated by the family of regulatory T cells (Treg). (ahajournals.org)
- In the absence of exogenous antigens, repeated administration of the TLR7 ligand Imiquimod together with anti-CD40 agonistic antibodies activated only innate immunity, which was insufficient to reject intradermal tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- We had previously shown that administration of an adjuvant mixture containing the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) and agonistic anti-CD40 antibodies, together with ovalbumin (OVA) as tumor antigen, protected mice against the growth of E.G7-OVA thymoma and rejected established tumors in this model ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. (nature.com)
- Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
- TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
- T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
- On the other hand, the anti-delta antibody had no effect on the anti-TNP response of BC8 spleen cells to TNP-BA, except at limiting antigen concentrations. (rupress.org)
- Both TNP-AECM-Ficoll and TNP-BA are T-I antigens, but they differ in that TNP-AECM-Ficoll fails to stimulate in vitro responses by immunologically defective CBA/N and neonatal spleen cells whereas TNP-BA can cause responses from both these animals. (rupress.org)
- Increases in cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) can be induced in resting B cells either by a low molecular weight (12-kDa) B-cell growth factor (LMW-BCGF) or by crosslinking the B-cell antigen CD19 with monoclonal antibody (mAb). (pnas.org)
- Two predominant pathways are defined that require the concerted action of multivalent membrane Ig cross-linking by the polysaccharide Ag with 1) various B cell-activating moieties contained within the bacterial pathogen and/or 2) cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by NK cells and macrophages, that become activated in a T cell-independent manner during bacterial infection. (jimmunol.org)
- Recent studies suggested the existence of a subset of B cells that undergoes SHM in an antigen-independent fashion outside GCs ( 3 ), but this viewpoint has remained controversial. (rupress.org)
- In this study, we review recent work showing that T cell-independent Ags consisting of either polysaccharides or LPSs also induce the formation of long-lived plasma cells, despite their general inability to sustain germinal center responses. (jimmunol.org)
- However, as addressed below, recent evidence suggests that B cell responses that fail to engender bona fide GC responses, such as responses to T cell-independent Ags, also generate long-lived plasma cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Along the way, we consider historical precedents driving the notion that plasma cells possess markedly distinct lifespans, as well as the idea that T cell-independent Ags are relatively ineffective at inducing the formation of long-lived plasma cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Differences between SA-dependent and SA-independent strains extend beyond the ability or inability of their spike proteins to bind SA: SA-independent strains are generally more fastidious in cell culture than SA-dependent strains ( 40 , 42 ), and although SA-independent strains infect polarized epithelial cells from either the apical or basolateral membrane, SA-dependent strains enter only at the apical surface ( 4 ). (asm.org)
- Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent manner, and IL-15 expression was highly increased in DCs isolated from viremic HIV-1 patients, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells are activated by inflammatory cytokines in untreated HIV-1 patients independent of Ag specificity. (uzh.ch)
- These observations demonstrate that mature T cells are required for cyclical idiotypic and anti-idiotypic responses to immunization with a T-independent antigen and suggest that the cyclical immune response may result from an interaction between idiotypic and anti-idiotypic cell clones. (duke.edu)
- A conserved TAP-independent HLA peptide ligand endogenously processed and presented in infected human cells was identified. (ovid.com)
- It was not the case that AODH 7.1 cells were responding to Con A on a neighboring AODH 7.1 cell, and no class II antigens were involved. (scripps.edu)
- The self-antigens may be found in all cell types (e.g. chromatin, centromeres) and those autoimmune diseases is systemic or be highly specific for a specific cell type in one organ of the body (e.g. thyroglobulin in cells of the thyroid gland) and those autoimmune diseases is organ-specific. (intechopen.com)
- We generated MHC-independent chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) directed to the GD2 antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. (researchhunt.com)
- Introduction Adoptively transferred T cells Rabbit Polyclonal to ZADH2 can recognize tumor-associated antigens presented in association with MHC molecules on the cell surface. (researchhunt.com)
- However, many cancer cells and solid tumors have defects in antigen processing and presentation,1,2 including down-regulation of and/or failure to express MHC molecules.3,4 Introducing tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into adoptively transferred T cells allows them to recognize tumor-associated antigens in an Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture MHC-independent manner while retaining their cytotoxic activity. (researchhunt.com)
- We found that CAR expressing EBV-CTLs (CAR-CTLs) survived in the circulation at an initially higher level over the 6-week study period than GD2-CAR expressing activated T cells (CAR-ATCs), a difference Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture we attributed to superior costimulation for CAR-CTLs provided when the cells engaged EBV antigens on professional antigen-presenting cells through their native receptors. (researchhunt.com)
- Therefore, there is more evidence that field cancerization is due to multiple independent events than to migration of genetically altered cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although the size and diversity of the lymphocyte repertoire make it likely that there is an antigen, a specific lymphocyte for any given pathogen, the frequency of these cells can be extremely low and normally will not be sufficient to protect the host against a primary infection. (jyi.org)
- After antigenic stimulation, there is activation and expansion of these antigen-specific cells. (jyi.org)
- It is this process of clonal selection and the ultimate perpetuation of these antigen-specific memory cells that protects against a secondary infection. (jyi.org)
- Hence, the goal of vaccination is to enhance the number of antigen-specific B and T cells against a given pathogen. (jyi.org)
- Antigens on the body's own cells are called autoantigens. (tabers.com)
- Antigens on all other cells are called foreign antigens. (tabers.com)
- Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. (tabers.com)
- Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells ) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- The immune system is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body and usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
- Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
- Consequently, in coreceptor-deficient mice that additionally lack MHC [so-called QuadKO mice ( 10 )], MHC-independent TCRs signal immature thymocytes to undergo positive selection and to differentiate into mature T cells expressing only an MHC-independent TCR repertoire. (frontiersin.org)
- Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from sensitized rats induced an increase in proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis of airway myocytes in naive recipients upon repeated antigen challenge, which resulted in an increase in ASM mass. (jci.org)
- Coculture of antigen-stimulated CD4+ T cells with cell cycle-arrested ASM cells induced myocyte proliferation, dependent on T cell activation and direct T cell-myocyte contact. (jci.org)
- Antigen presenting cells present antigens in the form of peptides on histocompatibility molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Depending on the antigen and the type of the histocompatibility molecule, different types of T cells will be activated. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Non-microbial non-self antigens can include pollen, egg white and proteins from transplanted tissues and organs or on the surface of transfused blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Most significantly, the newly acquired MHC class II molecules were capable of efficiently presenting antigen to T helper cells. (elsevier.com)
- T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. (duke.edu)
- In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (duke.edu)
- Purpose: The goal of this study is to develop a tissue-specific toxic gene therapy utilizing the prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoter for both androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) PSA-secreting prostate cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusion: The 5837 bp long PSA promoter was active in the androgen free environment and could be used to target both androgen-dependent and independent PSA-producing prostate cancer cells in vitro, and prostate tumors in castrated hosts. (elsevier.com)
- To forward such efforts, our approach with colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae is to establish bystander immunity to ultimately drive the development of auto-Ag-specific Treg cells. (bvsalud.org)
- This review article will examine the potential of treating autoimmune diseases without having previous knowledge of the auto-Ag using an innocuous antigen to stimulate Treg cells via the production of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10. (bvsalud.org)
- For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The first consists of an antigen-dependent clonal proliferation, and the second of a capability to maintain for a very long time (sometimes throughout life) a population of derived cells able to proliferate again on the occasion of a further encounter with the same antigen. (hindawi.com)
- Only a few cells survive and enter the third stage, called "memory," during which they tend to persist and self-renew, ready to encounter the same antigen to which they had been previously exposed [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 3-6 Although pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity account for cholesterol uptake and contribute to activation of macrophages and endothelial cells, antigen-specific T cells recognizing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the intima provide strong proinflammatory stimuli that accelerate atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
- found that expression of TRPM7 in B cells controlled actin dynamics and prevented antigen internalization. (sciencemag.org)
- An inhibitor of TRPM7 ion channel activity reduced antigen presentation to T cells. (sciencemag.org)
- However, the induction and expansion of T(regs) at sites of mucosal inflammation are not yet fully understood and may involve antigen presentation by local dendritic cells (DCs) and/or intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). (fu-berlin.de)
- Although gut-associated DCs can induce antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cell proliferation, in vivo depletion of DCs did not preclude proliferation of these cells. (fu-berlin.de)
- Ki-67 detects a nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation not found in resting cells. (elsevier.com)
- Vol 5: Large T Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells Protect Against Dendritic Cell Tumors through Perforin-Mediated Mechanisms Independent of CD4 T Cell Help. (duhnnae.com)
- Using the poorly immunogenic B16-OVA melanoma cells as tumor model, we tested different combinations of adjuvants and antigens to treat established tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, administering a combination of anti-CD40 plus TLR3 and TLR7 ligands, together with antigen targeting to dendritic cells through TLR4, was sufficient to induce tumor rejection in 50% of mice. (aacrjournals.org)
- This therapy activated T-cell responses not only against OVA, which conferred protection against a rechallenge with B16-OVA cells, but also activated T-cell responses against other melanoma-associated antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, tumors usually behave as poorly immunogenic for T cells, because as opposed to professional antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC), they express low levels of antigens, MHC, and costimulatory molecules ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Therefore, to overcome the low tumor immunogenicity, new therapeutic strategies are based on the use of adjuvants (molecules able to induce DC maturation) with or without exogenously added tumor antigens, which will activate DC to properly present tumor antigens to T cells and trigger their effector functions ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Similarly, PCs resulting from the antigen-independent differentiation of memory B cells in vitro were inhibited by FcγRIIB cross-linking but memory B cell activation itself, as measured by proliferation, was unaffected. (biomedcentral.com)
- These results suggest a mechanism to control antibody levels involving the differential expression of FcγRIIB on B cell subpopulations, in which the FcγRIIB functions independently of the BCR to eliminate antibody-secreting effector cells and inhibit naïve B cell proliferation without compromising the long-lived antigen-specific memory B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Importantly, FcγRIIB requires Btk and p38 MAPK to mediate antigen-independent inhibition in human B cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, the FcγRIIB has the ability to block both the BCR-dependent, antigen-driven activation of B cells as well as antigen-independent, BCR-independent B cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
- There is considerable evidence that the BCR-dependent FcγRIIB inhibitory pathway plays an important role in regulating the antigen-driven activation of naïve B cells to proliferate and differentiate to PCs [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here we investigate the ability of the BCR-independent FcγRIIB inhibitory pathway to directly inhibit human peripheral blood PCs and to block the antigen-independent activation of human naïve and memory B cells to proliferate and differentiate into PCs in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
- IgG-switched memory B cells in IL-6 knock-in mice displayed a diverse antibody repertoire and high specificity against immunized antigen. (bloodjournal.org)
- 2 ⇓ - 4 However, the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses by human B cells is still a major challenge. (bloodjournal.org)
- In the absence of cognate antigen, the IgE BCR promoted terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (PCs) under cell culture conditions mimicking T cell help. (elifesciences.org)
- Instead, IgE + GC B cells exhibited poor antigen presentation and prolonged cell cycles, suggesting reduced competition for T cell help. (elifesciences.org)
- Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) 1 belong to the dendritic cell (DC) family and are potent antigen-presenting cells located in the suprabasal layers of the epidermis ( 3 , 30 , 36 ). (rupress.org)
- After antigen uptake, LC leave the epidermis and migrate into dermis, where they travel via afferent lymphatics into the regional lymph nodes to present antigen to T cells ( 9 , 26 ). (rupress.org)
- The exogenous pathway is utilized by specialized antigen-presenting cells to present peptides derived from proteins that the cell has endocytosed. (wikipedia.org)
- Not all antigen-presenting cells utilize cross-presentation. (wikipedia.org)
- Delta like-1 (Dlk1)/preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. (wiley.com)
- These antigen-specific receptors are encoded by genes generated during a complex of gene rearrangement that occurs during the course of lymphocyte development. (jyi.org)
- BCR and TCR are both highly variable antigen receptors diversified by somatic V(D)J recombination . (wikipedia.org)
- Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (wikipedia.org)
- These may be proteins or polysaccharides derived from the outer surfaces of the cell (capsular antigens), from the cell interior (the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Simian virus 40 (SV40) encodes two major early proteins, small tumor antigen (st) and large tumor antigen (LT), that are key players in viral replication as well as regulation of cell growth. (asm.org)
- Whilst the capsule antigen is the target of the polysaccharide vaccines, bacterial proteins can also act as targets for the immune system. (synbiosis.com)
- Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (tabers.com)
- Antigens are usually proteins , peptides (amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
- MHC-independent αβTCRs (TCRs) recognize conformational epitopes on native self-proteins and arise in mice lacking both MHC and CD4/CD8 coreceptor proteins. (frontiersin.org)
- Here we identify naturally arising MHC-independent TCRs reactive to three native self-proteins (CD48, CD102, and CD155) involved in cell adhesion. (frontiersin.org)
- Antigens are usually carried by proteins and polysaccharides, and less frequently, lipids. (wikipedia.org)
- Cross-reactivity of neuronal proteins with exogenous antigens is considered one of the possible mechanisms of MS triggering. (frontiersin.org)
- Previous studies have described 35 and 37 kDa Fos-like proteins, termed chronic Fos-related antigens (FRAs), that are induced in brain in a region-specific manner in response to several chronic perturbations, including chronic electroconvulsive seizures, psychotropic drug treatments, and lesions. (jneurosci.org)
- In contrast, work in several laboratories over the last few years has identified novel Fos-like proteins, termed chronic Fos-related antigens (FRAs), that are induced in brain in response to chronic perturbations and are much more long-lived than other Fos-like proteins induced acutely. (jneurosci.org)
- These proteins collectively form the new class of tumor antigens called cancer-testis (CT) antigens. (bloodjournal.org)
- In Cross-presentation , peptides derived from extracellular proteins are presented in the context of MHC class I. The cell starts off with the exogenous pathways but diverts the antigens (cytosolic diversion) to the endogenous pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94. (bioportfolio.com)
- Fully efficient cellular transformation depends on at least three independent functions of LT: binding to the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) tumor suppressor ( 14 ) and other members of this family ( 19 , 22 ), binding to the p53 tumor suppressor ( 33 , 37 ), and maintaining the integrity of the first exon (amino acids 1 to 82). (asm.org)
- Streptococcus pneumoniae has multiple protein antigens on the surface in addition to the serotype specific polysaccharide capsule antigen. (synbiosis.com)
- The objective of the present study was to identify TAP-independent ligands from HIV gp160 protein. (ovid.com)
- The protein marker in the Rh group of antigens that stimulates the greatest immune response. (tabers.com)
- In contrast the pre-selection TCR repertoire from which the mature repertoire is selected includes both MHC-restricted TCRs specific for peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligands as well as MHC-independent TCRs specific for conformational epitopes on native protein ligands ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
- in contrast, MHC-independent TCRs bind to intra-thymic protein ligands independently of CD4/CD8 coreceptors and so cannot access coreceptor-associated Lck to signal positive selection ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In conclusion, our data show that T-cell function is sensitive toward the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in a mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent fashion. (aacrjournals.org)
- Protein antigen contains a sequence within a region between 31 and 210 of the human IGF2R protein. (fishersci.com)
- Heterodimers between MHC-I heavy chain and β 2 m associate with the lectin chaperone calreticulin and a pre-existing complex of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), the TAP-associated protein tapasin and the ERp57, forming together the peptide loading complex (PLC). (biologists.org)
- In this study, we demonstrated that sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a potential tumor antigen in myeloma. (bloodjournal.org)
- Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a protein that spans the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum , transports the peptides into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (wikipedia.org)
- Several independent vaccines may be mixed to give a combined vaccine, and thus reduce the number of injections necessary for immunization, but such mixing can result in a lesser response to each component of the mixture. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Immunization against GAD induces antibody binding to GAD-independent antigens and brainstem GABAergic neuronal loss. (ox.ac.uk)
- Effects of immunization with T-dependent and T-independent Aeromonas salmonicida antigens on antibody production and immunological memory in cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (canada.ca)
- An immunization protocol that facilitates selective targeting of antigen-specific Treg would constitute a major step forward in the development of a vaccine against atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Using the Plasmodium chabaudi mouse model of malaria and immunization with model Ags that are either T-dependent (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl [NP]-OVA) or T-independent (NP-Ficoll), we analyzed the effects of acute malaria on the development of humoral immunity to secondary Ags. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens, because they induce numerous cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
- Allergens are antigens that induce allergic states in humans or animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
- An illustration that shows how antigens induce the immune system response by interacting with an antibody that matches the antigen's molecular structure . (wikipedia.org)
- Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
- The ring junction contained lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 and talin, but did not trigger polarization and granule translocation to the interface. (washington.edu)
- The T cell/T lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell), of the adaptive immune system, selectively recognize the antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- T cell independent [TI]) are a key component of the early response to bacterial and viral infection and a critical driver of systemic autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
- An example of TI-1 antigen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- We provide a model for induction of T cell-independent, polysaccharide-specific Ig secretion in response to bacterial challenge. (jimmunol.org)
- Bioinformatics tools and algorithms like BLAST and FASTA are nowadays being adopted as a means to identify and detect common target antigens against Gram negative bacterial pathogens. (jyi.org)
- This article is from Frontiers in Immunology, volume 5.AbstractOur newly generated murine tumor dendritic cell MuTuDC lines, generated from tumors developing in transgenic mice expressing the simian virus 40 large T antigen SV40LgT and GFP under the DC specific promoter CD11c, reproduce the phenotypic and functional properties of splenic wild type CD8α+ conventional DCs. (duhnnae.com)
- Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The nature of vaccines (either humoral antibody immunity inducing or cell-mediated immunity inducing) depends on the location (extracellular or intracellular) and the expression of the antigens selected for incorporation. (jyi.org)
- To maintain the synergism between the kind of immunity conferred by the vaccines and the cellular location of the included antigens, new findings are gathered about the virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, invasins (mostly enzymes), anti-apoptotic factors, anti-phagocytic factors, and many more molecules that aid in pathogenesis and invasiveness. (jyi.org)
- Expression of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Tumor-Associated Vasculatures of Renal Neoplasms" presented on Sunday, May 21 from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. during a Poster Session on Kidney and Ureteral Cancer: Basic Research (Abstract # 382). (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- ABSTRACT: Despite the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on the detection and management of prostate cancer, controversy about its usefulness as a marker of disease activity continues. (cancernetwork.com)
- abstract = "Tumor volume has been considered an important variable in determining the probability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence in prostatic adenocarcinoma. (elsevier.com)
- Cancer antigens are used in clinical medicine to screen body fluids for tumors or to follow the response of tumors to treatment. (tabers.com)
- To investigate the immune response toward the large T antigen that leads to rejection of the MuTuDC lines, they were genetically engineered by lentiviral transduction to express luciferase and tested for the induction of DC tumors after adoptive transfer in various gene deficient recipient mice. (duhnnae.com)
- Low antigen expression and an absence of coimmunostimulatory signals may be partly responsible for the low immunogenicity of many tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our findings support the concept that multiple adjuvant combination and antigen targeting may be a useful immunotherapeutic strategy against poorly immunogenic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
- In contrast, less attention has been devoted to understanding Ab responses to T cell-independent Ags and pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
- This review charts plasma cell differentiation in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent Ab responses while also addressing current knowledge of the environmental cues governing life and death decisions in the plasma cell lineage. (jimmunol.org)
- Thymic requirement for cyclical idiotypic and reciprocal anti-idiotypic immune responses to a T-independent antigen. (duke.edu)
- Thymus-independent IgM and IgG responses in mice to flagellar antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
- By mobilizing protective immune responses in an antigen-specific manner, side effects due to hampered host defense against infections are avoided. (ahajournals.org)
- ref. 22 ) can alter the immunosuppressive milieu and aid in the initiation of antigen-specific immune responses ( 17 , 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- We show that therapeutic administration of reovirus overrides tumor-associated antigen presentation abnormalities before initiating tumor-specific adaptive immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
- TSLP elicits IL-33-independent innate lymphoid cell responses to promote skin inflammation. (medscape.com)
- Therefore, isolation and identification of other novel tumor antigens in myeloma will contribute to the ultimate development of a polyvalent vaccine that elicits consistent and strong immune responses and generates a high effector-to-target ratio in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
- Administering this adjuvant combination together with OVA as a tumor antigen induced T-cell responses that delayed tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- Although antigen-specific human IgM antibody responses are generated, the achievement of affinity maturation and class-switching from the IgM to the IgG isotype has been particularly difficult. (bloodjournal.org)
- Acute Plasmodium chabaudi infection dampens humoral responses to a secondary T-dependent antigen but enhances responses to a secondary T-independent antigen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Klaus, G. G. & Humphrey, J. H. The immunological properties of haptens coupled to thymus-independent carrier molecules. (nature.com)
- Both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecules are known to play important roles in cancer immunity. (bvsalud.org)
- DC maturation, which involves upregulation of costimulatory, adhesion, and antigen-presenting molecules as well as the production of cytokines and chemokines, is necessary for correct T-cell activation ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. (wikipedia.org)
- Cross-presentation involves parts of the exogenous and the endogenous pathways but ultimately involves the latter portion of the endogenous pathway (e.g. proteolysis of antigens for binding to MHC I molecules). (wikipedia.org)
- An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
- Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of encapsulated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
- Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different lock (antibody). (wikipedia.org)
- We show that upon antigen contact, LC and DC upregulate pan CD44 epitopes and epitopes encoded by variant exons v4, v5, v6, and v9. (rupress.org)
- Siskind, G. W. & Benacerraf, B. Cell selection by antigen in the immune response. (nature.com)
- This primary immune response to a foreign antigen takes a week to develop, during which time infecting microbes can replicate within the host body. (jyi.org)
- In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (wikipedia.org)
- In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
- The antigen cannot elicit the immune response without the help of an immunologic adjuvant. (wikipedia.org)
- Immunogens are those antigens, termed immunogenic, capable of inducing an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
- Human Leukocyte Antigen and Systemic Sclerosis in Japanese: The Sign of the Four Independent Protective Alleles, DRB1*13:02, DRB1*14:06, DQB1*03:01. (cdc.gov)
- Several studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) have been reported. (cdc.gov)
- There was an absolute requirement for the presentor cell to be class II+, and the activation signal on mitogen-treated class II+ presentor could be blocked by monoclonal antibody to the class II antigens. (scripps.edu)
- mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. (duke.edu)
- Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. (duke.edu)
- Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which trigger both LFA-1-dependent and LFA-1-independent adhesion pathways. (duke.edu)
- Pathogenic autoantibodies can protect or cause diseases via neutralization of self-antigens, opsonization, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect. (intechopen.com)
- Cellular immunity appears also to be targeted, but it remains unclear whether it is specific to LDL antigens. (ahajournals.org)
- By multivariate Cox analysis, lymph node metastases (p = 0.003), penetration of the bowel wall (p = 0.0001) and preoperative CEA levels (p = 0.0001) were found to be independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer patients. (nih.gov)
- The data from our study indicate that in addition to lymph node metastases and penetration of the bowel wall, the preoperative CEA levels are also an independent prognostic factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients after curative surgery. (nih.gov)
- Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has yet to be used as a prognostic or adjuvant chemotherapy factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). (springer.com)
- A preoperative CEA level can be an independent prognostic factor for stage I-III CRC after curative resection. (springer.com)
- The prognostic significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels in colorectal cancer. (springer.com)
- Multivariate analysis revealed that coexpression of HLA class I and PD-L1 was an independent poor prognostic factor of lung adenocarcinoma. (bvsalud.org)
- We tested the hypothesis that the ratio of tumor positive tissue blocks to the total number of blocks submitted (positive-block ratio) can be used as an independent prognostic indicator for PSA recurrence. (elsevier.com)
- However, in CD4/CD8 coreceptor-deficient mice, Lck in immature thymocytes is not sequestered by coreceptors and so is available to transduce signals from all ligand-engaged TCRs, including TCRs specific for MHC-independent ligands. (frontiersin.org)
- They recognize their ligands in a non-MHC restricted way and, as part of the innate immunity, are generally considered unable to remember antigens and to increase the magnitude of their response over time [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Individuals with nonfunctional transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) complexes are not particularly susceptible to viral infections or neoplasms. (ovid.com)
- Therefore, their immune system must be reasonably efficient, and the present, though reduced, cytolytic CD8 + αβ T subpopulation specific for TAP-independent antigens may be sufficient to establish an immune defense protecting against viral infections in these individuals. (ovid.com)
- it may be notably increased by the incorporation of antigen into oils or other adjuvants. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Here, we document that the MuTuDC line was rejected in C57BL-6 mice by a CD4 T cell help-independent, perforin-mediated CD8 T cell response to the SV40LgT without pre-activation or co-injection of adjuvants. (duhnnae.com)
- It may be possible to overcome this situation by defining a combination of adjuvants and antigens that can activate a high-avidity antitumor response. (aacrjournals.org)
- Three strains of mice were injected with a T-independent antigen, Escherichia coli 055:B5 polysaccharide (PS) combined with purified saponin, QS-21, isolated from Quillaja saponaria bank. (nih.gov)
- New data in humans and mice now identify specific B cell populations that may have undergone antigen-independent hypermutation outside GCs. (rupress.org)
- Collectively, these results suggest that the events associated with B cell development in humans and mice may not be far removed from those in other species, such as sheep, in which antigen-independent diversification occurs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (rupress.org)
- Immature Dendritic Cell Therapy Confers Durable Immune Modulation in an Antigen-Dependent and Antigen-Independent Manner in Nonobese Diabetic Mice. (ufl.edu)
- In contrast, mice deficient in NALP-3, IPAF, or caspase-1 did not show any alteration of joint inflammation, thus indicating that ASC associated effects on AIA are independent of the classical NALP-3 or IPAF inflammasomes. (ru.nl)
- 5 , 6 Several reports demonstrated that antigen-specific human IgG can be detected in humanized mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (bloodjournal.org)
- Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. (rcsb.org)
- Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. (duke.edu)