Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (1/8474)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

gp49B1 inhibits IgE-initiated mast cell activation through both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, recruitment of src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, and suppression of early and late calcium mobilization. (2/8474)

We define by molecular, pharmacologic, and physiologic approaches the proximal mechanism by which the immunoglobulin superfamily member gp49B1 inhibits mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). In rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells expressing transfected mouse gp49B1, mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine in either of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs of the gp49B1 cytoplasmic domain partially suppressed gp49B1-mediated inhibition of exocytosis, whereas mutation of both abolished inhibitory capacity. Sodium pervanadate elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of native gp49B1 and association of the tyrosine phosphatases src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). SHP-1 associated transiently with gp49B1 within 1 min after coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI in mBMMCs. SHP-1-deficient mBMMCs exhibited a partial loss of gp49B1-mediated inhibition of FcepsilonRI-induced exocytosis at concentrations of IgE providing optimal exocytosis, revealing a central, but not exclusive, SHP-1 requirement in the counter-regulatory pathway. Coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI on mBMMCs inhibited early release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent influx of extracellular calcium, consistent with SHP-1 participation. Because exocytosis is complete within 2 min in mBMMCs, our studies establish a role for SHP-1 in the initial counter-regulatory cellular responses whereby gp49B1 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs rapidly transmit inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis.  (+info)

Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (3/8474)

To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (4/8474)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Cell surface-associated lipoteichoic acid acts as an adhesion factor for attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. (5/8474)

The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (6/8474)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Two-gene control of the expression of a murine Ia antigen. (7/8474)

Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Non-Idet P-40 extracts and of specific Ia immunoprecipitates from [35S]methionine-labeled mouse spleen lymphocytes has revealed that the cell surface expression of some Ia antigens appears to be controlled by two genes. One locus, which maps in the I-A subregion, is probably the structural gene for an Ia polypeptide chain. The second locus, which maps between the I-J and H-2D regions, controls whether this I-A encoded molecule (Ae) remains in the cytoplasm or is modified and expressed on the cell surface. Complementation between these two loci allowing surface expression of Ae can occur in the cis or trans chromosomal position. Both the I-A molecule and a polypeptide chain coded for by a locus in I-E are coprecipitated by anti-I-E antibodies, suggesting that these two chains are associated with each other as a multisubunit complex in the cell. Because the ability to complement I-A for Ae expression is a property only of those strains which synthesize an I-E-encoded protein, it is likely that the I-E product itself is regulating the expression of Ae. These observations suggest several mechanisms by which interaction between two I region loci can generate new cell surface molecules. As a result, they may have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of two gene control of immune responsiveness and immune suppression.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory effects of glycine on LPS-treated monocytes: reduced TNF-alpha production and accelerated IL-10 expression. (8/8474)

Cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulate the progression of septic shock whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 has counterregulative potency. The amino acid glycine (GLY) has been shown to protect against endotoxin shock in the rat by inhibiting TNF-alpha production. In the current study we investigated the role of GLY on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced cell surface marker expression, phagocytosis, and cytokine production on purified monocytes from healthy donors. GLY did not modulate the expression of HLA-DR and CD64 on monocytes, whereas CD11b/CD18 expression (P<0.05) and E. coli phagocytosis (P<0.05) decreased significantly. GLY decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha production (P<0.01) and increased IL-10 expression of purified monocytes. Similarly, in a whole blood assay, GLY reduced TNF-alpha (P<0.0001) and IL-1beta (P<0.0001) synthesis and increased IL-10 expression (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of GLY were neutralized by strychnine, and the production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha was augmented by anti-IL-10 antibodies. Furthermore, GLY decreased the amount of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-specific mRNA. Our data indicate that GLY has a potential to be used as an additional immunomodulatory tool in the early phase of sepsis and in different pathophysiological situations related to hypoxia and reperfusion.  (+info)

CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules
Lubaroff, D M., "Antigenic markers on rat lymphocytes. I. Characterization of a.r.t., An alloantigenic marker on rat thymus and thymus-derived cells." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2102 ...
Tumor cells were treated with rabbit antibody to tumor-associated cell surface antigens and tested with erythrocytes coated with antibody specific for the sensitizing rabbit immunoglobulin. The sensitized tumor cells formed rosettes with the indicator cells. By this method, we confirmed that line 1 and line 10 hepatoma cells (from two tumors independently induced by diethylnitrosamine in strain 2 guinea pigs) bear antigens not present on normal liver cells. We also confirmed that line 1 and line 10 cells bear antigenically different tumor-associated cell surface antigens. This method appears simpler than other serological methods for detecting tumor-associated cell surface antigens on tumor cells. Also, this method may be a general one for detecting and enumerating cells bearing surface antigens.. ...
The pathogen. · Has antigens which identify it as foreign. Infected cells. · May damage attacking pathogens with organelles such as lysosomes and display them on their surface membrane (antigen presentation). Macrophages. · Act like phagocytes, engulfing and digesting any pathogens. · Separate out antigens from digested pathogens and display them in antigen presentation. · Release monokines which attract neutrophils and stimulate B and T cell division and differentiation. T cells. · Matching T cells detect the antigen using receptors on their cell membranes- this…. ...
The TandAb technology enables the development of innovative antibody therapeutics for improved treatment of various diseases. This platform has been primarily applied to oncology and comprises of CD3 RECRUIT- and CD16A RECRUIT-TandAbs for activation of T and NK effector cells, respectively, and lysis of target cells expressing specific surface antigens. The CD3 RECRUIT-TandAb AFM11 is a human bispecific tetravalent antibody with two binding sites for the α-chain of CD3 and two binding sites for CD19. CD19 is expressed at early stages of B cell development and persists until the final differentiation into plasma cells. Thus, CD19 represents an attractive target for the treatment of various B cell malignancies including leukemias and lymphomas that lack CD20 expression or are refractory to anti-CD20 antibody therapies. In vitro cytotoxicity assays employing tumor cell lines demonstrate high potency of AFM11 in mediating target cell lysis: EC50 values are in the low to sub-picomolar range ...
Fenyo, E M. and Grundner, G, "Expression of virus-controlled cell surface antigen(s) in hybrids between mouse l cells (a9 subline) and various mouse and human cells derived from tumours and normal tissues. Abstr." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 647 ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human T lymphocyte surface structures have essentially contributed to a better understanding of cellular mechanisms and interactions involved in the generation of human T...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 attenuates acute lung injury in mice after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Cui, Tianpen. AU - Miksa, Michael. AU - Wu, Rongqian. AU - Komura, Hidefumi. AU - Zhou, Mian. AU - Dong, Weifeng. AU - Wang, Zhimin. AU - Higuchi, Shinya. AU - Chaung, Wayne. AU - Blau, Steven A.. AU - Marini, Corrado P.. AU - Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.. AU - Wang, Ping. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Rationale: Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a potent opsonin for the clearance of apoptotic cells and is produced by mononuclear cells of immune competent organs including the spleen and lungs. It attenuates chronic and acute inflammation such as autoimmune glomerulonephritis and bacterial sepsis by enhancing apoptotic cell clearance. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the gut results in severe inflammation, apoptosis, and remote organ damage, including acute lung injury (ALI). Objectives: To determine whether MFG-E8 attenuates ...
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Naturally Processed Helper T-Cell Epitopes from Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Using Peptide-Based in Vitro Stimulation. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Sodey, Benjamin. AU - Yanai, Mitsuru. AU - Oikawa, Kensuke. AU - Sato, Keisuke. AU - Kimura, Shoji. AU - Senju, Satoru. AU - Nishimura, Yasuharu. AU - Tateno, Masatoshi. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Purpose: There is growing evidence that CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) play an essential role in the induction and long-term maintenance of antitumor CTL responses. Thus, approaches to develop effective T-cell-based immunotherapy should focus in the stimulation of both CTLs and HTLs reactive against tumor-associated antigens. The present studies were performed with the purpose of identifying HTL epitopes for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for the optimization of vaccines for prostate cancer. Experimental Design: Synthetic peptides from regions of the ...
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Solving the Convergence Problem in the Synthesis of Triantennary N-Glycan Relevant to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Journal Article ...
Picture of Chemical structure of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA,.. stock photo, images and stock photography.. Image 16083639.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast.
Journal: EJNMMI - European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ArticleTitle: Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET imaging and immunohistochemistry in adenoid cystic carcinoma-a preliminary analysis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrin-associated protein. T2 - A 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins. AU - Brown, Eric. AU - Hooper, Lora. AU - Ho, Thang. AU - Gresham, Hattie. PY - 1990/12. Y1 - 1990/12. N2 - Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophil phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H. D., J. L. Goodwin, P. M. Allen, D. C. Anderson, and E. J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecule that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but not on erythrocytes, this protein is associated with an ...
Complete information for MFGE8 gene (Protein Coding), Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8 Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Post-translational modifications to the polypeptide include N- and O- glycosylations, acylation, sulphation and phosphorylation. The different N-CAM isoforms have molecular weights ranging from 135 to 220 kDa. The CD56 antigen is moderately expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes and on all cells with NK activity. It is also expressed by subsets of T lymphocytes. CD56 antibodies do not react with granulocytes, monocytes or B cells.
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell recognition of QA-1b antigens on cells lacking a functional Tap-2 transporter. AU - Aldrich, C. J.. AU - Waltrip, R.. AU - Hermel, E.. AU - Attaya, M.. AU - Lindahl, K. F.. AU - Monaco, J. J.. AU - Forman, J.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - MHC class Ia H chains and β2-microglobulin assemble with appropriate peptides to form stable cell surface molecules that serve as targets for Ag- specific CTL. The structural similarities of class Ia and the less polymorphic Q/T/M (class Ib) molecules suggest that class Ib molecules also play a role in antigen presentation, although the origin of the peptides they present remains mostly unclear. The cell line RMA-S has a defect in class I Ag presentation, presumably due to a mutation in a peptide transporter gene. This defect can be overcome by transfection of RMA-S cells with the Tap-2 gene (formerly Ham-2) that encodes an ATP-binding transporter protein. We now show that a substantial portion of alloreactive CTL specific for ...
Shop Leukocyte surface antigen ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Leukocyte surface antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
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Looking for differentiation antigen? Find out information about differentiation antigen. A cell surface antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation Explanation of differentiation antigen
There is an urgent need for an effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Prostate tumors invariably overexpress prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). We designed a nonviral vector, PEI-PEG-DUPA (PPD), comprising polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol (PEI-PEG) tethered to the PSMA ligand, 2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)ureido] pentanedioic acid (DUPA), to treat PC. The purpose of PEI is to bind polyinosinic/polycytosinic acid (polyIC) and allow endosomal release, while DUPA targets PC cells. PolyIC activates multiple pathways that lead to tumor cell death and to the activation of bystander effects that harness the immune system against the tumor, attacking nontargeted neighboring tumor cells and reducing the probability of acquired resistance and disease recurrence ...
Y Nakamura, M Noma, M Kidokoro, N Kobayashi, M Takei, S Kurashima, T Mukaiyama, S Kato; Expression of CD33 antigen on normal human activated T lymphocytes [letter]. Blood 1994; 83 (5): 1442-1443. doi: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V83.5.1442.bloodjournal8351442. Download citation file:. ...
Immunofluorescence labeling of cell surface antigens in Dictyostelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
cal microscopy and flow cytometry studies were employed to examine the involvement of these processes in the uptake of F-Ab40 by neuronal cells. Localization of
BioMagnetic Solutions has engineered next generation ferrofluids (nano-magnetic liquids) with enhanced magnetics for selective recovery and/or enrichment of cells expressing specific surface antigens or for capturing macromolecules. The augmented magnetic character of our materials increases their magnetic pull which lowers limits of detection and saves time (in concert with our more powerful quadrupole and hexapole magnets) enabling researchers to work more efficiently.. ...
Shop Surface antigen ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Surface antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
During the last several years, the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and corresponding radiolabeled inhibitors have become one of the most …
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform anti-SSEA-1 (m), monoclonal antibody [ASA-0135] - The SSEA family is a group of cell-surface antigenic markers expressed on ES/iPS cells. SSEA-1 is highly expressed in mouse ES/iPS cells but not in human ES/iPS cells. Ap
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen" (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
Mouse anti Human CD163 antibody, clone EDHu-1 recognizes the human CD163 cell surface antigen, a 130-140 kDa glycoprotein expressed by tissue macropha
PSMA兔多克隆抗体(ab41034)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
When a specific frequency of light is shone on the tissue, the reporter can be made to fluoresce. The presence of fluorescent color would then indicate that the antibody, and thus the antigen, is present in the tissue, meaning that the cell would be positive for the cluster of differentiation being identified.[7] ...
Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Antibody-Drug Conjugate (PSMA ADC) 1301EXT is an open-label, nonrandomized, phase 1 extension study of PSMA ADC administered IV in subjects with progressive CMPC that has progressed after prior taxane therapy. Subjects who have participated in PSMA ADC 1301 and who, in the opinion of the PI, are likely to benefit from continued treatment with PSMA ADC will be enrolled in PSMA ADC 1301EXT ...
Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. The sequence of the cluster-w4 complementary DNA encodes an unusually short (80-amino acid) protein identical to that recently reported for the leukocyte activation molecule CD24 except for a single valine-alanine substitution due to a single-base polymorphism within the region of the gene coding for the extracellular domain. Biochemical analyses of the cloned cluster-w4 antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 molecule. Furthermore, the cloned
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), is an important diagnostic and therapeutic target in prostate cancer. PSMA/GCPII is also expressed in many healthy tissues, but its function has only been established in the brain and small intestine.
Chronic pain often accompanies immune-related diseases with an elevated level of IgG immune complex (IgG-IC) in the serum and/or the affected tissues though the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. shown that neuronal FcRI triggers a nonselective cation channel, which may contribute to the IgG-IC-induced excitation of DRG neurons[19,30]. Moreover, TRPC3 acts as a novel and crucial downstream transduction channel mediating… More →. ...
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While many cell types produce type I IFN in vitro when exposed to double-stranded (ds)RNA and some RNA viruses, a specialized leukocyte is responsible for the IFN-α production induced by a wider spectrum of agents, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, certain cell lines, and also unmethylated CpG-DNA (6-8). This major IFN-α-producing cell (IPC) was early on designated natural IPC (NIPC) and subsequent work (for a review see reference 6) revealed that NIPCs were infrequent (∼0.1% of PBMCs) but very productive on a per cell basis (∼10 pg IFN-α per cell). The expression of the IFN-α/β genes induced in NIPCs was markedly dependent on costimulation ("priming") of the cells by cytokines, in particular IL-3, GM-CSF, and type I IFNs. These cells lacked lineage specific surface antigens, but expressed MHC class II (for a review, see reference 6). The NIPCs were shown to express, e.g., CD4, CD36, CD40, CD44, CD45RA, and CD83, but lacked CD80, CD86, and CD11c, suggesting they were immature DCs ...
The human 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is expressed by all types of trophoblast in pregnancy but is not detected on most adult tissues, although low levels are found on some epithelia. However, this antigen is strongly expressed by many cancers and tumour-associated labelling correlates with metastatic spread and poor clinical outcome for patients with gastric and colon cancer. Over-expression of the gene influences cell adhesion, shape and motility, which may be related to changes in the cellular localisation of the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen as malignancy develops. To establish whether the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen can serve as a tumour-specific marker for oral cancer and precancer, we have evaluated the pattern of expression on biopsies of normal, inflamed and dysplastic oral mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Oral mucosa, taken from different sites in the mouth, expressed the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen with varying intensity and pattern. The majority of the immunoreactivity was detected in the basal and ...
Virtually all human granular lymphocytes expressed the HNK-1 differentiation antigen when examined in lymphoid compartments from adults, neonates, and fetuses. The HNK-1+ cells were distinguishable into three subsets having distinct antigenic phenotypes: HNK+T3-M1-, HNK+T3+M1-, and HNK+T3-M1+. Thus, greater than 70% of the HNK-1+ cells from 13-17 wk fetuses (less than 0.2% of nucleated cells) lacked T cell antigens (e.g., T3, T8, T4, and T6) and the M1 myeloid antigen. Morphologically, the HNK+T3-M1- cells consisted of three different types: small granular lymphocytes (less than 10% of HNK-1+ cells), agranular small lymphocytes with a narrow rim of cytoplasm (70-80%), and agranular giant cells (greater than 15 micrometers) with considerable neutrophilic cytoplasm (15%). The purified fetal HNK-1+ cells exhibited a low level of cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. On the other hand, almost all of HNK-1+ cells in neonatal tissues as well as adult bone marrow, lymph node, and thymus, exhibited ...
Cell surface markers are proteins expressed on the surface of cells that often conveniently serve as markers of specific cell types. For example, T cell and B cell surface markers identify their lineage and stage in the differentiation process. These lymphocytes differentiate into multiple cell subtypes, necessary for specific biological processes. During this process, lymphocytes express different surface receptors, which can be used to identify cellular subtypes, such as progenitor cells or terminally differentiated T helper cells. Inappropriate cellular ratios of differentiated white blood cells, such as the relative amounts of Th1 and Th2 cells, occur in pathophysiological conditions such as autoimmunity. The presence of cell surface markers can also determine if a cell type expresses the specific receptor important for a biological response. Testing for surface marker expression is also essential to determine if an experimental drug or ligand will be recognized by the cell type of interest. ...
By means of the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test, the distribution and antibody-induced redistribution (patching and capping) of a mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and a normal (Thy 1.2) cell-surface antigen were compared on mouse thymocytes and leukemia cells (GRSL2). At 0 degrees C Thy 1.2 fluorescence was ringlike and more intense on GRSL2 cells than on thymocytes, whereas MLr fluorescence on GRLS2 cells at this temperature was patchlike and brighter than Thy 1.2 fluorescence. At 20 or 37 degrees C, capping of Thy 1.2 on both cell types was readily achieved but MLr capping occurred only in a few GRSL2 cells and was less pronounced. However, after addition of the secondary antibodies, MLr capping was markedly increased by gradual cooling of cells to about 17 degrees C. Conversely, after addition of antibodies at 0 degrees C, gradual warming of cells under the fluorescence microscope resulted in extensive capping both of MLr and Thy 1.2 at approximately 13-14 degrees C. Rapid cooling ...
An improved system for screening a multiple of candidate therapeutic or chemotherapeutic agents for efficacy as to a specific patient, in which a tissue sample from the patient is harvested, cultured and separately exposed to a plurality of treatments and/or therapeutic agents for the purpose of objectively identifying. One particularly important tissue sample preparation technique is the initial preparation of cohesive multicellular particulates of the tissue sample. For assays concerning cancer treatment, a two-stage evaluation is contemplated in which both acute cytotoxic and longer term inhibitory effect of a given anti-cancer agent are investigated. The tissue sample technique of the present invention is also useful in assaying expression and/or secretion of various markers, factors or antigens present on or produced by the cultured cells for diagnostic purposes and for using such expression to monitor the applicability of certain candidate therapeutic or chemotherapeutic agents and the
Since its development in 1975, monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology has greatly enhanced our ability to analyse complex antigenic systems as well as improve the sensitivity and speed of many diagnostic tests. In particular, the study of tumour associated antigens using mAbs have revealed that many transformed cell phenotypes have useful markers on their plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or as secreted forms which can be used in developing diagnostic assays. Therapeutic application of these anti-tumour mAbs has however, been slow relative to the research and diagnostic applications. This article will discuss how the therapeutic effectiveness of anti-tumour mAbs can be enhanced by coupling them to drugs, toxins or radionucleids; and review the current advances and problems related to the application of these mAb conjugates ...
This study aimed to determine the changes in lymphocyte surface markers and cytokine profiles during a malarial infection in a mouse model of malaria. Mononuclear cells obtained from the spleens of the mice infected with ...
Anogen is a Canadian biopharmaceutical company, who has been producing antibody products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD41 antibody, clone PM6/248|/strong| recognizes the human CD41 cell surface antigen, a ~140 kDa glycoprotein expressed by platelets and megakaryocytes. CD41 is also know…
Thy1 - Thy1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat Thy-1 cell surface antigen (Thy1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Catalyzes the polycondensation of alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid required for the synthesis of polysialic acid (PSA), which is present on the embryonic neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), necessary for plasticity of neural cells.
Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc., of Tarrytown, N.Y. is a biopharmaceutical company focusing on the development and commercialization of innovative therapeutic products to treat the unmet medical needs of patients with debilitating conditions and life-threatening diseases. The Companys principal programs are directed toward symptom management and supportive care and the treatment of HIV infection and cancer. The Company has five product candidates in clinical development and several others in preclinical development. In symptom management and supportive care, the Company is developing methylnaltrexone (MNTX) to treat the constipation associated with opioid-based pain relievers without interfering with pain relief. MNTX is in pivotal phase 3 clinical testing for treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced medical illness. MNTX is also being studied for the management of patients with post-operative bowel dysfunction and relief of opioid-induced constipation in patients with ...
Bacteria possess a number of cell-associated and secreted molecules, termed bacterial modulins, that stimulate the release of proinflammatory mediators in the host (4). In previous work, we (1, 3) and others (14) have demonstrated that isolated flagella or fragments of isolated flagella from gram-negative bacteria elicit the production of TNF-α in cultures of adherent human PBMC and monocyte-like cell lines. Genetic complementation in afliC deletion mutant identified flagellin as the key component of the flagella that was essential for the induction of cytokine synthesis (1). Although flagella from other gram-negative organisms, such as E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and Y. enterocolitica, also stimulated TNF-α synthesis by human monocytes, flagella fromSalmonella strains were generally the most potent inducers (1).. In the present study, we demonstrate that purifiedSalmonella FliC and FljB are exceptionally potent inducers of TNF-α synthesis, with detectable amounts of TNF-α being induced in cells ...
Quantitative Lymphocyte Subsets: T, B, and NK:. Normal immunity requires a balance between the activities of various lymphocyte subpopulations with different effector and regulatory functions.. Different immune cells can be characterized by unique surface membrane antigens described by a cluster of differentiation nomenclature (eg, CD3 is an antigen found on the surface of T lymphocytes). Abnormalities in the number and percent of T (CD3, CD4, CD8), B (CD19), and natural killer (CD16+CD56) lymphocytes have been described in a number of different diseases. In patients who are infected with HIV, the CD4 count is measured for AIDS diagnosis and for initiation of antiviral therapy. The progressive loss of CD4 T lymphocytes in patients infected with HIV is associated with increased infections and complications.. The US Public Health Service has recommended that all HIV-positive patients be tested every 3 to 6 months for the level of CD4 T lymphocytes.. The absolute counts of lymphocyte subsets are ...
Anti Human Melanocyte Cell Surface Antigen Antibody, clone 3C3 (Mel.2) , Mouse Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody validated in IHC-F, IF, E (ABD13241), Abgent
The scientists then conjugated the quantum dots to a highly specific monoclonal antibody targeted to a prostate-specific membrane antigen on the surface of the tumor cells. When injected into the mices circulatory system, the conjugated dots selectively accumulated at the site of the tumor through binding to the antigen target. The new triblock polymer coating protected the quantum dots from attack by enzymes and other biomolecules. The active method of tumor targeting using the monoclonal antibody was much faster and more efficient than was the passive method without the antibody ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Hao Wang, Yigang Chen, Jian Guo, Ting Shan, Kaiyuan Deng, Jialin Chen, Liping Cai, Hong Zhou, Qin Zhao, Shimao Jin, Jiazeng Xia].
Plasma membranes were isolated by two methods from mouse leukemia cells containing mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and normal (Thy.1.2) antigens on their surfaces. A number of chemical components, enzymic activities, and the antigenic contents were determined in subcellular fractions and found to be specifically concentrated in the plasma membrane fractions. The major part of the cellular MLr, in contrast to Thy.1.2, was present in the 105,000 X gmax supernatant of the cell homogenate. This and other results indicate an easy release of the antigen from the plasma membrane. A considerable amount of MLr was also present in the ascites fluid, partly free and partly bound, supposedly in an immune complex that allowed the isolation of three components of similar molecular weights as mammary tumor virus components. The extracellular presence of MLr may illustrate that, by shedding of antigen, the tumor may protect itself against the immunological defense of the host ...
is a type 1 integral membrane glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 130 to 140 kD. It is a heterodimer of two independently expressed glycoprotein chains present both on the membrane and in the cytoplasm of B lymphocytes. Expression of the CD22 antigen is reported to appear early in B cell lymphocyte differentiation at approximately the same stage as that of the CD19 antigen expression. Surface antigen expression is variable and may be lost upon differentiation. CD22 antigen is also reported to be weakly expressed on myeloid leukemias and non-T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and is strongly expressed on hairy cell leukemias. It is absent on peripheral blood T cells, T cell leukemias, granulocytes and monocytes.. ...
REVIEWS RADIOPHARMACOLOGY - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 2015 September;59(3):241-68. Prostate-specific membrane antigen as a target for cancer imaging and therapy. Kiess A. P., Banerjee S. R., Mease R. C., Rowe S. P., Rao A., Foss C. A., Chen Y., Yang X., Cho S. Y., Nimmagadda S., Pomper M. G. ...
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Barbara Seliger Specific aim(s)/topic(s). (1) Identification of HLA class I targeting miRs, their functional characterization and clinical significance. (2) Identification and characterization of the function of RNA-binding proteins controlling components of the antigen processing and presentation machinery. Background and significance. Hematologic and solid tumors have developed strategies to escape immune surveillance, including abnormalities in the classical HLA antigens, which are directly associated with metastatic properties, disease progression and poor patients survival. The underlying molecular mechanisms of altered HLA class I surface antigen expression are only rarely associated with structural alterations in components of the HLA class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM), but are often due to their deregulated expression, which can occur at the epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional level . Altered gene expression in tumors can be ...
A novel cell-surface molecule expressed by human interdigitating reticulum cells, Langerhans cells, and activated lymphocytes is a new member of the Ig superfamily.
View Notes - Immunogenes or Antigens from STEP 1 at Montgomery College. ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens Or Antigens Immunogens or
In their research, they found that the CUGBP1 expression levels were decreased in heart samples from AMI mice, and further studies showed that two highly conserved AU-rich elements in the 3UTR of CUGBP1 were responsible for the decreased CUGBP1 expression. Upon AMI, human antigen R was relocated to the cytoplasm from the nucleus and interacted with these AU-rich elements to disrupting the expression of CUGBP1. Reintroduction of CUGBP1 via gene delivery by recombinant adenovirus improved cardiac function in AMI mice. Their studies also indicated that CUGBP1 participated in the protection of cardiomyocytes from ischemia-induced injury through pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic pathways by controlling the vascular endothelial growth factor-A gene during AMI ...
When a bacterium invades a naïve system (one that has not seen the bug before), usually there are enough B-cells already present that express antibody with at least some affinity for antigens present on the pathogen. (If it has been seen before, the response can come more quickly, but it wont necessarily be a different response.) So some serological response is usually possible from the beginning. The B-cells can secrete antibodies that "neutralize" an infectious agent, most likely by interfering with a cell-pathogen interaction required for infection; or antibodies that cause agglutination or clumping into large aggregates which will be cleared by the kidneys (though, too much of this can damage the glomeruli); or that attract macrophages by way of the Fc ends and Fc-receptors on the macrophage, which then can either engorge the pathogen, if it is small enough, or release lytic enzymes that will damage the invader, and or release cytokines that act to call in other lytic cells; or, finally, ...
It is estimated that around 37 million people are living with an HIV infection. The molecule on the surface of HIV that recognises host cells and enables the virus to get inside them is depicted in our calendar image for January.. The env gene of HIV encodes a protein called gp160. Gp160 associates with two other copies of itself to form trimers on the surface of the viral membrane, a location in which it can interact with the outside world. Gp160 is cleaved as the virus is produced to form two mature proteins, gp120 and gp41. These remain together and enable to virus to find and stick to the cells it infects, and to get inside them. This is the first stage in the virus replicating itself- because HIV, like all viruses, needs to get inside a cell and hijack its machinery to reproduce. Gp120 is responsible for binding to a specific receptor on human cell surfaces (a protein called CD4). Gp41 on the other hand drives the huge changes in shape needed to fuse the viral and host membranes. Ebola ...
The invention provides a family of antibodies that specifically bind the human cell surface glycosphingolipid GD2. The antibodies comprise modified variable regions, more specially, modified framework regions, which reduce their immunogenicity when administered to a human. The antibodies may be coupled to a therapeutic agent and used in the treatment of cancer.
Rat anti Mouse CD38 antibody, clone 90 recognizes the murine CD38 cell surface antigen, a ~42-46kDa glycoprotein expressed by B lymph
... Antigen processing is a biological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 34 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
We have two kinds of cells in our body which are used to fight diseases: B cells and T cells. Whenever an antigen attacks our body for the first time, these cells create a code to fight those antigens. Once the code is created, next time the antigen attacks, these cells are able to fight the antigen very fast as they already have the code created for that specific antigen ...
HuR / ELAVL1小鼠单克隆抗体(ab54987)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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[38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Glutamate Carboxypeptidase 2 (Folate Hydrolase 1 or Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen or PSMA or Pteroylpoly Gamma Glutamate Carboxypeptidase or Cell Growth Inhibiting Gene 27 Protein or FOLH1 or EC 3.4.17.21) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Glutamate Carboxypeptidase 2 (Folate Hydrolase 1 or Prostate Specific Membrane...
VlsE is an outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that undergoes antigenic variation through an elaborate gene conversion mechanism and is thought to play a major role in the immune response to the Lyme disease borellia. The crystal structure of recombinant variant protein VlsE1 at 2.3-A resolution reveals that the six variable regions form loop structures that constitute most of the membrane distal surface of VlsE, covering the predominantly alpha-helical, invariant regions of the protein. The surface localization of the variable amino acid segments appears to protect the conserved regions from interaction with antibodies and hence may contribute to immune evasion.
Cell surface markers of mouse thymic dendritic cells have been studied by flow cytometry after isolation by collagenase digestion, separation of the low-density cell fraction and differential adherence. The dendritic cell preparation had a purity of , 90%, the contaminating population being essentially composed of thymocytes, macrophages constituting ,1%. Dendritic cells displayed high forward and low-intermediate side angle scatter, and expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules, the heat-stable antigen (HSA), the adhesion molecules Pgp-1 (CD44), LFA-1, ICAM-1 and low levels of Mac-1 and the leukocyte common antigen CD45. Thymic dendritic cells are negative for the stem cell antigen-2 (Sca-2), the B cell-specific form of CD45 (B220), the mouse macrophage markers Fc receptor and F4/80, and the granulocyte marker Gr-1. However, although they do not express the T cell markers Thy-1, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD5, 20%-30% of dendritic cells are positive ...
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Monoclonal antibodies to prostatic cells, are produced by a hybridoma formed by fusing mouse lymphocytes and mouse myeloma cells. The monoclonal antibodies show specificity for a non-soluble, membrane associated, organ specific antigenic determinant limited in its distribution to normal and neoplastic, human prostate epithelial cells. The monoclonal antibodies, specifically 7E11-C5 monoclonal antibodies, may be suitable for diagnostic uses.
Discover singular and custom rat monoclonal antibodies of higher sensitivity and higher affinity! Rat monoclonal antibodies against hormones, peptides, steroids, toxins, DNA, RNA.
The completion of the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv revealed that 10% of the coding capacity is devoted to two, large multigene families that are characterised by repeat sequences. These are the PE and PPE families that code for acidic, glycine rich proteins. A subgroup of the PE family is the polymorphic GC rich sequence (PGRS) gene subfamily. Genome comparisons of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis have confirmed the polymorphic character of some of these genes suggesting they may be analogous to the contingency loci found in other pathogenic bacteria. Certain PE-PGRS proteins play a direct role in virulence in M. marinum, other PE-PGRS genes are cell surface associated, and some PE-PGRS proteins are variable surface antigens, supporting a potential role in host pathogen interactions. A reporter assay designed to investigate mutations in a PE-PGRS repeat-containing sequence was used to assess mutation rates in various M. smegmatis host strains by fluctuation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein A-coated erythrocyte binding to cell surface antigens. T2 - Application to quantitate retrovirus infectivity in vitro. AU - Fitting, Thomas. AU - Kabat, David. PY - 1981/6. Y1 - 1981/6. N2 - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. AB - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019472752&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
O:13:PanistOpenUrl:36:{s:10:\u0000*\u0000openUrl;N;s:6:\u0000*\u0000idc;N;s:6:\u0000*\u0000fmt;s:7:journal;s:6:\u0000*\u0000doi;s:0:;s:6:\u0000*\u0000pii;s:0:;s:7:\u0000*\u0000pmid;s:0:;s:9:\u0000*\u0000atitle;s:121:A NOVEL CELL SURFACE ANTIGEN (T305) FOUND IN INCREASED FREQUENCY ON ACUTE LEUKEMIA CELLS AND IN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE STATES;s:9:\u0000*\u0000jtitle;s:0:;s:9:\u0000*\u0000stitle;s:0:;s:7:\u0000*\u0000date;s:4:1983;s:9:\u0000*\u0000volume;s:0:;s:8:\u0000*\u0000issue;s:0:;s:8:\u0000*\u0000spage;s:0:;s:8:\u0000*\u0000epage;s:0:;s:8:\u0000*\u0000pages;s:0:;s:7:\u0000*\u0000issn;s:0:;s:8:\u0000*\u0000eissn;s:0:;s:9:\u0000*\u0000aulast;s:3:FOX;s:10:\u0000*\u0000aufirst;s:2:RI;s:9:\u0000*\u0000auinit;N;s:10:\u0000*\u0000auinitm;N;s:5:\u0000*\u0000au;a:7:{i:0;s:6:FOX RI;i:1;s:10:HUENIKEN M;i:2;s:6:FONG S;i:3;s:7:BEHAR ...
There are many outside agents that could become antigens. Among the agents that are potentially antigenic are egg whites, pollen, transplanted tissue proteins and plenty of other agents that could cause a reaction of the immune system in order to take care of the invasion.. These outside antigens are also known as non-microbal or non-self antigens. One outside source of imunogenic antigens are vaccines. They are often given to people in order to prepare themselves for a potential illness.. Outside antigens are known as exogenous antigens. The common way that these antigens enter the body is through inhalation, injection, or ingestion. Often times, the immune system reacts to the antigens in a less than clinical fashion.. The process of the antibodies taking on the antigens are either endocytosis or phagocytosis. These antigens are brought to the cells that present antigens. The antigens are then broken down into pieces so that they can be processed.. The pieces are taken to the T helper cells so ...
Parasite international open-access, peer-reviewed, online journal publishing high quality papers on all aspects of human and animal parasitology
Anti-Histone H3 Antibody (Acetyl-Lys9), Rabbit Anti Rat Monoclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IF, IP, Flo (ALS17772), Abgent
New prostate cancer research shows that adding an interim scan during therapy can help guide a patients treatment. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of patients with metastatic ...
The aim of this review is to report on the current status of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-directed theranostics in prostate cancer (PC) patients. The value of 68Ga-PSMA-directed PET...
Human RNA-binding protein (HuR), a ubiquitously expressed member of the Hu protein family, plays an important role in mRNA degradation and has been implicated as a key post-transcriptional regulator. HuR contains three RNA-recognition motif (RRM) domains. The two N-terminal tandem RRM domains can se …
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.12967 Jae-Hye Lee, Hyun-Soo Cho, Jeong-Ju Lee, Soo Young Jun, Jun-Ho Ahn, Ju-Sik Min, Ji-Yong Yoon, Min-Hyuk Choi, Su-Jin Jeon, Jung Hwa Lim, Cho-Rok Jung, Dae-Soo...
Protein antigens are no able to induce an immune response without being previously processed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Following their processing that comprises their splitting to smaller fragments - peptides, APs subsequently present them to T cells; moreover, they activate them and polarise to a specific biological functions. Depending of antigen origin, there are two presentation pathways, exogenous and endogenous. Antigens originated from outside of APC, e.g. bacterial toxins, enzymes, etc., are presented by exogenous pathway and presented molecules are class II HLA molecules. T cell, that recognise presented peptides belong to helper subset of T cells. Antigens originated in the cytosol, such as antigens that appear in the cytoplasm of virus infected cells, are presented by endogenous pathway and presented molecules belong to class I HL-A molecules. T cells, that recognise presented peptides, represent cytotoxic T cells.
If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, - posted in Immunology: If Immune sera is showing same reaction to antigen as for plate without antigen, what could be problem? Thanks.
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... The surface antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) is expressed at high levels.[9] ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
Surface antigens. Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A ... antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ... antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class Ib. • innate immune response. • defense ...
Surface antigens. Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A ... The N-glycans mature fully before they reach the cell surface. Peptide removal[edit]. Peptides that fail to bind MHC class I ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ... It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ...
Epigenetic reprogramming by Amanda Fisher on Vimeo Fisher, Amanda Gay (1984). Surface antigens expressed during myelopoiesis. ... "A rapid method for determining whether monoclonal antibodies react with the same or different antigens on the cell surface". ... Fisher was educated at the University of Birmingham where she was awarded a PhD in 1984 for research into antigens expressed ...
There are six subspecies of S. neurona which can be identified by surface antigens (SAG). Equine EPM is caused by the parasites ... Ellison SP, Omara-Opyeme AL, Yowell C, Dame J. Molecular characterization of a major 29 kDa surface antigen of Sarcocystis ... Horses produce antibodies to these surface antigens. Serum antibody testing is available that measures levels of these ... "SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1". Veterinary ...
In 1974, she completed her doctoral thesis, Immunochemical studies of human cell surface antigens, and flew to Britain on the ... Williams, Keryn Anne (1974). "Immunochemical studies of human cell surface antigens". Ph.D. Thesis. School of Microbiology, ...
Various combinations (DNA/surface antigens, etc.). Applications[edit]. The technology has applications in a number of fields, ... "Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types". Journal of Visualized ... co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed.[37] In marine biology, the autofluorescent ... flow cytometry is used in conjunction with yeast display and bacterial display to identify cell surface-displayed protein ...
Daniels G, Green C (2000). "Expression of red cell surface antigens during erythropoiesis". Vox Sang. 78 Suppl 2: 149-53. PMID ... This antigen is also known as the Rs(a) antigen. The Ahonen (Ana) antigen was first reported in 1972. The antigen is found on ... The antigen was discovered in 1960 when three women who lacked the antigen made anti-Gea in response to pregnancy. The antigen ... This antigen is sensitive to trypsin but resistant to chymotrypsin and Endo F. The Lewis II (Ls(a); Ge-6) antigen has insert of ...
Antigen is processed 3. Processed antigen is presented on B cell surface 4. B cell and T cell mutually activate each other 5. B ... Pathogens synthesize proteins that can serve as "recognizable" antigens; they may express the molecules on their surface or ... Antigen presentation[edit]. Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed ... Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ...
Antibodies binding to antigens on the surface of cells trigger lytic mechanisms mediated by the complement system (complement- ... Surface antigens causally involved in carcinogenesis are called oncoantigens. The success of cancer immunoprevention in ... If the target antigen controls cell growth (e.g. if it is the product of an oncogene), then a block of signaling can disrupt ... Most antitumor immune responses are autoimmune, because most tumor antigens are also expressed by normal cells, but it must be ...
Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected. HepG2 will respond to stimulation with human growth hormone.[ ... can be important for the study of human liver diseases that are caused by an incorrect subcellular distribution of cell surface ... robust morphological and functional differentiation with a controllable formation of apical and basolateral cell surface ...
Antigens from the sample are attached to a surface. Then, a further specific antibody is applied over the surface so it can ... The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ... A "sandwich" ELISA is used to detect sample antigen. The steps are: A surface is prepared to which a known quantity of capture ... Any nonspecific binding sites on the surface are blocked. The antigen-containing sample is applied to the plate, and captured ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... A new family of cell surface proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1): 117-22. PMID 1840589. Iwamoto R, Senoh H, Okada Y, Uchida T, ... CD9 is found on the surface of exosomes and it can modulate cell adhesion and migration and also trigger platelet activation ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. ...
Coleman, Paul F. (2017-02-17). "Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (2): 198-203. ... If B cell receptors bind to the antigen and FC receptors simultaneously bind to the maternal antibody, the FC receptors send a ... Breakthrough cases of Hepatitis B are primarily attributed to mutations in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that make HBV surface ... Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B cell receptors on the infant's B cells for binding to the antigen. Thus, an ...
Antigens are also presented on the surface of dendritic cells. In an inflammatory state, lymphatic endothelial cells increase ... Lymph node stromal cells express peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) on their surface. The Transcription factor Aire ( ... An adaptive immune response takes place in response to the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. Antigen-presenting cells ... Lymph node stromal cells can be grouped into six sub-populations which are known by their expression of surface markers. The ...
This family of surface antigens is found in other apicomplexans. This particular antigen contains many cysteine residues which ... He XL, Grigg ME, Boothroyd JC, Garcia KC (2002). "Structure of the immunodominant surface antigen from the Toxoplasma gondii ... The surface of T. gondii is coated with a family of developmentally regulated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ... 1994). "Similarities between the primary structures of two distinct major surface proteins of Toxoplasma gondii". J Biol Chem. ...
CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Dilip Gore; Reecha Pandit (2011). "In silico Identification of Cell Surface Antigens ... The recombinant vector that is genomically modified will express the antigen. The antigen (one or more subunits of protein) is ... in which a polysaccharide antigen has been covalently attached to a carrier protein for T-cell-dependent antigen processing ( ... Just like the highly successful subunit vaccines, the recombinant-vector-produced antigen will be of little to no risk to the ...
The surface antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) is expressed at high levels. Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This ... Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express common pan-B cell markers, ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... and do not take up antigen because they no longer display significant quantities of immunoglobulin on the cell surface. However ...
Molinaro, G. A.; Major, E. O.; Bernhardt, G.; Dray, S.; Di Mayorca, G. (1977). "Similar cell surface antigens on hamster cells ...
... s are thus displayed on the surface of cells. As modified self antigens,they are potentially immunogenic when ... Phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues is conserved during MHC class I and MHC class II antigen processing. ... Phosphopeptides are modified self antigens which may induce an immune response. ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ...
Such proteins include meprin (a cell surface glycoprotein); A5 antigen (a developmentally-regulated cell surface protein); and ... Takagi S, Hirata T, Agata K, Eguchi G, Fujisawa H, Mochii M (1991). "The A5 antigen, a candidate for the neuronal recognition ...
"Surface-modified diamond nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles." Bioconjugate chemistry 6.5 (1995): 507-511. "2014 ... Diamond nanoparticles of ~5 nm in size offer a large accessible surface and tailorable surface chemistry. They have unique ... Decreasing particle size and functionalizing their surfaces may allow such surface-modified diamond nanoparticles to delivery ... "Surface-induced Charge State Conversion of Nitrogen-vacancy Defects in Nanodiamonds." Physical Review B. N.p., 28 Sept. 2010 ...
Roberts, D. D. (2013) Leukocyte surface antigen CD47. UCSD Molecule Pages, 2(1), 19-36. Brown EJ, Frazier WA (2001). "Integrin- ... CD47 was first identified as a tumor antigen on human ovarian cancer in the 1980s. Since then, CD47 has been found to be ... 1994). "Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (3): 1567-70. PMID ... Brown E, Hooper L, Ho T, Gresham H (1991). "Integrin-associated protein: a 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and ...
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... cell-surface marker),可以用以分离、鉴定不同亚群的T细胞[1]。 ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
To explore the predictive value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titer and transient elastography in screening for ... Serum hepatitis B surface antigen titer and transient elastography in screening for insignificant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive ... insignificant fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: We conducted a cross- ... Serum hepatitis B surface antigen titer and transient elastography in screening for insignificant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive ...
Recombinant protein corresponding to full length hepatitis B virus surface antigen. (MAB1691) - Products - Abnova ... Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against full length recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen. ... Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against full length recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen. ... Hepatitis B virus surface antigen monoclonal antibody, clone 187. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen monoclonal antibody, clone ...
The indirect antibody technique for amplified detection of antigens (Coons, 1956) has a wide and expanding range of ... Wofsy L., Henry C., Cammisuli S. (1978) Hapten - Sandwich Labeling of Cell-Surface Antigens. In: Reisfeld R.A., Inman F.P. (eds ... The indirect antibody technique for amplified detection of antigens (Coons, 1956) has a wide and expanding range of ... to label first-layer antibody specific for a particular antigen. The last few years have seen the introduction of hapten- ...
Boumsell L., Bernard A. (1983) Surface Antigens on Normal and Malignant Lymphoid Cells. In: Chandra P. (eds) Biochemical and ... We then emphasize the most important technical requirements for assessing the reactivity of MA with cell surfaces. Finally we ...
Reactive Hepatitis B Surface Antigen will reflex to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Confirmatory neutralization test for an ... Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN ...
Biosynthesis and cell surface localization of nonglycosylated human histocompatibility antigens.. Ploegh HL, Orr HT, Stominger ... Pulse-chase experiments, in conjunction with the isolation of cell-surface HLA-A and -B antigens by adsorbing the monoclonal ... The effects of the inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, tunicamycin, on the synthesis of HLA-A and -B antigens in the human ... Thus it may be concluded that the carbohydrate side chains of HLA-A and -B antigens do not contribute significantly to the ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs ... Hep B surface antigen positive. I am diagnosed as Hep B carrier.My test reports:HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative. ... Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe ... Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe ...
... gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacteriummediated transformation. Four different expression... ... Agrobacterium Edible vaccine Embryogenic cells Hepatitis B surface antigen Transgenic banana Abbreviations. ADS. Adenine ... Mason HS, Lam DMK, Arntzen CJ (1992) Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89: ... Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the s gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated ...
... surface antigen]) intended for persons living in Australia. ... Management in the AFM business unit of Brukers Nano Surfaces ...
Identification and Management of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg)--Positive Persons. Persons with chronic hepatitis B virus ...
Walsh F.S., Moore S.E., Nayak R. (1985) Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and ... Differential Expression of Cell-Surface Antigens on Muscle Satellite Cells and Myoblasts. ... We have produced a panel of antibodies (Abs) that define muscle differentiation antigens in an attempt to produce antigenic ...
Hepatitis b surface antigen definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation ... hepatitis b surface antigen in Medicine Expand. hepatitis B surface antigen n. Abbr. HBsAg An antigen of the small spherical ...
The repeated mini-exon sequence that encodes the first 35 base pairs of all variant surface antigen mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei ... Apparent discontinuous transcription of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface antigen genes.. Campbell DA, Thornton DA, Boothroyd ... It thus seems that variant surface antigen mRNAs are transcribed discontinuously, and we present two alternative models for how ...
1990)‎. A malaria sporozoite surface antigen distinct from the circumsporozoite protein.. Bulletin of the World Health ...
Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein- ...
Mouse Cell Surface Antigens: Nomenclature and Immunophenotyping Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Mouse Cell Surface Antigens: Nomenclature and Immunophenotyping. Lily Lai, Noosheen Alaverdi, Lois Maltais and Herbert C. Morse ... Cell surface antigens expressed by subsets of pre-B cells and B cells. J. Immunol. 132: 332. ... The murine homologue of the T lymphocyte antigen CD28: molecular cloning and cell surface expression. J. Immunol. 144: 3201. ...
... prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), is a prostate-specific cell surface antigen expressed strongly by both androgen-dependent ... Prostate stem cell antigen: A cell surface marker overexpressed in prostate cancer. Robert E. Reiter, Zhennen Gu, Tetsuro ... stem cell antigen 2;. PLC,. phospholipase C;. PSCA,. prostate stem cell antigen;. GPI,. glycosylphosphatidylinositol. ... prostate-specific antigen;. PSMA,. prostate-specific membrane antigen;. RDA,. representational difference analysis;. RT-PCR,. ...
AU antigen is defined by reactions of sera from patient AU with cell-surface antigens of cultured autologous melanoma cells (SK ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization. T E Carey, K O Lloyd, T ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ...
In contrast, B cells producing neutralizing antibodies against the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been studied in little ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human T lymphocyte surface structures have essentially contributed to a better understanding of ... Antigen recognition by human T lymphocytes is linked to surface expression of the T3 molecular complex. Cell 30: 735.PubMed ... 1986) T14, A Non-modulating 150-Kd T Cell Surface Antigen. In: Reinherz E.L., Haynes B.F., Nadler L.M., Bernstein I.D. (eds) ... Clonotypic structures involved in antigen-specific human T cell function. J. Exp. Med. 157: 705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Proliferation of Thymus Derived Cells in Response to Cell Surface Antigens Lead researcher. C Cheers ...
... the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface ...
T 2126/08 (Surface antigen/ORTHO-CLINICAL DIAGNOSTICS) of 23.4.2013. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2013: ... The amino acid sequence of the surface antigen of the newly identified HBV strain, called LBN, had five amino acid differences ... 1. An isolated variant hepatitis B surface antigen comprising an amino acid sequence wherein mutations from hepatitis B wild ... surface antigen variant which was published as EP 1 142 906. ... A hepatitis B virus (subtype ayw) surface antigen variant. ...
The nAbs of the indicated specificity were used for detection of the viral surface antigens. Scale bar: 0.2 μm. (. D. ) BHK-21 ... Schematic describing the topology of GPs and NPs of the above viruses on the surface and inside infectious particles, ... the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface ...
  • Here, we performed a systematic microscopy-based analysis of antigen trafficking in B cells to reveal its route to the MHCII peptide-loading compartment (MIIC). (nih.gov)
  • In these vesicles, internalised antigen converged rapidly with membrane-derived MHCII and partially overlapped with Cathepsin-S and H2-M, both required for peptide loading. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our data suggests that, in addition to previously-reported perinuclear late endosomal MIICs, antigen processing and peptide loading could start already in these specialized early peripheral acidic vesicles (eMIIC) to support fast peptide-MHCII presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Class II major histocompatibility complex molecules undergo a change in structure upon stable binding of peptide antigen. (nih.gov)
  • There are numerous empty class II molecules on the cell surface and peptide antigen is evidently important in regulating surface class II expression. (nih.gov)
  • The endogenous pathway is used to present cellular peptide fragments on the cell surface on MHC class I molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • If there has been an infection with viruses or bacteria, the cell will present an endogenous or exogenous peptide fragment derived from the antigen bound to MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • After releasing from tapasin, peptide-MHC-I complexes (pMHC-I) exit the ER and are transported to the cell surface by exocytic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mice demonstrate that β2 microglobulin is necessary for cell surface expression of MHC class I and stability of the peptide binding groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elution can be done combining low-pH elution buffer with sonification, which, in addition to loosening the peptide-target interaction, also serves to detach the target molecule from the immobilization surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules interact with small peptide fragments for presentation on the surface of antigen-presenting immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike classical HLA class I molecules, which possess ten highly conserved amino acids responsible for antigen recognition, HLA-F only has 5, suggesting a biological function different from peptide presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-F can associate with TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) and with the multimeric complex involved in peptide loading. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this crystal structure, we mutagenized ICAM-2 to localize the binding site for the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). (pnas.org)
  • The repeated mini-exon sequence that encodes the first 35 base pairs of all variant surface antigen mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei directs the synthesis of a discrete 137-nucleotide transcript. (nih.gov)
  • In general, this well-established method employs second-layer antiimmunoglobulin, coupled to an appropriate detector, to label first-layer antibody specific for a particular antigen. (springer.com)
  • This particular antigen contains many cysteine residues which lead to disulphide bridge formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of cell surface antigens is critical to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for the management of prostate cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Following the primary course of 3 vaccinations, a blood test may be taken after an interval of 1-4 months to establish if there has been an adequate response, which is defined as an anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-Hbs) antibody level above 100 mIU/ml. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of cathepsin S is tightly regulated by its endogenous inhibitor, cystatin C, which also has a role in antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme has a critical role in antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is effective at identifying men who may have prostate cancer but is often elevated in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, and other nonmalignant disorders ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • After affinity chromatography on LcH-agarose, the specific activity of AU antigen was increased 50-fold. (pnas.org)
  • While the biochemical principles of antigen processing and MHCII loading have been well dissected, how the endosomal vesicle system is wired to enable these specific functions remains much less studied. (nih.gov)
  • While specific antibody for Salmonella is available on the market under the commercial names (of some kits) such as Febrile Antigen Kit (N.S. BIO-TEC), we used the described Kit to investigate the validity of the SLRP. (hindawi.com)
  • Arora SK, Sharma R, Kaur G, Bhoria P, Sharma M, Luthra-Guptasarma M. Towards an indirect screening technique facilitating detection of cellular populations bearing specific cell surface markers. (umassmed.edu)
  • The IgSF integrin ligands play specific and in some cases overlapping roles in leukocyte recirculation and recruitment at sites of inflammation, antigen-specific T cell responses and other cell-cell interactions essential for immune surveillance ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients' serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients' treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. (frontiersin.org)
  • To achieve this, the availability of sensitive and specific tests to detect cell-surface autoantibodies is of key importance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Then, a further specific antibody is applied over the surface so it can bind to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sample with an unknown amount of antigen is immobilized on a solid support (usually a polystyrene microtiter plate) either non-specifically (via adsorption to the surface) or specifically (via capture by another antibody specific to the same antigen, in a "sandwich" ELISA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In between the washes, only the ligand and its specific binding counterparts remain specifically bound or "immunosorbed" by antigen-antibody interactions to the solid phase, while the nonspecific or unbound components are washed away. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ehrlich believed that each antigen-specific amboceptor has its own specific complement, whereas Bordet believed that there is only one type of complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antigens can be visualized using a combination of antigen-specific antibody as well as a means of detection, called a tag, that is covalently linked to the antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it is impractical to fuse a tag to every conceivable antigen-specific antibody, most immunolabeling processes use an indirect method of detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement activity is not antigen sensitive, but can be triggered by specific antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a particular allergen is present, sensitization takes place and prepares the system to launch an antigen specific response. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen specific to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agglutination between the antigen and the antibody is made with a specific antisera, which reacts with the antigen to produce a mass. (wikipedia.org)