Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (1/8474)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

gp49B1 inhibits IgE-initiated mast cell activation through both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, recruitment of src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1, and suppression of early and late calcium mobilization. (2/8474)

We define by molecular, pharmacologic, and physiologic approaches the proximal mechanism by which the immunoglobulin superfamily member gp49B1 inhibits mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity Fc receptor for IgE (FcepsilonRI). In rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells expressing transfected mouse gp49B1, mutation of tyrosine to phenylalanine in either of the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs of the gp49B1 cytoplasmic domain partially suppressed gp49B1-mediated inhibition of exocytosis, whereas mutation of both abolished inhibitory capacity. Sodium pervanadate elicited tyrosine phosphorylation of native gp49B1 and association of the tyrosine phosphatases src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2 in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). SHP-1 associated transiently with gp49B1 within 1 min after coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI in mBMMCs. SHP-1-deficient mBMMCs exhibited a partial loss of gp49B1-mediated inhibition of FcepsilonRI-induced exocytosis at concentrations of IgE providing optimal exocytosis, revealing a central, but not exclusive, SHP-1 requirement in the counter-regulatory pathway. Coligation of gp49B1 with cross-linked FcepsilonRI on mBMMCs inhibited early release of calcium from intracellular stores and subsequent influx of extracellular calcium, consistent with SHP-1 participation. Because exocytosis is complete within 2 min in mBMMCs, our studies establish a role for SHP-1 in the initial counter-regulatory cellular responses whereby gp49B1 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs rapidly transmit inhibition of FcepsilonRI-mediated exocytosis.  (+info)

Preparation of antibodies directed to the Babesia ovata- or Theileria sergenti-parasitized erythrocytes. (3/8474)

To investigate the surface antigens of the bovine red blood cells (RBCs) parasitized by Babesia ovata or Theileria sergenti, attempts were made to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with BALB/c mice. Comparable numbers of hybridomas producing anti-piroplasm mAbs, as well as anti-bovine RBC mAbs, were obtained from the mice immunized with B. ovata- or T. sergenti-PRBCs. However, mAbs directed to the surface of parasitized RBCs (PRBCs) were obtained only from the mice immunized with B. ovata-PRBCs, but not from those immunized with T. sergenti-PRBCs. When serum samples from the immunized mice and the infected cattle were examined, antibodies recognizing B. ovata-PRBC surface were detected in the sera against B. ovata, but analogous antibodies were undetectable in the sera against T. sergenti, despite that the sera showed substantial antibody titers to T. sergenti piroplasms. The results suggest that significant antigenic modifications occur on the surface of B. ovata-PRBCs, but not on the surface of T. sergenti-PRBCs.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (4/8474)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Cell surface-associated lipoteichoic acid acts as an adhesion factor for attachment of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. (5/8474)

The influence of pH on the adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 human intestinal cells was investigated. One strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, was adherent at any pH between 4 and 7. The other one, L. acidophilus La10, did not attach to this cell line under the same experimental conditions. On the basis of these results, we used the monoclonal antibody technique as a tool to determine differences on the surface of these bacteria and to identify a factor for adhesion. Mice were immunized with live La1, and the hybridomas produced by fusion of spleen cells with ONS1 cells were screened for the production of antibodies specific for L. johnsonii La1. A set of these monoclonal antibodies was directed against a nonproteinaceous component of the L. johnsonii La1 surface. It was identified as lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This molecule was isolated, chemically characterized, and tested in adhesion experiments in the same system. The adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to Caco-2 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent way by purified LTA as well as by L. johnsonii La1 culture supernatant that contained LTA. These results showed that the mechanism of adhesion of L. johnsonii La1 to human Caco-2 cells involves LTA.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (6/8474)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Two-gene control of the expression of a murine Ia antigen. (7/8474)

Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Non-Idet P-40 extracts and of specific Ia immunoprecipitates from [35S]methionine-labeled mouse spleen lymphocytes has revealed that the cell surface expression of some Ia antigens appears to be controlled by two genes. One locus, which maps in the I-A subregion, is probably the structural gene for an Ia polypeptide chain. The second locus, which maps between the I-J and H-2D regions, controls whether this I-A encoded molecule (Ae) remains in the cytoplasm or is modified and expressed on the cell surface. Complementation between these two loci allowing surface expression of Ae can occur in the cis or trans chromosomal position. Both the I-A molecule and a polypeptide chain coded for by a locus in I-E are coprecipitated by anti-I-E antibodies, suggesting that these two chains are associated with each other as a multisubunit complex in the cell. Because the ability to complement I-A for Ae expression is a property only of those strains which synthesize an I-E-encoded protein, it is likely that the I-E product itself is regulating the expression of Ae. These observations suggest several mechanisms by which interaction between two I region loci can generate new cell surface molecules. As a result, they may have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of two gene control of immune responsiveness and immune suppression.  (+info)

Immunomodulatory effects of glycine on LPS-treated monocytes: reduced TNF-alpha production and accelerated IL-10 expression. (8/8474)

Cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) stimulate the progression of septic shock whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 has counterregulative potency. The amino acid glycine (GLY) has been shown to protect against endotoxin shock in the rat by inhibiting TNF-alpha production. In the current study we investigated the role of GLY on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced cell surface marker expression, phagocytosis, and cytokine production on purified monocytes from healthy donors. GLY did not modulate the expression of HLA-DR and CD64 on monocytes, whereas CD11b/CD18 expression (P<0.05) and E. coli phagocytosis (P<0.05) decreased significantly. GLY decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha production (P<0.01) and increased IL-10 expression of purified monocytes. Similarly, in a whole blood assay, GLY reduced TNF-alpha (P<0.0001) and IL-1beta (P<0.0001) synthesis and increased IL-10 expression (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of GLY were neutralized by strychnine, and the production of IL-10 and TNF-alpha was augmented by anti-IL-10 antibodies. Furthermore, GLY decreased the amount of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha-specific mRNA. Our data indicate that GLY has a potential to be used as an additional immunomodulatory tool in the early phase of sepsis and in different pathophysiological situations related to hypoxia and reperfusion.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer-assisted densitometric analysis for quantification of cell surface antigen expression in monkey cardiac allografts. T2 - Correspondence to histopathologic grade of rejection. AU - Kitamura, M.. AU - Lackides, G. A.. AU - Billingham, M. E.. AU - Clayberger, C.. AU - Starnes, V. A.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 8442269. AN - SCOPUS:0027462720. VL - 25. SP - 924. EP - 927. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 1 SUPPL. 1. ER - ...
CD26 and CD31 surface antigen expression on human colostral T cells.: The expression levels of CD26 and CD31 surface antigens, two adhesion/activation molecules
Lubaroff, D M., Antigenic markers on rat lymphocytes. I. Characterization of a.r.t., An alloantigenic marker on rat thymus and thymus-derived cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2102 ...
Tumor cells were treated with rabbit antibody to tumor-associated cell surface antigens and tested with erythrocytes coated with antibody specific for the sensitizing rabbit immunoglobulin. The sensitized tumor cells formed rosettes with the indicator cells. By this method, we confirmed that line 1 and line 10 hepatoma cells (from two tumors independently induced by diethylnitrosamine in strain 2 guinea pigs) bear antigens not present on normal liver cells. We also confirmed that line 1 and line 10 cells bear antigenically different tumor-associated cell surface antigens. This method appears simpler than other serological methods for detecting tumor-associated cell surface antigens on tumor cells. Also, this method may be a general one for detecting and enumerating cells bearing surface antigens.. ...
The pathogen. · Has antigens which identify it as foreign. Infected cells. · May damage attacking pathogens with organelles such as lysosomes and display them on their surface membrane (antigen presentation). Macrophages. · Act like phagocytes, engulfing and digesting any pathogens. · Separate out antigens from digested pathogens and display them in antigen presentation. · Release monokines which attract neutrophils and stimulate B and T cell division and differentiation. T cells. · Matching T cells detect the antigen using receptors on their cell membranes- this…. ...
The TandAb technology enables the development of innovative antibody therapeutics for improved treatment of various diseases. This platform has been primarily applied to oncology and comprises of CD3 RECRUIT- and CD16A RECRUIT-TandAbs for activation of T and NK effector cells, respectively, and lysis of target cells expressing specific surface antigens. The CD3 RECRUIT-TandAb AFM11 is a human bispecific tetravalent antibody with two binding sites for the α-chain of CD3 and two binding sites for CD19. CD19 is expressed at early stages of B cell development and persists until the final differentiation into plasma cells. Thus, CD19 represents an attractive target for the treatment of various B cell malignancies including leukemias and lymphomas that lack CD20 expression or are refractory to anti-CD20 antibody therapies. In vitro cytotoxicity assays employing tumor cell lines demonstrate high potency of AFM11 in mediating target cell lysis: EC50 values are in the low to sub-picomolar range ...
Fenyo, E M. and Grundner, G, Expression of virus-controlled cell surface antigen(s) in hybrids between mouse l cells (a9 subline) and various mouse and human cells derived from tumours and normal tissues. Abstr. (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 647 ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human T lymphocyte surface structures have essentially contributed to a better understanding of cellular mechanisms and interactions involved in the generation of human T...
[140 Pages Report] The cell surface markers market is valued at an estimated USD 520 million in 2018 and is projected to reach USD 769 million by 2023, at a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 attenuates acute lung injury in mice after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. AU - Cui, Tianpen. AU - Miksa, Michael. AU - Wu, Rongqian. AU - Komura, Hidefumi. AU - Zhou, Mian. AU - Dong, Weifeng. AU - Wang, Zhimin. AU - Higuchi, Shinya. AU - Chaung, Wayne. AU - Blau, Steven A.. AU - Marini, Corrado P.. AU - Ravikumar, Thanjavur S.. AU - Wang, Ping. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Rationale: Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a potent opsonin for the clearance of apoptotic cells and is produced by mononuclear cells of immune competent organs including the spleen and lungs. It attenuates chronic and acute inflammation such as autoimmune glomerulonephritis and bacterial sepsis by enhancing apoptotic cell clearance. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the gut results in severe inflammation, apoptosis, and remote organ damage, including acute lung injury (ALI). Objectives: To determine whether MFG-E8 attenuates ...
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of Naturally Processed Helper T-Cell Epitopes from Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Using Peptide-Based in Vitro Stimulation. AU - Kobayashi, Hiroya. AU - Omiya, Ryusuke. AU - Sodey, Benjamin. AU - Yanai, Mitsuru. AU - Oikawa, Kensuke. AU - Sato, Keisuke. AU - Kimura, Shoji. AU - Senju, Satoru. AU - Nishimura, Yasuharu. AU - Tateno, Masatoshi. AU - Celis, Esteban. PY - 2003/11/1. Y1 - 2003/11/1. N2 - Purpose: There is growing evidence that CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (HTLs) play an essential role in the induction and long-term maintenance of antitumor CTL responses. Thus, approaches to develop effective T-cell-based immunotherapy should focus in the stimulation of both CTLs and HTLs reactive against tumor-associated antigens. The present studies were performed with the purpose of identifying HTL epitopes for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) for the optimization of vaccines for prostate cancer. Experimental Design: Synthetic peptides from regions of the ...
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Solving the Convergence Problem in the Synthesis of Triantennary N-Glycan Relevant to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Journal Article ...
Picture of Chemical structure of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA,.. stock photo, images and stock photography.. Image 16083639.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Radiolabeled small molecules that bind with high affinity to its active extracellular center have emerged as a potential new diagnostic standard of reference for prostate cancer, resulting in images with extraordinary tumor-to-background contrast.
Accurate staging of high-risk localised, advanced, and metastatic prostate cancer is becoming increasingly more important in guiding local and systemic treatment. Gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) has increasingly been utilised globally to assess the local and metastatic burden of prostate cancer, typically in biochemically recurrent or advanced disease.
Journal: EJNMMI - European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ArticleTitle: Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET imaging and immunohistochemistry in adenoid cystic carcinoma-a preliminary analysis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrin-associated protein. T2 - A 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and functionally associated with integrins. AU - Brown, Eric. AU - Hooper, Lora. AU - Ho, Thang. AU - Gresham, Hattie. PY - 1990/12/1. Y1 - 1990/12/1. N2 - Phagocytosis by monocytes or neutrophils can be enhanced by interaction with several proteins or synthetic peptides containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. Recently we showed that an mAb, B6H12, specifically inhibited this enhancement of neutrophi1 phagocytosis by inhibiting Arg-Gly-Asp binding to the leukocyte response integrin (Gresham, H.D., J.L. Goodwin, P.M. Allen, D.C. Anderson, and E.J. Brown. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1935-1943). Now, we have purified the antigen recognized by B6H12 to homogeneity. Surprisingly, it is a 50-kD molecu1e that is expressed on the plasma membranes of all hematopoietic cells, including erythrocytes, which express no known integrins. On platelets and placenta, but not on erythrocytes, this protein is associated with an ...
Complete information for MFGE8 gene (Protein Coding), Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8 Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The CD56 antigen is a 140 kDa isoform of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (N-CAM). Post-translational modifications to the polypeptide include N- and O- glycosylations, acylation, sulphation and phosphorylation. The different N-CAM isoforms have molecular weights ranging from 135 to 220 kDa. The CD56 antigen is moderately expressed on a subpopulation of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes and on all cells with NK activity. It is also expressed by subsets of T lymphocytes. CD56 antibodies do not react with granulocytes, monocytes or B cells.
TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell recognition of QA-1b antigens on cells lacking a functional Tap-2 transporter. AU - Aldrich, C. J.. AU - Waltrip, R.. AU - Hermel, E.. AU - Attaya, M.. AU - Lindahl, K. F.. AU - Monaco, J. J.. AU - Forman, J.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - MHC class Ia H chains and β2-microglobulin assemble with appropriate peptides to form stable cell surface molecules that serve as targets for Ag- specific CTL. The structural similarities of class Ia and the less polymorphic Q/T/M (class Ib) molecules suggest that class Ib molecules also play a role in antigen presentation, although the origin of the peptides they present remains mostly unclear. The cell line RMA-S has a defect in class I Ag presentation, presumably due to a mutation in a peptide transporter gene. This defect can be overcome by transfection of RMA-S cells with the Tap-2 gene (formerly Ham-2) that encodes an ATP-binding transporter protein. We now show that a substantial portion of alloreactive CTL specific for ...
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Looking for differentiation antigen? Find out information about differentiation antigen. A cell surface antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation Explanation of differentiation antigen
There is an urgent need for an effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PC). Prostate tumors invariably overexpress prostate surface membrane antigen (PSMA). We designed a nonviral vector, PEI-PEG-DUPA (PPD), comprising polyethylenimine-polyethyleneglycol (PEI-PEG) tethered to the PSMA ligand, 2-[3-(1, 3-dicarboxy propyl)ureido] pentanedioic acid (DUPA), to treat PC. The purpose of PEI is to bind polyinosinic/polycytosinic acid (polyIC) and allow endosomal release, while DUPA targets PC cells. PolyIC activates multiple pathways that lead to tumor cell death and to the activation of bystander effects that harness the immune system against the tumor, attacking nontargeted neighboring tumor cells and reducing the probability of acquired resistance and disease recurrence ...
Y Nakamura, M Noma, M Kidokoro, N Kobayashi, M Takei, S Kurashima, T Mukaiyama, S Kato; Expression of CD33 antigen on normal human activated T lymphocytes [letter]. Blood 1994; 83 (5): 1442-1443. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Immunofluorescence labeling of cell surface antigens in Dictyostelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
cal microscopy and flow cytometry studies were employed to examine the involvement of these processes in the uptake of F-Ab40 by neuronal cells. Localization of
BioMagnetic Solutions has engineered next generation ferrofluids (nano-magnetic liquids) with enhanced magnetics for selective recovery and/or enrichment of cells expressing specific surface antigens or for capturing macromolecules. The augmented magnetic character of our materials increases their magnetic pull which lowers limits of detection and saves time (in concert with our more powerful quadrupole and hexapole magnets) enabling researchers to work more efficiently.. ...
Shop Surface antigen ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Surface antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY : ANIMAL CELL, PER SE (E.G., CELL LINES, ETC.); COMPOSITION THEREOF; PROCESS OF PROPAGATING, MAINTAINING OR PRESERVING AN ANIMAL CELL OR COMPOSITION THEREOF; PROCESS OF ISOLATING OR SEPARATING AN ANIMAL CELL OR COMPOSITION THEREOF; PROCESS OF PREPARING A COMPOSITION CONTAINING AN ANIMAL CELL; CULTURE MEDIA THEREFORE : Animal cell, per se, expressing immunoglobulin, antibody, or fragment thereof : Immunoglobulin or antibody binds a microorganism or normal or mutant component or product thereof (e.g., animal cell, cell surface antigen, secretory product, etc.) : Binds a cancer cell or component or product thereof (e.g., cell surface antigen, etc.) : Binds a lymphocytic or lymphocytic-like cell or component or product thereof (e.g., B cell, B-lineage bone marrow cell, null cell, natural killer cell, B-lymphoblastoid cell, B-lineage, acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell, B-lymphocytic cell surface antigen, etc ...
During the last several years, the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and corresponding radiolabeled inhibitors have become one of the most …
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform anti-SSEA-1 (m), monoclonal antibody [ASA-0135] - The SSEA family is a group of cell-surface antigenic markers expressed on ES/iPS cells. SSEA-1 is highly expressed in mouse ES/iPS cells but not in human ES/iPS cells. Ap
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
Australský antigen je označení pro antigen viru hepatitidy B, který se nachází na povrchu virových částic. Označuje se též jako „surface antigen (HBsAg). Diagnostika přítomnosti antigenu v krvi je důležitá pro diagnostiku hepatitidy B ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD64 antibody, clone 10.1|/strong| recognizes the human CD64 cell surface antigen, a ~75 kDa glycoprotein expressed by monocytes. The antigen acts as a high affinity rece…
Mouse anti Human CD163 antibody, clone EDHu-1 recognizes the human CD163 cell surface antigen, a 130-140 kDa glycoprotein expressed by tissue macropha
PSMA兔多克隆抗体(ab41034)可与人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
When a specific frequency of light is shone on the tissue, the reporter can be made to fluoresce. The presence of fluorescent color would then indicate that the antibody, and thus the antigen, is present in the tissue, meaning that the cell would be positive for the cluster of differentiation being identified.[7] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mapping of the active site of glutamate carboxypeptidase II by site-directed mutagenesis. AU - Mlčochová, Petra. AU - Plechanovová, Anna. AU - Bařinka, Cyril. AU - Mahadevan, Daruka. AU - Saldanha, Jose W.. AU - Rulíšek, Lubomír. AU - Konvalinka, Jan. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - Human glutamate carboxypeptidase II [GCPII (EC] is recognized as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment and imaging of various pathologies, including neurological disorders and prostate cancer. Recently reported crystal structures of GCPII provide structural insight into the organization of the substrate binding cavity and highlight residues implicated in substrate/inhibitor binding in the S1′ site of the enzyme. To complement and extend the structural studies, we constructed a model of GCPII in complex with its substrate, N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate, which enabled us to predict additional amino acid residues interacting with the bound substrate, and used ...
Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Antibody-Drug Conjugate (PSMA ADC) 1301EXT is an open-label, nonrandomized, phase 1 extension study of PSMA ADC administered IV in subjects with progressive CMPC that has progressed after prior taxane therapy. Subjects who have participated in PSMA ADC 1301 and who, in the opinion of the PI, are likely to benefit from continued treatment with PSMA ADC will be enrolled in PSMA ADC 1301EXT ...
G then able to bind inner PM phospholipids as well as cytoplasmic membranes of organelles (Fig. 3d; Table 1); and/or (ii) incubated with cells to target outer leaflet phospholipids after transbilayer flip-flop. The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is one of these well-characterized probes specific for Aprotinin price phosphoinositides (PIs; [122]). The 100 amino acid-PH domain is contained in several proteins, such as pleckstrin or phospholipase C (PLC), with distinct binding affinity for different PIs [123]. For instance, PH domain of PLC (PH-PLC) has a high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) [124, 125]. The discoidin C2 domain is another probe, specific for phosphatidylserine (PS). The 160 amino acid-discoidin C2 domain is present in blood coagulation factors V and VIII, milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFGE8; also known as lactadherin [Lact-C2]) and other plasma proteins. PH or discoidin C2 domains can be fluorescently tagged, allowing to study phospholipid membrane ...
Cell lines derived from human small cell carcinoma of the lung express high levels of a surface polypeptide termed the cluster-w4 antigen, which was previously identified as a potential target for toxin-based immunotherapy of lung cancer. We have cloned a complementary DNA encoding the cluster-w4 antigen from COS-1 fibroblasts transfected with a SW2 small cell carcinoma library, by panning with a mixture of the cluster-w4-specific monoclonal antibodies SWA11, SWA21, and SWA22. The sequence of the cluster-w4 complementary DNA encodes an unusually short (80-amino acid) protein identical to that recently reported for the leukocyte activation molecule CD24 except for a single valine-alanine substitution due to a single-base polymorphism within the region of the gene coding for the extracellular domain. Biochemical analyses of the cloned cluster-w4 antigen confirmed both the presence of the phosphatidylinositol tail and the extensive glycosylation reported for the CD24 molecule. Furthermore, the cloned
Levels of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM in muscle are regulated in parallel with the susceptibility of muscle to innervation: N-CAM is abundant on the surface of early embryonic myotubes, declines in level as development proceeds, reappears when adult muscles are denervated or paralyzed, and is lost after reinnervation (Covault, J., and J. R. Sanes, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:4544-4548). Here we used immunocytochemical methods to compare this pattern of expression with those of several other molecules known to be involved in cellular adhesion. Laminin, fibronectin, and a basal lamina-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan accumulate on embryonic myotubes after synapse formation, and their levels change little after denervation. L1, J1, nerve growth factor-inducible large external protein, uvomorulin, and a carbohydrate epitope (L2/HNK-1) shared by several adhesion molecules are undetectable on the surface of embryonic, perinatal, adult, or denervated adult muscle fibers. ...
Chronic pain often accompanies immune-related diseases with an elevated level of IgG immune complex (IgG-IC) in the serum and/or the affected tissues though the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. shown that neuronal FcRI triggers a nonselective cation channel, which may contribute to the IgG-IC-induced excitation of DRG neurons[19,30]. Moreover, TRPC3 acts as a novel and crucial downstream transduction channel mediating… More →. ...
Authors: Michael S Hofman, Peter Eu, Price Jackson, Emily Hong, David Binns, Amir Iravani, Declan Murphy, Catherine Mitchell, Shankar Siva, Rodney J Hicks, Jennifer D Young, Philip J Blower, Gregory E Mullen
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目的: 检测前列腺特异性膜抗原(prostate specific membrane antigen,PSMA)基因及蛋白在前列腺癌组织中的表达?方法:分别采用半定量RT-PCR法及免疫组织化学法检测52例前列腺癌组织及35例前列腺增生组织中PSMA基因及蛋白的表达情况?结果:①PSMA在前列腺癌及前列腺增生组织中表达阳性率分别为84.6%(44/52)及68.6%(24/35),虽然前列腺癌组织中PSMA表达阳性率高于前列腺增生组织,但两组阳性率间差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05)?PSMA mRNA半定量结果在两组间存在差异,癌组织中PSMA的表达量明显高于增生组织中的表达(P < 0.05)?②前列腺癌组织中PSMA蛋白表达总阳性率高达94.2%,明显高于增生组织中的阳性率(65.7%),且以++~+++居多?结论:PSMA基因及蛋白的表达在前列腺癌组织均高于前列腺增生组织,提示其可作为前列腺癌诊断指标?;Objective: To investigate the expression of prostate specific membrane antigen(PSMA) gene and protein in
Recombinant Human Glutamate carboxypeptidase 2 Protein. Synthesized in e. coli. Protein Tag: His. Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. From $88
Putative endothelial cell (EC) progenitors or angioblasts were isolated from human peripheral blood by magnetic bead selection on the basis of cell surface antigen expression. In vitro, these cells differentiated into ECs. In animal models of ischemia, heterologous, homologous, and autologous EC progenitors incorporated into sites of active angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EC progenitors may be useful for augmenting collateral vessel growth to ischemic tissues (therapeutic angiogenesis) and for delivering anti- or pro-angiogenic agents, respectively, to sites of pathologic or utilitarian angiogenesis.. ...
Malaria is a disease that affects millions of people annually. An intracellular habitat and lack of protein synthesizing machinery in erythrocytes pose numerous difficulties for survival of the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite refurbishes the infected red blood cell (iRBC) by synthesis and export of several proteins in an attempt to suffice its metabolic needs and evade the host immune response. Immune evasion is largely mediated by surface display of highly polymorphic protein families known as variable surface antigens. These include the two trans-membrane (2TM) superfamily constituted by multicopy repetitive interspersed family (RIFINs), subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVORs) and Plasmodium falciparum Maurers cleft two trans-membrane proteins present only in P. falciparum and some simian infecting Plasmodium species. Their hypervariable region flanked by 2TM domains exposed on the iRBC surface is believed to generate antigenic diversity. Though historically named
While many cell types produce type I IFN in vitro when exposed to double-stranded (ds)RNA and some RNA viruses, a specialized leukocyte is responsible for the IFN-α production induced by a wider spectrum of agents, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, certain cell lines, and also unmethylated CpG-DNA (6-8). This major IFN-α-producing cell (IPC) was early on designated natural IPC (NIPC) and subsequent work (for a review see reference 6) revealed that NIPCs were infrequent (∼0.1% of PBMCs) but very productive on a per cell basis (∼10 pg IFN-α per cell). The expression of the IFN-α/β genes induced in NIPCs was markedly dependent on costimulation (priming) of the cells by cytokines, in particular IL-3, GM-CSF, and type I IFNs. These cells lacked lineage specific surface antigens, but expressed MHC class II (for a review, see reference 6). The NIPCs were shown to express, e.g., CD4, CD36, CD40, CD44, CD45RA, and CD83, but lacked CD80, CD86, and CD11c, suggesting they were immature DCs ...
The human 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is expressed by all types of trophoblast in pregnancy but is not detected on most adult tissues, although low levels are found on some epithelia. However, this antigen is strongly expressed by many cancers and tumour-associated labelling correlates with metastatic spread and poor clinical outcome for patients with gastric and colon cancer. Over-expression of the gene influences cell adhesion, shape and motility, which may be related to changes in the cellular localisation of the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen as malignancy develops. To establish whether the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen can serve as a tumour-specific marker for oral cancer and precancer, we have evaluated the pattern of expression on biopsies of normal, inflamed and dysplastic oral mucosa using immunohistochemistry. Oral mucosa, taken from different sites in the mouth, expressed the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen with varying intensity and pattern. The majority of the immunoreactivity was detected in the basal and ...
Virtually all human granular lymphocytes expressed the HNK-1 differentiation antigen when examined in lymphoid compartments from adults, neonates, and fetuses. The HNK-1+ cells were distinguishable into three subsets having distinct antigenic phenotypes: HNK+T3-M1-, HNK+T3+M1-, and HNK+T3-M1+. Thus, greater than 70% of the HNK-1+ cells from 13-17 wk fetuses (less than 0.2% of nucleated cells) lacked T cell antigens (e.g., T3, T8, T4, and T6) and the M1 myeloid antigen. Morphologically, the HNK+T3-M1- cells consisted of three different types: small granular lymphocytes (less than 10% of HNK-1+ cells), agranular small lymphocytes with a narrow rim of cytoplasm (70-80%), and agranular giant cells (greater than 15 micrometers) with considerable neutrophilic cytoplasm (15%). The purified fetal HNK-1+ cells exhibited a low level of cytotoxicity against K562 target cells. On the other hand, almost all of HNK-1+ cells in neonatal tissues as well as adult bone marrow, lymph node, and thymus, exhibited ...
Cell surface markers are proteins expressed on the surface of cells that often conveniently serve as markers of specific cell types. For example, T cell and B cell surface markers identify their lineage and stage in the differentiation process. These lymphocytes differentiate into multiple cell subtypes, necessary for specific biological processes. During this process, lymphocytes express different surface receptors, which can be used to identify cellular subtypes, such as progenitor cells or terminally differentiated T helper cells. Inappropriate cellular ratios of differentiated white blood cells, such as the relative amounts of Th1 and Th2 cells, occur in pathophysiological conditions such as autoimmunity. The presence of cell surface markers can also determine if a cell type expresses the specific receptor important for a biological response. Testing for surface marker expression is also essential to determine if an experimental drug or ligand will be recognized by the cell type of interest. ...
By means of the indirect membrane immunofluorescence test, the distribution and antibody-induced redistribution (patching and capping) of a mammary tumor virus-induced (MLr) and a normal (Thy 1.2) cell-surface antigen were compared on mouse thymocytes and leukemia cells (GRSL2). At 0 degrees C Thy 1.2 fluorescence was ringlike and more intense on GRSL2 cells than on thymocytes, whereas MLr fluorescence on GRLS2 cells at this temperature was patchlike and brighter than Thy 1.2 fluorescence. At 20 or 37 degrees C, capping of Thy 1.2 on both cell types was readily achieved but MLr capping occurred only in a few GRSL2 cells and was less pronounced. However, after addition of the secondary antibodies, MLr capping was markedly increased by gradual cooling of cells to about 17 degrees C. Conversely, after addition of antibodies at 0 degrees C, gradual warming of cells under the fluorescence microscope resulted in extensive capping both of MLr and Thy 1.2 at approximately 13-14 degrees C. Rapid cooling ...
An improved system for screening a multiple of candidate therapeutic or chemotherapeutic agents for efficacy as to a specific patient, in which a tissue sample from the patient is harvested, cultured and separately exposed to a plurality of treatments and/or therapeutic agents for the purpose of objectively identifying. One particularly important tissue sample preparation technique is the initial preparation of cohesive multicellular particulates of the tissue sample. For assays concerning cancer treatment, a two-stage evaluation is contemplated in which both acute cytotoxic and longer term inhibitory effect of a given anti-cancer agent are investigated. The tissue sample technique of the present invention is also useful in assaying expression and/or secretion of various markers, factors or antigens present on or produced by the cultured cells for diagnostic purposes and for using such expression to monitor the applicability of certain candidate therapeutic or chemotherapeutic agents and the
Since its development in 1975, monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology has greatly enhanced our ability to analyse complex antigenic systems as well as improve the sensitivity and speed of many diagnostic tests. In particular, the study of tumour associated antigens using mAbs have revealed that many transformed cell phenotypes have useful markers on their plasma membrane, cytoplasm, or as secreted forms which can be used in developing diagnostic assays. Therapeutic application of these anti-tumour mAbs has however, been slow relative to the research and diagnostic applications. This article will discuss how the therapeutic effectiveness of anti-tumour mAbs can be enhanced by coupling them to drugs, toxins or radionucleids; and review the current advances and problems related to the application of these mAb conjugates ...
This study aimed to determine the changes in lymphocyte surface markers and cytokine profiles during a malarial infection in a mouse model of malaria. Mononuclear cells obtained from the spleens of the mice infected with ...
Anogen is a Canadian biopharmaceutical company, who has been producing antibody products for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
|strong|Mouse anti Human CD41 antibody, clone PM6/248|/strong| recognizes the human CD41 cell surface antigen, a ~140 kDa glycoprotein expressed by platelets and megakaryocytes. CD41 is also know…
Thy1 - Thy1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat Thy-1 cell surface antigen (Thy1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... The surface antigen CD138 (syndecan-1) is expressed at high levels.[9] ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
Surface antigens. Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A ... antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ... antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class Ib. • innate immune response. • defense ...
Surface antigens. Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A ... The N-glycans mature fully before they reach the cell surface. Peptide removal[edit]. Peptides that fail to bind MHC class I ... The α3-CD8 interaction holds the MHC I molecule in place while the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell ... It is in this way, the MHC class I-dependent pathway of antigen presentation, that the virus infected cells signal T-cells that ...
They are surface antigens. The term peplomer is rarely used today[citation needed] and is no longer used for all outwardly ... Peplomers can be seen in electron micrographs on the surface of enveloped viruses such as Orthomyxoviruses, Paramyxoviruses, ... they are responsible for the attachment of the virion to receptor sites on the host cell surface, and they bring about the ... Bamlanivimab/etesevimab is a mix of two types of monoclonal antibody that target the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Viral ...
Various combinations (DNA/surface antigens, etc.). Applications[edit]. The technology has applications in a number of fields, ... "Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types". Journal of Visualized ... co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed.[37] In marine biology, the autofluorescent ... flow cytometry is used in conjunction with yeast display and bacterial display to identify cell surface-displayed protein ...
Epigenetic reprogramming by Amanda Fisher on Vimeo Fisher, Amanda Gay (1984). Surface antigens expressed during myelopoiesis. ... "A rapid method for determining whether monoclonal antibodies react with the same or different antigens on the cell surface". ... Fisher was educated at the University of Birmingham where she was awarded a PhD in 1984 for research into antigens expressed ...
Antigen is processed 3. Processed antigen is presented on B cell surface 4. B cell and T cell mutually activate each other 5. B ... Pathogens synthesize proteins that can serve as "recognizable" antigens; they may express the molecules on their surface or ... Antigen presentation[edit]. Main articles: antigen presentation and major histocompatibility complex. After the processed ... Antigens can be large and complex substances, and any single antibody can only bind to a small, specific area on the antigen. ...
2001). "Different NK cell surface phenotypes defined by the DX9 antibody are due to KIR3DL1 gene polymorphism". J. Immunol. 166 ... Tissue Antigens. 52 (6): 510-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1998.tb03081.x. PMID 9894849. Kwon D, Chwae YJ, Choi IH, et al. (2000 ... Tissue Antigens. 56 (4): 313-26. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.560403.x. PMID 11098931. Gardiner CM, Guethlein LA, Shilling HG, ...
Blood group antigens are surface markers on the red blood cell membrane. Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. 2005. National ... The smaller polysaccharide antigens classify blood cells into types A, B, AB, and O, while the larger protein antigens classify ... These antigens can be polysaccharides, glycoproteins, or GPI (a glycolipid) -linked proteins. Antigens range in complexity, ... This phenomenon occurs when complementary molecules on opposing cell surfaces meet. A receptor on one cell surface binds to its ...
Coleman, Paul F. (2017-02-17). "Detecting Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (2): 198-203. ... If B cell receptors bind to the antigen and FC receptors simultaneously bind to the maternal antibody, the FC receptors send a ... Breakthrough cases of Hepatitis B are primarily attributed to mutations in the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) that make HBV surface ... Further, the maternal antibodies outcompete B cell receptors on the infant's B cells for binding to the antigen. Thus, an ...
There are six subspecies of S. neurona which can be identified by surface antigens (SAG). Equine EPM is caused by the parasites ... Ellison SP, Omara-Opyeme AL, Yowell C, Dame J. Molecular characterization of a major 29 kDa surface antigen of Sarcocystis ... Horses produce antibodies to these surface antigens. Serum antibody testing is available that measures levels of these ... "SnSAG5 is an alternative surface antigen of Sarcocystis neurona strains that is mutually exclusive to SnSAG1". Veterinary ...
In 1974, she completed her doctoral thesis, Immunochemical studies of human cell surface antigens, and flew to Britain on the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Williams, Keryn Anne (1974). "Immunochemical studies of human cell surface antigens". ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... specific for a certain antigen or surface component, bind to the pathogen with their Fab region (fragment antigen binding ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ... The Fc receptor on NK cells recognize IgG that is bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell and is called CD16 or ...
In the example of CD4 & CD8, these molecules are critical in antigen recognition. Others (e.g., CD135) act as cell surface ... Beare, Alice; Stockinger, Hannes; Zola, Heddy; Nicholson, Ian (2008). "Monoclonal Antibodies to Human Cell Surface Antigens". ... The proposed surface molecule is assigned a CD number once two specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are shown to bind to the ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ...
CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (https ...
Daniels G, Green C (2000). "Expression of red cell surface antigens during erythropoiesis". Vox Sang. 78 Suppl 2: 149-53. PMID ... This antigen is also known as the Rs(a) antigen. The Ahonen (Ana) antigen was first reported in 1972. The antigen is found on ... The antigen was discovered in 1960 when three women who lacked the antigen made anti-Gea in response to pregnancy. The antigen ... This antigen is sensitive to trypsin but resistant to chymotrypsin and Endo F. The Lewis II (Ls(a); Ge-6) antigen has insert of ...
El-Manzalawy, Y., Munoz, E., Lindner, S.E., and Honavar, V. (2016). PlasmoSEP: Predicting surface-exposed proteins on the ... El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2012). Predicting protective bacterial antigens using random forest classifiers ... Yan, C., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. Identifying Protein-Protein Interaction Sites from Surface Residues A Support Vector ... "Predicting protein-protein interface residues using local surface structural similarity". BMC Bioinformatics. 13: 41. doi: ...
... can be found on the surface of various immune cells including B cells, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such ... If the interaction between an antigen-presenting cell and a T-cell is stable enough, the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the ... McKusick, V. A., & Converse, P. J. (2016, August 05). CD80 Antigen; CD80. Retrieved May 29, 2019 Peach RJ, Bajorath J, Naemura ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P33681 (T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80) at ...
Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... Del Valle JM, Engel P, Martín M (May 2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ...
This bacterium's polysaccharide shell is identical to that of a human self-antigen, but its surface proteins vary greatly; and ... Then, they scanned the sequenced genome for potential antigens. They found over 600 possible antigens, which were tested by ... Traditional methods may take decades to unravel pathogens and antigens, diseases and immunity. However, In silico can be very ... Because those bacterial strains induce antibodies that react with human antigens, the vaccines for those bacteria needed to not ...
Antibodies binding to antigens on the surface of cells trigger lytic mechanisms mediated by the complement system (complement- ... Surface antigens causally involved in carcinogenesis are called oncoantigens. The success of cancer immunoprevention in ... If the target antigen controls cell growth (e.g. if it is the product of an oncogene), then a block of signaling can disrupt ... Most antitumor immune responses are autoimmune, because most tumor antigens are also expressed by normal cells, but it must be ...
Hepatitis B virus surface antigens have not been detected. Hep G2 will respond to stimulation with human growth hormone.[ ... can be important for the study of human liver diseases that are caused by an incorrect subcellular distribution of cell surface ... robust morphological and functional differentiation with a controllable formation of apical and basolateral cell surface ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... Tovar V, de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Bosch J, Engel P (2000). "Gene structure of the mouse leukocyte cell surface molecule Ly9 ...
"Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A new family of cell surface proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (1): 117 ... CD9 is commonly used as a marker for exosomes as it is contained on their surface. However, in some cases CD9 plays a larger ... It forms a alphaIIbbeta3-CD9-CD63 complex on the surface of platelets that interacts directly with other cells such as ... It is a cell surface glycoprotein that consists of four transmembrane regions and has two extracellular loops that contain ...
sialyl Lewis X antigen on the surface of leukocytes.. H antigen of the ABO blood compatibility antigens. Other examples of ... Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes of platelets Analysis[edit]. A variety of methods used in detection, ... molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (or MHC), which are expressed on the surface of cells and interact with T ... Variable surface glycoproteins allow the sleeping sickness Trypanosoma parasite to escape the immune response of the host. ...
UL16 binding protein 3 (ULBP3) is a cell surface glycoprotein encoded by ULBP3 gene located on the chromosome 6. ULBP3 is ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 335-43. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00070.x. PMID 12753652. Eleme K, Taner SB, Onfelt B, Collinson LM ... McCann FE, Chalupny NJ, Cosman D, Hopkins C, Magee AI, Davis DM (Apr 2004). "Cell surface organization of stress-inducible ...
Example: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles[edit]. HLA constitutes a group of cell surface antigens also known as the MHC of ... Antigen i +. {\displaystyle +}. A. 1. +. {\displaystyle A1^{+}}. a. =. 376. {\displaystyle a=376}. b. =. 237. {\displaystyle b= ... frequency of antigen i. {\displaystyle i}. : p. f. i. =. C. N. =. 0.311. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{i}={\frac {C}{N}}=0.311;}. ... frequency of antigen j. {\displaystyle j}. : p. f. j. =. A. N. =. 0.237. ;. {\displaystyle pf_{j}={\frac {A}{N}}=0.237;}. ...
This group of genes encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins and has many other functions. In West Africa, they account ... Gerbich antigen receptor negativity[edit]. Main article: Gerbich antigen system. The Gerbich antigen system is an integral ... Human leucocyte antigen polymorphisms[edit]. Main article: Human leukocyte antigen. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms ... Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller, et al. 1976 P. vivax Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller ...
Antigens are also presented on the surface of dendritic cells. In an inflammatory state, lymphatic endothelial cells increase ... Lymph node stromal cells express peripheral tissue-restricted antigens (PTAs) on their surface. The Transcription factor Aire ( ... An adaptive immune response takes place in response to the presence of the antigen in the lymph node. Antigen-presenting cells ... Lymph node stromal cells can be grouped into six sub-populations which are known by their expression of surface markers. The ...
One strategy may involve a vaccine against the initial antigens. It has been suggested that it may be more productive to ... One obstacle is variant surface glycoprotein which makes it difficult for the immune system to recognize the infectious ... "T-Cell Responses to the Trypanosome Variant Surface Glycoprotein Are Not Limited to Hypervariable Subregions". Infect. Immun. ...
MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... cell-surface marker),可以用以分离、鉴定不同亚群的T细胞[1]。 ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Hepatitis B Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Maintain Functional Exhaustion after Antigen Reexposure in an Acute Activation Immune ...
In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. Mice ... Peyriéras N, Louvard D, Jacob F (December 1985). "Characterization of antigens recognized by monoclonal and polyclonal ...
Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ... patient waste and surfaces that may have come into contact with body fluids need to be disinfected.[111] During the 2014 ...
The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system ... Rituximab destroys both normal and malignant B cells that have CD20 on their surfaces and is therefore used to treat diseases ...
Antifungal medication can also be applied to the fitting surface of the denture before it is put back in the mouth. Other ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ... They exploit micro-fissures and cracks in the surface of dentures to aid their retention. Dentures may therefore become covered ... Candida species are capable of adhering to the surface of dentures, most of which are made from polymethylacrylate. ...
... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... Δ32 homozygous individual with two genetic copies of a rare variant of a cell surface receptor. This genetic trait confers ... the donor should preferably have the same human leukocyte antigens (HLA) as the recipient. About 25 to 30 percent of allogeneic ...
"Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ...
I've gotten the vaccine so I don't know how good antigen tests would be. Also, home test kits have high error rates. Imagine ... I am asking about those 2 specific things because they are developable surfaces.2804:7F2:691:D026:F49A:3097:3AC3:3524 (talk) 15 ... What we normally call planets are big enough to have substantial surface gravity. So they end up close to spherical or (because ... Even still, they will have surface features like mountains. The Earth itself is slightly pear-shaped: see geoid. 2601:648:8202: ...
... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ... Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... This tremendous complexity allows the parasite to constantly change its surface and thus evade the immune system through ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete.[87] ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... A recombinant vaccine against Lyme disease, based on the outer surface protein A (ospA) of B. burgdorferi, was developed by ...
The tonsils have on their surface specialized antigen capture cells called M cells that allow for the uptake of antigens ...
They attach to the cell surfaces via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosomal vesicle. Inside the endosome, the ... Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of ...
"Molecular cloning of the human T-lymphocyte surface CD2 (T11) antigen.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (22): 8718-22. PMC ... 1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope ... 1986). "The sheep erythrocyte receptor and both alpha and beta chains of the human T-lymphocyte antigen receptor bind the ... "Molecular cloning of the CD2 antigen, the T-cell erythrocyte receptor, by a rapid immunoselection procedure.". Proc. Natl. ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... dependent on their cell surface markers, e.g. CD4+, CD8+, CD3+, TCRαβ and TCRγδ), groups of B lymphocytes (CD19, CD20, CD21 and ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
The ability of the retrovirus to bind to its target host cell using specific cell-surface receptors is given by the surface ... Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ...
When interleukin-1 is produced in response to external stimuli, it can bind to cell-surface receptors on the same cell that ... MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" ... In addition, VEGF-A production and VEGFR-2 activation on the surface of breast cancer cells indicates the presence of a ...
tag pathogens for destruction by coating their surface.. *disrupt the plasma membrane of an infected cell, causing cytolysis of ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... It recognises such cells by a condition known as "missing self". This term describes cells with low levels of a cell-surface ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ...
TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ...
Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... Del Valle JM، Engel P، Martín M (2003). "The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its ... "NTB-A [correction of GNTB-A], a novel SH2D1A-associated surface molecule contributing to the inability of natural killer cells ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
... haematocrit and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If injections are used, trough levels are taken to ensure an adequate level of ... Cell surface receptor deficiencies. G protein-coupled receptor. (including hormone). Class A. *TSHR (Congenital hypothyroidism ...
Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N ... a B/Brisbane 60/2008-like antigens[23]. A separate vaccine was available for pandemic H1N1 influenza using the A/California/7/ ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... These sites are located on the interior surface of the rings, so that the target protein must enter the central pore before it ... It has been suggested that long loops on these proteins' surfaces serve as the proteasomal substrates and enter the central ... Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... The epithelial surfaces form a physical barrier that is impermeable to most infectious agents, acting as the first line of ... These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which ... It is now known that the MHC makeup on the surface of those cells is altered and the NK cells become activated through ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the surface of tumor cells. ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
cell surface. • integral component of membrane. • recycling endosome. • intracellular. • integral component of plasma membrane ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ... positive regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade. • glucose ...
Armstrong W.P., Epstein W.L. (1995)։ «Poison oak: more than just scratching the surface»։ Herbalgram 34: 36-42 cited in « ... 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin); 5 - ...
regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune response. • epidermis development. • actin polymerization or ... and are involved in transduction of signals from receptors on the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton. The presence of a ... of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream of antigen ... "The intersectin 2 adaptor links Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp)-mediated actin polymerization to T cell antigen ...
The tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen (usually a protein or ... Solid culture: A solid surface is created using a mixture of nutrients, salts and agar. A single microbe on an agar plate can ... Some bacteria are able to form biofilms by adhering to surfaces on implanted devices such as catheters and prostheses and ... Using a similar basis as described above, immunoassays can detect or measure antigens from either infectious agents or the ...
The indirect antibody technique for amplified detection of antigens (Coons, 1956) has a wide and expanding range of ... Wofsy L., Henry C., Cammisuli S. (1978) Hapten - Sandwich Labeling of Cell-Surface Antigens. In: Reisfeld R.A., Inman F.P. (eds ... The indirect antibody technique for amplified detection of antigens (Coons, 1956) has a wide and expanding range of ... to label first-layer antibody specific for a particular antigen. The last few years have seen the introduction of hapten- ...
Reactive Hepatitis B Surface Antigen will reflex to the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Confirmatory neutralization test for an ... Home : For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN ...
Biosynthesis and cell surface localization of nonglycosylated human histocompatibility antigens.. Ploegh HL, Orr HT, Stominger ... Pulse-chase experiments, in conjunction with the isolation of cell-surface HLA-A and -B antigens by adsorbing the monoclonal ... The effects of the inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, tunicamycin, on the synthesis of HLA-A and -B antigens in the human ... Thus it may be concluded that the carbohydrate side chains of HLA-A and -B antigens do not contribute significantly to the ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative.HBV DNA.Negative.I am on treatment with lumividine tab 100 mg/day for about 3 yrs ... Hep B surface antigen positive. I am diagnosed as Hep B carrier.My test reports:HbS antigen. positive. hep e antigen.Negative. ... Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe ... Interferon treatment cure this disease and gives a Surface antigen negative result.Doctors even i insisted, did not prescribe ...
The best-characterized of these is known as merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA1) (185-200 kDa) (Ref. … ... At least two polymorphic glycoproteins have been found on its surface in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ... Merozoite surface antigen-I of plasmodium Parasitol Today. 1993 Feb;9(2):50-4. doi: 10.1016/0169-4758(93)90031-a. ... The other merozoite surface antigen, MSA2 (35-48 kDa) (Ref. 2), is distinct from MSA1 but is equally polymorphic. In this ...
... gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacteriummediated transformation. Four different expression... ... Agrobacterium Edible vaccine Embryogenic cells Hepatitis B surface antigen Transgenic banana Abbreviations. ADS. Adenine ... Mason HS, Lam DMK, Arntzen CJ (1992) Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89: ... Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the s gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated ...
... surface antigen]) intended for persons living in Australia. ... Management in the AFM business unit of Brukers Nano Surfaces ...
Hepatitis b surface antigen definition at, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation ... hepatitis b surface antigen in Medicine Expand. hepatitis B surface antigen n. Abbr. HBsAg An antigen of the small spherical ...
The repeated mini-exon sequence that encodes the first 35 base pairs of all variant surface antigen mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei ... Apparent discontinuous transcription of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface antigen genes.. Campbell DA, Thornton DA, Boothroyd ... It thus seems that variant surface antigen mRNAs are transcribed discontinuously, and we present two alternative models for how ...
1990)‎. A malaria sporozoite surface antigen distinct from the circumsporozoite protein.. Bulletin of the World Health ...
Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein- ...
Mouse Cell Surface Antigens: Nomenclature and Immunophenotyping Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Mouse Cell Surface Antigens: Nomenclature and Immunophenotyping. Lily Lai, Noosheen Alaverdi, Lois Maltais and Herbert C. Morse ... Cell surface antigens expressed by subsets of pre-B cells and B cells. J. Immunol. 132: 332. ... The murine homologue of the T lymphocyte antigen CD28: molecular cloning and cell surface expression. J. Immunol. 144: 3201. ...
... prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), is a prostate-specific cell surface antigen expressed strongly by both androgen-dependent ... Prostate stem cell antigen: A cell surface marker overexpressed in prostate cancer. Robert E. Reiter, Zhennen Gu, Tetsuro ... stem cell antigen 2;. PLC,. phospholipase C;. PSCA,. prostate stem cell antigen;. GPI,. glycosylphosphatidylinositol. ... prostate-specific antigen;. PSMA,. prostate-specific membrane antigen;. RDA,. representational difference analysis;. RT-PCR,. ...
AU antigen is defined by reactions of sera from patient AU with cell-surface antigens of cultured autologous melanoma cells (SK ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization. T E Carey, K O Lloyd, T ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ... AU cell-surface antigen of human malignant melanoma: solubilization and partial characterization ...
In contrast, B cells producing neutralizing antibodies against the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been studied in little ...
Proliferation of Thymus Derived Cells in Response to Cell Surface Antigens Lead researcher. C Cheers ...
ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 137: The HeLa cells express H antigens on cell surface. ...
... the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface ...
T 2126/08 (Surface antigen/ORTHO-CLINICAL DIAGNOSTICS) of 23.4.2013. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2013: ... The amino acid sequence of the surface antigen of the newly identified HBV strain, called LBN, had five amino acid differences ... 1. An isolated variant hepatitis B surface antigen comprising an amino acid sequence wherein mutations from hepatitis B wild ... surface antigen variant which was published as EP 1 142 906. ... A hepatitis B virus (subtype ayw) surface antigen variant. ...
The nAbs of the indicated specificity were used for detection of the viral surface antigens. Scale bar: 0.2 μm. (. D. ) BHK-21 ... Schematic describing the topology of GPs and NPs of the above viruses on the surface and inside infectious particles, ... the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface ...
Buy our Recombinant Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen protein. Ab68870 is an active protein fragment produced in Escherichia ... Recombinant Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen protein. See all Hepatitis A Virus Surface Antigen proteins and peptides. ...
HBsAghepatitis B curehepatitis B surface antigenliver cancerRobert Gishsurface antibodies. Baruch S. Blumberg Institute. Search ... Youve Lost the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, Go Celebrate, But Keep Monitoring. September 27, 2016. hepbtalk 17 Comments ... antiviralchronic hepatitis Bhepatitis B surface antigeninterferonHBsAgliver cancer riskQuestQuest Diagnosticstreatment. ... Tag Archives: hepatitis B surface antigen. Hepatitis B Diagnosis & Monitoring, Hepatitis B Treatment ...
PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN. The rate of positive results for hepatitis B surface antigen was 0.7% in our ... and hepatitis B surface antigen. The surface antigen was measured either by radioimmunoassay (Ausria II, Abbott Laboratories, ... All blood samples positive for hepatitis B surface antigen were also tested for hepatitis B e antigen and its antibody (Abbott ... Of the 705 women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 118 (16.7%) were positive for the e antigen. The rate of positive ...
... then the surface antigen can mean a chronic carrier state that is inactive due to no virus in her blood. Yes I would agree that ... hep B Surface Antigen Positive. Feb 4, 2006 My wife recently tested positive for Hep B surface antigen as part of a routine ... If your wife is at risk for hepatitis B, then the surface antigen can mean a chronic carrier state that is inactive due to no ... Yes I would agree that she should see a specialist to be certain that: 1. The hepatitis B surface antigen was confirmed. 2. To ...
lcl,BSEQ0010470,Myeloid cell surface antigen CD33 (CD33) ATGCCGCTGCTGCTACTGCTGCCCCTGCTGTGGGCAGACTTGACCCACAGGCCCAAAATC ... lcl,BSEQ0001344,Myeloid cell surface antigen CD33 MPLLLLLPLLWAGALAMDPNFWLQVQESVTVQEGLCVLVPCTFFHPIPYYDKNSPVHGYW ... The sialic acid recognition site may be masked by cis interactions with sialic acids on the same cell surface. In the immune ... Vitale C, Romagnani C, Puccetti A, Olive D, Costello R, Chiossone L, Pitto A, Bacigalupo A, Moretta L, Mingari MC: Surface ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... to its cell surface antigen on dispersed adenomatous parathyroid cells raises cytosolic calcium and inhibits parathyroid ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ... "Genetic and biochemical characterization of a human surface determinant on somatic cell hybrids: the 4F2 antigen". Somatic Cell ...
Mouse monoclonal Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen antibody [HB12] validated for ELISA. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant ... Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen antibody [HB12]. See all Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen primary antibodies. ...
Evaluation the Surface Antigen of the Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 Ghosts Prepared by "SLRP". Amara A. Amro,1,2 Ahmed J. ... Amara A. Amro, Ahmed J. Neama, Ahmed Hussein, Emad A. Hashish, and Salah A. Sheweita, "Evaluation the Surface Antigen of the ...
Agglutination Test for STGs Surface Antigen-Antibodies Reaction. Febrile Antigen Kit (N.S. BIO-TEC) was used for Rapid Slide ... In this study, we are adding a further step to the protocol, which is dealing with the cell wall surface antigens, where ... Evaluation the Surface Antigen of the Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 Ghosts Prepared by "SLRP". ... The study describes for the first time the validity of the surface antigen of the BGs after their preparation and their ability ...
  • Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the ' s ' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. (
  • In contrast, B cells producing neutralizing antibodies against the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been studied in little detail, mainly due to methodical limitations. (
  • HBsAg, the protein that makes up the surface of the virus, is what labs look for in a blood sample to determine if a person is currently infected with hepatitis B. (
  • The profit to be gained by testing Danish blood donors for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with a third generation technique instead of the currently used immunoelectrophoresis was investigated by additional screening of 48 750 blood units by radioimmunoassay three weeks after donation. (
  • We determined the serum level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen [‎anti-HBsAg]‎ in 273 randomly selected 7-9-year-old schoolchildren from Zanjan City, Islamic Republic of Iran, who had been fully vaccinated against hepatitis B starting at birth. (
  • The 55 codons upstream of the gene sequence encoding the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are called the pre-S(2) region. (
  • Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an incomplete RNA virus that needs hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to help its replication. (
  • Mutations that occur within the immunodominant epitopes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) allow mutant virus to propagate in the presence of a neutralizing immune response, while wild-type virus is reduced to undetectable levels. (
  • This article addresses recent information concerning the emergence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, their impact on viral antigen presentation, latest prevalence data, and discussion of the issues associated with detection of mutants in healthcare settings. (
  • HBsAg is the surface antigenof the Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV). (
  • HBsAg is a serological marker produced on the surface of the hepatitis B virus and is one of the first disease state markers to be detected in the serum of patients infected with the hepatitis B virus. (
  • This guidance provides recommendations for a requalification method or process for the reentry of deferred donors who test repeatedly reactive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), confirmed positive by neutralization, following a recent vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and who are not infected by HBV. (
  • To explore the predictive value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titer and transient elastography in screening for insignificant fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. (
  • Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is downregulated during hepatocarcinogenesis. (
  • An open-label randomized study was undertaken to compare a 2-dose regimen (Months 0 and 6) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine formulated with a novel adjuvant (HBsAg/AS04) with a standard 3-dose regimen (Months 0, 1 and 6) of licensed recombinant HBsAg vaccine in terms of immunogenicity and reactogenicity when administered to healthy subjects aged between 15 and 40 y. (
  • A total of 69 persons were investigated for assessment of cell-mediated and humoral immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). (
  • The antigen was eliminated rapidly by mounting of cell-mediated immune response detectable for a limited period, followed by antibody response in relatively few patients moore than 3 months after clearance of circulating HBsAg. (
  • The DNA is enclosed in a nucleocapsid, or core antigen (HBcAg), which is surrounded by a spherical envelope (surface antigen or HBsAg). (
  • Hepatitis B infection is normally diagnosed from serological tests that detect HBsAg but as the disease progresses this antigen may no longer be present in the blood and tests for HBcAg are used. (
  • For comparing factors between AHB patients with viral persistence and those with self-limited infection, 212 AHB patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection were observed in 38 liver centers until serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) disappeared or a minimum of 6 months in cases where HBsAg persisted. (
  • Home » Products » Health Beauty » Diagnosis Equipment » HBsAg Test Strip/Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test In total 213268 number ofProductsinfo,Released today. (
  • The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) S1 protein forms nanoparticles that can be utilized both as an immunogenic array of the MPER and to provide the lipid environment needed for enhanced 2F5 and 4E10 binding. (
  • Native HBV antigen HBsAg. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a marker ofinfectivity. (
  • An antigen of the small spherical and filamentous forms of hepatitis B antibodies that is also present on the Dane particle. (
  • And B-cells, so they don't generate the antibodies needed to destroy the viral antigens that make up the virus. (
  • In this study, using SLRP we succeeded to prepare STGs with correct surface antigens could interact with their specific antibodies. (
  • In addition, the antibodies produced by the STGs should react with the evaluable antigens (O and H) and the immunized animals should be survived after treatment with live cells. (
  • Preliminary data showed that the appearance and increasing titer of antibodies to P. coatneyi RESA-like antigen were associated with prolongation of intervals from inoculation to patency and with control of parasitemia. (
  • We offer Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Radioimmunoassay. (
  • Our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Virus. (
  • Choose from our Hepatitis A Surface Antigen monoclonal antibodies. (
  • ELISA procedures provide a means for routinely detecting antibodies to specific antigens. (
  • A series of cutaneous and mucosal lesions were immunolabeled with monoclonal antibodies to the major histocompatibility complex class 1 (beta 2-microglobulin) and 2 (HLA-DR antigens), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and glycoprotein CD36 (OKM5) as well as CD1a (Langerhans cells), CD4, CD8 (T cells) and CD11a (LFA1 antigen). (
  • The enhanced potential of sonically released antigens to induce high-titer specific precipitating antibodies to M protein is discussed. (
  • The surface localization of the variable amino acid segments appears to protect the conserved regions from interaction with antibodies and hence may contribute to immune evasion. (
  • Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens (PSTSA) used to induce the production of specific antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. (
  • In addition, numerous 3D structures of antibodies in complex with their target antigen have been reported and have permitted statistical identification of residues that are in direct contact with the antigen or that affect the binding affinity ( 4 - 7 ). (
  • Numerous methods have been used to identify GBS surface antigens by using monoclonal ( 24 ) or polyclonal antibodies ( 3 ) or genes by hybridization with probes ( 27 ), PCR ( 19 , 20 , 21 ), and/or sequencing ( 16 , 20 ). (
  • Monoclonal antibodies to surface antigens of a pathogenic Mycoplasma hominis strain. (
  • The expression of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) on a human neuroblastoma cell line, SJ-N-CG, was demonstrated by indirect membrane immunofluorescence, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and quantitative absorption, using two monoclonal antibodies (J-5 and BA-3) directed against CALLA. (
  • Changes in cell surface membrane antigens associated with morphological differentiation were studied by indirect immunofluorescence and complement-dependent cytotoxicity using a panel of seven monoclonal antibodies. (
  • In contrast to mature neutrophils, differentiating neutrophils showed an early NB1-independent PR3 surface display that was recognized by only two of four monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies and occurred in parallel with proPR3, but not PR3 secretion, suggesting that the NB1-independent surface PR3 was proPR3. (
  • IgG against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens and growth inhibitory antibodies in Mozambican children receiving intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) had an effect on the acquisition of IgG against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA) and growth-inhibitory antibodies in Manhica, Mozambique. (
  • The nAb's of the indicated specificity were used for detection of the viral surface antigens. (
  • An important prerequisite for antibody humanization requires standardized numbering methods to define precisely complementary determining regions (CDR), frameworks and residues from the light and heavy chains that affect the binding affinity and/or specificity of the antibody-antigen interaction. (
  • Although different bioinformatic tools, based on structural data, have been developed to predict antigenic epitopes or the interaction surface between a known antibody and its antigen (docking), in silico approaches are currently not able to tailor de novo the specificity of an antibody for a target antigen. (
  • To determine the need for immunization of health workers with antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) as their only serologic marker of previous hepatitis B exposure, we studied the level, persistence, and immunologic specificity of isolated anti-HBs in 46 persons identified during screening for hepatitis B vaccine. (
  • This involves the reaction of anti-HBc in the sample with hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) coated wells. (
  • The core antigen shares its sequences with the e antigen (HBeAg) but no cross reactivity between the two proteins has been observed. (
  • A boost in antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) was defined as a fourfold rise in levels to ≥20 mIU/mL that was not accompanied by the presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen or attributable to interim vaccination. (
  • We have sought to identify genes encoding secreted or cell surface proteins, because they have potential utility as serum markers of prostate cancer, similar to PSA and glandular kallikrein 2, and may be useful for detecting or targeting prostate cancer cells ( 3 ). (
  • The elevated expression level of cell-surface proteins in response to disease is a key concept underlying the development of target-specific molecular probes [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Cell-surface proteins are primarily engaged in signal transduction and ligand binding. (
  • Surface cell antigen (sca) proteins surround these bacteria. (
  • The capsidof a virus has different surface proteins from the rest of the virus. (
  • The antigen is a protein that binds specifically on one of these surface proteins. (
  • Are the PE-PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis variable surface antigens? (
  • The data suggest that some PE-PGRS proteins are variable surface antigens. (
  • 000151253 001__ 151253 000151253 005__ 20181203021958.0 000151253 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.02813.x 000151253 022__ $$a0950-382X 000151253 02470 $$2PMID$$a11967065 000151253 037__ $$aARTICLE 000151253 245__ $$aAre the PE-PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis variable surface antigens? (
  • In this study, we used published sequences to develop PCR assays for identification of genes encoding GBS surface proteins including C alpha ( bca ), C alpha-like proteins 2 and 3 ( alp2 and alp3 ), Rib ( rib ), and C beta ( bac ). (
  • They are members of a family of surface proteins containing repetitive elements, which produce variations in protein size and antigenicity ( 16 , 29 ). (
  • Immunoblots of polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresed proteins before and after surface proteolysis showed that the predominant antigenic determinants were on surface-exposed polypeptides. (
  • Cells in our immune system are characterized by unique markers (antigens) on their surface membranes called CD proteins. (
  • Results We identified a panel of 10 genes encoding cell surface proteins that were statistically differentially expressed between "γδ-susceptible" and "γδ-resistant" hematopoietic tumors. (
  • Conclusions Our results suggest that hematopoietic tumors display a highly variable repertoire of surface proteins that can impact on Vγ9Vδ2 cell-mediated immunotargeting. (
  • The surface binds proteins via efficient hydrophobic interactions. (
  • The best-characterized of these is known as merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA1) (185-200 kDa) (Ref. 1). (
  • The other merozoite surface antigen, MSA2 (35-48 kDa) (Ref. 2), is distinct from MSA1 but is equally polymorphic. (
  • Comparable papain treatment of other melanoma and non-melanoma cell lines solubilized beta 2m and HLA, but did not result in the release of antigen with AU reactivity. (
  • We analyzed the nAb response to each of the 2 recombinant and parent viruses in infected mice and found that nAb kinetics were solely determined by the viral surface GP and not by the virus backbone. (
  • Studies using both immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis showed that P. coatneyi -immune rhesus serum cross-reacted with P. falciparum antigens, but P. falciparum immune human serum did not recognize P. coatneyi antigens in either assay. (
  • Risk factors for long-term persistence of serum hepatitis B surface antigen following acute hepatitis B virus infection in Japanese adults. (
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Serum Level Is Correlated with Fibrosis Severity in Treatment-Naïve, Chronic Hepatitis B Patients in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa)? (
  • Evidence for glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchoring of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigens. (
  • The four major surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (P43, P35, P30, and P22) were made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). (
  • Three unique fragments of 83,000, 42,000, and 19,000 mol wt are present and they represent the major surface antigens of P. falciparum merozoites. (
  • Crystal structure of Lyme disease variable surface antigen VlsE of Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • Analysis of antibody response to invariable regions of VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi. (
  • VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. (
  • In this study, we are adding a further step to the protocol, which is dealing with the cell wall surface antigens, where Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 was used for such purposes. (
  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a prostate-specific gene with 30% homology to stem cell antigen 2, a member of the Thy-1/Ly-6 family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface antigens. (
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) gene. (
  • VlsE is an outer surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that undergoes antigenic variation through an elaborate gene conversion mechanism and is thought to play a major role in the immune response to the Lyme disease borellia. (
  • We showed that the prototype R reference strain, Prague 25/60, contained a novel alpha-like protein antigen gene (the proposed alp4 ), which presumably encodes an atypical, but antigenically similar, R-like protein. (
  • By combining cps serotypes, serosubtypes, and surface protein gene profiles, we were able to divide 224 GBS isolates into 31 serovariants. (
  • The repeated mini-exon sequence that encodes the first 35 base pairs of all variant surface antigen mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei directs the synthesis of a discrete 137-nucleotide transcript. (
  • SLC3A2 is a member of the solute carrier family and encodes a cell surface, transmembrane protein with an alpha-amylase domain. (
  • The study of surface protein antigens of group B streptococci (GBS) is important for understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of infection, and several of these antigens have been proposed as components of GBS conjugate vaccines. (
  • In addition to capsular polysaccharide antigens, GBS surface protein antigens, which also contribute to the pathogenesis of GBS disease and induce protective immunity, are potentially useful markers ( 16 ). (
  • Identification of surface protein antigens, combined with cps serotyping, allows subdivision of GBS strains into a large number of serovariants, which can facilitate epidemiological, pathogenetic, and other related studies of GBS infection ( 15 ). (
  • The precursor of major merozoite surface antigens (PMMSA) and its proteolytic products are candidates for an asexual blood stage vaccine. (
  • The three major antigens on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites are derived from a single high molecular weight precursor. (
  • Detecting this variable expression of surface markers has been extensively used in many clinical applications as an avenue to diagnose and treat specific diseases [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (
  • Arora SK, Sharma R, Kaur G, Bhoria P, Sharma M, Luthra-Guptasarma M. Towards an indirect screening technique facilitating detection of cellular populations bearing specific cell surface markers. (
  • Ia-like antigens on human T lymphocytes: relationship to other surface markers, role in mixed lymphocyte reactions, and structural profile. (
  • The crystal structure of recombinant variant protein VlsE1 at 2.3-A resolution reveals that the six variable regions form loop structures that constitute most of the membrane distal surface of VlsE, covering the predominantly alpha-helical, invariant regions of the protein. (
  • The ' Global and Chinese Recombinant Surface Antigen Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report ' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Recombinant Surface Antigen industry with a focus on the Chinese market. (
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Recombinant Surface Antigen manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry.Firstly, the report provides a basic overview of the industry including its definition, applications and manufacturing technology. (
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Recombinant Surface Antigen industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (
  • The report then estimates 2017-2022 market development trends of Recombinant Surface Antigen industry. (
  • In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Recombinant Surface Antigen Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2012-2022 global and Chinese Recombinant Surface Antigen industry covering all important parameters. (
  • 5.2 Market Competition of Recombinant Surface Antigen Industry by Country (USA, EU, Japan, Chinese etc. (
  • Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen of ayw subtype. (
  • prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in large cities and rural area. (
  • Apparent discontinuous transcription of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface antigen genes. (
  • Our results confirmed and extended reported associations between some cps serotypes and serosubtypes, on the one hand, and surface protein genes, on the other: serosubtypes III-1 and III-2 were associated with rib , serosubtype III-3 with alp2 , serotype Ib with bca and bac , and serotype V with alp3 . (
  • These PCR-based methods will provide an alternative and objective tool for subtyping of GBS based on surface protein antigen genes. (
  • Pregnant women who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen should be identified before delivery to prevent hepatitis B infection in their neonates by passive or active immunisation, or both. (
  • Plasmodium coatneyi produced ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) during infection of the rhesus monkey. (
  • Globally, about 248 million people are chronic HBV surface antigen carriers, and about 5% of them also had hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection as well. (
  • At least two polymorphic glycoproteins have been found on its surface in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (
  • The EE and blood stage merozoites expressed similar amounts of this antigen as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. (
  • MAb 6B3) which reacts specifically with a cell wall antigen found in all strains or isolates of Candida krusei was developed. (
  • The indirect antibody technique for amplified detection of antigens (Coons, 1956) has a wide and expanding range of applications. (
  • Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a recently described cell surface marker of prostate cancer currently being evaluated for the detection of metastatic cells and as a target for mAb and other immunological therapies ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • By use of antibody inhibition tests for antigen detection, limited papain digestion of AU melanoma cells was found to result in the solubilization of AU antigen along with beta2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and HLA allogeneic and xenogeneic specificities. (
  • Biosynthesis and cell surface localization of nonglycosylated human histocompatibility antigens. (
  • It thus seems that variant surface antigen mRNAs are transcribed discontinuously, and we present two alternative models for how this might occur. (
  • I. The appeal was lodged by the applicant (hereinafter 'appellant') against the decision of the examining division to refuse European patent application 01303073.9 with the title 'A hepatitis B virus (subtype ayw) surface antigen variant' which was published as EP 1 142 906. (
  • 1. An isolated variant hepatitis B surface antigen comprising an amino acid sequence wherein mutations from hepatitis B wild type ayw2 strain appear as follows: at position 103 isoleucine is present instead of methionine, at position 118 lysine is present instead of threonine, at position 120 glutamine is present instead of proline, at position 170 serine is present instead of leucine, and at position 213 serine is present instead of leucine. (
  • T antigen and new surface antigen in infected porcine kidney stable cells were induced with a nontumorigenic variant (WB-PS) with an antigenic alteration. (
  • This antigen was immunogenic and elicited an antibody response that was not persistent but was boosted by repeated infections in a manner similar to that seen in P. falciparum infections in humans. (
  • These results show that P. coatneyi expresses RESA-like antigen that elicits an antibody response similar to that observed for human antibody to P. falciparum RESA. (
  • Mouse H-2 (histocompatibility) and human surface antigens were visualized by successive treatment of the heterokaryons with a mixture of mouse alloantiserum and rabbit anti- VA-2 antiserum, followed by a mixture of fluorescein-labelled goat anti-mouse IgG and tetramethyl-rhodamine-labelled goat anti-rabbit IgG(Fc). (
  • The effects of the inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, tunicamycin, on the synthesis of HLA-A and -B antigens in the human lymphoblastoid cell line JY are described. (
  • Hernandez-Caselles T, Martinez-Esparza M, Perez-Oliva AB, Quintanilla-Cecconi AM, Garcia-Alonso A, Alvarez-Lopez DM, Garcia-Penarrubia P: A study of CD33 (SIGLEC-3) antigen expression and function on activated human T and NK cells: two isoforms of CD33 are generated by alternative splicing. (
  • The expression of immune associated surface antigens of keratinocytes was studied in human papillomavirus (HPV) derived lesions in order to determine whether HPV types have a regulatory role in the pathogenesis of papillomas. (
  • Aim: The study aimed at evaluating the CD4 + T cell count among women of reproductive age co-infected with human immune virus, hepatitis surface antigen and herpes simplex virusin Kogi state, Nigeria. (
  • Cells from established tissue culture lines of mouse ( cIID ) and human ( VA-2 ) origin were fused together with Sendai virus, producing heterokaryons bearing both mouse and human surface antigens which were then followed by the indirect fluorescent antibody method. (
  • Imunohistochemical analysis of human lymph node tissue, using Macrophage surface sntigen monoclonal antibody, clone AM-3K (Cat # MAB1733, 10 ug/mL). (
  • Imunohistochemical analysis of human liver tissue, using Macrophage surface sntigen monoclonal antibody, clone AM-3K (Cat # MAB1733, 10 ug/mL). (
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. (
  • A malaria sporozoite surface antigen distinct from the circumsporozoite protein. (
  • Pulse-chase experiments, in conjunction with the isolation of cell-surface HLA-A and -B antigens by adsorbing the monoclonal antibody W6/32 to intact cells, indicate that nonglycosylated molecules reach the cell surface at a rate indistinguishable from that of fully glycosylated molecules (although the absolute amount synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin was decreased). (
  • This paper reviews cell surface Ags expressed on mouse hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells. (
  • Molecules on the surface of hemopoietic cells play important roles in the development and function of these cells and have permitted us to understand the immune system in increasingly great depth. (
  • In recent years, it has become clear that there is a considerable amount of cross-talk between cells of the hemopoietic system and nonhemopoietic cells, with much of this interplay mediated by cell surface molecules. (
  • This review includes a discussion of cell surface Ags expressed on both hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells. (
  • AU antigen is defined by reactions of sera from patient AU with cell-surface antigens of cultured autologous melanoma cells (SK-MEL-28). (
  • Maximum yield of AU antigen from AU melanoma cells was obtained after very short (5-15 min) digestion times in contrast to the more prolonged proteolysis required for maximum HLA and beta 2m release. (
  • ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 137: The HeLa cells express H antigens on cell surface. (
  • Simmons D, Seed B: Isolation of a cDNA encoding CD33, a differentiation antigen of myeloid progenitor cells. (
  • Vitale C, Romagnani C, Puccetti A, Olive D, Costello R, Chiossone L, Pitto A, Bacigalupo A, Moretta L, Mingari MC: Surface expression and function of p75/AIRM-1 or CD33 in acute myeloid leukemias: engagement of CD33 induces apoptosis of leukemic cells. (
  • On the other hand, the anti-delta antibody had no effect on the anti-TNP response of BC8 spleen cells to TNP-BA, except at limiting antigen concentrations. (
  • Both TNP-AECM-Ficoll and TNP-BA are T-I antigens, but they differ in that TNP-AECM-Ficoll fails to stimulate in vitro responses by immunologically defective CBA/N and neonatal spleen cells whereas TNP-BA can cause responses from both these animals. (
  • This antigen preparation was released without diminishing the total yield of acid-extractable M protein of the original heat-killed cells. (
  • Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. (
  • These observations indicate that an immunogenic, enzymatically active cell wall-associated form of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH is found at the cell surface of C. albicans cells. (
  • Increases in the antigens recognized by BA-2 (detecting leukemia-associated antigen), anti-Thy-1, and antibody 390 (Thy-1 antigen) were found in "differentiated cells," while those detected by BA-1 (B-cell-associated antigen) and J-5 (CALLA) were unchanged. (
  • The changes of expression of some antigens on exposure of cells to dibutyryl adenosine 3′-5′-cyclic monophosphoric acid may enable us to have a greater understanding of the differentiation of neuroblastoma to a more mature ganglioneuroblastoma phenotype. (
  • PR3 surface presentation on neutrophilic granulocytes, the main effector cells, is pathogenically important. (
  • The specific epitope is expressed on the surface of fungal cells and appears to reside on a protein moiety. (
  • Cultures were maintained on a Sabouraud glucose agar (SGA) slant (bioMérieux) at 22°C, and blastoconidia were prepared by growing the cells on this medium for 48 h at 37°C. In some experiments, the influences of growth in different media and at different temperatures (22 and 37°C) on the surface expression of the antigen reacting with MAb 6B3 were investigated. (
  • Immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • The transgenic nature of the plants and expression of the antigen was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. (
  • The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. (
  • In the disease state, receptor molecules at the cell surface respond to altered biological activity by exhibiting different levels of expression [ 3 ]. (
  • MicroRNA-581 promotes hepatitis B virus surface antigen expression by targeting Dicer and EDEM1. (
  • In contrast, the antitransferrin receptor defined by B3/25 was inhibited, and expression of B7/21-defined la-like antigen was not induced. (
  • Kinetic studies on antigenic alterations showed that the expression of BA-2-defined antigen rose on Day 2 and remained at the same level until Day 10. (
  • GarinChesa P, Sakamoto J, Welt S, Real F, Rettig W and Old L: Organ-specific expression of the colon cancer antigen A33, a cell surface target for antibody-based therapy. (
  • Antigens, Surface" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • different roles for mucosal and cutaneous HPV types in the induction of immunoregulatory surface antigens of keratinocytes, or 2. (
  • Another potential advantage to searching for membrane-bound tumor antigens is that they may provide insights into the biology of prostate cancer progression. (
  • A33 is the first example of a constitutively expressed, organ-specific epithelial membrane antigen permitting highly specific tumor targeting in patients with colorectal cancer. (
  • Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody conjugate (mouse monoclonal anti-HBc) is then allowed to react with the remaining exposed HBcAg on the well surface. (
  • Treatment of a heat-killed group A Streptococcus with sonic vibration released antigens which reacted strongly and specifically with absorbed type-specific antiserum. (
  • Physical characterization of the manganese-sensing pneumococcal surface antigen repressor from Streptococcus pneumoniae. (
  • The identification of cell surface antigens is critical to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for the management of prostate cancer. (
  • To develop a low cost, high compliance screening programme for identification of carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen in the obstetric population of the Netherlands. (
  • In addition, the large fluctuation of the variable chain lengths, especially in CDR3 of heavy chains (CDRH3), hardly complicates the comparison and analysis of antibody sequences and the identification of the antigen binding residues. (
  • Monoclonal antibody mAbA33 recognizes a unique cell surface protein of colorectal cancer, the A33 antigen. (