Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (1/8474)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

gp49B1 inhibits IgE-initiated mast cell activation through both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, recruitment of src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, and suppression of early and late calcium mobilization. (2/8474)

We define by molecular, pharmacologic, and physiologic approaches the proximal mechanism by which the immunoglobulin superfamily member gp49B1 inhibits mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). In rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells expressing transfected mouse gp49B1, mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine in either of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs of the gp49B1 cytoplasmic domain partially suppressed gp49B1-mediated inhibition of exocytosis, whereas mutation of both abolished inhibitory capacity. Sodium pervanadate elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of native gp49B1 and association of the tyrosine phosphatases src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). SHP-1 associated transiently with gp49B1 within 1 min after coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI in mBMMCs. SHP-1-deficient mBMMCs exhibited a partial loss of gp49B1-mediated inhibition of FcepsilonRI-induced exocytosis at concentrations of IgE providing optimal exocytosis, revealing a central, but not exclusive, SHP-1 requirement in the counter-regulatory pathway. Coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI on mBMMCs inhibited early release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent influx of extracellular calcium, consistent with SHP-1 participation. Because exocytosis is complete within 2 min in mBMMCs, our studies establish a role for SHP-1 in the initial counter-regulatory cellular responses whereby gp49B1 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs rapidly transmit inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis.  (+info)

Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (3/8474)

To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (4/8474)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Cell surface-associated lipoteichoic acid acts as an adhesion factor for attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. (5/8474)

The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (6/8474)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Two-gene control of the expression of a murine Ia antigen. (7/8474)

Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Non-Idet P-40 extracts and of specific Ia immunoprecipitates from [35S]methionine-labeled mouse spleen lymphocytes has revealed that the cell surface expression of some Ia antigens appears to be controlled by two genes. One locus, which maps in the I-A subregion, is probably the structural gene for an Ia polypeptide chain. The second locus, which maps between the I-J and H-2D regions, controls whether this I-A encoded molecule (Ae) remains in the cytoplasm or is modified and expressed on the cell surface. Complementation between these two loci allowing surface expression of Ae can occur in the cis or trans chromosomal position. Both the I-A molecule and a polypeptide chain coded for by a locus in I-E are coprecipitated by anti-I-E antibodies, suggesting that these two chains are associated with each other as a multisubunit complex in the cell. Because the ability to complement I-A for Ae expression is a property only of those strains which synthesize an I-E-encoded protein, it is likely that the I-E product itself is regulating the expression of Ae. These observations suggest several mechanisms by which interaction between two I region loci can generate new cell surface molecules. As a result, they may have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of two gene control of immune responsiveness and immune suppression.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory effects of glycine on LPS-treated monocytes: reduced TNF-alpha production and accelerated IL-10 expression. (8/8474)

Cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulate the progression of septic shock whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 has counterregulative potency. The amino acid glycine (GLY) has been shown to protect against endotoxin shock in the rat by inhibiting TNF-alpha production. In the current study we investigated the role of GLY on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced cell surface marker expression, phagocytosis, and cytokine production on purified monocytes from healthy donors. GLY did not modulate the expression of HLA-DR and CD64 on monocytes, whereas CD11b/CD18 expression (P<0.05) and E. coli phagocytosis (P<0.05) decreased significantly. GLY decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha production (P<0.01) and increased IL-10 expression of purified monocytes. Similarly, in a whole blood assay, GLY reduced TNF-alpha (P<0.0001) and IL-1beta (P<0.0001) synthesis and increased IL-10 expression (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of GLY were neutralized by strychnine, and the production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha was augmented by anti-IL-10 antibodies. Furthermore, GLY decreased the amount of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-specific mRNA. Our data indicate that GLY has a potential to be used as an additional immunomodulatory tool in the early phase of sepsis and in different pathophysiological situations related to hypoxia and reperfusion.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer-assisted densitometric analysis for quantification of cell surface antigen expression in monkey cardiac allografts. T2 - Correspondence to histopathologic grade of rejection. AU - Kitamura, M.. AU - Lackides, G. A.. AU - Billingham, M. E.. AU - Clayberger, C.. AU - Starnes, V. A.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 8442269. AN - SCOPUS:0027462720. VL - 25. SP - 924. EP - 927. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 1 SUPPL. 1. ER - ...
CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules
Lubaroff, D M., Antigenic markers on rat lymphocytes. I. Characterization of a.r.t., An alloantigenic marker on rat thymus and thymus-derived cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2102 ...
Tumor cells were treated with rabbit antibody to tumor-associated cell surface antigens and tested with erythrocytes coated with antibody specific for the sensitizing rabbit immunoglobulin. The sensitized tumor cells formed rosettes with the indicator cells. By this method, we confirmed that line 1 and line 10 hepatoma cells (from two tumors independently induced by diethylnitrosamine in strain 2 guinea pigs) bear antigens not present on normal liver cells. We also confirmed that line 1 and line 10 cells bear antigenically different tumor-associated cell surface antigens. This method appears simpler than other serological methods for detecting tumor-associated cell surface antigens on tumor cells. Also, this method may be a general one for detecting and enumerating cells bearing surface antigens.. ...
The pathogen. · Has antigens which identify it as foreign. Infected cells. · May damage attacking pathogens with organelles such as lysosomes and display them on their surface membrane (antigen presentation). Macrophages. · Act like phagocytes, engulfing and digesting any pathogens. · Separate out antigens from digested pathogens and display them in antigen presentation. · Release monokines which attract neutrophils and stimulate B and T cell division and differentiation. T cells. · Matching T cells detect the antigen using receptors on their cell membranes- this…. ...
The TandAb technology enables the development of innovative antibody therapeutics for improved treatment of various diseases. This platform has been primarily applied to oncology and comprises of CD3 RECRUIT- and CD16A RECRUIT-TandAbs for activation of T and NK effector cells, respectively, and lysis of target cells expressing specific surface antigens. The CD3 RECRUIT-TandAb AFM11 is a human bispecific tetravalent antibody with two binding sites for the α-chain of CD3 and two binding sites for CD19. CD19 is expressed at early stages of B cell development and persists until the final differentiation into plasma cells. Thus, CD19 represents an attractive target for the treatment of various B cell malignancies including leukemias and lymphomas that lack CD20 expression or are refractory to anti-CD20 antibody therapies. In vitro cytotoxicity assays employing tumor cell lines demonstrate high potency of AFM11 in mediating target cell lysis: EC50 values are in the low to sub-picomolar range ...
Fenyo, E M. and Grundner, G, Expression of virus-controlled cell surface antigen(s) in hybrids between mouse l cells (a9 subline) and various mouse and human cells derived from tumours and normal tissues. Abstr. (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 647 ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human T lymphocyte surface structures have essentially contributed to a better understanding of cellular mechanisms and interactions involved in the generation of human T...
[140 Pages Report] The cell surface markers market is valued at an estimated USD 520 million in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 769 million by 2023, at a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Milk fat globule-EGF factor VIII attenuates CNS injury by promoting neural stem cell proliferation and migration after cerebral ischemia. AU - Cheyuo, Cletus. AU - Aziz, Monowar. AU - Yang, Weng Lang. AU - Jacob, Asha. AU - Zhou, Mian. AU - Wang, Ping. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Cheyuo et al.. PY - 2015/4/13. Y1 - 2015/4/13. N2 - The mediators in activating neural stem cells during the regenerative process of neurogenesis following stroke have not been fully identified. Milk fat globule-EGF Factor VIII (MFG-E8), a secreted glycoprotein serves several cellular functions by binding to its receptor, αvβ3-integrin. However, its role in regulating neural stem cells after stroke has not been determined yet. We therefore, aim to reveal whether MFG-E8 promotes neural stem cell proliferation and migration during stroke. Stroke was induced in wild-type (Wt) and MFG-E8-deficinet (Mfge8-/-) mice by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Commercially available ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 attenuates acute lung injury in mice after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Cui, Tianpen. AU - Miksa, Michael. AU - Wu, Rongqian. AU - Komura, Hidefumi. AU - Zhou, Mian. AU - Dong, Weifeng. AU - Wang, Zhimin. AU - Higuchi, Shinya. AU - Chaung, Wayne. AU - Blau, Steven A.. AU - Marini, Corrado P.. AU - Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.. AU - Wang, Ping. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Rationale: Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a potent opsonin for the clearance of apoptotic cells and is produced by mononuclear cells of immune competent organs including the spleen and lungs. It attenuates chronic and acute inflammation such as autoimmune glomerulonephritis and bacterial sepsis by enhancing apoptotic cell clearance. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the gut results in severe inflammation, apoptosis, and remote organ damage, including acute lung injury (ALI). Objectives: To determine whether MFG-E8 attenuates ...
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Naturally Processed Helper T-Cell Epitopes from Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Using Peptide-Based in Vitro Stimulation. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Sodey, Benjamin. AU - Yanai, Mitsuru. AU - Oikawa, Kensuke. AU - Sato, Keisuke. AU - Kimura, Shoji. AU - Senju, Satoru. AU - Nishimura, Yasuharu. AU - Tateno, Masatoshi. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Purpose: There is growing evidence that CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) play an essential role in the induction and long-term maintenance of antitumor CTL responses. Thus, approaches to develop effective T-cell-based immunotherapy should focus in the stimulation of both CTLs and HTLs reactive against tumor-associated antigens. The present studies were performed with the purpose of identifying HTL epitopes for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for the optimization of vaccines for prostate cancer. Experimental Design: Synthetic peptides from regions of the ...
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Solving the Convergence Problem in the Synthesis of Triantennary N-Glycan Relevant to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Journal Article ...
Picture of Chemical structure of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA,.. stock photo, images and stock photography.. Image 16083639.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast.
Accurate staging of high-risk localised, advanced, and metastatic prostate cancer is becoming increasingly more important in guiding local and systemic treatment. Gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) has increasingly been utilised globally to assess the local and metastatic burden of prostate cancer, typically in biochemically recurrent or advanced disease.
Journal: EJNMMI - European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ArticleTitle: Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET imaging and immunohistochemistry in adenoid cystic carcinoma-a preliminary analysis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrin-associated protein. T2 - A 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins. AU - Brown, Eric. AU - Hooper, Lora. AU - Ho, Thang. AU - Gresham, Hattie. PY - 1990/12/1. Y1 - 1990/12/1. N2 - Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophi1 phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H.D., J.L. Goodwin, P.M. Allen, D.C. Anderson, and E.J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecu1e that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but not on erythrocytes, this protein is associated with an ...
Complete information for MFGE8 gene (Protein Coding), Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8 Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Post-translational modifications to the polypeptide include N- and O- glycosylations, acylation, sulphation and phosphorylation. The different N-CAM isoforms have molecular weights ranging from 135 to 220 kDa. The CD56 antigen is moderately expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes and on all cells with NK activity. It is also expressed by subsets of T lymphocytes. CD56 antibodies do not react with granulocytes, monocytes or B cells.
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell recognition of QA-1b antigens on cells lacking a functional Tap-2 transporter. AU - Aldrich, C. J.. AU - Waltrip, R.. AU - Hermel, E.. AU - Attaya, M.. AU - Lindahl, K. F.. AU - Monaco, J. J.. AU - Forman, J.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - MHC class Ia H chains and β2-microglobulin assemble with appropriate peptides to form stable cell surface molecules that serve as targets for Ag- specific CTL. The structural similarities of class Ia and the less polymorphic Q/T/M (class Ib) molecules suggest that class Ib molecules also play a role in antigen presentation, although the origin of the peptides they present remains mostly unclear. The cell line RMA-S has a defect in class I Ag presentation, presumably due to a mutation in a peptide transporter gene. This defect can be overcome by transfection of RMA-S cells with the Tap-2 gene (formerly Ham-2) that encodes an ATP-binding transporter protein. We now show that a substantial portion of alloreactive CTL specific for ...
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Looking for differentiation antigen? Find out information about differentiation antigen. A cell surface antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation Explanation of differentiation antigen
There is an urgent need for an effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Prostate tumors invariably overexpress prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). We designed a nonviral vector, PEI-PEG-DUPA (PPD), comprising polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol (PEI-PEG) tethered to the PSMA ligand, 2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)ureido] pentanedioic acid (DUPA), to treat PC. The purpose of PEI is to bind polyinosinic/polycytosinic acid (polyIC) and allow endosomal release, while DUPA targets PC cells. PolyIC activates multiple pathways that lead to tumor cell death and to the activation of bystander effects that harness the immune system against the tumor, attacking nontargeted neighboring tumor cells and reducing the probability of acquired resistance and disease recurrence ...
Y Nakamura, M Noma, M Kidokoro, N Kobayashi, M Takei, S Kurashima, T Mukaiyama, S Kato; Expression of CD33 antigen on normal human activated T lymphocytes [letter]. Blood 1994; 83 (5): 1442-1443. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Immunofluorescence labeling of cell surface antigens in Dictyostelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
cal microscopy and flow cytometry studies were employed to examine the involvement of these processes in the uptake of F-Ab40 by neuronal cells. Localization of
BioMagnetic Solutions has engineered next generation ferrofluids (nano-magnetic liquids) with enhanced magnetics for selective recovery and/or enrichment of cells expressing specific surface antigens or for capturing macromolecules. The augmented magnetic character of our materials increases their magnetic pull which lowers limits of detection and saves time (in concert with our more powerful quadrupole and hexapole magnets) enabling researchers to work more efficiently.. ...
Shop Surface antigen ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Surface antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY : ANIMAL CELL, PER SE (E.G., CELL LINES, ETC.); COMPOSITION THEREOF; PROCESS OF PROPAGATING, MAINTAINING OR PRESERVING AN ANIMAL CELL OR COMPOSITION THEREOF; PROCESS OF ISOLATING OR SEPARATING AN ANIMAL CELL OR COMPOSITION THEREOF; PROCESS OF PREPARING A COMPOSITION CONTAINING AN ANIMAL CELL; CULTURE MEDIA THEREFORE : Animal cell, per se, expressing immunoglobulin, antibody, or fragment thereof : Immunoglobulin or antibody binds a microorganism or normal or mutant component or product thereof (e.g., animal cell, cell surface antigen, secretory product, etc.) : Binds a cancer cell or component or product thereof (e.g., cell surface antigen, etc.) : Binds a lymphocytic or lymphocytic-like cell or component or product thereof (e.g., B cell, B-lineage bone marrow cell, null cell, natural killer cell, B-lymphoblastoid cell, B-lineage, acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell, B-lymphocytic cell surface antigen, etc ...
During the last several years, the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and corresponding radiolabeled inhibitors have become one of the most …
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform anti-SSEA-1 (m), monoclonal antibody [ASA-0135] - The SSEA family is a group of cell-surface antigenic markers expressed on ES/iPS cells. SSEA-1 is highly expressed in mouse ES/iPS cells but not in human ES/iPS cells. Ap
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD64 antibody, clone 10.1|/strong| recognizes the human CD64 cell surface antigen, a ~75 kDa glycoprotein expressed by monocytes. The antigen acts as a high affinity rece…
Mouse anti Human CD163 antibody, clone EDHu-1 recognizes the human CD163 cell surface antigen, a 130-140 kDa glycoprotein expressed by tissue macropha
PSMA兔多克隆抗体(ab41034)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
When a specific frequency of light is shone on the tissue, the reporter can be made to fluoresce. The presence of fluorescent color would then indicate that the antibody, and thus the antigen, is present in the tissue, meaning that the cell would be positive for the cluster of differentiation being identified.[7] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mapping of the active site of glutamate carboxypeptidase II by site-directed mutagenesis. AU - Mlčochová, Petra. AU - Plechanovová, Anna. AU - Bařinka, Cyril. AU - Mahadevan, Daruka. AU - Saldanha, Jose W.. AU - Rulíšek, Lubomír. AU - Konvalinka, Jan. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Human glutamate carboxypeptidase II [GCPII (EC] is recognized as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment and imaging of various pathologies, including neurological disorders and prostate cancer. Recently reported crystal structures of GCPII provide structural insight into the organization of the substrate binding cavity and highlight residues implicated in substrate/inhibitor binding in the S1′ site of the enzyme. To complement and extend the structural studies, we constructed a model of GCPII in complex with its substrate, N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate, which enabled us to predict additional amino acid residues interacting with the bound substrate, and used ...
Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Antibody-Drug Conjugate (PSMA ADC) 1301EXT is an open-label, nonrandomized, phase 1 extension study of PSMA ADC administered IV in subjects with progressive CMPC that has progressed after prior taxane therapy. Subjects who have participated in PSMA ADC 1301 and who, in the opinion of the PI, are likely to benefit from continued treatment with PSMA ADC will be enrolled in PSMA ADC 1301EXT ...
G then able to bind inner PM phospholipids as well as cytoplasmic membranes of organelles (Fig. 3d; Table 1); and/or (ii) incubated with cells to target outer leaflet phospholipids after transbilayer flip-flop. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is one of these well-characterized probes specific for Aprotinin price phosphoinositides (PIs; [122]). The 100 amino acid-PH domain is contained in several proteins, such as pleckstrin or phospholipase C (PLC), with distinct binding affinity for different PIs [123]. For instance, PH domain of PLC (PH-PLC) has a high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) [124, 125]. The discoidin C2 domain is another probe, specific for phosphatidylserine (PS). The 160 amino acid-discoidin C2 domain is present in blood coagulation factors V and VIII, milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8; also known as lactadherin [Lact-C2]) and other plasma proteins. PH or discoidin C2 domains can be fluorescently tagged, allowing to study phospholipid membrane ...
Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. The sequence of the cluster-w4 complementary DNA encodes an unusually short (80-amino acid) protein identical to that recently reported for the leukocyte activation molecule CD24 except for a single valine-alanine substitution due to a single-base polymorphism within the region of the gene coding for the extracellular domain. Biochemical analyses of the cloned cluster-w4 antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 molecule. Furthermore, the cloned
Levels of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM in muscle are regulated in parallel with the susceptibility of muscle to innervation: N-CAM is abundant on the surface of early embryonic myotubes, declines in level as development proceeds, reappears when adult muscles are denervated or paralyzed, and is lost after reinnervation (Covault, J., and J. R. Sanes, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:4544-4548). Here we used immunocytochemical methods to compare this pattern of expression with those of several other molecules known to be involved in cellular adhesion. Laminin, fibronectin, and a basal lamina-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan accumulate on embryonic myotubes after synapse formation, and their levels change little after denervation. L1, J1, nerve growth factor-inducible large external protein, uvomorulin, and a carbohydrate epitope (L2/HNK-1) shared by several adhesion molecules are undetectable on the surface of embryonic, perinatal, adult, or denervated adult muscle fibers. ...
Chronic pain often accompanies immune-related diseases with an elevated level of IgG immune complex (IgG-IC) in the serum and/or the affected tissues though the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. shown that neuronal FcRI triggers a nonselective cation channel, which may contribute to the IgG-IC-induced excitation of DRG neurons[19,30]. Moreover, TRPC3 acts as a novel and crucial downstream transduction channel mediating… More →. ...
Authors: Michael S Hofman, Peter Eu, Price Jackson, Emily Hong, David Binns, Amir Iravani, Declan Murphy, Catherine Mitchell, Shankar Siva, Rodney J Hicks, Jennifer D Young, Philip J Blower, Gregory E Mullen
Health management and winning practice articles, value-based healthcare, healthcare events, company and product directory, I-I-I videos and I-I-I blog interviews.
目的: 检测前列腺特异性膜抗原(prostate specific membrane antigen,PSMA)基因及蛋白在前列腺癌组织中的表达?方法:分别采用半定量RT-PCR法及免疫组织化学法检测52例前列腺癌组织及35例前列腺增生组织中PSMA基因及蛋白的表达情况?结果:①PSMA在前列腺癌及前列腺增生组织中表达阳性率分别为84.6%(44/52)及68.6%(24/35),虽然前列腺癌组织中PSMA表达阳性率高于前列腺增生组织,但两组阳性率间差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05)?PSMA mRNA半定量结果在两组间存在差异,癌组织中PSMA的表达量明显高于增生组织中的表达(P < 0.05)?②前列腺癌组织中PSMA蛋白表达总阳性率高达94.2%,明显高于增生组织中的阳性率(65.7%),且以++~+++居多?结论:PSMA基因及蛋白的表达在前列腺癌组织均高于前列腺增生组织,提示其可作为前列腺癌诊断指标?;Objective: To investigate the expression of prostate specific membrane antigen(PSMA) gene and protein in
Recombinant Human Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2 Protein. Synthesized in e. coli. Protein Tag: His. Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. From $88
Putative endothelial cell (EC) progenitors or angioblasts were isolated from human peripheral blood by magnetic bead selection on the basis of cell surface antigen expression. In vitro, these cells differentiated into ECs. In animal models of ischemia, heterologous, homologous, and autologous EC progenitors incorporated into sites of active angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EC progenitors may be useful for augmenting collateral vessel growth to ischemic tissues (therapeutic angiogenesis) and for delivering anti- or pro-angiogenic agents, respectively, to sites of pathologic or utilitarian angiogenesis.. ...
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens. These include the two trans-membrane (2TM) superfamily constituted by multicopy repetitive interspersed family (RIFINs), subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVORs) and Plasmodium falciparum Maurers cleft two trans-membrane proteins present only in P. falciparum and some simian infecting Plasmodium species. Their hypervariable region flanked by 2TM domains exposed on the iRBC surface is believed to generate antigenic diversity. Though historically named
While many cell types produce type I IFN in vitro when exposed to double-stranded (ds)RNA and some RNA viruses, a specialized leukocyte is responsible for the IFN-α production induced by a wider spectrum of agents, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, certain cell lines, and also unmethylated CpG-DNA (6-8). This major IFN-α-producing cell (IPC) was early on designated natural IPC (NIPC) and subsequent work (for a review see reference 6) revealed that NIPCs were infrequent (∼0.1% of PBMCs) but very productive on a per cell basis (∼10 pg IFN-α per cell). The expression of the IFN-α/β genes induced in NIPCs was markedly dependent on costimulation (priming) of the cells by cytokines, in particular IL-3, GM-CSF, and type I IFNs. These cells lacked lineage specific surface antigens, but expressed MHC class II (for a review, see reference 6). The NIPCs were shown to express, e.g., CD4, CD36, CD40, CD44, CD45RA, and CD83, but lacked CD80, CD86, and CD11c, suggesting they were immature DCs ...
The human 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is expressed by all types of trophoblast in pregnancy but is not detected on most adult tissues, although low levels are found on some epithelia. However, this antigen is strongly expressed by many cancers and tumour-associated labelling correlates with metastatic spread and poor clinical outcome for patients with gastric and colon cancer. Over-expression of the gene influences cell adhesion, shape and motility, which may be related to changes in the cellular localisation of the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen as malignancy develops. To establish whether the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen can serve as a tumour-specific marker for oral cancer and precancer, we have evaluated the pattern of expression on biopsies of normal, inflamed and dysplastic oral mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Oral mucosa, taken from different sites in the mouth, expressed the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen with varying intensity and pattern. The majority of the immunoreactivity was detected in the basal and ...
Virtually all human granular lymphocytes expressed the HNK-1 differentiation antigen when examined in lymphoid compartments from adults, neonates, and fetuses. The HNK-1+ cells were distinguishable into three subsets having distinct antigenic phenotypes: HNK+T3-M1-, HNK+T3+M1-, and HNK+T3-M1+. Thus, greater than 70% of the HNK-1+ cells from 13-17 wk fetuses (less than 0.2% of nucleated cells) lacked T cell antigens (e.g., T3, T8, T4, and T6) and the M1 myeloid antigen. Morphologically, the HNK+T3-M1- cells consisted of three different types: small granular lymphocytes (less than 10% of HNK-1+ cells), agranular small lymphocytes with a narrow rim of cytoplasm (70-80%), and agranular giant cells (greater than 15 micrometers) with considerable neutrophilic cytoplasm (15%). The purified fetal HNK-1+ cells exhibited a low level of cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. On the other hand, almost all of HNK-1+ cells in neonatal tissues as well as adult bone marrow, lymph node, and thymus, exhibited ...
Cell surface markers are proteins expressed on the surface of cells that often conveniently serve as markers of specific cell types. For example, T cell and B cell surface markers identify their lineage and stage in the differentiation process. These lymphocytes differentiate into multiple cell subtypes, necessary for specific biological processes. During this process, lymphocytes express different surface receptors, which can be used to identify cellular subtypes, such as progenitor cells or terminally differentiated T helper cells. Inappropriate cellular ratios of differentiated white blood cells, such as the relative amounts of Th1 and Th2 cells, occur in pathophysiological conditions such as autoimmunity. The presence of cell surface markers can also determine if a cell type expresses the specific receptor important for a biological response. Testing for surface marker expression is also essential to determine if an experimental drug or ligand will be recognized by the cell type of interest. ...
By means of the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test, the distribution and antibody-induced redistribution (patching and capping) of a mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and a normal (Thy 1.2) cell-surface antigen were compared on mouse thymocytes and leukemia cells (GRSL2). At 0 degrees C Thy 1.2 fluorescence was ringlike and more intense on GRSL2 cells than on thymocytes, whereas MLr fluorescence on GRLS2 cells at this temperature was patchlike and brighter than Thy 1.2 fluorescence. At 20 or 37 degrees C, capping of Thy 1.2 on both cell types was readily achieved but MLr capping occurred only in a few GRSL2 cells and was less pronounced. However, after addition of the secondary antibodies, MLr capping was markedly increased by gradual cooling of cells to about 17 degrees C. Conversely, after addition of antibodies at 0 degrees C, gradual warming of cells under the fluorescence microscope resulted in extensive capping both of MLr and Thy 1.2 at approximately 13-14 degrees C. Rapid cooling ...
An improved system for screening a multiple of candidate therapeutic or chemotherapeutic agents for efficacy as to a specific patient, in which a tissue sample from the patient is harvested, cultured and separately exposed to a plurality of treatments and/or therapeutic agents for the purpose of objectively identifying. One particularly important tissue sample preparation technique is the initial preparation of cohesive multicellular particulates of the tissue sample. For assays concerning cancer treatment, a two-stage evaluation is contemplated in which both acute cytotoxic and longer term inhibitory effect of a given anti-cancer agent are investigated. The tissue sample technique of the present invention is also useful in assaying expression and/or secretion of various markers, factors or antigens present on or produced by the cultured cells for diagnostic purposes and for using such expression to monitor the applicability of certain candidate therapeutic or chemotherapeutic agents and the
Since its development in 1975, monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology has greatly enhanced our ability to analyse complex antigenic systems as well as improve the sensitivity and speed of many diagnostic tests. In particular, the study of tumour associated antigens using mAbs have revealed that many transformed cell phenotypes have useful markers on their plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or as secreted forms which can be used in developing diagnostic assays. Therapeutic application of these anti-tumour mAbs has however, been slow relative to the research and diagnostic applications. This article will discuss how the therapeutic effectiveness of anti-tumour mAbs can be enhanced by coupling them to drugs, toxins or radionucleids; and review the current advances and problems related to the application of these mAb conjugates ...
This study aimed to determine the changes in lymphocyte surface markers and cytokine profiles during a malarial infection in a mouse model of malaria. Mononuclear cells obtained from the spleens of the mice infected with ...
Anogen is a Canadian biopharmaceutical company, who has been producing antibody products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD41 antibody, clone PM6/248|/strong| recognizes the human CD41 cell surface antigen, a ~140 kDa glycoprotein expressed by platelets and megakaryocytes. CD41 is also know…
Thy1 - Thy1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat Thy-1 cell surface antigen (Thy1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
2001). "Different NK cell surface phenotypes defined by the DX9 antibody are due to KIR3DL1 gene polymorphism". J. Immunol. 166 ... Tissue Antigens. 52 (6): 510-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998.tb03081.x. PMID 9894849. Kwon D, Chwae YJ, Choi IH, et al. (2000 ... Tissue Antigens. 56 (4): 313-26. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.560403.x. PMID 11098931. Gardiner CM, Guethlein LA, Shilling HG, ...
Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... Del Valle JM, Engel P, Martín M (May 2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ...
Epigenetic reprogramming by Amanda Fisher on Vimeo Fisher, Amanda Gay (1984). Surface antigens expressed during myelopoiesis. ... "A rapid method for determining whether monoclonal antibodies react with the same or different antigens on the cell surface". ... Fisher was educated at the University of Birmingham where she was awarded a PhD in 1984 for research into antigens expressed ...
If the interaction between an antigen-presenting cell and a T-cell is stable enough, the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the ... CD80 can be found on the surface of various immune cells, including B-cells, monocytes, or T-cells, but most typically at ... Another ligand of CD80 is programmed death-ligand 1 (PD‐L1), expressed on the surface of T-cells, B-cells, DCs, and macrophages ... Bhatia S, Edidin M, Almo SC, Nathenson SG (October 2005). "Different cell surface oligomeric states of B7-1 and B7-2: ...
UL16 binding protein 3 (ULBP3) is a cell surface glycoprotein encoded by ULBP3 gene located on the chromosome 6. ULBP3 is ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 335-43. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00070.x. PMID 12753652. Eleme K, Taner SB, Onfelt B, Collinson LM ... McCann FE, Chalupny NJ, Cosman D, Hopkins C, Magee AI, Davis DM (Apr 2004). "Cell surface organization of stress-inducible ...
Blood group antigens are surface markers on the red blood cell membrane. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. 2005. National ... The smaller polysaccharide antigens classify blood cells into types A, B, AB, and O, while the larger protein antigens classify ... These antigens can be polysaccharides, glycoproteins, or GPI (a glycolipid) -linked proteins. Antigens range in complexity, ... This phenomenon occurs when complementary molecules on opposing cell surfaces meet. A receptor on one cell surface binds to its ...
Coleman, Paul F. (2017-02-17). "Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (2): 198-203. ... If B cell receptors bind to the antigen and Fc receptor simultaneously bind to the maternal antibody, the Fc receptors send a ... Breakthrough cases of Hepatitis B are primarily attributed to mutations in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that make HBV surface ... Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B cell receptors on the infant's B cells for binding to the antigen. Thus, an ...
There are six subspecies of S. neurona which can be identified by surface antigens (SAG). Equine EPM is caused by the parasites ... Ellison SP, Omara-Opyeme AL, Yowell C, Dame J. Molecular characterization of a major 29 kDa surface antigen of Sarcocystis ... Horses produce antibodies to these surface antigens. Serum antibody testing is available that measures levels of these ... "SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1". Veterinary ...
In 1974, she completed her doctoral thesis, Immunochemical studies of human cell surface antigens, and flew to Britain on the ... Williams, Keryn Anne (1974). "Immunochemical studies of human cell surface antigens". Ph.D. Thesis. School of Microbiology, ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... specific for a certain antigen or surface component, bind to the pathogen with their Fab region (fragment antigen binding ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ... The Fc receptor on NK cells recognize IgG that is bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell and is called CD16 or ...
In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ... Beare, Alice; Stockinger, Hannes; Zola, Heddy; Nicholson, Ian (2008). "Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Cell Surface Antigens". ... The proposed surface molecule is assigned a CD number once two specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are shown to bind to the ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (https ...
Surface display of antigens for improved antibody response. A smaller set of core peptides (5 peptides) combined with a list of ... an important cell type in the presentation of T cell antigens. The only difference between Generation 10 and Generation 11 ...
Daniels G, Green C (2000). "Expression of red cell surface antigens during erythropoiesis". Vox Sang. 78 Suppl 2: 149-53. PMID ... This antigen is also known as the Rs(a) antigen. The Ahonen (Ana) antigen was first reported in 1972. The antigen is found on ... The antigen was discovered in 1960 when three women who lacked the antigen made anti-Gea in response to pregnancy. The antigen ... This antigen is sensitive to trypsin but resistant to chymotrypsin and Endo F. The Lewis II (Ls(a); Ge-6) antigen has insert of ...
El-Manzalawy, Y., Munoz, E., Lindner, S.E., and Honavar, V. (2016). PlasmoSEP: Predicting surface-exposed proteins on the ... El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2012). Predicting protective bacterial antigens using random forest classifiers ... Yan, C., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. Identifying Protein-Protein Interaction Sites from Surface Residues A Support Vector ... "Predicting protein-protein interface residues using local surface structural similarity". BMC Bioinformatics. 13: 41. doi: ...
A33 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A33 is a sister serotype of A29, A30, A31, A32, and A74. A33 is more ... 2003). "Identification of HLA alleles with low or no cell surface expression in the Czech population". Folia Biol. (Praha). 49 ... 2004). "Human leukocyte antigen-A, -B, and -Cw polymorphism in a Berber population from North Morocco using sequence-based ... B14 splits into B64 (B*1401) and B65 (B*1402) but the only Arabian people which show both antigens are the United Arab Emirates ...
A subset of MHC in humans is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which controls the antigen-presenting system, as part of adaptive ... When human cells are infected by a pathogen, some of them can present parts of the pathogen's proteins on their surfaces; this ... Morris AG, Hewitt C, Young S (1994). The major histocompatibility complex: its genes and their roles in antigen presentation. ... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): Human Leukocyte Antigen A - 142800 Retrieved 21 September 2011. Azuma A, Kudoh S ( ...
A new class of cell surface antigens. Quantitative absorption studies defining cell-lineage-specific antigens on hemopoietic ... Cell surface oxygen consumption: a major contributor to cellular oxygen consumption in glycolytic cancer cell lines. Biochem ... Cell surface oxygen consumption by mitochondrial gene-knockout cells. Biochem Biophys Acta, 1656: 79-87 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j. ...
This bacterium's polysaccharide shell is identical to that of a human self-antigen, but its surface proteins vary greatly; and ... Then, they scanned the sequenced genome for potential antigens. They found over 600 possible antigens, which were tested by ... Traditional methods may take decades to unravel pathogens and antigens, diseases and immunity. However, In silico can be very ... Because those bacterial strains induce antibodies that react with human antigens, the vaccines for those bacteria needed to not ...
Antibodies binding to antigens on the surface of cells trigger lytic mechanisms mediated by the complement system (complement- ... Surface antigens causally involved in carcinogenesis are called oncoantigens.[citation needed] The success of cancer ... If the target antigen controls cell growth (e.g. if it is the product of an oncogene), then a block of signaling can disrupt ... Most antitumor immune responses are autoimmune, because most tumor antigens are also expressed by normal cells, but it must be ...
Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected. Hep G2 will respond to stimulation with human growth hormone.[ ... can be important for the study of human liver diseases that are caused by an incorrect subcellular distribution of cell surface ... robust morphological and functional differentiation with a controllable formation of apical and basolateral cell surface ...
The small and large T antigens result from this. The large T antigen has two functions: 5% goes to the plasma cell membrane and ... The virion adheres to cell surface receptors of MHC class I by the virion glycoprotein VP1. Penetration into the cell is ... Once in the nucleus the large T antigen binds three viral DNA sites, I, II and III. Binding of sites I and II autoregulates ... In rats, the oncogenic SV40 large T antigen was used to establish a brain tumor model for primitive neuroectodermal tumor and ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... Tovar V, de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Bosch J, Engel P (2000). "Gene structure of the mouse leukocyte cell surface molecule Ly9 ...
"Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A new family of cell surface proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (1): 117 ... CD9 is commonly used as a marker for exosomes as it is contained on their surface. However, in some cases CD9 plays a larger ... It forms a alphaIIbbeta3-CD9-CD63 complex on the surface of platelets that interacts directly with other cells such as ... It is a cell surface glycoprotein that consists of four transmembrane regions and has two extracellular loops that contain ...
Elghetany MT (March 2002). "Surface antigen changes during normal neutrophilic development: a critical review". Blood Cells, ... CD16+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ... CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. Georg, Philipp; et al. (2021). "Complement ... CD16, also known as FcγRIII, is a cluster of differentiation molecule found on the surface of natural killer cells, neutrophils ...
The eight surface-exposed amino acids 2, 4, 6, 15, 17, 19, 36, and 38 are suitable for modification. Ubiquitin, as the name ... They resemble antibodies in their affinity and specificity to antigens but not in structure, which makes them a type of ... For example, the eight surface-exposed exchangeable amino acids 2, 4, 6, 62, 63, 64, 65, and 66 are located at the beginning of ... Affilins are artificial proteins designed to selectively bind antigens. Affilin proteins are structurally derived from human ...
He argued that the antigen could be merely a surface protein of RBCs that changes upon infection with malarial parasites. A ... In 1987, they discovered another type of surface antigen from the same Camp and St. Lucia strains of malarial parasites. This ... Sherman IW, Winograd E (October 1990). "Antigens on the Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocyte surface are not parasite ... The first human RBC antigen was reported in 1986. Howard's team found that the antigens from Gambian children, who were ...
In the case of the influenza virosome, the glycoproteins are antigen, haemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. Antigens are molecules ... The size and surface molecules presented on of the virosome can be modified so that it can target different types of cells. ... On the surface of the virosome, there can be different types of glycoproteins. Glycoproteins are a type of protein that have an ... Virosomes deliver antigens and therapeutic agents to their targeted cells. Virosomes can act as immunopotentiating agents and ...
Antigens are also present on the surface of dendritic cells. In an inflammatory state, lymphatic endothelial cells increase ... Lymph node stromal cells express peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) on their surface. The Transcription factor Aire ( ... An adaptive immune response takes place in response to the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. Antigen-presenting cells ... Via the reticular network, the MRCs bring antigens from the sub-capsular sinuses to the B cell follicles. MRCs express the ...
... antigens from the sample to be tested are attached to a surface. Then, a matching antibody is applied over the surface so it ... The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ... The surface of the Scavenger container or channel has "Scavenger Antigens" bound to it. These can be identical or sufficiently ... Any nonspecific binding sites on the surface are blocked. The antigen-containing sample is applied to the plate, and captured ...
... cytotoxic T cells that are able to induce apoptosis in body cells displaying epitopes of foreign antigen on their surface, such ... Naive T cells, which are immature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells ... Rather, cell-mediated immunity is the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of ... T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity: activating antigen-specific ...
GalNAc and α-D-GalNAc-Ser/Thr (Tn-antigen) WFA Wisteria floribunda vistárie mnohokvětá koncové GalNAc (např. β-D-GalNAc-(1-4)- ... Tateno H, Uchiyama N, Kuno A, Togayachi A, Sato T, Narimatsu H, Hirabayashi J."A novel strategy for mammalian cell surface ... "O-acetyl sialic acid binding lectin as a probe for detection of subtle change on cell surface induced during acute ... β-D-Gal-(1-3)-α-D-GalNAc-Ser/Thr (T-antigen) ...
They use DNA template encoding the gene of interest fused with GST protein, and it was immobilized in the solid surface. Anti- ... In addition to the conventional complexes, as enzyme-inhibitor and antibody-antigen, interactions can also be established ... Parameters evaluated include size (measured in absolute dimensions Å2 or in solvent-accessible surface area (SASA)), shape, ... The great majority of PPI interfaces reflects the composition of protein surfaces, rather than the protein cores, in spite of ...
"HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression". 》Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.》 98 (21): 12144-9. ... Garcia JV, Miller AD (1991년 4월). "Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef". 》Nature》 350 ( ...
The host's cells express "self" antigens. These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... In the lymph node, the dendritic cell displays these non-self antigens on its surface by coupling them to a receptor called the ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ...
This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomer, which are proteins on the surface of the virus. They decide which ... Coronaviruses are large, spherical particles with unique surface projections.[10] Their size is variable, averageing 80 to 120 ... Rapid antigen test. *investigations into the origins *lab leak theory. *Surveillance. *Death rates by country ... bulbous surface projections looking like a crown. ...
MHC Class II, DQ cell surface antigen) Rendering of HLA-DQ8 with immundominant insulin peptide in the binding pocket. ... HLA-DQ8 (DQ8) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... Equatorial Guinea)". Tissue Antigens. 50 (6): 593-601. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02917.x. PMID 9458112.. ... Pimtanothai N, Hurley C, Leke R, Klitz W, Johnson A (2001). "HLA-DR and -DQ polymorphism in Cameroon". Tissue Antigens. 58 (1 ...
The final steps involve the spin coating of protective surface of PDMS over the cover slip and curing. Muscular thin films (MTF ... to test for the presence of antigens or antibodies that could denote the presence of a pathogen.[85] Despite the wide variety ... The bacteria were introduced onto the apical surface of the alveolar epithelium. Within hours, neutrophils were detected in the ... Hair follicles are the primary route into the subcutaneous layer for topical creams and other substances applied to the surface ...
T. cruzi shed acute-phase antigen (SAPA), which can be detected in blood using ELISA or Western blot,[22] has been used as an ... preferring moist surfaces near the eyes or mouth.[15][19] A triatomine bug can become infected with T. cruzi when it feeds on ... cruzi parasites or organisms that express some of the same antigens as T. cruzi but do not cause human disease, such as ... cruzi antigens, flow cytometry testing to detect antibodies against different life stages of T. cruzi, and markers of ...
... novel expression vectors that display cloned antigens on the virion surface". Science. 228 (4705): 1315-7. Bibcode:1985Sci... ... Instead, one could cleave in a section between the bead and the antigen to elute. Since the pIII is intact it does not matter ... protein library for scFV selection where the scFV is expressed on an M13 phage and the antigens are expressed on the surface of ... By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein ...
Surfaces where norovirus particles may be present can be sanitised with a solution of 1.5% to 7.5% of household bleach in water ... The ABH-antigen produced is thought to act as a receptor for human norovirus: A non-functional fucosyltransferase FUT2 provides ... Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ... It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through air from the vomit of an infected person. Risk factors include ...
COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai Transmission of COVID-19 § Surface (fomite) transmission The Chinese case definition differs from ... negative PCR test taken within 48 hours must be shown along with a negative antigen test within 24 hours. A ban on residents' ...
With the GeoVax vaccine a variety of HIV proteins (both surface and internal) are expressed from genes which include the Env, ... with improvements to antigen design and manufacturing capabilities. GeoVax technology approach uses recombinant DNA or ...
The papilla is meant to be surface cells. The ependymal cells line the inside of the ventricles of the brain. These cells have ... epithelial membrane antigen) → - GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) → + Synaptophysin → - Chromogranin → - NSE (neuron- ...
15 kDa plays other roles in immunological processes, such as in antigen-presenting cell maturation and in immune cell migration ... both of which can be found as epitopes on the surfaces of pathogens, and its 2nd and 3rd helices are principle players in ... Krensky AM, Clayberger C (March 2009). "Biology and clinical relevance of granulysin". Tissue Antigens. 73 (3): 193-198. doi: ...
In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. Mice ... Peyriéras N, Louvard D, Jacob F (December 1985). "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal ...
Activated B-cells with low affinity to antigen captured on FDCs surface as well as autoreactive B-cells undergo apoptosis, ... Noncognate (not antigen specific) B cells play a significant role in the transport of antigens to FDCs. They capture immune ... Follicular DCs receptors CR1, CR2 and FcγRIIb trap antigen opsonized by complement or antibodies. These antigens are then taken ... To become selected as a future memory cell, GC B cells must bind the antigen presented on FDCs, otherwise they enter apoptosis ...
... and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from Epstein-Barr virus, the large T antigen of Polyomavirus, the E7 protein of Human ... Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that ... Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) also significantly stimulates the MHC II-dependent presentation of antigens. Higher MHC I ... All interferons significantly enhance the presentation of MHC I dependent antigens. ...
Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... Noriea, Nicholas; Clark, Tina; Hackstadt, Ted (2015). "Targeted Knockout of the Rickettsia rickettsii OmpA Surface Antigen Does ... The rickettsiae use the actin to propel themselves throughout the cytosol to the surface of the host cell. This causes the host ... This species of Rickettsia uses an abundant cell surface protein called OmpB to attach to a host cell membrane protein called ...
Ticks can attach to most surfaces of the body and may even find residence within cavities such as the ear. More widespread ... Parthasarathi, B. C.; Kumar, Binod; Ghosh, Srikant (July 2021). "Current status and future prospects of multi-antigen tick ...
... derives its name from the cluster of differentiation protocol that identifies cell surface antigens. CD34 was first ... Antigens,+CD34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... A hematopoietic progenitor cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of ... as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ...
... is a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeted against CD20 which is a surface antigen present on B cells. Therefore, it ... as pathogenic B cells while sparing plasma cells and hematopoietic stem cells as they do not express the CD20 surface antigen. ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ...
Russo L, Woolmough E, Heatley MK (2000). "Structural and cell surface antigen expression in the rete ovarii and epoophoron ...
Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ... Glimcher L, Shen FW, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J Exp ... I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. J. Exp. Med. ...
Eriksson EM, Keh CE, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Hecht FM, Nixon DF (2012). "Differential expression of CD96 surface molecule ... It may also function in antigen presentation[citation needed]. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript ... It may also function in antigen presentation. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct ... "Enhanced ADCC activity of affinity maturated and Fc-engineered mini-antibodies directed against the AML stem cell antigen CD96 ...
Antifungal medication can also be applied to the fitting surface of the denture before it is put back in the mouth. Other ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... As an erythematous surface is revealed beneath the pseudomembranes, some consider pseudomembranous candidiasis and erythematous ... They exploit micro-fissures and cracks in the surface of dentures to aid their retention. Dentures may therefore become covered ...
CD49b+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the ... Integrins are involved in cell adhesion and also participate in cell-surface-mediated signalling. Expression of CD49b in ... Arase H, Saito T, Phillips JH, Lanier LL (August 2001). "Cutting edge: the mouse NK cell-associated antigen recognized by DX5 ... monoclonal antibody is CD49b (alpha 2 integrin, very late antigen-2)". Journal of Immunology. 167 (3): 1141-4. doi:10.4049/ ...
... antigens, antibodies, enzymes, peptides) and assembled on solid carriers (e.g. metals, semiconductors, graphene, polymers) and ... significantly to the fact that today it is recognized that most bacteria and almost all archaea form S-layers as cell surface ...
A loss of tolerance to antigens that appear in the environment cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) ... which is produced by a parasite and binds to the specific tuft cells receptor Sucnr1 on their surface. Also, the role of ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied. The use of nanotrap ... The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete. If ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Hyde FW, Johnson RC, White TJ, Shelburne CE (January 1989). "Detection of antigens in urine of mice and humans infected with ...
Identification and Management of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)--Positive Persons. Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen assays : operational characteristics (‎phase 1)‎ : report 2  World Health Organization (‎World ... Hepatitis B surface antigen assays : operational characteristics (‎phase 1)‎ : report 1  World Health Organization (‎World ... Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibodies among blood donors in the Islamic Republic of Iran  ... Laboratory techniques for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen  WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on ...
Hepatitis B surface antigen. Variable Name: LBDHBG SAS Label: Hepatitis B surface antigen. English Text: Hepatitis B surface ... Participant results are coded positive for surface antigen if the surface antigen test is positive; they are coded negative for ... surface antigen if the test for surface antigen is negative or if the test for hepatitis B core antibody is negative. ... Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The VITROS HBsAg assay is performed using the VITROS HBsAg Reagent Pack and VITROS ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... to its cell surface antigen on dispersed adenomatous parathyroid cells raises cytosolic calcium and inhibits parathyroid ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ... "Genetic and biochemical characterization of a human surface determinant on somatic cell hybrids: the 4F2 antigen". Somatic Cell ...
Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants On This Page Mechanism of HBV Mutant Generation Surface Antigen Structure Surface ... Surface Antigen Structure. The translational products of the surface antigen gene consist of 3 proteins that have different ... core antigen and e antigen (C gene); large, medium, and small surface-antigen proteins (S gene); and the X protein (X gene). ... Carman W, van Deursen F, Mimms L, Hardie D, Coppola R, Decker R, The prevalence of surface antigen variants of hepatitis B ...
... were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. A total of 119 donors (3.5%) ... Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors in Alexandria, Egypt ... Table 1 Comparison of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cases among blood donors by ... were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. A total of 119 donors (3.5%) ...
A protein microarray containing Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1, n = 57) and merozoite surface protein 1 ... Malian adults had significantly higher magnitude and breadth of seroreactivity to variants of both antigens than did Malian ... Parasite antigen diversity poses an obstacle to developing an effective malaria vaccine. ... 3 Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) are immunogenic parasite surface antigens considered ...
The usefulness of LLPC for examination of the events upon binding of antigen and for analysis of surface properties of antigen- ... The usefulness of LLPC for examination of the events upon binding of antigen and for analysis of surface properties of antigen- ... The usefulness of LLPC for examination of the events upon binding of antigen and for analysis of surface properties of antigen- ... The usefulness of LLPC for examination of the events upon binding of antigen and for analysis of surface properties of antigen- ...
Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen and transforming growth factor alpha in oval cells of nontumorous liver in patients ... Expression of hepatitis B surface and core antigens and transforming growth factor-alpha in oval cells of the liver in ... Co expression of transforming growth factor alpha and hepatitis b surface antigen in the same hepatocytes of human liver tissue ... Expression of transforming growth factor-alpha and hepatitis B surface antigen in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and ...
Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (,95%, 55-aa, ~4. 7kda). ... Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (>95%, 55-aa, ~4. 7kda). Antigen. Purified Protein. ... Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (>95%, 55-aa, ~4. 7kda) ... Recombinant (E.Coli) Hepatitis B Surface Antigen pre-S1 (HBsAg) (119-aa, >95%, ~13 kda) ...
N2 - There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) ... AB - There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) ... There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during ... Dive into the research topics of Understanding early serum hepatitis D virus and hepatitis B surface antigen kinetics during ...
Dive into the research topics of A recombinant measles virus expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen induces humoral ... A recombinant measles virus expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen induces humoral immune responses in genetically ...
... of cells with intermixed mouse and human surface antigens may be used to estimate the rate ... of cells with intermixed mouse and human surface antigens may be used to estimate the rate of lateral diffusion of the antigens ... Diffusion rates of cell surface antigens of mouse-human heterokaryons. II. Effect of membrane potential on lateral diffusion. M ... M Edidin, T Y Wei; Diffusion rates of cell surface antigens of mouse-human heterokaryons. II. Effect of membrane potential on ...
The incidence of congenital syphilis and hepatitis-B virus surface antigen carrier state among deaf mute children ... The incidence of congenital syphilis and hepatitis-B virus surface antigen carrier state among deaf mute children. Indian J ... The incidence of congenital syphilis and hepatitis-B virus surface antigen carrier state among deaf mute children. ...
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens Humans Institutionalization Intellectual Disability Liver Function Tests Male Radioimmunoassay ... Hepatitis-B surface antigen and antibody: prevalence and persistence in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized persons.. ... A total of 426 persons were studied in an attempt to more clearly define the high prevalence of hepatitis-B surface antigen ( ... Hepatitis-B surface antigen and antibody: prevalence and persistence in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized persons. ...
Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants On This Page Mechanism of HBV Mutant Generation Surface Antigen Structure Surface ... Surface Antigen Structure. The translational products of the surface antigen gene consist of 3 proteins that have different ... core antigen and e antigen (C gene); large, medium, and small surface-antigen proteins (S gene); and the X protein (X gene). ... Carman W, van Deursen F, Mimms L, Hardie D, Coppola R, Decker R, The prevalence of surface antigen variants of hepatitis B ...
Results of search for su:{Hepatitis B surface antigens.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Hepatitis B surface antigen assays : operational characteristics (phase 1) : report 2. by World Health Organization. Dept. of ... Laboratory techniques for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. by WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research ... Proposed international reference preparation for hepatitis B surface antigen / by Morag Ferguson, Valerie Seagroatt and G. C. ...
Antigens, Surface / metabolism* * Feasibility Studies * Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II / metabolism* * Humans * Lysine / adverse ... Initial Evaluation of [(18)F]DCFPyL for Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA)-Targeted PET Imaging of Prostate Cancer Mol ... Purpose: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a recognized target for imaging prostate cancer. Here we present initial ...
Surface antigens of adult filarial parasite S. digitata was isolated by employing techniques from manual dissection to ... Among the surface antigen preparations (SAPs), the activities of marker enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, adenosine ... Isolation and analysis of surface antigens of filarial nematode Setaria digitata. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 1991 ... of 29 KD surface protein during in vitro culture of adult parasite and its cross-reactivity with antiserum to surface antigens ...
... infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Expanding HBV diagnosis and treatment ... Evaluation of a new rapid test for the combined detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen and hepatitis B virus e antigen ... Hepatitis B virus surface antigen levels: a guide to sustained response to peginterferon alfa-2a in HBeAg-negative chronic ... Amini, A., Varsaneux, O., Kelly, H. et al. Diagnostic accuracy of tests to detect hepatitis B surface antigen: a systematic ...
Identification of Ly-5 and T200 antigens on identical cell surface proteins. scientific article published on 01 September 1980 ... Identification of Ly-5 and T200 antigens on identical cell surface proteins (English) ...
APO-1 cell surface antigen. *apoptosis antigen 1. *apoptosis-mediating surface antigen FAS ...
The significance of a delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (HBs-DTH) in type B ... N2 - The significance of a delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (HBs-DTH) in type ... AB - The significance of a delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (HBs-DTH) in type ... Dive into the research topics of A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) ...
Surface" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Surface" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on ... "Antigens, Surface" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, Surface" by people in Profiles. ...
Abbreviations: Anti-HCV, antibody to hepatitis C virus; HBsAg, hepatitis surface antigen.. aThe proportional of patients who ... Abbreviations: Anti-HCV, antibody to hepatitis C virus; HBsAg, hepatitis surface antigen.. aThe proportional of patients who ... retrospective observational cohort study of consecutive adult subjects born in 1970-2002 with hepatitis B surface antigen ( ...
Assay is a qualitative enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) in human serum and plasma.. ... Assay is a chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen in human serum and plasma. ...
This result indicates that this protein is considered as a major surface antigen of T. vaginalis. The role of this surface ... Identification of surface antigens of Trichomonas vaginalis]. Korean J Parasitol 1993;31(1):37-42.. ... reacted with immune rabbit serum in EITB and immunoprecipitated surface antigen biotinylated prior to lysis (lane 6). Lane 1: ... Plasma membrane proteins of a Korean isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis HY-1 were fractionated for antigen analysis. Homogenates ...
Yamada, D., Takao, T., Nakamura, M., Kitano, T., Nakata, E., & Takarada, T. (2022). Identification of Surface Antigens That ... However, surface antigens that assess the induction efficiency of hPSC-derived PRRX1+ LBM-like cells from LPM have not been ... Yamada, D, Takao, T, Nakamura, M, Kitano, T, Nakata, E & Takarada, T 2022, Identification of Surface Antigens That Define ... Identification of Surface Antigens That Define Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived PRRX1+Limb-Bud-like Mesenchymal Cells. In: ...
PCR testing should be used instead of antigen testing because antigen testing is associated with a high false-negative rate. ... Hepatitis B surface antigen * Hepatitis B core antibody * Antibody to hepatitis C ... Allogeneic transplants are further categorized by the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and ...
  • We determined the prevalence rate of hepatitis B surface antigen [‎HBsAg]‎ and anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies [‎anti-HCV]‎ among 7897 healthy voluntary blood donors in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Mutations that occur within the immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) allow mutant virus to propagate in the presence of a neutralizing immune response, while wild-type virus is reduced to undetectable levels. (
  • This article addresses recent information concerning the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, their impact on viral antigen presentation, latest prevalence data, and discussion of the issues associated with detection of mutants in healthcare settings. (
  • Over a 6-month period in 2007/08 all samples from a blood bank in Alexandria, Egypt (n = 3420) were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. (
  • Recombinant Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) pre-S2 (>95%, 55-aa, ~4. (
  • There is little information on the early kinetics of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during interferon-α therapy. (
  • Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is characterised by the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • Chronic HBV infection is defined as persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) for at least six months, and the testing strategy involves an initial serological test to detect HBsAg followed by nucleic-acid amplification test (NAT) for detection of HBV DNA viral load to help guide treatment decisions [ 5 ]. (
  • This was a territory-wide retrospective observational cohort study of consecutive adult subjects born in 1970-2002 with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) checked. (
  • A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and intradermal hepatitis B vaccination. (
  • The significance of a delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (HBs-DTH) in type B viral hepatitis (VHB) and in intradermal hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is reviewed. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. (
  • Testing to identify pregnant women who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and providing their infants with immunoprophylaxis effec- tively prevents HBV transmission during the perinatal period (4,5). (
  • The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) readily assembles with other viral proteins to form particles. (
  • Despite advances in recombinant DNA technology, only a handful of recombinant vaccines have been approved so far, and these are particle formers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) assembles 22 nm particles with a strong lipid component. (
  • The clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss, defined as functional cure, is a clinical target in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH). To understand the immune responses underlying functional cure, we evaluated cytokine and chemokine expression profiles from patients with resolving and nonresolving acute hepatitis B (AH). (
  • Blood used in preparation of these samples was tested and found to be negative for antibody and nucleic acid testing against Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B and C virus and HTLV (Human T-Lymphotrophic virus I and II), surface antigen for Hepatitis B (HBsAg) virus and syphilis and West Nile Virus using FDA approved methods. (
  • HBV carriage status was determined by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • Immunohistochemical staining is positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. (
  • BUY Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) Aluminium hydroxide gel (Bevac) 1 ml by Biological E limited at best price available. (
  • GNH India is WHO GDP and ISO 9001 2015 Certified Pharmaceutical Wholesaler/ Supplier/ Exporters/ Importer from India of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) Aluminium hydroxide gel (Bevac) which is also known as Bevac and Manufactured by Biological E limited . (
  • Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) Aluminium hydroxide gel (Bevac) is supplied for Tenders/ Emergency imports/ Un - licensed, Specials, Orphan drug/ Name patient line/ RLD supplies/ Reference listed drugs/ Comparator Drug/ Bio-Similar/ Innovator samples For Clinical trials. (
  • It is observed that HD‐03 downregulates HBsAg expression from these cell lines, which could be due to cytotoxicity on the cell lines nor due to blockade of the release of the antigen from the cells. (
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown correlation of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titers with HBV DNA levels is weak in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) when compared to HBeAg-positive disease. (
  • Routine Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serological testing of all pregnant women in antenatal clinics and linkage to prevention, care and treatment services is the recommended standard way of controlling and reducing neonatal HBV transmission in settings where HBsAg seroprevalence in the general population exceeds 2% [ 1 ]. (
  • Persons with chronic HBV infection (those with persistent hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] in the serum for at least 6 months) serve as the main reservoir for HBV transmission. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) found in breast milk is also unlikely to lead to transmission so HBV infection is not a contraindication to breastfeeding. (
  • Transmission can occur from interpersonal contact (e.g., sharing a toothbrush or razor, contact with exudates from dermatologic lesions, or contact with HBsAg-contaminated surfaces) and in settings such as schools, child care centers, and facilities for developmentally disabled persons. (
  • HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein that is found on the surface of the hepatitis B virus molecule, a part of the virus itself. (
  • Anti-HBs (also called HBsAb, hepatitis B surface antibody): Your body produces this antibody when it is exposed to HBsAg, whether from being infected with hepatitis B or being stimulated with the hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • Coexistent HBsAg and Anti-HBs Warrants Close Monitoring for Fibrosis, Cirrhosis Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) in patients with chronic hepatitis B, while unusual, is associated with more advanced liver disease, such as severe fibrosis and cirrhosis, new research from China shows. (
  • For example, a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level of less than 1 s/c is considered negative, while a level of more than 5 s/c is considered positive. (
  • The number of new hepatitis B infections per 100 000 population in a given year is estimated from the prevalence of total antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (Total anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive among children 5 years of age, adjusted for sampling design. (
  • The main objective of this thesis was to gain further insight into the relationship between the exposed surfaces and the functional properties of antibodies and their complexes with antigens in solution. (
  • The capacity of LLPC to compare the surface properties of antibodies in relation to their antigen specificity was explored. (
  • In this study, it was shown that LLPC in aqueous PEG-dextran two-phase systems offers the unique possibilities of comparing the overall surface properties of intact antibodies and antigen-antibody complexes in solution. (
  • LLPC provided the means to screen the antigen-binding sites of unliganded antibodies for differences/similarities in exposed surfaces even in those cases when the specificities of the antibodies were unknown. (
  • The surface properties of antigen-antibody complexes were found to be dependent on the variable regions of the antibodies, the nature of the antigen, and/or possible conformational changes induced by ligand-binding. (
  • Preliminary data showed that the appearance and increasing titer of antibodies to P. coatneyi RESA-like antigen were associated with prolongation of intervals from innoculation to potency and with control of parasitemia. (
  • The objective of this study was to know the frequency of the surface antigen of hepatitis B and determine the post-vaccination antibodies against hepatitis in women of reproductive age, hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare of Asunción, Paraguay. (
  • B lymphocytes, a type of lymphocyte, produce antibodies, which then bind to the antigen. (
  • So, if the body encounters that antigen again, the B lymphocytes are ready to make antibodies at a faster rate, preventing reinfection. (
  • IgA antibodies, which protect the surfaces of mucous membranes throughout the body. (
  • What antigens do antibodies target? (
  • SARS-CoV-2 antigens offer researchers the possibility to investigate virus-specific immune responses, including antigen-specific B cells and antibodies. (
  • Antibodies in immune mucus predominantly recognized two larval surface antigens on immunoblots of L3 extract, a high MW surface glycoprotein and the carbohydrate larval antigen (CarLA). (
  • The protective anti-CarLA antibodies strongly recognized the surface of living T. colubriformis L3. (
  • Antibodies from abomasal mucus of sheep immunized by H. contortus and T. circumcincta infections reacted weakly with CarLA and the larval surface and did not reduce worm counts in a passive immunity test. (
  • Antigens are molecules that are targeted by antibodies. (
  • Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies conjugated with red-colored latex microspheres are used to detect the SARS-CoV-2 antigen. (
  • The immunocomplex will then bind to the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at the test line (T), forming a visible red-colored line to indicate detection of antigens. (
  • The subset associated with elimination of established tumors was a blast T cell W3/25+, W3/13+, as detected by monoclonal antibodies to rat T antigens. (
  • HEK293T cells had been gathered, incubated in the current presence of trypsin for either 2.5 or 5?min or still left untreated, and stained for HLA-A, B, C, MICA, or B7-H6 surface area antigens with phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated antibodies. (
  • Deceased cells had been excluded using 7-aminoactinomycin D. (B) HEK293T cells had been transfected with SUDV-GP, gathered, treated with DTT as previously defined (9), and stained for HLA-A, B, C, or MICA surface area antigens with PE-conjugated antibodies. (
  • Two groups of antibodies included those recognising high m.w. glycoproteins (antibodies TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, GCTM2, 3-177, K4 and K21) and the ganglioseries glycolipid antigens SSEA-3 and -4 (antibodies MC631 and MC813-70). (
  • Many of the functionally important cell surface molecules and their receptors are described by the cluster of differentiation (CD) nomenclature, based on their identification by characterised monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Through the use of an former mate vivo membrane-feeding assay and monoclonal antibodies, many sexual-stage surface area antigens have already been been shown to be focuses on of transmission-blocking immunity (3, 7, 8, 15, 18). (
  • By avoiding the advancement of the parasite inside the mosquito midgut, antibodies to these focus on antigens block transmitting of towards the mosquito vector. (
  • Both comprise four tandem epidermal development element (EGF)-like domains presumably anchored towards the parasite surface area by glycosylphosphatidylinositol, and both, created as recombinant proteins in candida, have been proven to induce transmission-blocking antibodies in experimental lab pets (1, 11, 12). (
  • The production of antibodies - in particular IgE - to parasitic infections (microbial related antigens) is a common defensive mechanism. (
  • Antibodies to Dombrock antigens have been associated with severe transfusion reactions. (
  • The activated T cell will in turn join to a B Cell stimulating it to differentiate into a Plasma Cell, which will produce specific antibodies to that particular antigen. (
  • On the other hand, B Cells can express antibodies on their surface membrane, which are called B Cell Receptors (BCR). (
  • Since these antigens do not require a T Cell to B Cell interaction in order to produce antibodies, they are referred to as T-independent antigens. (
  • Sandwich ELISA - The antigen is recognized by 2 antibodies specific for different epitopes, making a complex like a sandwich. (
  • We discovered that rabbit IgG antibodies elicited by Bacillus anthracis spores specifically recognize a tetrasaccharide chain that decorates the outermost surfaces of the B. anthracis exosporium. (
  • The first study reported at the conference focused on the Company's three proprietary humanized antibodies that target antigens on B-cell lymphomas and leukemias: epratuzumab (anti-CD22), veltuzumab (anti-CD20) and IMMU-114 (anti-HLA-DR). Labetuzumab (anti-CEACAM5), which does not target B-cells, was used as a control. (
  • Studies investigating the presence of autoantibodies in depression have focused in those targeting peripheral organs like the thyroid and intracellular antigens such as antinuclear antibodies and ribosomal-P antibodies ( 21 - 25 ). (
  • For example, bio-engineering filaments with antibodies will be used for detection of specific antigens. (
  • The sample is then exposed to paper strips containing artificial antibodies designed to bind to coronavirus antigens. (
  • Antibodies travel through the bloodstream and bind to the foreign antigen causing it to inactivate, which does not allow the antigen to bind to the host. (
  • He might have been thinking of the then not implausible theory of antibody formation in which antibodies were plastic and could adapt themselves to the molecular shape of antigens, and/or to the concept of "adaptive enzymes" as described by Monod in bacteria, that is, enzymes whose expression could be induced by their substrates. (
  • The surface antibodies are produced by the immune system and can fight off the virus by attaching to the surface antigen protein. (
  • The human body naturally makes antibodies that will attack certain types of red-blood-cell antigens. (
  • People who are type AB have both A and B antigens on their red blood cells and therefore don't make any A or B antibodies while people who are type O have no A or B antigens and make both A and B antibodies. (
  • This chart lists the antigens and antibodies made by the different ABO blood types. (
  • In some infectious diseases, bacteria may closely resemble certain blood antigens, making it difficult for antibodies to detect the difference between foreign invaders and the body's own blood. (
  • people who are Rh-negative don't and produce antibodies that will attack Rh antigens. (
  • And in some cases, like the MN blood group, humans don't produce antibodies against the antigens. (
  • You don't have the viral antigen circulating, but you are showing both antibodies. (
  • See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ABC Detection Kits and polymers, biotinylated secondary antibodies, substrates and more. (
  • Cellular morphology typically varies, and antibodies often bind heterogeneously across a cell surface, making traditional particle-averaging strategies challenging for accurate native antibody localization. (
  • Typically, antibodies need to stick to a particular segment, or 'epitope', on the surface of a cell in order to trigger an immune response. (
  • One way to identify these sites is to measure the nano-distance between antibodies and other features on the cell surface. (
  • Plasma membrane proteins of a Korean isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis HY-1 were fractionated for antigen analysis. (
  • This effectively displays HIV viral envelope proteins, such as gp120 and gp41, on the VLP surface, where they mimic HIV virions. (
  • Antigen tests (often called rapid tests) look for proteins on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • This group of genes code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the immune system recognize foreign substances. (
  • Rapid antigen tests detect proteins at the surface of virus particles, identifying the disease during its infectious phase. (
  • It compares the proteins on the surface of the child's blood cells with the proteins on a potential donor's cells. (
  • In addition, the absence of Dombrock antigens can occur as a result of the loss of GPI-anchored proteins from the surface of red blood cells. (
  • Approximately 95% of all infections are initiated at the mucosal surfaces ( 2 ) that are protected by antimicrobial proteins of which secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant ( 3 ). (
  • Most antigens are pure proteins, glycoproteins or lipoproteins. (
  • Importantly, coating buffers should not contain proteins that can compete with the binding of the antigen or antibody. (
  • A novel glycan array platform based on surface patterning of engineered glycophages that display unique carbohydrate epitopes that are compatible with surface immobilization procedures and that phage‐displayed oligosaccharides retain the ability to be recognized by different glycan‐binding proteins after immobilization. (
  • Probiotic strains of Bifidobacteria have the ability to modulate the immune system through components of the cell wall, such as peptidoglycan, polysaccharides or surface proteins. (
  • These proteins were not detected on the surface of erythrocytes infected with either of the K- variants nor on uninfected erythrocytes isolated from K+- or K- -infected blood. (
  • Because neuronal surface proteins are the target of the autoantibodies discussed in this review, it is important to first understand how those autoantibodies get access to the CNS. (
  • Peptides derived from mutant proteins are thought to be the primary source of neo-antigens presented on the surface of cancer cells. (
  • Antigen tests look for antigen proteins from the viral surface. (
  • In the case of a coronavirus, these are usually proteins from the surface spikes. (
  • Viral proteins are not amplified in an antigen test. (
  • Normally, the surface of healthy cells is covered with proteins attached to long chains of sugars. (
  • T-cells do this by identifying proteins on the surface of invading cells. (
  • These proteins are called antigens. (
  • For example, the membrane proteins present on the surface of dendritic cells from the B7 family interact with the CD28 receptor protein present on lymphocytes. (
  • Antigen tests look for pieces of proteins that make up the SARS-CoV-2 virus and are less sensitive than PCR tests for detecting COVID-19 infections. (
  • Antigen tests, conducted with a nasal or throat swab, detect specific proteins on the surface of the virus and typically take one hour or less to get results, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Proteins produced by certain white blood cells in response to a foreign substance (antigen). (
  • Antibody binding to cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in immunity, and the location of an epitope can altogether determine the immunological outcome of a host-target interaction. (
  • In the present work, we have developed a method, SiteLoc, for imaging-based molecular localization on cellular surface proteins. (
  • Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are involved in the regulation of NK cell activation through recognition of their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. (
  • CD1B is an antigen-presenting protein which connects self and nonself lipid and glycolipid antigens and displays them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (
  • The genetically altered T cells are modified to present receptors on their surface which are called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). (
  • Nanoparticles contain genes that are necessary for the development of the chimeric antigen receptors. (
  • The CAR genes provide the necessary information for the T cells to present cancer receptors on its surface, within a period of a day or two. (
  • T-cells have receptors that latch onto the antigens and destroy the invading cells. (
  • Cancer cells have antigens, and CAR T-cell therapy re-engineers the body's T-cells to add receptors that latch on and destroy the cancer cells. (
  • Different types of cancer cells have different antigens, so each version of CAR T-cell therapy contains receptors that are engineered for a specific type of cancer cells. (
  • This mechanism allows a small number of genetic segments to generate a vast number of different antigen receptors, which are then uniquely expressed on each individual lymphocyte . (
  • Many surface receptors relay signals into the interior of the cell by changing their spatial structure after ligand binding. (
  • Once they had successfully achieved this, the researchers used a trick to fish those receptors out of the preparation that had survived the process and were still functional: due to the strong interaction between the receptor complex and the antigen, they were able to "fish" one of the most medically important immune receptor complexes. (
  • This communication may be achieved through cell-to-cell contact via the interaction of cell surface receptors. (
  • Subsets of T and B cells modify their surface T and B cell receptors as they respond to each antigen. (
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) gene. (
  • SLC3A2 is a member of the solute carrier family and encodes a cell surface, transmembrane protein with an alpha-amylase domain. (
  • Heat map of seroreactivity to Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1-19 (MSP1 19 ) variants. (
  • The release of 29 KD surface protein during in vitro culture of adult parasite and its cross-reactivity with antiserum to surface antigens revealed the possible natural shedding of surface molecules into the host system. (
  • The common band at 60 kDa was detected both in antigenic fractions of plasma membrane and surface protein labelled with NHS-biotin. (
  • This result indicates that this protein is considered as a major surface antigen of T. vaginalis . (
  • Frederix F, Bonroy K, Reekmans G, Laureyn W, Campitelli A, Abramov MA, Dehaen W, Maes G. Reduced nonspecific adsorption on covalently immobilized protein surfaces using poly(ethylene oxide) containing blocking agents. (
  • Cell surface iodination of the hybrids and parental cells followed by immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that AUAI detected a single 35-kDa protein. (
  • cells were transfected, harvested, and stained for HLA-I and MICA cell-surface manifestation as explained before (A,C) or stained in the presence of the true-nuclear transcription element buffer collection, which permeabilized and fixed the cells to ensure intracellular staining (B,D). (E) HEK293T cells were co-transfected with MICA-green fluorescent protein and GP-YFP and analyzed without further staining or permeabilization in the circulation cytometer. (
  • We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. (
  • CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) is a 69 kD GPI-anchored surface protein. (
  • The Dombrock blood group was expanded in the 1990s to include three other antigens-Gy a (Gregory antigen), Hy (Holley antigen), and Jo a (Joseph antigen)-that occur on the same protein as the Do antigens. (
  • The Dombrock antigens are located on a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that is encoded by the gene ART4 (ADP-ribosyltransferase 4). (
  • The GPI is embedded in the membrane of Dombrock-expressing cells, thereby enabling the protein and its antigen-containing residue to remain exposed on the outside surface of the cells. (
  • Genetic variations in ART4 that result in an altered amino acid sequence of the encoded protein give rise to the different Dombrock antigens. (
  • Description: Reacts with human CD59, a 20 kDa glycosyl phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface protein. (
  • Description: This Antibody recognizes a 180-185 kDa protein, identified as isoform of leukocyte common antigen (CD45RO). (
  • Carohydrate structures found on surfaces of vegetative cells and spores and the tetrasaccharide unit isolated from the exosporium protein BclA were proven immunogenic in an animal model after covalent linkage to carrier protein. (
  • Glecaprevir is shown in ball and stick model and protein is represented in surface model. (
  • The induction of cell-mediated immunity and tolerance with protein antigens coupled to syngeneic lymphoid cells. (
  • They carry a special receptor called the T-cell receptor on their surface that recognises antigens - small protein fragments of bacteria, viruses and infected or cancerous body cells - which are presented by specialised immune complexes. (
  • The surface antigen is the protein that surrounds the virus and protects it from attack by the host. (
  • The location of protein binding sites on cellular surfaces can have wide-ranging implications for various cellular processes, such as immune signalling, cell adhesion, cell migration, and phagocytosis. (
  • The antigenicity of plasma membrane fraction was analysed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot technique with immune rabbit serum and compared with surface antigen labelled with N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin. (
  • Western blot of T. vaginalis HY-1 plasma membrane antigens purified by sucrose step-gradient centrifugation (lane 4) reacted with immune rabbit serum in EITB and immunoprecipitated surface antigen biotinylated prior to lysis (lane 6). (
  • Immune cells called lymphocytes are responsible for recognizing and responding to antigens. (
  • To enhance the immune response to biologically important targets on HIV, we have incorporated HIV antigens into virus-like particles (VLP). (
  • The immune system does not normally respond to self antigens. (
  • The three broad ways to define antigen include exogenous (foreign to the host immune system), endogenous (produced by intracellular bacteria and virus replicating inside a host cell), and autoantigens (produced by the host). (
  • Antigen (definition in biology): any of the various substances that when recognized as non-self by the immune system will trigger an immune response. (
  • An antigen is the part of a pathogen that elicits an immune response. (
  • Normally, the immune system launches an antibody attack in the presence of a foreign invader or antigen, such as a bacteria or virus. (
  • Wandall says the immune system can recognize and seek out tumor antigens, even at low levels, and attack them with autoantibodies that bind to the antigens before they reach the liver. (
  • These immune agents can circulate longer and at greater numbers compared to the tumor antigens themselves, making them more easily detectable. (
  • Immune activation and antigen-presenting ability were also assessed by determination of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 markers. (
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a kind of immunotherapy , which uses your body's immune system to fight cancer. (
  • [1] Antigens are any substances that elicit the adaptive immune response. (
  • In prior studies, scientists already noticed that in some patients Merkel cell tumors are overseen by the immune defense because they do no present human leukocyte antigens (HLA) on their cell surface. (
  • Genes that are involved in the presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of cancer cells are thus being silenced, and the immune system no longer recognizes the tumor cells. (
  • Importantly, our studies show that healthy S. aureus carriers elicit an immune response which is sufficient to generate protective mAbs against invariant staphylococcal surface antigens. (
  • This eventually leads to the priming and activation of the immune system to attack any cells in the body that present the antigen originally displayed on the surface of the dendritic cell. (
  • The very important role that dendritic cells play in the shaping of the T cell response to antigens makes these cells popular research targets for the development of immune-modulating therapies for conditions such as autoimmune disease, cancer, and graft-versus-host disease. (
  • Both are antigens expressed on the surface of red blood cells--and if they are different, they can invoke an immune attack. (
  • The T-cell repertoire is necessary to mount an immune response against a diversity of antigens. (
  • T-cells represent the cellular immune system that recognizes antigens that are presented by, in humans, the human leukocyte antigen, or HLA, which is known in other species as MHC, or major histocompatibility complex. (
  • An antigen is anything that elicits a response from an immune cell called an antibody. (
  • People who lack the Duffy antigens, therefore, tend to be immune to this form of malaria. (
  • To promote acquired immune responses there must be interactions between key immune cells, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, or other antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • To activate acquired immunity foreign antigens (i.e., the products derived from infectious organisms, tumors, vaccines, etc.) must be processed and immune responses initiated, resulting in final antigen specific responses. (
  • The acquired immune system is activated once macrophages, dendritic cells, and other 'antigen presenting cells (APC)' process foreign antigens (i.e., the products derived from infectious organisms, tumors, vaccines, etc. (
  • Many APC also transport the foreign antigen into regional immune lymph nodes. (
  • HLA are found on the surface of all types of cells in the body and help to identify an object that is foreign to the body, in which case the immune system is alerted in order to fight the perceived threat. (
  • The risk of perinatal HBV infection among infants born to HBV-infected mothers ranges from 10% to 85%, depending on each mother's hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status (3,7,8). (
  • The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. (
  • Virologic factors such as high baseline HBV DNA, hepatitis B envelope antigen positivity (HBeAg), and chronic hepatitis B infection that persists for more than 6 months. (
  • The rate of appearance, in a population of mouse-human heterokaryons, of cells with intermixed mouse and human surface antigens may be used to estimate the rate of lateral diffusion of the antigens in a single cell. (
  • These restrictions are altered by exposing either heterokaryons or their parent cells to conditions that change cell surface membrane potential. (
  • Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. (
  • Zhao Z, Ciric B, Yu S, Zhang GX, Rostami A. Targeting ganglioside epitope 3G11 on the surface of CD4+ T cells suppresses EAE by altering the Treg/Th17 cell balance. (
  • However, surface antigens that assess the induction efficiency of hPSC-derived PRRX1 + LBM-like cells from LPM have not been identified. (
  • Peptide antigens fall into two categories, Dr. Kirkwood said.Representative of the first are melan A or MART-1 (melanoma antigenrecognized by T cells) and tyrosinase, a pigmenting enzyme ofthe melanocyte lineage. (
  • These molecules areenfolded on the surface of tumor cells within HLA molecules. (
  • Skin biopsies of these patients have revealed antigen-presentingLangerhans cells at the junction of the epidermis and dermis,as well as in the dermis. (
  • Mining exomic sequencing data to identify mutated antigens recognized by adoptively transferred tumor-reactive T cells. (
  • High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4 + T cells in human melanoma. (
  • Veri-Cells™ Activated (surface) PBMC stained with CD3 APC/Fire™ 750, CD4 FITC, and CD279 (PD-1) PE/Cy7 or CD366 (TIM3) PE (left). (
  • Veri-Cells™ Activated (surface) PBMC stained with CD3 APC/Fire™ 750, CD4 FITC, and CD25 PerCP/Cy5.5 or CD69 Alexa Fluor® 700 (left). (
  • Veri-Cells™ Activated (surface) PBMC stained with CD3 APC/Fire™ 750, CD4 FITC, and CD134 (OX40) APC or TIGIT (VSTM3) PE/Dazzle™ 594 (left). (
  • Veri-Cells™ Activated (surface) PBMC scatter profile (left) and stain for CD3 APC/Fire™ 750 (right). (
  • The Veri-Cells™ PBMC Kit is prepared from 2 lyophilized human Activated (surface) PBMC and a vial of Veri-Cells™ Buffer A Plus. (
  • Veri-Cells Activated (surface) PBMC contain lyophilized PBMCs that had been stimulated using Concanavalin A (ConA) for 72 hours. (
  • The Veri-Cells™ Activated (surface) PBMC Kit can be used as a positive control for detecting T cell activation markers such as CD25, CD69, CD134, CD279, CD366 (TIM3) and TIGIT (VSTM3). (
  • Recognition of individually distinct cell surface antigens by cytotoxic T cells on leukemias expressing crossreactive transplantation antigens. (
  • Direct tests and inhibition tests showed that such cytotoxic cells recognized individually specific antigens on leukemias BALBRVB and BALBRVD, distinct from the shared antigens detected in transplantation experiments. (
  • With these changes, there was an increase in the W3/25 antigen on the T cell surface, a decrease of W3/13 antigen, and an increase in the number of T cells with Ia antigens. (
  • In an attempt to determine the mechanism whereby thalassemia in its milder forms may protect against malaria, we have examined the expression of neoantigen at the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized thalassemic red cells. (
  • We found that P. falciparum-parasitized alpha- and beta-thalassemic red cells bind greater levels of antibody from endemic serum than controls: mean binding ratios (+/- SE), respectively, for alpha- and beta-thalassemia compared with controls were 1.69 +/- 0.12 and 1.23 +/- 0.06 on a cell for cell basis, and 1.97 +/- 0.11 and 1.47 +/- 0.08 after a correction for surface area differences. (
  • Disialylgalactosylgloboside (DSGG), defined by monoclonal antibody RM2, is a renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated antigen which mediates adhesion of RCC TOS-1 cells to certain lung tissue target cells. (
  • Ganglioside GM3 is a B16 melanoma-associated antigen which similarly adheres to target cells and promotes consequent metastasis. (
  • Class I MHC molecules include HLA-A, HLA-B, or HLA-C and serve as the antigen-presenting platform for CD8 or suppressor T cells. (
  • Class II MHC molecules, the HLA-D region, serve as the antigen-presenting cells for CD4 or helper T cells. (
  • Macrophages and dendritic cells are the important class II antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Antigen (or autoantigen) engages a B cell receptor directly and also is endocytosed by an antigen presenting cell (typically a dendritic cell, but B cells also serve), in which intracellular degradation generates antigenic peptides. (
  • Active compounds from Saussurea lappa Clarks that suppress hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells. (
  • Inhibition of hepatitis B surface antigen secretion on human hepatoma cells. (
  • Effect of an extract from Phyllanthus amarus on hepatitis B surface antigen gene expression in human hepatoma cells. (
  • Dombrock blood group system , classification of human blood based on the presence of certain glycoproteins, originally only the so-called Do antigens , on the surface of red blood cells . (
  • In addition to the expression of the Do a antigen on circulating red blood cells, it is found on lymphocytes and lymph nodes , in bone marrow , and in the tissues of the spleen , ovaries , testes , intestines , and fetal heart . (
  • In very rare cases, none of the five Dombrock antigens are expressed on red blood cells, resulting in a Dombrock-null phenotype . (
  • CD40L is transferred to antigen presenting cells in vitro ( Gardell and Parker, 2017 ). (
  • These are agents that attack the body's own tissue, targeting what they perceive as "foreign" cells, such as specific molecules on the surface of tumors. (
  • In the case of cancer, these autoantibodies attack certain antigens on the surface of tumor cells. (
  • However, these antigens can also sometimes be made by healthy cells, and have also been found in other, noncancerous diseases, making such tests less than foolproof. (
  • In the past few years, scientists have discovered novel changes that occur on the surfaces of cells as they turn cancerous. (
  • Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 is a tetrasaccharide which is usually attached to O-glycans on the surface of cells. (
  • The magnitude of this expression is comparable to that observed in dendritic cells, considered professional APCs (antigen presenting cells) standards. (
  • In some cases, the cancer cells may stop making the antigen targeted by the therapy, which means the T-cells that were engineered for that specific antigen won't work. (
  • Our results suggest that Hsp90 inhibitors suppress TLR5 surface expression and activation of NF- B in THP-1 cells in response to TLR5 ligand, and these inhibitory effects may be associated with the possible mechanisms by which Hsp90 inhibitors suppress myeloid leukemia. (
  • It binds to lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T cells. (
  • CRP has been found to bind itself to lysophosphatidylcholine on the surface of cells that are dead or dying. (
  • One is to equip the cancer cells with the missing processed antigens. (
  • The cancer cells subsequently present them on their surface and are attacked and destroyed by T cells. (
  • To do this, the dendritic cells capture antigens from invading bodies, which they process and then present on their cell surface, along with the necessary accessory or co-stimulation molecules. (
  • Due to this ability to process and present antigens, dendritic cells are referred to as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Although all dendritic cells can perform antigen presentation to stimulate naïve T cells , different types of dendritic cells have distinct markers and different locations. (
  • Dendritic cells have many cytoplasmic processes which provide a large surface area for making contact with other surrounding cells such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, and T cells. (
  • Once in the lymph nodes, dendritic cells migrate to sites where T-cells are located and perform antigen presentation. (
  • The complex, with the peptide antigen, is recognized by T-cells, specifically by the T-cell receptor. (
  • 15 Binding of ANCA to these antigens activates the cells, leading to a superoxide burst, and release of lytic enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-8. (
  • Plasmodium vivax , one of the parasites that causes malaria, latches onto the Duffy antigen when it invades the body's red blood cells. (
  • B-cells carry immunoglobulin and class II MHC antigens on their cell surfaces. (
  • While this approach works on fixed shapes, like a perfect circle, it cannot handle human cells and bacteria which are less uniform and have more complex surfaces. (
  • To cope with objects that have uneven surfaces, such as cells and bacteria, the two signals are transformed to 'follow' the same geometrical shape. (
  • were able to identify epitopes on a bacterium, and measure distances on the surface of human red blood cells. (
  • Here we discover neoantigens in human mantle-cell lymphomas by using an integrated genomic and proteomic strategy that interrogates tumour antigen peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. (
  • Cytoskeletal polarization and redistribution of cell-surface molecules during T cell antigen recognition. (
  • T cell antigen recognition is accompanied by cytoskeletal polarization towards the APC and large-scale redistribution of cell surface molecules into 'supramolecular activation clusters' (SMACs), forming an organized contact interface termed the 'immunological synapse' (IS). (
  • We propose that segregation of cell surface molecules on a much smaller scale initiates TCR triggering, which drives the formation of the IS by active transport processes. (
  • Class I and class II molecules allow antigen presentation to the specific T-cell receptor via a specific structural groove in its tertiary structure. (
  • and ( d ) signalling and costimulatory molecules on cell surfaces (fig 2 ). (
  • Moreover, the immunomodulatory properties of the Bifidobacterium molecules may differ between antigens. (
  • Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 1c/Blood Dendritic Cell Antigen 1 (CD1c/BDCA-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein in the CD1 family of MHC-like molecules. (
  • They then stop the antigen capture while upregulating their expression of molecules such as CD86, CD80, and the chemokine receptor CCR7. (
  • Pre-S2 region (amino acids 120-174) of hepatitis B virus surface antigen contains immunodominant and disulfide bond-independent epitopes. (
  • Each column represents serum from an individual Malian child or adult, or a malaria-naive North American adult, and each row represents an antigen variant. (
  • Assay is a chemiluminescent immunoassay for the qualitative detection of hepatitis B surface antigen in human serum and plasma. (
  • Serum Level of Anti-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Among Students in Guilan, Iran', International Journal of School Health , 2(4), pp. 42-44. (
  • Serum containing the viral antigen will cause the latex particles to agglutinate. (
  • Diffusion rates of cell surface antigens of mouse-human heterokaryons. (
  • Media containing unphysiological concentrations of potassium ion, drugs, affecting the Na+,K+ ATPase, or a channel-forming antibiotic, gramicidin, all affect lateral mobility of cell surface antigens in a manner consistent with a common effect on membrane potential. (
  • Rabbit anti hepatitis B surface antigen antibody ( OBT0990 ) used for the evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen in infected cell cultures by western blotting. (
  • To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. (
  • Some of Dr. Kirkwood's studies at the University of Pittsburgh'sMelanoma Center focus on antigens that elicit antibody responses,such as gangliosides on tumor cell surfaces. (
  • However, he said,the critical issue is whether a vaccine will elicit a T cell response,and in this regard peptide antigen vaccines appear to be goodcandidates. (
  • Cell surface antigens of murine leukemias induced by radiation leukemia virus. (
  • The results indicate that RadLV leukemias share cell surface antigens that induce transplantation immunity in vivo. (
  • Analysis of cell surface antigens by surface plasmon resonance imaging. (
  • Regional mapping of the X-linked gene for a human cell surface antigen, SA-X. (
  • Characterization and chromosomal assignment of a human cell surface antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody AUAI. (
  • We describe the chromosomal assignment and biochemical characterization of the genetic locus controlled by a human cell surface antigen which is defined by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AUAI. (
  • A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. (
  • In the MLTC a T cell subset was expanded in response to MST-1 antigens and transformed into blast elements. (
  • Association of renal cell carcinoma antigen, disialylgalactosylgloboside, with c-Src and Rho A in clustered domains at the surface membrane. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Association of renal cell carcinoma antigen, disialylgalactosylgloboside, with c-Src and Rho A in clustered domains at the surface membrane. (
  • The pattern of cell surface antigen expression of a set of cell lines derived from human germ cell tumours and corresponding to various cell phenotypes found within these tumours was studied using immunofluorescence. (
  • Engagement of CD80/86 on the antigen presenting cell with CD28 on the T cell delivers a costimulatory signal necessary for activation. (
  • The Do b antigen is distinguished from the Do a antigen in that it contains an amino acid sequence known as an arginine - glycine - aspartic acid (RGD) motif, which is known to play a role in cell-to-cell interactions. (
  • An Antigen Presenting Cell (APC) can present one of these antigenic peptides to the T Cell, thereby activating it. (
  • This type of antigen that requires a T Cell to B Cell interaction for antibody production to occur is referred to as a T-dependent antigen. (
  • Description: Recognizes a cell surface glycoprotein of 80-95 kDa (CD44) on lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. (
  • CD20 is expressed at a considerably higher surface density than CD22 in each of the NHL cell lines. (
  • Among the three ALL cell lines used in this study, the relative antigen density is similar, with HLA-DR much higher than CD22, which is greater than CD20. (
  • For each ALL cell line used, IMMU-114-Rap, which targets the most abundant antigen (HLA-DR), gave the most potent response, and was about 50-fold more active than the epratuzumab conjugate. (
  • ALL cell lines have very low CD20 antigen density. (
  • These results suggest that the abundance of targeted antigen on cell surface is a critical factor for the potency of the antibody-Rap conjugates. (
  • Additionally, in all three NHL cell lines studied, veltuzumab-Rap was more potent than epratuzumab-Rap, which not only corroborated that antigen density is important but also indicated that it is more critical than internalization rate. (
  • Thus, the cell binding data suggest that the sensitivity of a cell line to the Rap conjugate of hRS7 appears to correlate with its TROP-2 expression on the cell surface. (
  • Neo-antigens presented on cell surface play a pivotal role in the success of immunotherapies. (
  • TCR γδ T-cell CD107a expression was similar between groups in response to mycobacterial antigens, and lower in the HIV-infected group in response to mitogen. (
  • Flow cytometry confirmed that gene expression often predicts CD antigen expression on the cell surface and provides a means of manipulating hEP cell types. (
  • The T-cell has to have the right receptor-one that fits the antigen on the invading cell-to latch on and destroy it. (
  • Activation by antigen after immunization, antigen-specific suppressor and helper activities are mediated by distinct T-cell subclasses. (
  • To elucidate the underlying mechanism of this effect, mRNA and cell surface expression of TLR5 was examined. (
  • TLR5 mRNA expression was enhanced by both GA and VER155008, whereas cell surface expression of TLR5 was reduced by three different Hsp90 inhibitors, including GA, 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, and radicicol, and an Hsp70 inhibitor. (
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a cell-surface molecule specifically expressed by prostate tumors, was shown to be a valid target for radiotherapy in preclinical studies. (
  • As a result, the genes that are responsible for antigen presentation were reactivated and the tumor cell surfaces were loaded with more HLA again. (
  • After binding of a suitable antigen to the receptor, a signalling pathway is triggered inside the T cell that "arms" the cell for the respective task. (
  • Researchers led by Lukas Sušac, Christoph Thomas, and Robert Tampé from the Institute of Biochemistry at Goethe University Frankfurt, in collaboration with Simon Davis from the University of Oxford and Gerhard Hummer from the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, have now succeeded for the first time in visualizing the structure of a membrane-bound T-cell receptor complex with bound antigen. (
  • For the structural analysis, the researchers chose a T-cell receptor used in immunotherapy to treat melanoma and which had been optimised for this purpose in several steps in such a way that it binds its antigen as tightly as possible. (
  • A particular challenge on the way to structure determination was to isolate the whole antigen receptor assembly consisting of eleven different subunits from the cell membrane. (
  • The subsequent images collected at the cryo-electron microscope delivered groundbreaking insights into how the T-cell receptor works, as Tampé summarises: "On the basis of our structural analysis, we were able to show how the T-cell receptor assembles and recognises antigens and hypothesise how signal transduction is triggered after antigen binding. (
  • The remaining question is how antigen binding could instead lead to T-cell activation. (
  • The co-receptor CD8 is known to approach the T-cell receptor after antigen binding and to stimulate the transfer of phosphate groups to its intracellular part. (
  • These insights into the nature of TCR assembly and the unusual cell membrane architecture reveal the basis of antigen recognition and receptor signaling. (
  • Foreign organisms are engulfed, digested, and their peptide digestion products are presented at the cell surface by the HLA or MHC. (
  • It's the site that makes direct contact with antigen, so it's the most highly variable, and it's the specific site of recombination, where the junction of the different gene segments of the T-cell receptor that are somatically recombined join together. (
  • By generating sequence diversity at that site, you generate structural diversity in the receptor at the cell surface. (
  • The "type" actually refers to the presence of a particular type of antigen sticking up from the surface of a red blood cell. (
  • In particular, we are interested in utilizing novel dysregulated cell surface antigens to study the cell of origin in these diseases. (
  • This fluorophore can be used for cell surface, intracellular, and intranuclear antigens. (
  • This provides evidence that soluble O 16 -antigen likely affects T4 bacteriophage infectivity through reversible interactions and delays its rate of adsorption to the cell surface. (
  • Ongoing projects range from translating epigenetic inhibitors to identifying cell surface antigens and building CAR-T based therapies. (
  • Our results show that this method is well suited for antibody binding site measurements on native cell surface morphology and that it can be applied to other molecular distance estimations as well. (
  • Then we added tiny magnetic beads treated so they'll stick to the antigen on the cell wall of E. coli bacteria. (
  • This antigen was immunogenic and elicited an antibody response that was not persistent but was boosted by repeated infections in a manner similar to that seen in P. falciparum infections in humans. (
  • Three types of influenza virus are known to affect humans: A, B, and C. Type A influenza has subtypes determined by the surface antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • Plasmodium coatneyi produced ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen RESA during infection of the rhesus monkey. (
  • After the initial infection, the B lymphocytes will recognize the antigen. (
  • Their cytoplasmic processes extend through the epithelial junctions, allowing them to sample antigens even in the absence of any obvious infection or inflammation. (
  • Viral tests (NAAT and antigen) are swab or saliva tests that look for current infection. (
  • Both PCR and antigen tests can detect active infection and are considered diagnostic. (
  • Presence of the antigen longer than 6 months after initial exposure indicates chronic infection. (
  • Surface antigen expression on Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is modified in alpha- and beta-thalassemia. (
  • Knob-positive and knob-negative Plasmodium falciparum differ in expression of a strain-specific malarial antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. (
  • We have investigated the expression of a strain-specific malarial antigen on the surface of erythrocytes infected with knobless (K-) variants of knob-positive (K+) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • Quantitative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Novel Plasmodium falciparum Surface Antigens and Possible Vaccine Candidates. (
  • This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. (
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a recognized target for imaging prostate cancer. (
  • The question which arises is whether in a subgroup of patients with depression, the symptoms might be caused by autoantibodies targeting membrane-associated antigens. (
  • Molecularly imprinted hydrogel layers with lectin-recognition sites were prepared on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) combined with molecular imprinting. (
  • The Boson Biotech Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test is also listed on the Government's recognition list of Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) kits. (
  • The new Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) genes from the nanoparticles integrate with the chromosomes that are present in the nucleus. (
  • Second, V(D)J recombination randomly selects one variable (V), one diversity (D), and one joining (J) region for genetic recombination and discards the rest, which produces a highly unique combination of antigen-receptor gene segments in each lymphocyte. (
  • A comparison of the antigen-bound structure captured using cryo-electron microscopy with that of a receptor without antigen provides the first clues to the activation mechanism. (
  • An enormous structural diversity in the receptor is necessary to recognize all possible antigens that could be derived from the environment - bacteria, viruses, or even altered self, like coding mutations in cancer. (
  • Lymphocytes learn to react with antigens during lymphopoiesis in central lymphoid organs, thymus, and bone marrow. (
  • A new I Subregion (I-J) marked by a locus (la-4) controlling surface determinants on suppressor T lymphocytes. (
  • The RM4-5 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to the CD4 (L3T4) differentiation antigen expressed on most thymocytes, subpopulations of mature T lymphocytes (i.e. (
  • Hepatitis-B surface antigen and antibody: prevalence and persistence in institutionalized and noninstitutionalized persons. (
  • The hepatitis B vaccine uses this antigen to stimulate immunity to the virus. (
  • If SARS-CoV-2 antigen is present, it will bind to the antibody-latex microsphere conjugate forming an immunocomplex. (
  • Antigens bind to the strips and give a visual readout. (
  • Each antibody can bind only to one specific antigen. (
  • Boson Biotech's Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test has a 98.72% accuracy, a 96.77% sensitivity and a 99.20% specificity, which is also listed on the Government recommended list of Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) kits and has passed European CE certificate requirements with CE marking approved by the notified body and registered in a number of European countries such as Germany, Belgium, Italy, Luxemburg and Greece. (
  • Please refer to the Approved Rapid Antigen Test (RAT) Kits Search Tool for details. (
  • The "Space Karen" reference came after Musk called out the validity of a COVID-19 rapid antigen test. (
  • Rapid antigen test from BD. (
  • Assembly and function of a quaternary signal transduction complex monitored by surface plasmon resonance. (
  • Antigen tests may not detect the virus if you were infected recently or have small amounts of virus in your system. (
  • These tests detect elevated levels of tumor markers-chemicals associated with tumors that circulate in the blood, such as prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer, or cancer antigen 125 for ovarian cancer. (
  • Wandall adds that such tumor antigens are difficult to detect in the early stages of cancer, since these chemicals, once made by the tumor, are sloughed into the bloodstream and eventually absorbed by the liver. (
  • Wandall and his colleagues set out to design a test to detect cancer-related autoantibodies that act on a specific class of tumor antigen called mucins. (
  • The Denmark team hypothesized that by combining a tumor-associated antigen like mucin with a cancer-specific glycan change, they could detect a robust autoantibody response specific to cancer. (
  • The results provide further evidence that the larval surface carbohydrate antigen CarLA has potential as a mucosal immunogen for a strongylid nematode vaccine. (
  • We are using two proven strategies for increasing vaccine potency: the first is to present HIV antigens as part of a virus-like particle (VLP). (
  • The experience with HIV vaccine antigens will provide CBER with the expertise it needs to evaluate proposed HIV vaccines and anticipate their likely side effects. (
  • Pfs25, a 25-kDa surface area antigen of zygotes and ookinetes (10), and Pfs28, a 28-kDa surface area antigen lately ookinetes (4), are two from the business lead vaccine applicants. (
  • VBI's vaccine is the only 3-antigen hepatitis B vaccine, comprised of the three hepatitis B surface antigens of the hepatitis B virus - S, pre-S1, and pre-S2. (
  • SAG1 (30 KDa) is one of the three surface antigens and a main candidate for DNA vaccine. (
  • Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y . Large-scale preparation of UV-inactivated SARS coronavirus virions for vaccine antigen. (
  • Accurately measuring the binding of antibody with antigen by an ELISA will depend on the specificity of the antibody for the antigen. (
  • The ELISA plate is coated with a specific antibody or antigen using the appropriate buffer. (
  • Direct ELISA - Enzyme conjugated antibody binds to antigen on a surface. (
  • In terms of the type of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9, it can be divided into ELISA and CLIA. (
  • Also, SAG1 is the most immunogenic antigen of toxoplasmosis and a major surface antigen of the proliferative tachyzoite form of T.gondii. (
  • Bugs as Drugs - can we use the bacteria or their antigens in allergy, IBD or neurodegenerative diseases treatment? (
  • Skin is the largest organ in the body and harbors bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites on the surface and within skin appendages. (
  • The goal of our research group is to gain a greater understanding of how bacteria on the skin surface affect skin health and diseases. (
  • MG1655 is an Escherichia coli K-12 strain that does not express O-antigen, a distal sugar component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The tumor uses so-called epigenetic mechanisms in order to silence genes that are essential for antigen presentation. (
  • The in-depth report on the Leukocyte Surface Antigen CD47 market assists the buyers like business owners, marketing personnel, stake holders, and more to boost their sale and ultimately impact the industry growth for the forecast period 2022 - 2030. (
  • More specifically, a molecule that is capable of gen erating an anti body is termed an antigen . (
  • The method involves two fluorescent probes: one attached to a specific site on the cell's surface, and the other to the antibody or another molecule of interest. (
  • Transmission-blocking vaccines predicated on sexual-stage surface area antigens of may help out with the control of the lethal type of human being malaria. (
  • TCR-γδ may acquire the ability to process and to present antigens. (
  • Their role is to recognize antigens, or foreign particles, present in microbes, such as viruses . (
  • Swabs of respiratory viruses often lack enough antigen material to be detectable. (
  • Rabbit anti hepatitis B surface antigen antibody ( OBT0990 ) used for the detection of hepatitis b surface antigen in infected mouse liver by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections. (
  • Homola J. Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species. (
  • Liedberg B, Nylander C, Lunström I. Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing. (
  • ABSTRACT The surfaces of Bacillus anthracis endospores expose anthrose-containing oligosaccharides, which have been considered for use as a target for specific detection of the spores. (
  • In addition, Lewis X antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen. (
  • Strain-specific antigens were readily identified on the surface of erythrocytes infected with either of the K+ strains by their characteristic size and detergent solubility. (
  • Each antibody specifically recognizes a particular antigen associated with a particular microbe, similar to a lock and key mechanism. (
  • The global Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 market was valued at 94.53 Million USD in 2021 and will grow with a CAGR of 6.34% from 2021 to 2027, based on HNY Research newly published report. (
  • It is also a tumor marker used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer.Global Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 main manufactuers include Abbott, Ropv and Ortho Clinical Diagnostics. (
  • Allogeneic transplants are further categorized by the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and recipient. (
  • Human leukocyte antigen class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1) allele and haplotype frequencies in Iranian patients with Buerger's disease. (
  • The first human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype association with human inflammatory disease was discovered in 1972, correlating HLA-B27 with ankylosing spondylitis. (
  • Tissue typing or HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing. (
  • HLA-DQ8 ( DQ8 ) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. (