Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Heterogeneity in the ability of cytotoxic murine NK cell clones to enhance Ig secretion in vitro. (1/168)

We recently described a panel of cytotoxic murine NK cell clones that also enhanced Ig secretion by B cells activated in an in vitro model of T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) responses. We employed dextran-conjugated anti-IgD (alphadelta-dex) as a model antigen. Here we study the mechanism of Ig induction by these clones. Addition of the various NK clones to sort-purified B cells stimulated with alphadelta-dex and IL-2 resulted in a markedly heterogeneous increase in Ig secretion, which varied from 3-fold, as mediated by clone PKO 56, to 15-fold, as induced by clone PKO 101. The other NK cells showed intermediate levels of Ig induction. Furthermore, while addition of as few as 0.04% of PKO 101 cells stimulated significant increases and 1% induced near maximum Ig production, a 3% addition of PKO 56 cells was required for significant enhancement of Ig secretion. Supernatant material collected from the NK clones mediated Ig production at levels that mirrored the induction by the corresponding cells. Cytokine analysis showed that while all members of the NK panel produced IFN-gamma only two secreted granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and that the levels of Ig induction mediated by the NK clones correlated only with their levels of IFN-gamma secretion. Culture of B and NK cells in the presence of anti-IFN-gamma demonstrated that IFN-gamma was the critical cytokine in NK-induced Ig production. These findings establish heterogeneity in the ability of NK cells to increase Ig secretion in vitro and show that NK-produced IFN-gamma is an important factor in determining this heterogeneity.  (+info)

Impaired allostimulatory capacity of peripheral blood dendritic cells recovered from hepatitis C virus-infected individuals. (2/168)

In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, Th responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of liver disease. The dendritic cell (DC) is the most potent activator of CD4 T cells for supporting Th1 differentiation. To clarify the roles of DC of HCV-infected individuals in the development of CD4 T cell responses, we generated peripheral DC with GM-CSF and IL-4 from 24 chronic hepatitis C patients and 14 healthy donors. We then compared their potentials for stimulating allogeneic CD4 T cells, autologous CD4 T cells against influenza A or HCV core Ags, and cytokine production. The DC from the patients (HCV-DC) expressed lower degrees of CD86 than DC from the donors (N-DC), whereas no difference was found in the HLA molecules and other costimulators. HCV-DC stimulated allogeneic T cells less than N-DC; however, influenza A- or core-pulsed HCV-DC retained the potentials for autologous T cell proliferation. In allogeneic DC/T cell cultures, the IFN-gamma levels with HCV-DC were lower than those with N-DC, which may be related to the low expressions of IL-12 p35 and p40 transcripts in HCV-DC. The stimulation with LPS disclosed that HCV-DC is less potent in IL-12 p70 production than N-DC. In the autologous cultures, the pulsing of the Ags to HCV-DC increased the IL-12 p40 and IFN-gamma production and up-regulated the transcription of both IL-12 subunits. Exogenous IL-2 or IL-12 restored the low allogeneic T cell proliferation with HCV-DC in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, low expression of CD86 and/or IL-12 is crucially involved in the low allostimulatory capacity of HCV-DC. Low IL-12 and low IFN-gamma milieu with HCV-DC on encounters with alloantigens may impede Th1 polarization.  (+info)

Elderly immune response to a TI-2 antigen: heavy and light chain use and bactericidal activity to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C polysaccharide. (3/168)

Previous studies of the elderly immune response to TI-2 antigens failed to correlate specific antibody levels with function and to compare responses with those of young adults. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C capsular polysaccharide (MCPS) was used as a model TI-2 antigen. Anti-MCPS antibody levels were determined in elderly individuals and correlated with bactericidal activity. The anti-MCPS response in most persons was characterized by predominant IgG usage, with IgG2>IgG1. No light chain or IgA subclass predominated, but some responses showed a particular chain type. Bactericidal activity correlated best with IgG2 levels. Elderly subjects had lower anti-MCPS responses than the young adults did in all chain-specific anti-MCPS levels, and levels declined more rapidly. Bactericidal activity following immunization was significantly lower in the elderly persons. These results suggest the anti-MCPS antibody repertoire in the elderly is likely maintained, and the lower level of function is related to the lower antibody levels.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of Sle pathogenesis: Sle3 on murine chromosome 7 impacts T cell activation, differentiation, and cell death. (4/168)

Polyclonal, generalized T cell defects, as well as Ag-specific Th clones, are likely to contribute to pathology in murine lupus, but the genetic bases for these mechanisms remain unknown. Mapping studies indicate that loci on chromosomes 1 (Sle1), 4 (Sle2), 7 (Sle3), and 17 (Sle4) confer disease susceptibility in the NZM2410 lupus strain. B6.NZMc7 mice are C57BL/6 (B6) mice congenic for the NZM2410-derived chromosome 7 susceptibility interval, bearing Sle3. Compared with B6 controls, B6.NZMc7 mice exhibit elevated CD4:CD8 ratios (2.0 vs 1.34 in 1- to 3-mo-old spleens); an age-dependent accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells (33.4% vs 21.9% in 9- to 12-mo-old spleens); a more diffuse splenic architecture; and a stronger immune response to T-dependent, but not T-independent, Ags. In vitro, Sle3-bearing T cells show stronger proliferation, increased expansion of CD4+ T cells, and reduced apoptosis (with or without anti-Fas) following stimulation with anti-CD3. With age, the B cells in this strain acquire an activated phenotype. Thus, the NZM2410 allele of Sle3 appears to impact generalized T cell activation, and this may be causally related to the low grade, polyclonal serum autoantibodies seen in this strain. Epistatic interactions with other loci may be required to transform this relatively benign phenotype into overt autoimmunity, as seen in the NZM2410 strain.  (+info)

Deficiency in Msh2 affects the efficiency and local sequence specificity of immunoglobulin class-switch recombination: parallels with somatic hypermutation. (5/168)

During maturation of the immune response, IgM+ B cells switch to expression of one of the downstream isotypes (IgG, A or E). This class switching occurs by region-specific recombination within the IgH locus through an unknown mechanism. A lack of switch recombination in mice deficient in components of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-Ku complex has pointed to a role for non-homologous end joining. Here we characterize a switching defect in mice lacking a protein involved in DNA mismatch recognition. Mice deficient in Msh2 give diminished IgG (but not IgM) responses following challenge with both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antigens. This appears to reflect a B cell-intrinsic defect since B cells from Msh2-deficient mice also exhibit impaired switching (but not blasting or proliferation) on in vitro culture with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, those switches that do occur in Msh2-deficient B cells reveal a shift in the distribution of recombination sites used: the breakpoints are more likely to occur in consensus motifs. These results, which intriguingly parallel the effects of Msh2 deficiency on hypermutation, suggest a role for Msh2 in the mechanics of class-switch recombination.  (+info)

Cutting edge: CD40 ligand is a limiting factor in the humoral response to T cell-dependent antigens. (6/168)

CD40 ligand (CD40L) plays a crucial role in T cell-dependent B cell responses, but whether its abundance is a limiting factor in their development is unclear. This question was addressed in transgenic mice expressing the murine CD40L gene under the control of the IL-2-promoter (CD40Ltg+). The fraction of activated T cells from the CD40Ltg+ mice with detectable levels of surface CD40L was modestly greater (1.1- to 2-fold) than littermate controls and paralleled an approximately 1.8-fold increase in CD40L mRNA abundance. In response to trinitrophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin and tetanus/diphtheria vaccine, CD40Ltg+ mice developed higher titers of high-affinity IgG and IgG1 Ab than wild-type mice. In contrast, the Ab response of CD40Ltg+ and control mice was similar in response to the T-independent Ag TNP-Ficoll. These results suggest that a modest increment in expression of CD40L accelerates the development of T-dependent responses, and that CD40L plays a limiting role in the induction of high-affinity Ab and Ab-class switching.  (+info)

Comparative contribution of CD1 on the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. (7/168)

CD1 molecules are MHC class I-like glycoproteins whose expression is essential for the development of a unique subset of T cells, the NK T cells. To evaluate to what extent CD1 contributes to the development of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, we generated CD1oIIo and CD1oTAPo mice and compared the generation of T cells in these double-mutant mice and IIo or TAPo mice. FACS analysis showed that the number of CD4+ T cells in CD1oIIo mice was reduced significantly compared with the corresponding population in IIo mice. Both CD4+ NK1.1+ and the CD4+ NK1.1- population were reduced in CD1oIIo mice, suggesting that CD1 can select not only CD4+ NK1.1+ T cells but also some NK1.1- CD4+ T cells. Functional analysis showed that the residual CD4+ cells in CD1oIIo can secrete large amounts of IFN-gamma and a significant amount of IL-4 during primary stimulation with anti-CD3, suggesting that this population may be enriched for NK T cells restricted by other class I molecules. In contrast to the CD4+ population, no significant differences in the CD8+ T cell compartment can be detected between TAPo and CD1oTAPo mice in all lymphoid tissues tested, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Our data suggest that, unlike other MHC class I molecules, CD1 does not contribute in a major way to the development of CD8+ T cells.  (+info)

Ox40-ligand has a critical costimulatory role in dendritic cell:T cell interactions. (8/168)

The tumor necrosis factor family molecule Ox40-ligand (Ox40L) has been identified as a potential costimulatory molecule and also has been implicated in T cell homing and B cell activation. To ascertain the essential functions of Ox40L, we generated and characterized Ox40L-deficient mice. Mice lacking Ox40L exhibit an impaired contact hypersensitivity response, a dendritic cell-dependent T cell-mediated response, due to defects in T cell priming and cytokine production. In contrast, Ox40L-deficient mice do not have defects in T cell homing or humoral immune responses. In vitro, Ox40L-deficient dendritic cells are defective in costimulating T cell cytokine production. Thus, Ox40L has a critical costimulatory function in vitro and in vivo for dendritic cell:T cell interactions.  (+info)

In this report, we showed that 3BP2 is required for optimal signaling through the B-cell antigen receptor and is part of the CD19 costimulatory complex. 3BP2 has a distinctive function in B lymphocytes involved in the TI-2 humoral response. Mice lacking 3BP2 have diminished peritoneal B1 B cells and accumulate MZ B cells which demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to antigen receptor-induced cell death in vitro.. B1 B cells and MZ B cells control the humoral response to TI-2 multivalent antigens (22, 25). TI-2 immune responses occur in the absence of T-cell help but are dependent on optimal activation of the BCR together with BAFF signals elaborated by macrophages and dendritic cells (5, 9, 24, 48). We have shown that 3BP2−/− splenic B cells and MZ B cells fail to proliferate, survive, and signal optimally following antigen receptor activation. Consistent with these data, overexpression of 3BP2 augmented BCR-mediated NFAT activation as measured by a luciferase reporter assay, while treatment of ...
Acts as an adapter protein that mediates cell signaling pathways involved in cellular functions such as cell adhesion and migration, tissue organization, and the regulation of the immune response (PubMed:12432078, PubMed:20881139). Plays a role in integrin-mediated cell adhesion through BCAR1-CRK-RAPGEF1 signaling and activation of the small GTPase RAP1 (PubMed:12432078). Promotes cell migration and invasion through the extracellular matrix (PubMed:20881139). Required for marginal zone B-cell development and thymus-independent type 2 immune responses (By similarity). Mediates migration and adhesion of B cells in the splenic marginal zone via promoting hyperphosphorylation of NEDD9/CASL (By similarity). Plays a role in CXCL13-induced chemotaxis of B-cells (By similarity). Plays a role in the migration of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) into the forebrain and the innervation of the olfactory bulb by the OSN axons during development (By similarity). Required for the efficient tyrosine phosphorylation of
NEWS24.CO.ID -Untuk menarik penumpang, PT Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. memberikan layanan rapid test antigen gratis bagi seluruh penumpang ru...
Mice deficient in central the different parts of classical NF-κB signaling possess low degrees of circulating normal IgM antibodies and neglect to react to immunization with T-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens. B-1 cells are generated easily in the yolk salk paraaortic splanchnopleura and liver organ during early fetal advancement (9 10 while these organs are […]. ...
Up to now long-term in vitro growth of pro-B cells was thought to require stromal cells. However, here we show that fetal liver (FL) and bone marrow (BM) derived pro-B cells can be propagated long-term in stromal cell-free cultures supplemented with IL-7, stem cell factor and FLT3 ligand. Within a week, most cells expressed surface CD19, CD79A, λ5, and VpreB antigens and had rearranged immunoglobulin D-J heavy chain genes. Both FL and BM pro-B cells reconstituted the B-cell compartments of immuno-incompetent Rag2-deficient mice, with FL pro-B cells generating follicular, marginal zone (MZB) and B1a B cells, and BM pro-B cells giving rise mainly to MZB cells. Reconstituted Rag2-deficient mice generated significant levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to a type II T-independent antigen; mice reconstituted with FL pro-B cells generated surprisingly high IgG1 titers. Finally, we show for the first time that mice reconstituted with mixtures of pro-B and pro-T cells propagated in stromal cel... ...
Bacterial lipoproteins share a common structural motif that has been shown to stimulate proliferation and Ig secretion of murine B cells, in a manner distinct from that mediated by LPSs. Studies of lipoprotein-mediated B cell activation utilized heterogeneous populations of lymphoid cells, leaving unresolved their ability to directly activate resting B cells, as well as their ability to interact with other B cell stimuli. Using highly enriched and/or sort-purified resting murine B cells, we demonstrate that, in contrast to previous reports, lipoproteins (lipoprotein-D, lipoprotein-OspA, and/or the synthetic analogue Pam3Cys) stimulate little, if any, proliferation or Ig secretion in resting B cells. However, when combined with a multivalent membrane (m)Ig-mediated cross-linking signal, dextran-conjugated anti-IgD Abs (alpha delta-dex), lipoproteins mediate up to 10,000-fold inductions in IgM secretion and up to 25-fold enhancements in cellular proliferation relative to that observed with alpha ...
Cameron, P M. and Wood, D D., The murine b cell responsive to human b cell activating factor (baf) is not the same cell as that which responds to t-independent antigens. Abstr. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2461 ...
Deltex-3-like (DTX3L), an E3 ligase, is a member of the Deltex (DTX) family and is also called B-lymphoma and BAL-associated protein (BBAP). Previously, we established RFP/RET-transgenic mice, in which systemic hyperpigmented skin, benign melanocytic tumor(s) and melanoma(s) develop stepwise. Here we showed that levels of Dtx3l/DTX3L in spontaneous melanoma in RFP/RET-transgenic mice and human melanoma…
Pada saat paling awalpun deteksi HIV dapat dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan darah, walaupun tidak ada gejala apapun. Pada tahap kedua telah ada gejala klinis, misalnya kulitnya jelek, gatal-gatal dan batuk pilek seperti flu biasa. Pada tahap ketiga akan mengalami penurunan berat badan dan terkena TBC. Dan pada tahap keempat telah mengalami komplikasi, sulit disembuhkan dan biasanya diikuti dengan kematian.[18]. Umumnya, ada tiga tipe deteksi HIV, yaitu tes PCR, tes antibodi HIV, dan tes antigen HIV.[19] Tes reaksi berantai polimerase (PCR) merupakan teknik deteksi berbasis asam nukleat (DNA dan RNA) yang dapat mendeteksi keberadaan materi genetik HIV di dalam tubuh manusia.[20] Tes ini sering pula dikenal sebagai tes beban virus atau tes amplifikasi asam nukleat (HIV NAAT).[19] PCR DNA biasa merupakan metode kualitatif yang hanya bisa mendeteksi ada atau tidaknya DNA virus.[21] Sedangkan, untuk deteksi RNA virus dapat dilakukan dengan metode real-time PCR yang merupakan metode kuantitatif.[21] ...
TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens, because they induce numerous cell divisions. In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and leads to production of monoclonal antibodies.[1] This part of immune response may be important in some early stages of infection by extracellular pathogens, because it is rapidly activated and does not require T cell help or clonal maturation and expansion. An example of TI-1 antigen is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of complement in B-cell, T-cell and monocyte/macrophage activation. AU - Dierich, M. P.. AU - Erdei, A.. AU - Huemer, H.. AU - Petzer, A.. AU - Stauder, R.. AU - Schulz, T. F.. AU - Gergely, J.. PY - 1987/2. Y1 - 1987/2. N2 - In the early 70s it had been shown, that for the immune response against T-dependent antigens C3 was necessary, while T-independent antigens, although activating the alternative pathway of complement, triggered antibody formation also in C-deficient mice. During recent years functional and biochemical knowledge about complement binding structures on B-cells and monocytes/macrophages continuously increased and, also, on T-cells C3 binding entities have been detected. In the case of B-cells and, at least in special experimental conditions, in the case of T-cells C3 can exert a proliferative response as long as the cells are prestimulated (excited) by anti-Ig or IL-2, respectively. Monocytes can bind C3b- or iC3b-carrying particles, but only when ...
The transmembrane adaptor molecule TRIM is expressed within thymus and in peripheral CD4+ T cells strongly. vitro characterization of peripheral T cells indicated that proliferation, survival, activation-induced cell death, migration, adhesion, TCR internalization and recycling, TCR-mediated calcium fluxes, tyrosine phosphorylation, and mitogen-activated protein family kinase activation are not affected in the absence of TRIM. Similarly, the in vivo immune response to T-dependent and T-independent antigens as well as the medical course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a complex Th1-mediated autoimmune model, is comparable to that of wild-type animals. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TRIM is definitely dispensable for T-cell development and peripheral immune functions. The Rabbit polyclonal to SP3. lack of an obvious phenotype could indicate that TRIM shares redundant functions with additional transmembrane adaptors involved in regulating the immune response. Upon ...
Here, we addressed the question of how the cytokine and chemokine secretion profiles of PBMCs from HIV+ patients induced by well-defined adaptive and innate immune stimuli differed from those of healthy patient PBMCs that were experimentally depleted of CD4+ T cells. PLSDA enabled the integration of many cytokine and chemokine measurements, as well as the identification of relationships between the cytokines and chemokines that were critical for differentiating the three stimuli and cohort responses (Figs. 1 and 2). Moreover, the LVs in this PLSDA model produced smaller cytokine and chemokine signatures corresponding to each of the permutations, offering information concerning the key cytokine and chemokine subsets that most powerfully characterized each type of response (Fig. 2). DTA enabled the identification of the most influential cytokine and chemokine events in differentiating responses, which facilitated follow-up experiments that identified the cell types responsible for the most ...
Once a week, it is recommended that you treat your hair and scalp to a deeper clean that will rid them of excess product.... ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulating Actions of Carotenoids. T2 - Enhancement of In Vivo and In Vitro Antibody Production to T-Dependent Antigens. AU - Jyonouchi, H.. AU - Zhang, L.. AU - Gross, M.. AU - Tomita, Y.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Previously, we demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro antibody (Ab) production in response to T-dependent antigens (TD-Ag) by astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity. The effects of β-carotene, a carotenoid with vitamin A activity, and lutein, another carotenoid without vitamin A activity, on in vitro Ab production were examined with spleen cells from young and old B6 mice. In addition, the in vivo effects of lutein, astaxanthin, and β-carotene on Ab production were studied in young and old B6 mice. Lutein, but not β-carotene, enhanced in vitro Ab production in response to TD-Ags. The depletion of T-helper cells prevented the enhancement of Ab production by lutein and astaxanthin. In vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ag was ...
Our views regarding the origins and functions of splenic marginal zone B cells have changed considerably over the past few years. Perspectives regarding the development and function of these cells vary considerably between investigators studying human and rodent immunology. Marginal zone B cells are …
The observation of a current-independent point in ρ xx which corresponds to its temperature-independent counterpart suggests that applying a high current is equivalent see more to heating up the graphene lattice. Conclusions In conclusion,. we have presented magnetoresistivity measurements on multilayer epitaxial graphene. It is found that a relation between the effective Dirac fermion temperature and the driving current can be given by T DF ∝ I ≈0.5 in the low magnetic field regime. With increasing magnetic field, an I-independent point in ρ xx is observed which is equivalent to its T-independent counterpart in the low current limit. Evidence for direct I-QH transition has been reported in four different graphene samples. Near the crossing field where the longitudinal resistivity is approximately T-independent, ρ xx is at least two times larger than ρ xy. Moreover, the product of Drude mobility and B c is smaller than 1. We suggest that further studies are required to obtain a complete ...
Various studies have shown that dietary, environmental, and host-derived factors have a strong effect on the makeup and action of this significant microbial organ (De Filippo et al., 2010; Maurice et al., 2013; Goodrich et al., 2014). This homeostatic role of IgA in regulating commensal bacteria was lately confirmed in people using IgA deficiency (Fadlallah et al., 2018). In reality, a substantial portion of commensal bacteria has been proven to be coated with IgA and stably maintained in homeostatic conditions (van der Waaij et al., 1996). More recently, we demonstrated that diversification and choice of IgA repertoires at a T-cell-dependent manner in germinal centres of the Peyers patches contribute to improving the diversity and stability of both gut-resident species (Kawamoto et al., 2014). Additionally, T-independent pathways, likely originating from the lamina propria, have already been shown to contribute to the generation of an IgA repertoire thats polyreactive into a wide swathe of ...
For the rest of the talk Im really going to treat papillary and follicular carcinomas together as far as treatment decisions are concerned. The prognostic
Marginal zone (MZ) B cells are thought to be responsible for the first wave of Abs against bacterial Ags. In this study, we assessed the in vivo response of MZ B cells in mice immunized with viral particles derived from the RNA phage Qbeta. We found that both follicular (FO) and MZ B cells responded to immunization with viral particles. MZ B cells responded with slightly faster kinetics, but numerically, FO B cells dominated the response. B1 B cells responded similarly to MZ B cells. Both MZ and FO B cells underwent isotype switching, with MZ B cells again exhibiting faster kinetics. In fact, almost all Qbeta-specific MZ B cells expressed surface IgG by day 5. Histological analysis demonstrated that a population of activated B cells remain associated with the MZ, probably due to the elevated integrin levels expressed by these cells. Thus, both MZ and FO B cells respond with rapid proliferation to viral infection and both populations undergo isotype switching, but MZ B cells remain in the MZ and may be
Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
BDF1 mice treated with CoV had markedly reduced levels (less than 20%) of native serum C3 32 hr later, whereas the frequency of splenic CR+ cells was normal. CoV treatment before immunization reduced the IgM PFC response to a T-dependent antigen (TNP
In this article, we demonstrate the requirement for the actin-bundling protein LPL in splenic maturation of B cells. LPL−/− mice have significantly reduced numbers of splenic FO and MZ B cells, despite normal bone marrow development and apparently normal splenic entry of immature B cells. Furthermore, B cell entry into the lymph nodes and bone marrow was partially impaired by LPL deficiency. Splenic B cell development and lymphoid organ entry are both regulated by chemokine receptor signaling. Normal chemokine-mediated motility of B cells required LPL. Furthermore, the addition of an integrin ligand to the Transwell assay did not promote the transmigration of LPL−/− cells as it did for WT cells. Interestingly, MZ B cells that did develop in LPL−/− mice appeared less dependent on LPL for CXCL12- and CXCL13-induced motility than did newly forming and FO splenic B cell subsets. A diminished requirement for LPL in chemokine-mediated motility in MZ B cells from LPL−/− mice may ...
The TI-84 Plus Silver Edition is a fully loaded graphing calculator with a built-in USB port, an improved display, many preloaded Apps, and much more.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Exbio \ NTAL _ LAB \ 11-485-C025 for more molecular products just contact us
As with people, identity is vital to cells. When a cell loses its identity, it can stop working properly and a range of illnesses can result. The immune system, which protects our bodies from disease, includes cells with many different identities. When these cells lose their identity it can cause certain cancers or increase the risk of infections.. Complex networks of signals and genes create and maintain the identity of different cells. New research from the Babraham Institute, Cambridge and the University of Birmingham has revealed how a protein called ZFP36L1 helps cells known as marginal zone B cells (MZ B cells) to maintain their identity.. For cells, identity describes how they are adapted to have a specialised function. Blood cells are specialised for transportation, nerve cells for communication and the immune system fights infections. Each cell becomes specialised to do its job as a result of unique combinations of genetic instructions, which influence how the cell works.. MZ B cells ...
Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate 877100 - Leica BLK3D Target Calibration Plate Target Calibration Plate for BLK3D: Size A3 Used for checking and adjusting the BLK3D.
101 - 1,000 = High, 1,001 - 10,000 = Very High, ,10,000 = Extreme. 27/Apr/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 8/Mar/2010, 15/Mar, 17/Mar, 20/Mar, 27/Mar or 1/Apr. 19/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers were high (142) and included 99 Culex quinquefasciatus. 12/Apr/2010: Mosquito numbers were low. 30/Mar/2010: Mosquito numbers were high (309) and included 222 Culex annulirostris. 23/Mar/2010: The first mosquito collection produced a high yield of 120 mosquitoes, dominated by 74 Culex annulirostris. 10/Mar/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 16/Feb/2010, 23/Feb or 28/Feb. 16/Jan/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 3/Jan/2010, 10/Jan, 17/Jan, 24/Jan, 31/Jan or 8/Feb. 7/Jan/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV from the bleeds taken on 6/Dec/2009, 13/Dec or 20/Dec.. 5/Jan/2010: There were no seroconversions to either MVEV or KUNV ...
The present study examined the association between psychological stress, social support and antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations. Stressful life events in the previous year and customary social support were measured by standard questionnaires at baseline in 75 (41 females) healthy students. Antibody status was assessed at baseline, 4 and 18 weeks following vaccination with formaldehyde inactivated hepatitis A virus and pneumococcal polysaccharides, which induce thymus-dependent and -independent antibody responses respectively. Controlling for baseline antibody status, life event stress was negatively associated with antibody response to the hepatitis A vaccine at the 18-week follow-up; participants reporting a greater number of stressful life events had a poorer antibody response. There was no relationship between psychological stress and antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Social support was not associated with the antibody response to ...
An independent evolution of this phenotype occurred in Papua New Guinea has also been documented.[15] ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ...
"Inertial focusing for tumor antigen-dependent and -independent sorting of rare circulating tumor cells". Science Translational ... Biological methods are separation based on antigen-antibody bindings. Antibodies against tumor specific biomarkers including ...
... human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors". Hepatology. 13 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1002/hep.1840130415 ... "Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ...
"Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens". Consultado o 22 December 2012.. *↑ Hutson, AM; Atmar RL, Graham DY, Estes MK (July ... "Norovirus gastroenteritis outbreak with a secretor-independent susceptibility pattern, Sweden". Emerg. Infect. Dis 16 (1): 81-7 ... Shirato H (2011). "Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens". Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 64 (2): 95-103. PMID 21519121.. ... Shirato H (2011). "Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens". Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 64 (2): 95-103. PMID ...
Function in antigen presentation[edit]. HSPs are indispensable components of antigen presentation pathways - the classical ones ... But gp96 immune function could be peptide-independent, because it is involved in proper folding of many immune receptors, like ... Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ...
... causing the release of antigens to be delayed. This research would result in the product SpayVac™. Independent trials of ... fertilization antigen 1 (FA-1), sp17, SOB2, A9D, CD52, YLP12, Eppin, CatSper, Izumo, sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9), 80 ... contemporary research has focused on searching for specific molecular antigens that are involved with sperm function. Antigens ... Because the antigens used in contraceptive vaccines are protein, not steroids, they are not easily passed from animal to animal ...
NITSCHKE, L.; KOSCO, M. H.; KOHLER, G. Immunoglobulin D-deficient mice can mount normal immune responses to thymus-independent ... and -dependent antigens.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1993-03-01, roč. 90, čís. 5, s. 1887-1891. Dostupné ...
Portuguese Blood Institute (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *^ Federación Nacional de Donantes de Sangre/La sangre ... Antigen Rh yang terpenting ialah antigen D kerana inilah di antara lima antigen Rh utama yang paling mampu merangsang tindak ... antigen-antigen permukaan SDM selain A, B dan Rh D, boleh menyebabkan tindak balas dan pemekaan yang memudaratkan, jika antigen ... selain antigen ABO dan antigen Rh, terdapat banyak lagi antigen yang dinyatakan pada membran permukaan SDM. Misalnya, seseorang ...
These heightened levels of collagen helped facilitate adhesions and anchorage-independent cell growth and provided evidence of ... Peyriéras N, Louvard D, Jacob F (December 1985). "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal ... "The cytoplasmic domain of the cell adhesion molecule uvomorulin associates with three independent proteins structurally related ...
Moreover, cR10, a cyclic poly-arginine CPP, enabled the endocytose independent transduction of antigen binding proteins through ... Thereby, the authors of the study were able to deliver fluorescent antigen binding proteins into cells facilitating live-cell ... Researchers proposed several models in attempts to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of this energy-independent process. ... "Cell Internalization of the Third Helix of the Antennapedia Homeodomain is Receptor-independent". Journal of Biological ...
They argue the underlying statistical model incorrectly assumes equal and independent histories of variation for each large ... "Human leukocyte antigen profiles of Latin American populations: differential admixture and its potential impact on ... Causes of differences between individuals include independent assortment, the exchange of genes (crossing over and ... population has been sex-biased and there is a significant interactions between socio economic status and skin color independent ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... "The Independent. 2015-07-27. Retrieved 2017-08-08.. *^ a b Schumann K, Lin S, Boyer E, Simeonov DR, Subramaniam M, Gate RE, ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[57] Antigen ... Antigen discrimination[edit]. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
"BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... "Phylogeography of Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States reflects multiple independent Lyme disease emergence ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in people have been identified in Colombia,[237] and Bolivia.[citation needed] ...
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... ADCC is independent of the immune complement system that also lyses targets but does not require any other cell. ADCC requires ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.[1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies ...
C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. To ... responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the humoral immune response to the T cell-independent antigen ... Molecular studies revealed that the insulin-independent basal activity of the insulin receptor is increased by ROS and ... the normal large-scale production of B lymphocytes in mouse bone marrow was independent of the type of dietary protein. Dietary ...
Reiny, Samson Kaala (December 23, 2010). "L.A. rally to draw attention to violent Rapa Nui evictions". The Hawaii Independent. ... Tissue Antigens. 69 (1): 10-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00717.x. PMID 17212703. Douglas, Peter. "The South Sea Voyage of ...
T-independent memory B cells T-independent memory B cells are a subset called B1 cells. These cells generally reside in the ... In a secondary response, the memory B cells specific to the antigen or similar antigens will respond.[2] When memory B cells ... Germinal center independent memory B cellsEdit. This subset of cells differentiates from activated B cells into memory B cells ... When reintroduced to antigen, some of these B1 cells can differentiate into memory B cells without interacting with a T cell.[7 ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... Having received the first TCR/CD3 signal, the naïve T cell must activate a second independent biochemical pathway, known as ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation (stimulation of a B cell that does not require the involvement ... Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
Independent studies by a group in Germany have reached similar conclusions.[9][10] ... Butyrophilin has been presented as a potential antigen which may be similar enough to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG ... 1999). "Multiple forms of lactadherin (breast antigen BA46) and butyrophilin are secreted into human milk as major components ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2002). "Serum HCG beta, CA 72-4 and CEA are independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer". Int. J. Cancer. 101 (6): 545- ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... The actual T cell receptor is composed of two separate peptide chains, which are produced from the independent T cell receptor ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[51] Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
Stein KE (June 1992). "Thymus-independent and thymus-dependent responses to polysaccharide antigens". The Journal of Infectious ...
B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... Alugupalli KR, Leong JM, Woodland RT, Muramatsu M, Honjo T, Gerstein RM (2004). "B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ...
May 2016). "The intracellular pathway for the presentation of vitamin B-related antigens by the antigen-presenting molecule MR1 ... The MR1 recognition was independent of bacterial load. MR1 deficient mice had impaired early phase mucosal cytokine production ... This isoform binds antigen via α1 and α2 interaction. Some bacteria are able to target specific β2 microglobulin that enable ... Due to the antigen necessity for MR1 stabilization. MR1 binds the intermediates of riboflavine synthesis. Human body can´t ...
Given the known role of talin in regulating integrin affinity, RIAM may provide an Mst1-independent mechanism by which Rap1 ... RAPL is also an integrin-associated protein as RAPL polarizes to the immunological synapse following antigen stimulation of T ... It also implies the existence of Mst1-independent mechanisms by which Rap1 regulates LFA-1 affinity. ... and TCR-mediated adhesion to ICAM-1 and antigen-dependent conjugate formation are impaired following RNAi-mediated knockdown of ...
"T independent antigen" TI - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ...
I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. J. Exp. Med. ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... Independent differentiative pathways of Ly1 and Ly23 subclasses of T-cells. Experimental production of mice deprived of ...
Independent SAGE (UK). *Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation. *National Cabinet (Australia) ... COVID-19 rapid antigen test. *Covid-Organics. *Curative (company). *Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 ...
"The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. 25 people in Bakaklion, Cameroon killed due to eating of ape. ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... "The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.. ... "Independent Monitoring Board Recommends Early Termination of Ebola Therapeutics Trial in DRC Because of Favorable Results with ...
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Rituximab mechanisms of action; the three major independent mechanisms are (1) antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC ...
I've gotten the vaccine so I don't know how good antigen tests would be. Also, home test kits have high error rates. Imagine ... independent of any convention. But by convention, we measure the direction of "electrical current" as being in the same ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... This view regarded the evolution of parasites from independent organisms to a parasitic species as "devolution" or " ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ...
"High-level expression of Rad51 is an independent prognostic marker of survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients". Br. J ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... which is a basic line of defence that is independent of the more advanced lymphocyte-related systems. Many of these conditions ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
As a private, non-profit organization, the Institut Pasteur is governed by an independent Board of Directors, currently chaired ... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... Leukocytes are different from other cells of the body: they work like independent, single-celled organisms. They can move ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
... or using human leukocyte antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction ( ... "The Independent. Retrieved April 4, 2019.. *^ Court Ordered Paternity Tests - The Requirements of a Legal Paternity Test ...
"Portuguese Blood Institute" (Portuguese). (assuming Rh and AB antigens are independent) *↑ "Frequency of ABO blood groups in ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ... Laura Dean, MD (2005). Blood Groups an Red Cell Antigens. National Center for Biotechnology Information, United States ... Sarode, R; Goldstein J, Sussman II, Nagel RL, Tsai HM (June 2000). "Role of A and B blood group antigens in the expression of ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... are degraded in a ubiquitin-independent manner. The most well-known example of a ubiquitin-independent proteasome substrate is ... or highly oxidized proteins are also subject to ubiquitin-independent and 19S-independent degradation under conditions of ... In 2012, two independent efforts have elucidated the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome by single particle electron ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... their function is similar to that of independent, single-cell organisms. Most leukocytes are able to move freely and interact ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ...
light-independent reactions. See Calvin cycle.. linked genes. Any set of one or more genes which are sufficiently close ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... Also called the biosynthetic phase, light-independent reactions, dark reactions, or photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) cycle ... Law of Independent Assortment. The principle, originally formulated by Gregor Mendel, stating that when two or more ...
Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 are often elevated, but are not sensitive or specific enough to be ... Multiple independent studies have documented a steady increase in the worldwide incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. Some relevant ... Studies of the performance of serum markers for cholangiocarcinoma (such as carcinoembryonic antigen and CA19-9) in patients ... carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucins may aid in diagnosis.[45] Most tumors (,90%) are adenocarcinomas.[46] ...
Memorijske T ćelije su podskup antigen - specifičnih T ćelijs koje traju dugoročno nakon savladavanja infekcije.[1] One se brzo ... ... Ove ćelije prepoznaju svoje ciljeve putem vezanja za antigen koji je asociran sa molekulama MHC klase I, koje se ispoljavaju na ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. 2009 ...
... trafficking is carbohydrate independent. In an effort to localize the amino acid motif responsible for granule targeting, we ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... IgE was simultaneously discovered in 1966 and 1967 by two independent groups:[9] Kimishige Ishizaka and his wife Teruko ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ... Schilte C, Buckwalter MR, Laird ME, Diamond MS, Schwartz O, Albert ML (April 2012). "Cutting edge: independent roles for IRF-3 ... an antibody that is a response to the initial exposure to an antigen, appears in the blood, viremia begins to diminish. However ... lack of clearance of the antigen, or both, contribute to joint pain. The inflammation response during both the acute and ...
... and treated all of the mice as statistically independent.[95] The original researchers pointed out negative results in the ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... known to be established and modified in response to environmental factors by a complex interplay of at least three independent ...
... independent, suggesting P-selectin binding is Ca2+-independent and sulfation-dependent.[24] One of the sulfated ligands is ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... trigger which can stimulate endothelial-cell release of P-selectin and recent studies suggest an additional Ca2+-independent ...
Assessment by courts, governors, and independent groups[edit]. California Supreme Court upholds stay on execution[edit]. ... and when Judge Huff did order retesting she limited the testing to hairs that were proven not to have Antigen roots ( ... 7 Assessment by courts, governors, and independent groups *7.1 California Supreme Court upholds stay on execution ...
"T independent antigen" TI - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Antibody production independent of T lymphocytes[edit]. For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ...
B Cell-Intrinsic IDO1 Regulates Humoral Immunity to T Cell-Independent Antigens.. Shinde R1, Shimoda M1, Chaudhary K1, Liu H1, ... B cell-intrinsic Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 regulates humoral immunity to T cell independent antigens ... B cell-intrinsic Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 regulates humoral immunity to T cell independent antigens ... B cell-intrinsic Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 regulates humoral immunity to T cell independent antigens ...
However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and ... To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, we ... Role of antigen receptor affinity in T cell-independent antibody responses in vivo. *Tien-An Yang Shih1. , ...
Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling. Kylie M. Quinn,1 Daniel E. Zak ... Data represent (B and G) 3 independent experiments with n = 3-6 or (C-F) 5 to 10 pooled dLNs per group. ... Data represent (B and G) 3 independent experiments with n = 3-6 or (C-F) 5 to 10 pooled dLNs per group. ... Nevertheless, STING gt/gt mice were capable of type I IFN production through STING-independent innate pathways. Bypassing STING ...
Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Further comments. [Jpn J ... Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience.. Wang ... Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is considered as a factor predictive of survival in colorectal cancer ... the preoperative CEA levels are also an independent prognostic factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients after ...
Three strains of mice were injected with a T-independent antigen, Escherichia coli 055:B5 polysaccharide (PS) combined with ... A purified saponin acts as an adjuvant for a T-independent antigen Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;303:207-10. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684- ... Three strains of mice were injected with a T-independent antigen, Escherichia coli 055:B5 polysaccharide (PS) combined with ...
The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens.. I M Zitron, D E Mosier, W E Paul ... The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens. ... except at limiting antigen concentrations. Both TNP-AECM-Ficoll and TNP-BA are T-I antigens, but they differ in that TNP-AECM- ...
Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine ... p56lck-independent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk by T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 stimulation Proc Natl Acad ... Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine ...
This suggests that antigen-independent mechanisms may be responsible for this reduction in cell-mediated immune activity.. ... We investigated whether this effect is limited to activity against paternal major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, ...
... so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens. T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... An example of TI-1 antigen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial DNA. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly ...
Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19. J A ... Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 ... Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 ... Antigen-independent regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in B cells with a 12-kDa B-cell growth factor and anti-CD19 ...
A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens.. C M Snapper and J J Mond ... A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. ... A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. ... A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. ...
This is independent of antigen (Ag) binding to the BCR. These cells then enter the peripheral pool, where they are available ... for the IgM+CD27+ B cell subpopulation in humans (4), these gut B cells may have undergone antigen-independent diversification ... This is an interesting argument that supports the idea of repertoire diversification by V gene SHM in an antigen-independent ... Sheepish B cells: evidence for antigen-independent antibody diversification in humans and mice. David Tarlinton ...
... Somersalo, Kristina. en_US. ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes form an antigen-independent ring junction. J Clin Invest. 2004;113(1):49-57.. en_US. ... This result has specific implications for the mechanism of effective CTL hunting for antigen in tissues. Abnormalities in this ... The ring junction contained lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 and talin, but did not trigger polarization and granule ...
What Is and What Should Always Have Been: Long-Lived Plasma Cells Induced by T Cell-Independent Antigens. Alexandra Bortnick ... Long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are induced early in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent antigens. J. ... Survival of long-lived plasma cells is independent of antigen. Int. Immunol. 10: 1703-1711. ... What Is and What Should Always Have Been: Long-Lived Plasma Cells Induced by T Cell-Independent Antigens ...
Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ... Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ... Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ... Inertial Focusing for Tumor Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Sorting of Rare Circulating Tumor Cells ...
Although all animals have... Explanation of T independent antigen ... Find out information about T independent antigen. see immunity ... antigen. (redirected from T independent antigen). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. antigen:. see immunityimmunity ... T independent antigen , Article about T independent antigen by The Free Dictionary ... the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). Other antigens either are excreted by the cell ...
Antigen-specific activation thresholds of CD8^+ T cells are independent of IFN-I-mediated partial lymphocyte activation * * ... Antigen-driven effector CD8 T cell function regulated by T-bet SULLIVAN BM ...
A chimeric antigen receptor with antigen-independent OX40 signaling mediates potent antitumor activity ... A chimeric antigen receptor with antigen-independent OX40 signaling mediates potent antitumor activity ... A chimeric antigen receptor with antigen-independent OX40 signaling mediates potent antitumor activity ... A chimeric antigen receptor with antigen-independent OX40 signaling mediates potent antitumor activity ...
Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell ... Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is driven by antigen-independent cell-autonomous signalling. Nature. 2012;489(7415):309-312. ... Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell ... Complementarity determining region-independent recognition of a superantigen by B-cell antigen receptors of mantle cell ...
High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain. Nilah ... High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain ... High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain ... High-Resolution Molecular and Antigen Structure of the VP8* Core of a Sialic Acid-Independent Human Rotavirus Strain ...
TAg, T antigen. (D) The two models outlined may explain how LT can relieve pRB repression in a partially J domain-independent ... pRB-Dependent, J Domain-Independent Function of Simian Virus 40 Large T Antigen in Override of p53 Growth Suppression. Ole ... The LT K1 mutant can also be complemented for p53 override by small t antigen (st) in a manner independent of its J domain. Our ... 1993) Independent expression of the transforming amino-terminal domain of SV40 large I antigen from an alternatively spliced ...
Impaired CD19 expression and signaling, enhanced antibody response to type II T independent antigen and reduction of B-1 cells ... Impaired CD19 expression and signaling, enhanced antibody response to type II T independent antigen and reduction of B-1 cells ... Impaired CD19 expression and signaling, enhanced antibody response to type II T independent antigen and reduction of B-1 cells ...
CD8+ T cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner in HIV-infected individuals ... CD8+ T cells are activated in an antigen-independent manner in HIV-infected individuals. Journal of Immunology, 192(4):1732- ... Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent ... Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent ...
Thymic requirement for cyclical idiotypic and reciprocal anti-idiotypic immune responses to a T-independent antigen. ... 1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes. 2. The ... for cyclical idiotypic and anti-idiotypic responses to immunization with a T-independent antigen and suggest that the cyclical ... Antigens, Bacterial. Female. Immunoglobulin Idiotypes. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Spleen. Streptococcus ...
Andrew Lees - T cell-independent antigens type 2. Document created by Andrew Lees on Oct 19, 2017 ... There is evidence implicating the NK cell and T cell as playing this important role in response to TI antigens. Furthermore, we ... One of the most critical properties of this group of antigens is their ability to deliver prolonged and persistent signaling to ... In this review we have attempted to define the characteristics of TI-2 antigens that enable them to stimulate antibody ...
PnuBioVax (PBV) is being developed as a multi-antigen, serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against S. pneumoniae disease ... Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against ... Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against ... Immunogenicity and mechanisms of action of PnuBioVax, a multi-antigen serotype-independent prophylactic vaccine against ...
Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Expression in Neovasculature Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma is Characterized ... In contrast to other prostate-related antigens such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and ... Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Expression in Neovasculature Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma is Characterized. ... In the study, independent investigators at the Cleveland Clinic evaluated PSMA expression in normal kidneys and tissue samples ...
The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens. I M Zitron , I M Zitron ... I M Zitron, D E Mosier, W E Paul; The role of surface IgD in the response to thymic-independent antigens.. J Exp Med 1 December ... except at limiting antigen concentrations. Both TNP-AECM-Ficoll and TNP-BA are T-I antigens, but they differ in that TNP-AECM- ... between the expression of IgD on B cells and its requirement for triggering such cells with two T-independent antigens ...
Individuals with nonfunctional transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) complexes are not particularly susceptible ... TAP-independent human histocompatibility complex-Cw1 antigen processing of an HIV envelope protein conserved peptide ... αβ T subpopulation specific for TAP-independent antigens may be sufficient to establish an immune defense protecting against ... A conserved TAP-independent HLA peptide ligand endogenously processed and presented in infected human cells was identified. ...
  • TI-1 antigen , which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen , which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors , which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (
  • We generated MHC-independent chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) directed to the GD2 antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. (
  • However, many cancer cells and solid tumors have defects in antigen processing and presentation,1,2 including down-regulation of and/or failure to express MHC molecules.3,4 Introducing tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into adoptively transferred T cells allows them to recognize tumor-associated antigens in an Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture MHC-independent manner while retaining their cytotoxic activity. (
  • We found that CAR expressing EBV-CTLs (CAR-CTLs) survived in the circulation at an initially higher level over the 6-week study period than GD2-CAR expressing activated T cells (CAR-ATCs), a difference Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture we attributed to superior costimulation for CAR-CTLs provided when the cells engaged EBV antigens on professional antigen-presenting cells through their native receptors. (
  • In contrast, the adaptive immune response is made up of B and T lymphocytes that have unique receptors specific to various microbial antigens. (
  • These antigen-specific receptors are encoded by genes generated during a complex of gene rearrangement that occurs during the course of lymphocyte development. (
  • In T- and B-cell precursors in the thymus and bone marrow, respectively, variable domains of antigen receptors are somatically rearranged from V, D, and J gene loci by V(D)J recombination. (
  • BCR and TCR are both highly variable antigen receptors diversified by somatic V(D)J recombination . (
  • Also, an antigen is a molecule that binds to Ag-specific receptors, but cannot necessarily induce an immune response in the body by itself. (
  • Antigens that are expressed on the surface of pathogens in an organized, highly repetitive form can activate specific B cells by cross-linking of antigen receptors in a multivalent fashion. (
  • 3-6 Although pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity account for cholesterol uptake and contribute to activation of macrophages and endothelial cells, antigen-specific T cells recognizing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in the intima provide strong proinflammatory stimuli that accelerate atherogenesis. (
  • To examine how B cell receptor affinity affects clonal selection in thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune responses, we produced mice with antibodies that showed a 40-fold difference in affinity for the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP). (
  • Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. (
  • Rearrangement and assembly of B cell antigen receptor genes generates a diverse antibody repertoire in humans and mice. (
  • These V segment substitutions occur independently of antigen binding to the B cell receptor (BCR), although gut bacteria provide an antigen-independent proliferative stimulus. (
  • To date, there has been no definitive demonstration of antigen-independent postrearrangement diversification in mice, although mouse B cells undergo postrearrangement V gene replacement in the bone marrow in response to interactions with self-antigen, a process referred to as receptor editing ( 10 ). (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells have transformed treatment of B cell malignancies. (
  • The past two decades of lymphoma research have uncovered the essential role of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) pathway in lymphoma biology. (
  • 1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes. (
  • Until recently, however, CAR-T cells had shown little evidence of antitumor activity against solid tumors and had only brief persistence in vivo.5C7 It has been believed that engagement of the chimeric receptor by tumor antigens failed to provide the requisite costimulatory signals necessary for optimal expansion, function, and persistence because tumor cells, unlike professional antigen-presenting cells, lack costimulatory ligands and may express inhibitory ligands. (
  • Although naturally generated in the thymus, these TCRs resemble re-engineered therapeutic chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in their specificity for MHC-independent ligands. (
  • In immunology , antigens ( Ag ) are structures (aka substances) specifically bound by antibodies (Ab) or a cell surface version of Ab ~ B cell antigen receptor (BCR). (
  • It was expanded later to refer to any molecule or a linear molecular fragment after processing the native antigen that can be recognized by T-cell receptor (TCR). (
  • In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. (
  • The unique properties of the B-cell response to TI-2 antigens are critically dependent on the formation of a small number of antigen receptor clusters, each of which contains approximately 10 to 20 antigen-bound membrane Ig (mIg) molecules. (
  • We have found that engagement of members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family could provide second signals that selectively induce Ig secretion in B cells that were activated by multivalent, but not by bivalent, antigen receptor engagement. (
  • Gene rearrangement and the establishment of a memory cell population are features which are shared by B lymphocytes, whose antigen receptor (BCR) consists in membrane-bound immunoglobulins. (
  • After the first encounter with the antigen, B lymphocytes proliferate as well, giving rise to expanded populations of cells sharing the same antigen receptor. (
  • FasL-induced apoptosis has been shown to mediate antigen-specific T cell deletion after antigenic stimulation in wild-type and T cell receptor transgenic mice. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis mediated by Fas receptor signaling is not the mechanism of clonal deletion of antigen-reactive cells after antibody facilitated high dose marrow transplantation. (
  • The human integrin very late antigen (VLA)-2 (CD49b/CD29) mediates interactions with collagen and is the receptor for echovirus 1. (
  • Absent B-cell MHC class I, or B-cell receptor restriction to an irrelevant specificity, blunted the expansion of self-reactive CD8 + T cells, suggesting B-cell antigen capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for CD8 activation. (
  • When coligated to the B-cell receptor (BCR) through the binding of antigen-containing immune complexes (ICs), the FcγRIIB inhibits antigen-specific antibody responses by blocking BCR signaling. (
  • In activated B cells lacking TRPM7 or TRPM7 kinase activity, more antigen accumulated on the cell surface and activated stronger B cell receptor-dependent signaling. (
  • DT40 B cells deficient in TRPM7 or expressing a kinase-deficient mutant of TRPM7 showed defective gathering of antigen and prolonged B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. (
  • The T cell receptor: The α and β chains define idiotype, and antigen and MHC specificity. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor in T cells. (
  • Genetic markers of the antigen-specific T cell receptor locus. (
  • For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells . (
  • The non-protein microbial antigens cannot stimulate classical T cell response by themselves, but they are able to elicit the production of antibodies, so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens . (
  • In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (
  • That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (
  • Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. (
  • Microbial antigens prepared to induce protective antibodies are termed vaccines. (
  • Sera from PBV immunised rabbits contained high levels of IgG antibodies to the PBV vaccine, and pneumococcal antigens PspA, Ply, PsaA and PiuA which are components of PBV, when compared with control sera. (
  • Although immunization with GAD65 did not produce any behavioral abnormality in the mice, the induction of neuronal-surface antibodies and the trend towards loss of GABAergic neurons in the brainstem, supports a role for humoral autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of SPS and suggests that the mechanisms may involve spread to antigens expressed on the surface of these neurons. (
  • citation needed] One inherent advantage of an antigen test over an antibody test (such as antibody-detecting rapid HIV tests) is that it can take time for the immune system to develop antibodies after infection begins, but the foreign antigen is present right away. (
  • Cell surface antigens can stimulate the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes and cytotoxic responses by white blood cells, e.g., granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. (
  • Antigens are "targeted" by antibodies. (
  • because of this, many different antibodies are produced, each able to bind a different antigen while sharing the same basic structure. (
  • in some instances, however, antibodies may cross-react and bind more than one antigen. (
  • But, by 1903, he understood that an antigen induces the production of immune bodies (antibodies) and wrote that the word antigen is a contraction of antisomatogen ( Immunkörperbildner ). (
  • Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is specific to one of the antigen's epitopes. (
  • Most serological tests for Brucella infection use antibodies against common antigens of Brucella [ 4 ]. (
  • Immunointerventions with anti-CD3 antibodies (Abs) ( 2 , 3 ), rituximab ( 4 ), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin fusion protein ( 5 ) transiently preserved β-cell function, preferentially in a patient subgroup with younger age at diagnosis and with relatively preserved residual functional β-cell mass ( 3 ), hereby opening perspectives for future trials at the preclinical stage ( 3 , 6 ). (
  • Antibodies to capsular polysaccharide antigens of S. pneumoniae provide serotype-specific protection against pneumococcal infections. (
  • Antigen-specific immunoprotection can be achieved through several different mechanisms, such as production of protective antibodies, deletion or inactivation (anergy) of pathogenic T-cell clones, or induction of suppressive cellular immunity mediated by the family of regulatory T cells (Treg). (
  • T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. (
  • There are 2 distinct subgroups of TI antigens, different in mechanism of activating B lymphocytes. (
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (
  • TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (
  • [2] Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells , necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (
  • 4 ) on p. 1331 of this issue identify a subset of B lymphocytes in human infants that undergoes repertoire diversification via antigen-independent V gene SHM. (
  • Peripheral tolerance occurs at mature lymphocytes encounter self-antigens in peripheral tissues. (
  • We report here that human T lymphocytes have the capacity of acquiring large amounts of MHC class II molecules from various types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in an antigen-independent manner. (
  • CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes. (
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (
  • However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. (
  • Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (
  • On the other hand, the anti-delta antibody had no effect on the anti-TNP response of BC8 spleen cells to TNP-BA, except at limiting antigen concentrations. (
  • Both TNP-AECM-Ficoll and TNP-BA are T-I antigens, but they differ in that TNP-AECM-Ficoll fails to stimulate in vitro responses by immunologically defective CBA/N and neonatal spleen cells whereas TNP-BA can cause responses from both these animals. (
  • Increases in cytoplasmic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) can be induced in resting B cells either by a low molecular weight (12-kDa) B-cell growth factor (LMW-BCGF) or by crosslinking the B-cell antigen CD19 with monoclonal antibody (mAb). (
  • Two predominant pathways are defined that require the concerted action of multivalent membrane Ig cross-linking by the polysaccharide Ag with 1) various B cell-activating moieties contained within the bacterial pathogen and/or 2) cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by NK cells and macrophages, that become activated in a T cell-independent manner during bacterial infection. (
  • Recent studies suggested the existence of a subset of B cells that undergoes SHM in an antigen-independent fashion outside GCs ( 3 ), but this viewpoint has remained controversial. (
  • In this study, we review recent work showing that T cell-independent Ags consisting of either polysaccharides or LPSs also induce the formation of long-lived plasma cells, despite their general inability to sustain germinal center responses. (
  • However, as addressed below, recent evidence suggests that B cell responses that fail to engender bona fide GC responses, such as responses to T cell-independent Ags, also generate long-lived plasma cells. (
  • Along the way, we consider historical precedents driving the notion that plasma cells possess markedly distinct lifespans, as well as the idea that T cell-independent Ags are relatively ineffective at inducing the formation of long-lived plasma cells. (
  • Differences between SA-dependent and SA-independent strains extend beyond the ability or inability of their spike proteins to bind SA: SA-independent strains are generally more fastidious in cell culture than SA-dependent strains ( 40 , 42 ), and although SA-independent strains infect polarized epithelial cells from either the apical or basolateral membrane, SA-dependent strains enter only at the apical surface ( 4 ). (
  • Impaired CD19 expression and signaling, enhanced antibody response to type II T independent antigen and reduction of B-1 cells in CD81-deficient mice. (
  • Moreover, LPS or HIV-1-activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulated CD8(+) T cells in an IL-15-dependent but Ag-independent manner, and IL-15 expression was highly increased in DCs isolated from viremic HIV-1 patients, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells are activated by inflammatory cytokines in untreated HIV-1 patients independent of Ag specificity. (
  • These observations demonstrate that mature T cells are required for cyclical idiotypic and anti-idiotypic responses to immunization with a T-independent antigen and suggest that the cyclical immune response may result from an interaction between idiotypic and anti-idiotypic cell clones. (
  • A conserved TAP-independent HLA peptide ligand endogenously processed and presented in infected human cells was identified. (
  • It was not the case that AODH 7.1 cells were responding to Con A on a neighboring AODH 7.1 cell, and no class II antigens were involved. (
  • The self-antigens may be found in all cell types (e.g. chromatin, centromeres) and those autoimmune diseases is systemic or be highly specific for a specific cell type in one organ of the body (e.g. thyroglobulin in cells of the thyroid gland) and those autoimmune diseases is organ-specific. (
  • Using a murine bone marrow transplantation model, we present evidence that thymic-independent T cell regeneration occurs primarily via expansion of peripheral T cells and is Ag driven since significant expansion of CD4 + or CD8 + transgenic (Tg + )/TCR-bearing cells occurs only in the presence of Ag specific for the TCR. (
  • Introduction Adoptively transferred T cells Rabbit Polyclonal to ZADH2 can recognize tumor-associated antigens presented in association with MHC molecules on the cell surface. (
  • Therefore, there is more evidence that field cancerization is due to multiple independent events than to migration of genetically altered cells. (
  • Although the size and diversity of the lymphocyte repertoire make it likely that there is an antigen, a specific lymphocyte for any given pathogen, the frequency of these cells can be extremely low and normally will not be sufficient to protect the host against a primary infection. (
  • After antigenic stimulation, there is activation and expansion of these antigen-specific cells. (
  • It is this process of clonal selection and the ultimate perpetuation of these antigen-specific memory cells that protects against a secondary infection. (
  • Hence, the goal of vaccination is to enhance the number of antigen-specific B and T cells against a given pathogen. (
  • Consequently, in coreceptor-deficient mice that additionally lack MHC [so-called QuadKO mice ( 10 )], MHC-independent TCRs signal immature thymocytes to undergo positive selection and to differentiate into mature T cells expressing only an MHC-independent TCR repertoire. (
  • Antigens on the body's own cells are called autoantigens. (
  • Antigens on all other cells are called foreign antigens. (
  • Reactions to antigens by T and B cells are part of the specific immune response. (
  • Most significantly, the newly acquired MHC class II molecules were capable of efficiently presenting antigen to T helper cells. (
  • This spike fragment resembles the bacterial toxins known as super antigens-proteins that generate excessive reaction from T cells, a vital member of the immune system. (
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells ) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (
  • The immune system is supposed to identify and attack "non-self" invaders from the outside world or modified/harmful substances present in the body and usually does not react to self-antigens under normal homeostatic conditions due to negative selection of T cells in the thymus . (
  • Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (
  • T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. (
  • In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (
  • B cells respond to these multivalent antigens in the absence of MHC class II-restricted T-cell help by a mechanism that depends on the expression of a functional Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). (
  • Purpose: The goal of this study is to develop a tissue-specific toxic gene therapy utilizing the prostate specific antigen (PSA) promoter for both androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) PSA-secreting prostate cancer cells. (
  • Conclusion: The 5837 bp long PSA promoter was active in the androgen free environment and could be used to target both androgen-dependent and independent PSA-producing prostate cancer cells in vitro, and prostate tumors in castrated hosts. (
  • To forward such efforts, our approach with colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae is to establish bystander immunity to ultimately drive the development of auto-Ag-specific Treg cells. (
  • This review article will examine the potential of treating autoimmune diseases without having previous knowledge of the auto-Ag using an innocuous antigen to stimulate Treg cells via the production of transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-10. (
  • The first consists of an antigen-dependent clonal proliferation, and the second of a capability to maintain for a very long time (sometimes throughout life) a population of derived cells able to proliferate again on the occasion of a further encounter with the same antigen. (
  • Only a few cells survive and enter the third stage, called "memory," during which they tend to persist and self-renew, ready to encounter the same antigen to which they had been previously exposed [ 5 ]. (
  • High dose bone marrow transplantation induces deletion of antigen-specific T cells in a Fas-independent manner. (
  • When high levels of donor cell chimerism were established in Fas mutant mice, peripheral deletion of antigen-reactive cells was observed to be independent of signaling through Fas. (
  • We found that the rigid, paracristalline form of VSV-G spaced about 5-10 mm on VSV virons induced potent primary and secondary neutralizing B cell responses which were independent of T helper cells, whereas the more randomly distributed, mobile forms of VSV-G induced primary and secondary B cell responses that were more tightly controlled by T helper cells. (
  • We therefore propose that B cells take antigen organization as a marker for foreigness. (
  • However, the induction and expansion of T(regs) at sites of mucosal inflammation are not yet fully understood and may involve antigen presentation by local dendritic cells (DCs) and/or intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). (
  • Although gut-associated DCs can induce antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cell proliferation, in vivo depletion of DCs did not preclude proliferation of these cells. (
  • Ki-67 detects a nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation not found in resting cells. (
  • Vol 5: Large T Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells Protect Against Dendritic Cell Tumors through Perforin-Mediated Mechanisms Independent of CD4 T Cell Help. (
  • For autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes to progress, self-reactive CD8 + T cells would need to interact with peptide-antigen cross-presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted fashion. (
  • Similarly, PCs resulting from the antigen-independent differentiation of memory B cells in vitro were inhibited by FcγRIIB cross-linking but memory B cell activation itself, as measured by proliferation, was unaffected. (
  • These results suggest a mechanism to control antibody levels involving the differential expression of FcγRIIB on B cell subpopulations, in which the FcγRIIB functions independently of the BCR to eliminate antibody-secreting effector cells and inhibit naïve B cell proliferation without compromising the long-lived antigen-specific memory B cells. (
  • Importantly, FcγRIIB requires Btk and p38 MAPK to mediate antigen-independent inhibition in human B cells. (
  • Thus, the FcγRIIB has the ability to block both the BCR-dependent, antigen-driven activation of B cells as well as antigen-independent, BCR-independent B cell activation. (
  • There is considerable evidence that the BCR-dependent FcγRIIB inhibitory pathway plays an important role in regulating the antigen-driven activation of naïve B cells to proliferate and differentiate to PCs [ 12 ]. (
  • Here we investigate the ability of the BCR-independent FcγRIIB inhibitory pathway to directly inhibit human peripheral blood PCs and to block the antigen-independent activation of human naïve and memory B cells to proliferate and differentiate into PCs in vitro . (
  • found that expression of TRPM7 in B cells controlled actin dynamics and prevented antigen internalization. (
  • An inhibitor of TRPM7 ion channel activity reduced antigen presentation to T cells. (
  • Immunization against GAD induces antibody binding to GAD-independent antigens and brainstem GABAergic neuronal loss. (
  • It was recently shown, in mice, that long-lived bone marrow PCs express the FcγRIIB and that engaging the FcγRIIB by ICs induces these bone marrow PCs to undergo antigen-independent apoptosis [ 13 ]. (
  • A rapid antigen tests typically cost around US$5.00 to manufacture. (
  • citation needed] Rapid antigen tests for COVID-19 are one of the most useful application of these tests. (
  • Rapid antigen tests have found their best use as part of mass testing or population-wide screening approaches. (
  • By January 2021, the European Commission agreed to strengthen their position, advocating much greater use of rapid tests, noting that "should research prove that rapid antigen tests can be conducted by the testee themselves. (
  • New Delhi, Jul 26 (PTI) Delhi has conducted over 9.46 lakh COVID-19 tests till date, with experts attributing the high number to the rapid antigen tests which started last month. (
  • The rapid antigen tests started in Delhi from June 18. (
  • As many as 17,533 tests have been carried out in the last 24 hours, which include 12,501 rapid antigen tests and 5,032 RT-PCR tests. (
  • According to Chetan Kohli, COO, Seeds of Innocence and Genestrings Lab, rapid antigen tests have also helped the labs process the samples faster. (
  • The number of rapid antigen tests being conducted on a daily basis is more than double of the RT-PCR tests. (
  • Talking about the advantages of the rapid antigen tests, Kohli said the results of the test come within 15-20 minutes, and people are getting easy accessibility to them owing to the government's efforts and the presence of more than 160 centres where people can avail them free of cost. (
  • Sofia Q is our latest powerful diagnostic instrument designed to democratize access to the many benefits of our Sofia SARS rapid antigen tests and, ultimately, our full portfolio of Sofia tests for influenza, RSV, Strep and other conditions,' said Douglas Bryant, president and chief executive officer of Quidel Corporation. (
  • An example of TI-1 antigen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacterial DNA. (
  • T cell independent [TI]) are a key component of the early response to bacterial and viral infection and a critical driver of systemic autoimmunity. (
  • We provide a model for induction of T cell-independent, polysaccharide-specific Ig secretion in response to bacterial challenge. (
  • Whilst the capsule antigen is the target of the polysaccharide vaccines, bacterial proteins can also act as targets for the immune system. (
  • Bioinformatics tools and algorithms like BLAST and FASTA are nowadays being adopted as a means to identify and detect common target antigens against Gram negative bacterial pathogens. (
  • The control of systemic infection by encapsulated microorganisms requires T-independent type II (TI-2) Ab responses to bacterial polysaccharides. (
  • B-cell activation by T-cell-independent type 2 antigens as an integral part of the humoral immune response to pathogenic microorganisms. (
  • PRINCETON, N.J., May 22 (HSMN NewsFeed) -- Cytogen Corporation (Nasdaq: CYTO ) today announced the presentation of data demonstrating the expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in cancer of the kidney. (
  • Expression of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Tumor-Associated Vasculatures of Renal Neoplasms" presented on Sunday, May 21 from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. during a Poster Session on Kidney and Ureteral Cancer: Basic Research (Abstract # 382). (
  • Several independent vaccines may be mixed to give a combined vaccine, and thus reduce the number of injections necessary for immunization, but such mixing can result in a lesser response to each component of the mixture. (
  • Effects of immunization with T-dependent and T-independent Aeromonas salmonicida antigens on antibody production and immunological memory in cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. (
  • An immunization protocol that facilitates selective targeting of antigen-specific Treg would constitute a major step forward in the development of a vaccine against atherosclerosis. (
  • TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens , because they induce numerous cell divisions. (
  • Allergens are antigens that induce allergic states in humans or animals. (
  • An illustration that shows how antigens induce the immune system response by interacting with an antibody that matches the antigen's molecular structure . (
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (
  • Such persistent calcium fluxes efficiently recruit transcription factors and thereby induce T-cell-independent B-cell activation and proliferation. (
  • The ring junction contained lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 and talin, but did not trigger polarization and granule translocation to the interface. (
  • This article is from Frontiers in Immunology, volume 5.AbstractOur newly generated murine tumor dendritic cell MuTuDC lines, generated from tumors developing in transgenic mice expressing the simian virus 40 large T antigen SV40LgT and GFP under the DC specific promoter CD11c, reproduce the phenotypic and functional properties of splenic wild type CD8α+ conventional DCs. (
  • A model for induction of T cell-independent humoral immunity in response to polysaccharide antigens. (
  • Self-antigens are either tolerogenic or ignored. (
  • Pathogenic autoantibodies can protect or cause diseases via neutralization of self-antigens, opsonization, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect. (
  • What are self-antigens? (
  • These may be proteins or polysaccharides derived from the outer surfaces of the cell (capsular antigens), from the cell interior (the somatic or O antigens), or from the flagella (the flagellar or H antigens). (
  • Simian virus 40 (SV40) encodes two major early proteins, small tumor antigen (st) and large tumor antigen (LT), that are key players in viral replication as well as regulation of cell growth. (
  • MHC-independent αβTCRs (TCRs) recognize conformational epitopes on native self-proteins and arise in mice lacking both MHC and CD4/CD8 coreceptor proteins. (
  • Here we identify naturally arising MHC-independent TCRs reactive to three native self-proteins (CD48, CD102, and CD155) involved in cell adhesion. (
  • Cellular antigens are proteins or oligosaccharides that mark and identify the cell surface as self or nonself . (
  • [3] Antigens are usually proteins , peptides (amino acid chains) and polysaccharides (chains of monosaccharides/simple sugars) but lipids and nucleic acids become antigens only when combined with proteins and polysaccharides. (
  • Previous studies have described 35 and 37 kDa Fos-like proteins, termed chronic Fos-related antigens (FRAs), that are induced in brain in a region-specific manner in response to several chronic perturbations, including chronic electroconvulsive seizures, psychotropic drug treatments, and lesions. (
  • In contrast, work in several laboratories over the last few years has identified novel Fos-like proteins, termed chronic Fos-related antigens (FRAs), that are induced in brain in response to chronic perturbations and are much more long-lived than other Fos-like proteins induced acutely. (
  • Since whole microorganisms are complex structures, vaccines may contain 10 or more distinct antigens, of which generally not more than one or two engender a protective antibody. (
  • The nature of vaccines (either humoral antibody immunity inducing or cell-mediated immunity inducing) depends on the location (extracellular or intracellular) and the expression of the antigens selected for incorporation. (
  • To maintain the synergism between the kind of immunity conferred by the vaccines and the cellular location of the included antigens, new findings are gathered about the virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, invasins (mostly enzymes), anti-apoptotic factors, anti-phagocytic factors, and many more molecules that aid in pathogenesis and invasiveness. (
  • There was an absolute requirement for the presentor cell to be class II+, and the activation signal on mitogen-treated class II+ presentor could be blocked by monoclonal antibody to the class II antigens. (
  • Fully efficient cellular transformation depends on at least three independent functions of LT: binding to the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) tumor suppressor ( 14 ) and other members of this family ( 19 , 22 ), binding to the p53 tumor suppressor ( 33 , 37 ), and maintaining the integrity of the first exon (amino acids 1 to 82). (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae has multiple protein antigens on the surface in addition to the serotype specific polysaccharide capsule antigen. (
  • The objective of the present study was to identify TAP-independent ligands from HIV gp160 protein. (
  • In contrast the pre-selection TCR repertoire from which the mature repertoire is selected includes both MHC-restricted TCRs specific for peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligands as well as MHC-independent TCRs specific for conformational epitopes on native protein ligands ( 8 ). (
  • in contrast, MHC-independent TCRs bind to intra-thymic protein ligands independently of CD4/CD8 coreceptors and so cannot access coreceptor-associated Lck to signal positive selection ( 9 ). (
  • The protein marker in the Rh group of antigens that stimulates the greatest immune response. (
  • In conclusion, our data show that T-cell function is sensitive toward the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in a mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent fashion. (
  • Protein antigen contains a sequence within a region between 31 and 210 of the human IGF2R protein. (
  • Heterodimers between MHC-I heavy chain and β 2 m associate with the lectin chaperone calreticulin and a pre-existing complex of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), the TAP-associated protein tapasin and the ERp57, forming together the peptide loading complex (PLC). (
  • ABSTRACT: Despite the impact of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on the detection and management of prostate cancer, controversy about its usefulness as a marker of disease activity continues. (
  • In contrast, less attention has been devoted to understanding Ab responses to T cell-independent Ags and pathogens. (
  • This review charts plasma cell differentiation in T cell-dependent and T cell-independent Ab responses while also addressing current knowledge of the environmental cues governing life and death decisions in the plasma cell lineage. (
  • Thymic requirement for cyclical idiotypic and reciprocal anti-idiotypic immune responses to a T-independent antigen. (
  • Thymus-independent IgM and IgG responses in mice to flagellar antigens. (
  • The Small Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 Are Important for T-Cell Independent Antigen Responses and for Suppressing Switching to IgG2b in Mice. (
  • By mobilizing protective immune responses in an antigen-specific manner, side effects due to hampered host defense against infections are avoided. (
  • One of the most critical properties of this group of antigens is their ability to deliver prolonged and persistent signaling to the B cell. (
  • Siskind, G. W. & Benacerraf, B. Cell selection by antigen in the immune response. (
  • This primary immune response to a foreign antigen takes a week to develop, during which time infecting microbes can replicate within the host body. (
  • [4] In general, saccharides and lipids (as opposed to peptides) qualify as antigens but not as immunogens since they cannot elicit an immune response on their own. (
  • To investigate the immune response toward the large T antigen that leads to rejection of the MuTuDC lines, they were genetically engineered by lentiviral transduction to express luciferase and tested for the induction of DC tumors after adoptive transfer in various gene deficient recipient mice. (
  • The MCL BCR seems to be antigen-experienced since it shows biased immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) gene usage and suggestive patterns of clonal diversification despite low levels of somatic hypermutation. (
  • By promoting plasma cell differentiation earlier during clonal expansion, TACI may decrease the chances of autoantibody production by somatic hypermutation of Ig genes in response to T-independent Ags. (
  • Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures ( epitopes ) of encapsulated bacteria . (
  • Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different lock (antibody). (
  • Both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecules are known to play important roles in cancer immunity. (
  • Human Leukocyte Antigen and Systemic Sclerosis in Japanese: The Sign of the Four Independent Protective Alleles, DRB1*13:02, DRB1*14:06, DQB1*03:01. (
  • Several studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) have been reported. (
  • mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. (
  • Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. (
  • Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which trigger both LFA-1-dependent and LFA-1-independent adhesion pathways. (
  • Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience. (
  • By multivariate Cox analysis, lymph node metastases (p = 0.003), penetration of the bowel wall (p = 0.0001) and preoperative CEA levels (p = 0.0001) were found to be independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer patients. (
  • The data from our study indicate that in addition to lymph node metastases and penetration of the bowel wall, the preoperative CEA levels are also an independent prognostic factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients after curative surgery. (
  • Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has yet to be used as a prognostic or adjuvant chemotherapy factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). (
  • A preoperative CEA level can be an independent prognostic factor for stage I-III CRC after curative resection. (
  • Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as a prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer. (
  • The prognostic significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels in colorectal cancer. (
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that coexpression of HLA class I and PD-L1 was an independent poor prognostic factor of lung adenocarcinoma. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that the ratio of tumor positive tissue blocks to the total number of blocks submitted (positive-block ratio) can be used as an independent prognostic indicator for PSA recurrence. (
  • Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is considered as a factor predictive of survival in colorectal cancer patients. (
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen in the staging and follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer. (
  • Thompson JA, Grunert F, Zimmermann W. Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family: molecular biology and clinical perspectives. (
  • Hammarstrom S. The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family: structures, suggested functions and expression in normal and malignant tissues. (
  • In part 1 of this article , which was published in the August issue, we focused on the physiology of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), its measurement and use in clinical practice, and its predictive value following radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. (
  • Increased expression of PSMA, a differentiation antigen with folate hydrolase activity, is an independent marker of prostate cancer progression. (
  • Transgenic mice have been generated that express human PSMA in their ventral, lateral, and dorsal prostate lobes under the control of the human prostate-specific antigen promoter and enhancer ( 19 ). (
  • Tumor volume has been considered an important variable in determining the probability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence in prostatic adenocarcinoma. (
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a useful marker for predicting outcomes following treatment for prostate cancer but, given the evolving nature of prostate cancer, there is an ongoing need to refine its use. (
  • Increasing prostate specific antigen following radical prostatectomy and adjuvant hormonal therapy: doubling time predicts survival. (
  • Percent of cores positive for cancer is a better preoperative predictor of cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy than prostate specific antigen. (
  • Impact of obesity on the utility of preoperative prostate-specific antigen velocity to predict for relapse after prostatectomy: a report from the SEARCH database. (
  • In the current study, we prospectively analyze whether maximum tumor diameter is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence. (
  • Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. (
  • Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. (
  • Cellular immunity appears also to be targeted, but it remains unclear whether it is specific to LDL antigens. (
  • Klaus, G. G. & Humphrey, J. H. The immunological properties of haptens coupled to thymus-independent carrier molecules. (
  • By combining these two pathways, the TI-2 response enables the host to rapidly produce antigen-specific Ig effector molecules that can be secreted at a sufficient rate to keep up with the rapid multiplication of invading infectious microorganisms, and will also prevent the intracellular spreading of a significant part of this population. (
  • Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant . (
  • Three strains of mice were injected with a T-independent antigen, Escherichia coli 055:B5 polysaccharide (PS) combined with purified saponin, QS-21, isolated from Quillaja saponaria bank. (
  • New data in humans and mice now identify specific B cell populations that may have undergone antigen-independent hypermutation outside GCs. (
  • Collectively, these results suggest that the events associated with B cell development in humans and mice may not be far removed from those in other species, such as sheep, in which antigen-independent diversification occurs in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). (
  • Immature Dendritic Cell Therapy Confers Durable Immune Modulation in an Antigen-Dependent and Antigen-Independent Manner in Nonobese Diabetic Mice. (
  • In contrast, mice deficient in NALP-3, IPAF, or caspase-1 did not show any alteration of joint inflammation, thus indicating that ASC associated effects on AIA are independent of the classical NALP-3 or IPAF inflammasomes. (
  • However, in CD4/CD8 coreceptor-deficient mice, Lck in immature thymocytes is not sequestered by coreceptors and so is available to transduce signals from all ligand-engaged TCRs, including TCRs specific for MHC-independent ligands. (
  • Here, we thoroughly analyzed Xlf −/− mice immune phenotype and showed that it is specifically related to the DP stage but independent of the MHC-driven antigen presentation and T-cell activation during positive selection. (
  • Here, we document that the MuTuDC line was rejected in C57BL-6 mice by a CD4 T cell help-independent, perforin-mediated CD8 T cell response to the SV40LgT without pre-activation or co-injection of adjuvants. (
  • Cancer antigens are used in clinical medicine to screen body fluids for tumors or to follow the response of tumors to treatment. (
  • We report that naturally arising MHC-independent TCRs require high affinity TCR-ligand engagements in the thymus to signal positive selection and that high affinity positive selection generates a peripheral TCR repertoire with limited diversity and increased self-reactivity. (
  • Antigen-reactive cell deletion was monitored by Vbeta6+ T cell elimination, measured by flow cytometry of peripheral blood throughout the experiment. (
  • Intestinal self-antigen expression leads to peripheral expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T(regs). (
  • With a few exceptions, such as the autoantigens and the isoantigens of the blood groups, antigens produce antibody only in species other than the ones from which they are derived. (
  • Therefore, it is crucial to discover highly specific Brucella antigens that are immunogenic in the host. (
  • T helper cell-independent neutralizing B cell response against vesicular stomatitis virus: role of antigen patterns in B cell induction? (
  • In this review we have attempted to define the characteristics of TI-2 antigens that enable them to stimulate antibody production in the absence of T cell help. (
  • We report here a 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of the equivalent domain from the sialic acid-independent rotavirus strain DS-1, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. (
  • Thymic regenerative capacity in humans decreases with age, suggesting that thymic-independent pathways of T cell regeneration may predominate during adulthood. (
  • Individuals with nonfunctional transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) complexes are not particularly susceptible to viral infections or neoplasms. (
  • Therefore, their immune system must be reasonably efficient, and the present, though reduced, cytolytic CD8 + αβ T subpopulation specific for TAP-independent antigens may be sufficient to establish an immune defense protecting against viral infections in these individuals. (