Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation: A degradation process whereby incorrectly folded proteins are selectively transported out of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and into the CYTOSOL. The misfolded proteins are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by the PROTEASOME.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Peptoids: Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (1/3739)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin subclass distribution and diagnostic value of Leishmania donovani antigen-specific immunoglobulin G3 in Indian kala-azar patients. (2/3739)

Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a fatal tropical disease, remains problematic, as early diagnosis is difficult and treatment often results in drug resistance and relapse. We have developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts (LAg) to detect specific antibody responses in 25 untreated Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients. To investigate the pathogenetic significance of isotype markers in kala-azar, relative levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses were analyzed under clinically established diseased conditions. Since LAg showed higher sensitivity for specific IgG than lysate, the immunoglobulin isotype responses were evaluated, with LAg as antigen. Compared to 60 controls, which included patients with malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and typhoid and healthy subjects, visceral leishmaniasis patients showed significantly higher IgG (100% sensitivity, 85% specificity), IgM (48% sensitivity, 100% specificity), and IgE (44% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) responses. Low levels of IgA in visceral leishmaniasis patients contrasted with a 13-fold-higher reactivity in sera from patients with leprosy. Among IgG subclasses, IgG1, -3, and -4 responses were significantly higher in visceral leishmaniasis patients than in the controls. IgG2 response, however, was significantly higher (twofold) in leprosy than even visceral leishmaniasis patients. The rank orders for sensitivity (IgG = IgG1 = IgG3 = IgG4 > IgG2 > IgM > IgE > IgA) and specificity (IgM = IgG3 > IgE > IgG4 > IgG2 > IgG > IgG1 > IgA) for LAg-specific antibody responses suggest the potentiality of IgG3 as a diagnostic marker for visceral leishmaniasis.  (+info)

Cytokine profile induced by Cryptosporidium antigen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from immunocompetent and immunosuppressed persons with cryptosporidiosis. (3/3739)

The proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to a crude extract from Cryptosporidium parvum (CCE) was studied in persons who acquired cryptosporidiosis in the same outbreak (15 immunocompetent subjects with prior cryptosporidiosis and 22 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-positive persons with various levels of immunosuppression and active cryptosporidiosis) and in individual patients (8 HIV-positive patients with active cryptosporidiosis and 15 HIV-positive persons without history of cryptosporidiosis). PBMC from HIV-positive persons showed less proliferation to CCE and mitogens than did PBMC from immunocompetent subjects with prior cryptosporidiosis, independent of CD4 cell count. In immunocompetent subjects, cytokine gene expression was consistent with cytokine production, whereas in HIV-positive subjects it was not. The production of interferon-gamma in CCE-stimulated PBMC from both immunocompetent and HIV-positive subjects with cryptosporidiosis and the lack of interferon-gamma in CCE-stimulated PBMC from HIV-positive subjects without cryptosporidiosis indicate that C. parvum mainly induces a Th1 response.  (+info)

HLA class II factors associated with Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen allele families. (4/3739)

In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, certain human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and the parasite's merozoite surface antigens 1 and 2 (MSA-1, MSA-2) have been shown to influence the course of the infection. This report is on associations of distinct HLA factors with the occurrence of particular MSA families in a group of patients with either severe or mild P. falciparum malaria in Gabon. Different distributions of HLA-DPB1 alleles were found in the 2 groups. DR *04 alleles were observed more frequently among patients with severe malaria. Several alleles of different loci were associated with distinct MSA allele families. In addition, carriers of the amino acid methionine at position 11 of the DPA1 allele were more often infected by MSA-1 K1 parasites and less frequently by MSA-1 RO33 parasites. Furthermore, associations of HLA factors with polyclonal infections were found.  (+info)

Susceptibility to infectious diseases: Leishmania as a paradigm. (5/3739)

The diverse response of individuals within populations to infectious pathogens remains poorly understood, although genetic determinants undoubtedly contribute in substantial ways to the outcome of infection. In a mouse model of infection with the intramacrophage protozoan Leishmania major, susceptibility correlates both with aberrant helper T cell differentiation biased towards the production of interleukin 4 and with the presence of an endogenous CD4 T cell repertoire that recognizes an immunodominant parasite antigen with high frequency. In the setting of the particular ecological niche occupied by Leishmania, this combination of otherwise unrelated factors synergizes to result in exquisite susceptibility to this single pathogen, without seemingly compromising host defenses against other agents. Similar paradigms could underlie susceptibility to other pathogenic organisms.  (+info)

Immunization of mice with DNA-based Pfs25 elicits potent malaria transmission-blocking antibodies. (6/3739)

Immunological intervention, in addition to vector control and malaria chemotherapy, will be needed to stop the resurgence of malaria, a disease with a devastating impact on the health of 300 to 500 million people annually. We have pursued a vaccination strategy, based on DNA immunization in mice with genes encoding two antigens present on the sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum, Pfs25 and Pfg27, to induce biologically important antibodies that can block development of the parasite in the Anopheles mosquito and thus transmission of the disease. DNA encoding Pfs25 when administered by the intramuscular route, either alone or with DNA encoding Pfg27, had the most potent transmission-blocking effects, resulting in up to a 97% decrease in oocyst numbers in mosquito midguts and a 75% decrease in rate of infection. Immunization with DNA encoding a Pfg27-Pfs25 fusion protein was less effective and DNA encoding Pfg27 elicited antibodies in sera that had only modest effects on the infectivity of the parasite. These results show for the first time that DNA vaccination can result in potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice and suggest that the Pfs25 gene should be included as part of a multicomponent DNA vaccine.  (+info)

Antibodies reactive with the N-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen inhibit cell proliferation by agglutinating merozoites and schizonts. (7/3739)

The serine repeat antigen (SERA) is a vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Immunization of mice with Escherichia coli-produced recombinant protein of the SERA N-terminal domain (SE47') induced an antiserum that was inhibitory to parasite growth in vitro. Affinity-purified mouse antibodies specific to the recombinant protein inhibited parasite growth between the schizont and ring stages but not between the ring and schizont stages. When Percoll-purified schizonts were cultured with the affinity-purified SE47'-specific antibodies, schizonts and merozoites were agglutinated. Indirect-immunofluorescence assays with unfixed parasite cells showed that SE47'-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) bound to SERA molecules on rupturing schizonts and merozoites but the IgG did not react with the schizont-infected erythrocytes (RBC). Furthermore, double-fluorescence staining against SE47'-specific IgG and anti-human RBC membrane IgG showed that the RBC membrane disappeared from SE47'-specific-IgG-bound schizonts after cultivation. These observations suggest that the SE47'-specific antibodies inhibit parasite growth by cross-linking SERA molecules that are associated with merozoites in rupturing schizonts with partly broken RBC and parasitophorous vacuole membranes, blocking merozoite release.  (+info)

Role of gamma interferon in cellular immune response against murine Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. (8/3739)

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites that cause a wide variety of opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Because it is able to grow in vitro, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is currently the best-studied microsporidian. T cells mediate protective immunity against this parasite. Splenocytes obtained from infected mice proliferate in vitro in response to irradiated parasites. A transient state of hyporesponsiveness to parasite antigen and mitogen was observed at day 17 postinfection. This downregulatory response could be partially reversed by addition of nitric oxide (NO) antagonist to the culture. Mice infected with E. cuniculi secrete significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Treatment with antibody to IFN-gamma or interleukin-2 (IL-12) was able to neutralize the resistance to the parasite. Mutant animals lacking the IFN-gamma or IL-12 gene were highly susceptible to infection. However, mice unable to secrete NO withstood high doses of parasite challenge, similar to normal wild-type animals. These studies describe an IFN-gamma-mediated protection against E. cuniculi infection that is independent of NO production.  (+info)

*Visceral leishmaniasis

... without ever having visceral leishmaniasis have a strong type 1 CD4+ response to leishmania antigens. Antigen specific ... The protozoan is in the smaller of its two forms, called an amastigote, which is round, non-motile, and only 3-7 micrometers in ... The daughter cells protozoans then migrate to fresh cells or through the bloodstream to find new hosts. In this way the ... The DAT anti-leishmania antigen test, standard within MSF, is much more cumbersome to use and appears not to have any ...

*Alphavirus

They could therefore be used to vaccinate against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and tumor antigens. Alphavirus infection ...

*Duffy antigen system

Historically the role of this antigen other than its importance as a receptor for Plasmodium protozoa has not been appreciated ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. Its ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes. While the Duffy antigen is ...

*Antigenic variation

The immune system will then "remember" that particular antigen, and defenses aimed at that antigen become part of the immune ... Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its ... as their antigens are no longer recognized by the host's immune system. When an organism is exposed to a particular antigen (i. ... However, if the pathogen can alter its surface antigens, it can evade the host's acquired immune system. This will allow the ...

*Crithidia luciliae

As a parasitic protozoan, C.luciliae lacks the ability to biosynthetically produce purine bases and therefore needs to salvage ... The high concentration of dsDNA and the absence of human nuclear antigens in the kinetoplast provides a specific substrate for ... C.luciliae is a eukaryotic single-cell protozoan. The family Trypanosomatidae belongs to the order kinetoplastida and is ... "Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. ...

*Phagocyte

Mast cells express MHC class II molecules and can participate in antigen presentation; however, the mast cell's role in antigen ... Pathogenic bacteria and protozoa have developed a variety of methods to resist attacks by phagocytes, and many actually survive ... stimulate lymphocytes to produce antibodies by an important process called antigen presentation. Antigen presentation is a ... The protozoan parasites Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania infect macrophages, and each has a unique way of ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... Pathogens Pathogenic bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoa Parasites Tumors Allergens Self-proteins Autoimmunity Alloimmunity Cross- ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...

*Leishmanolysin

Button, L.L.; McMaster, W.R. (1988). "Molecular cloning of the major surface antigen of Leishmania". J. Exp. Med. 167: 724-729 ... This membrane-bound glycoprotein is present in the promastigote of various species of Leishmania protozoans. ...

*SAG1 protein domain

The structure of the immunodominant SAG1 antigen reveals a homodimeric configuration. This family of surface antigens is found ... SAG1 is found on the surface of a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite infects almost any warm-blooded ... This particular antigen contains many cysteine residues which lead to disulphide bridge formation. This domain has a sequence ... He XL, Grigg ME, Boothroyd JC, Garcia KC (2002). "Structure of the immunodominant surface antigen from the Toxoplasma gondii ...

*Immunoglobulin E

Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. IgE also has an ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ... Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ...

*Frederick Parker Gay

He continued to research antibodies and antigens. In 1918 he published his book on typhoid fever, and in 1921 he became Head of ... He contributed to Agents of Disease and Host Resistance(1935) concerned with bacteria, fungi, protozoa, rickettsiae and viruses ...

*Grand Challenges In Global Health

Grand Challenge #5: Solve How to Design Antigens for Effective, Protective immunity The priority areas for this challenge ... and complex pathogens such as protozoa and fungi. Dr. Hongkui Deng of Peking University in China is currently working with his ...

*Microneme

... possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a ... These organelles secrete several proteins such as the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1, or PfAMA1, and ... Erythrocyte family antigen, or EBA, family proteins. These proteins specialize in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors and ...

*Virotherapy

That antigen could be from any species of virus/bactera or even human disease antigens, for example cancer antigens. The ... Recent papers have proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa. Chester M. Southam, a researcher at ... Trovax is an immunotherapy that uses a pox-virus bearing the tumour antigen 5T4, to induce an immune response against a variety ... Viral immunotherapy uses viruses to introduce specific antigens to the patient's immune system. Unlike traditional vaccines, in ...

*Piet Borst

De Lange T, Borst P. Genomic environment of the expression-linked extra copies of genes for surface antigens of Trypanosoma ... Ouellette M, Borst P. Drug resistance and P-glycoprotein gene amplification in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Res Microbiol ... Novel expression-linked copies of the genes for variant surface antigens in trypanosomes. Nature. 1980;284:78-80. Boothroyd JC ... Introduction of PFG electrophoresis for the separation of chromosome-sized DNA molecules of several protozoa (20) (21). The ...

*Zanvil A. Cohn

... in which the body produces antibodies in response to exposure to an antigen. In pioneering studies, both at the laboratory ... large cells that can surround and digest foreign substances like protozoa and bacteria. He applied these insights to patient- ...

*Occupational hazards of human nail dust

It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... Possible ocular hazards result from exposure to foreign bodies, allergens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa that can be ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... protozoan MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254 - antibodies, viral MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.254.150 - deltaretrovirus ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 -- alpha 1-antichymotrypsin ... protozoan MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254 -- antibodies, viral MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.254.150 -- deltaretrovirus ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 -- complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 -- ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 -- antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 -- antivenins MeSH ...

*Human parasite

The most accurate diagnosis is by qPcr DNA antigen assay, not generally available by primary care physicians in the USA: most ... Human parasites include various protozoa and worms which may infect humans that cause parasitic diseases. Human parasites are ...

*Cell-mediated immunity

... antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. Historically, the ... It is most effective in removing virus-infected cells, but also participates in defending against fungi, protozoans, cancers, ... Naive T cells, mature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells after ... Cellular immunity protects the body by: T-cell mediated immunity or T-cell immunity : activating antigen-specific cytotoxic T ...

*Selective sweep

While antigenic drift (the gradual change of surface antigens) is considered the traditional model for changes in the viral ... A similar case can be found in Toxoplasma gondii, a remarkably potent protozoan parasite capable of infecting warm-blooded ...

*Parasite-stress theory

... the ability of an organism to produce a normal immune response to an antigen) had a significant relationship with fluctuating ... which measured the prevalence of protozoa and worm parasites in over 300 children, found a positive correlation between gut ...

*Hepatocystis

The protozoa are transmitted by the bite of the insect vector. The sporozoites migrate to the liver where they typically form ... Some versions of the Duffy antigen have been associated with protection from Hepatocytis infection in yellow baboons (Papio ... Mature gametocytes are larger than a normal erythrocyte stain poorly compared to other protozoa. In both male and female ... Bray RS (1984). "Some parasitic protozoa from the Gambia". J. Euk. Microbiol. 31 (4): 577-8. Leathers CW (1978). "The ...

*Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

There are six subspecies of S. neurona which can be identified by surface antigens (SAG). Equine EPM is caused by the parasites ... Protozoa: Apicomplexa), the Etiologic Agent of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis". The Journal of Parasitology. 77 (2): 212. ... Ellison SP, Omara-Opyeme AL, Yowell C, Dame J. Molecular characterization of a major 29 kDa surface antigen of Sarcocystis ... Horses produce antibodies to these surface antigens. Serum antibody testing is available that measures levels of these ...

*Pattern recognition receptor

PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines The microbe ... fungi and protozoa. MBL predominantly recognizes certain sugar groups on the surface of microorganisms but also binds ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMID 16948640. "Understanding Immunotherapy". Cancer. ...

*Frenkelia

Protozoa, Apicomplexa) to Sarcocystis falcatula Stiles 1893: is the genus Sarcocystis paraphyletic?". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. ... Species of this genus share antigens with Sarcocystis. DNA studies suggest that this genus should be merged with Sarcocystis. ... "Effects of sequence alignment and structural domains of ribosomal DNA on phylogeny reconstruction for the protozoan family ...
Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen (SERA5) is a promising asexual blood stage malaria candidate vaccine. However, there is a paucity of information about natural immune responses to SERA5 in children from malaria-endemic regions. We undertook a hospital-based case-control study of severe malaria in Apac District, Northern Uganda, in children 6-59 months of age. The commonest symptoms observed in children with severe malaria (SM) were respiratory distress (53.4%) and prostration (40.4%) followed by circulatory collapse (7.4%), severe anemia (Hb | 5 g/dL, 7.0%), and seizures (2.6%). None of the SM children had impaired consciousness, coma, or cerebral malaria. We measured serum IgG antibodies using a recombinant construct of SERA5 (SE36) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. High titers of IgG anti-SE36 were associated with protection against severe malaria in children under 5 years old.
Serum samples from Ugandan residents of a malaria-hyperendemic region were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for reactivity against recombinant constructs of the 47 (SE47')- and 50 (SE50A)-kDa fragments of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen (SERA). Immunoglobulin (Ig) G3 and IgG1 were the predominant subclass responses to SE47' and SE50A, respectively. The geometric mean optical density (OD) for IgG3 anti-SE47' was significantly lower in children | 15 years compared with adults | or = 15 years (P | 0.0001). By contrast, the geometric mean IgG1 anti-SE50A was slightly higher in children compared with adults (P | 0.01). The proportion of high responders (ODs | 0.5) to SE47' was significantly lower in children compared with adults (P | 0.001), whereas the proportion of high responders to SE50A was comparable in children and adults (P = 0.07). This first detailed study of SERA in a malaria-hyperendemic region suggests that natural human IgG3 anti-SE47' might be
Kaj je zdravilo HBVaxPro in za kaj ga uporabljamo. Kako jemati zdravilo HBVaxPro. Možni neželeni učinki. Hepatitis B, recombinant surface antigen - J07BC01 - MSD VACCINS - Navodilo za uporabo
Complete information for CHORDC1 gene (Protein Coding), Cysteine And Histidine Rich Domain Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A very interesting reference you might check is: Hale, JE and Beidler, DE, Anal. Biochem. 222, 29-33(1994). They describe the use of chelated metals (particularly Cobalt and Nickel) as Metal Affinity materials to select histidine rich sequences. Note that the system is also potentially reversible. Lot easier to make than an antibody! BTW, note that they use these chelated materials to pull out MAbs which have a high-histidine sequence near the carboxy terminus of the haevy chain. This paper should give you a number of leads. Jerry corey at MED.PITT.EDU (Seth Corey) wrote: ,this may be rehashed - but are their Ab , which blot and ip poly-his-tagged proteins? ,thanks ,Seth Corey ,p.s. where can one get myc-tagged and ha-tagged vectors? ...
The surface-accessible ectodomain region of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a malaria vaccine candidate. The amino acid sequence may be under selection from naturally acquired immune responses, and previous analyses with a small number of allele sequences indicate a non-neutral pattern of nucleotide variation. To investigate whether there is selection to maintain polymorphism within a population, and to identify the parts of the ectodomain under strongest selection, a sample of 51 alleles from a single endemic population was studied. Analyses using Fu and Lis D and F tests, Tajimas D test, and the McDonald-Kreitman test (with the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi as outgroup) show significant departure from neutrality and indicate the selective maintenance of alleles within the population. There is also evidence of a very high recombination rate throughout the sequence, as estimated by the recombination parameter, C, and by the rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with
Background: Antibodies in adults living in malaria endemic areas that target specific parasite antigens are implicated in protective immunity to infection and disease. This study aimed to identify, isolate and characterise targets of protective immunity in malaria. A Plasmodium falciparum antigen termed UB05 (Genbank Accession Number DQ235690: PlasmoDB PF10_ 0372) that had been isolated by immunoscreening with semi-immune sera was studied. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and bioinformatics were used to analyse the UB05 gene. A specific mouse anti-UB05 antibody was used in parasite reinvasion growth/inhibition assays and in immunoflourescence to localise the antigen. In a cross-sectional study, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to study immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the antigen. Results: The gene revealed significant homologies with gene sequences from Plasmodia and other apicomplexan parasites and had two alleles in the wild P. falciparum isolates. The antigen is ...
This study documents that IFN-γ responses to peptides encoding T cell epitopes for the pre-erythrocytic antigen LSA-1 and the blood-stage antigen MSP-1 are infrequent in the first year of life but increase with age through the age of 4 years in children in a malaria holoendemic area. By the age of 4 years, frequency and level of IFN-γ responses to the single LSA-1 peptide T3 exceeded those of adults in an area of highly seasonal malaria transmission [5], and approached those of adults in a malaria holoendemic area (John CC, unpublished data). Frequencies of IFN-γ responses to the MSP-1 peptide, aa 20-39, were also similar by the age of 4 years to those reported in other MSP-1 peptides in adults in malaria endemic areas [13, 14]. In contrast, frequencies of IL-10 responses to LSA-1 and MSP-1 peptides did not differ with age, and levels and frequencies of IL-10 responses were much lower than IFN-γ responses. These findings suggest that age and/or repeated exposure are necessary for development ...
Multiplex assays have been developed for detecting Abs to combinations of viral and bacterial pathogens (7, 13) and to different bacterial serotypes (8, 9). The multiplex assay described herein is to the first to measure Ab responses to P. falciparum malarial proteins, including sporozoite (CSP), liver-stage Ag (LSA-1), and asexual blood-stage Ags (MSP-142, AMA-1, EBA-175, MSP-3, and RESA) simultaneously. The assay for malaria proved to be rapid, allowing us to screen over 250 samples against the nine Ags in an afternoon. The assay also requires small amounts of Ag and minimal amounts of plasma. It has a wider dynamic range and is as sensitive as ELISA. Thus, this multiplex immunoassay is a useful new tool for research on malaria.. A major concern with multiplexing microspheres coated with different Ags is that combining Ags might result in Ab competition or blocking. In this study, no significant difference was found when antigen-coated spheres were used alone or in combination (Fig. 2). ...
Evaluation of P. falciparum antigen Pf332 as a target for parasite neutralizing immune responses. This project is based on the P. falciparum antigen Pf332, which we identified in 1989 together with Mattei et al. at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Subsequent data on Pf332, obtained mainly by our groups by laboratory experiments and epidemiological investigations, indicate that the antigen stands out as an attractive target for vaccine development. However, the previous research on Pf332 has involved mainly a 157 amino acids long fragment (EB200) of the antigen; the complete 5506 a.a. sequence became recently available from the sequencing of the P. falciparum genome.. ...
Originally, it was thought that in utero exposure to foreign Ags resulted in immunological tolerance, but accumulating evidence now shows that exposure to small doses of microbial Ags can lead to the priming of fetal lymphocytes (12, 14, 26, 27). In developing countries, women are often infected with parasites during pregnancy and expose the developing fetus to foreign Ags. Mechanisms underlying transplacental passage of parasite Ags are unclear, but malarial, filarial, and schistosomal Ags have been detected in CB (2, 10, 26, 28).. Developing germinal centers have been detected in human neonates at birth (29) and neonatal B cells have the ability to produce IgM and different IgG subclasses in vitro (6). In the current study, malaria-specific IgM was detected in 12% of 120 CBMC cultures. Previously, Xi et al. (30) detected IgM in 14% of CB samples collected in Yaoundé and demonstrated by Western blotting that the Abs reacted with a wide range of asexual stage Ags, with each newborn having its ...
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Our results demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between titres of antibodies to two of the pre-erythrocytic antigens, CSP and TRAP, and time to re-infection with P. falciparum. By contrast, we did not observe such a relationship between antibody titres for LSA-1 and time to re-infection. This is biologically plausible given that LSA-1 antigens are only expressed inside hepatocytes in the liver, where they are inaccessible to antibodies; the presence of these functionally redundant LSA-1 antibodies in the blood is probably owing to immune recognition of the remains of eliminated parasites. The apparent correlation between LSA-1 antibody titres and protection from infection observed in field studies [11,12] is therefore probably owing to the correlation between anti-LSA-1 titres and titres of other effective pre-erythrocytic antibodies.. Despite the importance of the infection-blocking immune response, it is unclear whether it is primarily mediated by immune responses directed against ...
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Complete information for HRC gene (Protein Coding), Histidine Rich Calcium Binding Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A dose escalating, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial was conducted to test the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine containing recombinant Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated in Montanide ISA720. Three groups of volunteers were vaccinated intramuscularly with 5 microg, 20 microg or 80 microg of AMA1, respectively, in 0.5 mL of formulation at 0, 3 and 6 months. Anti-AMA1 antibody levels and T cell stimulation indices were measured before and after each vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. Most subjects generated a mild to moderate, transient local reaction after the first vaccination. Three subjects developed a local reaction approximately 10 days following vaccination. Six of the 29 subjects seroconverted. Only one of these developed a high antibody titre. However, the interpretation of this trial was compromised by a loss of potency of the formulated vaccine during the course of the study ...
Malaria constitutes a major health problem and is strongly associated with socioeconomic ramifications in many temperate and most tropical countries. In Myanmar, malaria is ranked as the number one public health problem, and nearly 600,000 malaria patients seek medical attention at health institutions annually. Among malaria species in Myanmar, Plasmodium falciparum accounts for approximately 80% of infections and Plasmodium vivax for 17.8% of infections, whereas the remaining infections are due to Plasmodium malariae or mixed infections [1].. The sporozoites of malaria parasites are transmitted from the saliva of infected mosquitoes and stay for a while at the site of infection or travel to the liver and invade hepatocytes, where they develop into the exoerythrocytic stage called tissue schizont. During this stage, the parasites express liver stage-specific antigens. In P. falciparum, at least two of the relevant antigens, liver stage antigen-1 (PfLSA-1) and liver stage antigen-3 (PfLSA-3), ...
To investigate the protective role of antibodies to the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) epitopes against Plasmodium falciparum clinical malaria, a cohort study was conducted in a Malagasy village over 7 months. In the 304 indiv
Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1(PvAMA-1) is a surface protein with polymorphic sites. This study was aimed to analyze the polymorphic amino acid residues at PvAMA-1 in different infected age groups. 92 blood samples were collected from south and southeast of Iran. The DNA coding for the domain I (DI), DII, and partial ...
Figure 4: Fine epitope mapping of naturally acquired human anti-Pf332-DBL antibodies on a peptide array. (a) The fine specificity of human affinity-purified anti-Pf332-DBL antibodies was analyzed by a peptide microarray with 52 overlapping peptides of 15 amino acids shifted by four residues covering 3D7 Pf332-DBL (amino acids 1-219). Two overlapping 15 mers having the peptide sequence KKDEYIDIQSRV in common were recognized by the human antibodies. Nonimmune IgG gave a reactivity lower than 250 ± 200, and is therefore not displayed in the graph. Peptides are ordered from N-terminus (top) to C-terminus (bottom). Bars represent the mean reactivity of three subarrays; error bars indicate standard deviation. (b) Mapping of epitopes recognized by the affinity-purified human anti-Pf332-DBL antibody on the 3D model of Pf332-DBL. Subdomain 1 (yellow), subdomain 2 (red), and subdomain 3 (green). The epitope recognized by the human affinity-purified anti-Pf332-DBL antibodies (blue) is located on one of ...
Upon rupture of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) schizonts in vitro (an event known as egress), merozoites are released into the culture medium. The merozoites invade fresh red blood cells, a process that involves shedding of a microneme protein called apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) from the merozoite surface. This shedding, which takes place even in the absence of invasion, is therefore a surrogate marker for the degree of egress taking place in a culture, and can be measured using a specific capture ELISA to quantify AMA1 levels in culture supernatants (Collins et al., 2013). The assay uses a monoclonal antibody specific for AMA1 (called 4G2dc1) (Kocken et al., 1998; Collins et al., 2009) to capture and immobilize the protein from culture supernatants, then uses a specific rabbit polyclonal antiserum to detect the immobilized antigen. A phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody is finally used to quantify the binding of the second antibody. Egress is absolutely dependent upon the
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Malaria antigen-induced polarization of T cells into effectors Th1 and/or Th2 cells and their subsequent release of cytokines is known to affect antibody production. This thesis includes studies on early innate responses to the parasite, with a focus on γδT cells, and acquired specific responses in African sympatric ethnic tribes. In the last part of this thesis, a method for enrichment for the asexual blood stages of P. falciparum and their use in in vitro T-cell studies is presented.. To investigate mechanisms involved in parasite growth inhibition by γδT cells, an in vitro system was set up using blood stage parasites co-cultured with differently treated γδT cells. The results showed that Vγ9/δ2+ γδT cells inhibited the in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites whereas CD4+ and CD8+ T cells did not. This inhibition was positively correlated with the expression of cytolytic molecules in the cell lines tested. Anti-granulysin antibodies reversed γδT cell-mediated inhibition, ...
Page contains details about hepatitis B recombinant surface antigen particles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Shanghai Wanxing Bio-Pharmaceuticals is currently evaluating one malaria vaccine candidate, PfCP2.9 adjuvanted with Montanide ISA 720. This trial is designed to test the safety and immunogenicity of 3 doses and 2 vaccination schedules.. This blood stage candidate malaria vaccine is being developed for the routine immunization of infants and children living in malaria-endemic areas. ...
Principal Investigator:HIRAYAMA Kenji, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:寄生虫学(含医用動物学)
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 8552406. Parasite Immunol. 1995 Jul;17(7):341-52. Immunogens based upon sequences from the P. falciparum asexual blood stage antigen Pf332 were assessed for their capacity to induce antibodies inhibiting parasite growth or cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes in vitro. Selection of the Pf332 sequences was based on their reactivity with the human monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 33G2 which inhibits parasite growth as well as cytoadherence in vitro. Octameric multiple antigen peptides (MAP) were assembled based upon either a trimer of the minimal epitope recognized by the MoAb, VTEEI, or a Pf332 sequence including that motif, SVTEEIAEEDK. A dimer of SVTEEIAEEDK was also expressed in Escherichia coli, genetically fused to ZZ, two IgG-binding domains of staphylococcal protein A. Rabbit antibodies elicited by the immunogens reacted with Pf332 in immunofluorescence and in ELISA with Pf332 peptides which were also recognized by MoAb 33G2. The MAP with branched (VTEEI)3 peptide ...
Immunization with the F1 domain alone resulted in isolation of antibodies that are 2-fold more neutralizing than the F2-specific MAbs at 3 mg/ml (Fig. 4). This concentration reflects the fact that laboratory strains have adapted to be less dependent on glycophorin C for invasion than field strains (43). It is anticipated that the concentration of EBA-140 MAbs required to neutralize field strains will be lower, as field strains showed a greater range of dependence on glycophorin C for invasion than laboratory-adapted strains, up to a 47% reduction of invasion for field strains in glycophorin C knockdown RBCs compared to the 0% to 10% reduction seen in laboratory strains (43). In addition to EBA-140, the merozoite antigens EBA-175 (42, 44, 45), AMA-1 (46-51), RON2 (52), and RH5 (53-56) all have demonstrated the ability to elicit antibodies that potently neutralize growth in vitro. The concentrations of EBA-140 antibodies required here for neutralization are higher than those reported for some of ...
Our results demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between titres of antibodies to two of the pre-erythrocytic antigens, CSP and TRAP, and time to re-infection with P. falciparum. By contrast, we did not observe such a relationship between antibody titres for LSA-1 and time to re-infection. This is biologically plausible given that LSA-1 antigens are only expressed inside hepatocytes in the liver, where they are inaccessible to antibodies; the presence of these functionally redundant LSA-1 antibodies in the blood is probably owing to immune recognition of the remains of eliminated parasites. The apparent correlation between LSA-1 antibody titres and protection from infection observed in field studies [11,12] is therefore probably owing to the correlation between anti-LSA-1 titres and titres of other effective pre-erythrocytic antibodies.. Despite the importance of the infection-blocking immune response, it is unclear whether it is primarily mediated by immune responses directed against ...
New efficient vaccines against infectious diseases are in demand. Some important factors impeding the vaccine development are the poor immunogenicity and the MHC restriction of the immune responses to a number of antigens. The use of novel vaccine adjuvants or carrier proteins, which are known to enhance the immunogenicity of the subunit antigens and provide T-cell help, can circumvent these problems. The potential of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to function as adjuvants when fused to or co-delivered with protein antigens, make them attractive vaccine candidates. In this thesis we have evaluated the potency of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a possible vaccine adjuvant and studied the mechanisms behind the adjuvanticity.. The first article aims to evaluate the carrier effect of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) on a malarial antigen EB200 that induces a MHC restricted response in mice. Immunization of CBA and C57BL/6 mice, high and low responders to EB200, respectively, with the GST-EB200 fusion ...
... ,192 Test HRP-II Enzyme Immunoassay for the presence of infection.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
R. Chattopadhyay, J. Russell, J. M. Carlton, J. C. Aguiar, E. Bilcikova, C. E. White, P. L. Blair, W. R. Weiss, D. Haddad, A. A. Witney, E. Abot, Y. Charoenvit, D. J. Carucci
The Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1(Pf MSP1), a predominant antigen on the surface of the asexual blood stage of the parasite, plays a role in erythrocyte invasion. It elicits immune responses during exposure to natural P. falciparum infections, hence, it is a potential vaccine candidate. However, its extensive sequence diversity causes antigenic variability. Parasites that express variants other than that targeted by immune protection mounted as a result of a vaccine variant, evade the resultant host immune protection. This compromises the efficacy of allele-specific vaccines formulated to protect against a single variant. Due to this, Pf MSP1 has been extensively studied, including in Kenya. However, the extent of Pf MSP1 diversity in children with multiple infections are unknown in Kilifi which is a moderate to high malaria transmission zone. Parasite genomic DNA was extracted from 421 blood samples in 33 children aged below 5 years who had at least 9 multiple infections. ...
The roles of allelic and conserved epitopes in vaccine-induced immunity to the C-terminal 42-kDa fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) were investigated. The C-terminal fragment of MSP1 was expressed as a baculovirus recombinant protein, BVp42. Rabbits were immunized with BVp42, and antibodies were tested for reactivity to MSP1s of the homologous and heterologous allelic forms, represented by the FUP, FVO, FC27, and Honduras parasite isolates, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Despite the fact that allelic sequences accounted for approximately 50% of the BVp42 molecule, anti-BVp42 antibodies cross-reacted extensively with parasites carrying heterologous MSP1 alleles. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays confirmed that an overwhelming majority of the anti-BVp42 antibodies were cross-reactive, suggesting that determinants within conserved block 17 are dominant B-cell epitopes in the anti-BVp42 response. ...
Substantial evidence indicates that antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Different malaria antigens induce distinct immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses, but the importance of different responses in protective immunity from malaria is not known and the factors determining subclass responses in vivo are poorly understood. We examined IgG and IgG subclass responses to the merozoite antigens MSP1-19 (the 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1), MSP2 (merozoite surface protein 2), and AMA-1 (apical membrane antigen 1), including different polymorphic variants of these antigens, in a longitudinal cohort of children in Papua New Guinea. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant subclasses of antibodies to each antigen, and all antibody responses increased in association with age and exposure without evidence of increasing polarization toward one ...
Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 paralog (PvMSP1P) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed on the merozoite surface. This molecule is a target of natural immunity, as high anti-MSP1P-19 antibody levels were detected during P. vivax infection and the antibody inhibited PvMSP1P-erythrocyte binding. Recombinant PvMSP1P antigen results in production of a significant Th1 cytokine response in immunized mice. The present study was performed to characterize natural cellular immunity against PvMSP1P-19 and PvDBP region II in acute and recovery P. vivax infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from acute and recovery P. vivax infection were obtained for lymphocyte proliferation assay upon PvMSP1P-19 and PvDBP region II antigen stimulation. The culture supernatant was examined for the presence of the cytokines IL-2, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-10 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To determine whether Th1 or Th2 have a memory response against PvMSP1P-19 and PvDBPII
Malaria presents a considerable threat to public health. Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP 2) is the major protein released into human blood upon infection by Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of HRP 2 exon II and the efficacy of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HRP 2 for Point-of-Care Test (POCT). The recombinant protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and used to immunize mice for mAb production. Two IgG1 mAbs (1A5 and 1C10) with high affinity, specificity and sensitivity for both native and recombinant HRP 2 were selected after fusion of mouse spleen with myeloma cells. The affinity constant of 1A5 and 1C10 were 7.15 and 4.91 × 10-7 L/mol, respectively. Subsequently, an immunochromatograhic assay was used for screening of clinical samples in endemic regions of China and Myanmar. The immunochromatographic test retrospectively showed an overall sensitivity of 99.07%, and specificity of 100%. Sensitivity at parasite densities | 200, 200-2000,
Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (DBP) is an essential ligand for reticulocyte invasion making it a premier asexual blood stage vaccine candidate. However, strain-specific immunity due to DBPII allelic variation may complicate vaccine efficacy, suggesting that an effective DBPII vaccine needs to target immune responses to conserved epitopes that are potential targets of strain-transcending neutralizing immunity. Anti DBPII monoclonal antibodies, which were previously characterized by COS7 cell binding assay as inhibitory and non-inhibitory to DBPII-erythrocyte binding, were mapped to DBPII gene fragment libraries using phage display. Inhibitory mAb 3C9 binds to a conserved conformation-dependent epitope in subdomain 3 while non-inhibitory mAb 3D10 binds to a linear epitope in subdomain 1 of DBPII. More definitive epitope mapping of mAb 3D10 was achieved using a random peptide library displayed on phage. Since DBP region II is mostly made up of alpha-helices, we used a randomized helical scaffold
Abs that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes form an important component of human immunity against malaria, but key target Ags are largely unknown. Phenotypic variation by P. falciparum mediates the evasion of inhibitory Abs, contributing to the capacity of P. falciparum to cause repeat and chronic infections. However, Ags involved in mediating immune evasion have not been defined, and studies of the function of human Abs are limited. In this study, we used novel approaches to determine the importance of P. falciparum erythrocyte-binding Ags (EBAs), which are important invasion ligands, as targets of human invasion-inhibitory Abs and define their role in contributing to immune evasion through variation in function. We evaluated the invasion-inhibitory activity of acquired Abs from malaria-exposed children and adults from Kenya, using P. falciparum with disruption of genes encoding EBA140, EBA175, and EBA181, either individually or combined as EBA140/EBA175 or EBA175/EBA181 double
Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the major causes of death in African populations infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Only 1% of infected subjects develop CM. The reasons for these differences are not fully understood, but it is likely that the host humoral response against blood-stage antigens plays a role in protection from malaria, although the precise targets and mechanisms mediating immunity remain unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to distinguish between defined P. falciparum- specific Ab response patterns in patients presenting with mild malaria (MM) vs. CM. Methods: We used a panel of P. falciparum conserved antigens including crude blood-stage extracts schizont, merozoite and parasitised erythrocyte membranes and MSP-1p19, PfEB200, R23 and GST-5 recombinant antigens in a retrospective casecontrol study of symptomatic adults, one group presenting confirmed CM without fatal outcome and another group with MM. We further matched P. falciparum-specific Ab responses with
We examined the hypothesis that recovery from uncomplicated malaria in patients carrying drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a measure of acquired functional immunity and may therefore be associated with humoral responses to candidate vaccine antigens. Gambian children with malaria were treated with chloroquine in 28-day trials, and recovery was defined primarily as the absence of severe clinical malaria at any time and absence of parasitemia with fever after 3 days. Plasma samples from these children were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) to recombinant merozoite antigens: apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) and the 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1(19)), including antigenic variants of MSP-1(19) with double and triple substitutions. Antigen-specific IgG was more frequent in children who recovered, particularly that for MSP-1(19) (age-adjusted odds ratios: 0.32 [95% confidence interval, 0.05, 1.87; P = 0.168] for AMA-1, 0.19 ...
We examined the hypothesis that recovery from uncomplicated malaria in patients carrying drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum is a measure of acquired functional immunity and may therefore be associated with humoral responses to candidate vaccine antigens. Gambian children with malaria were treated with chloroquine in 28-day trials, and recovery was defined primarily as the absence of severe clinical malaria at any time and absence of parasitemia with fever after 3 days. Plasma samples from these children were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) to recombinant merozoite antigens: apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) and the 19-kDa C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1(19)), including antigenic variants of MSP-1(19) with double and triple substitutions. Antigen-specific IgG was more frequent in children who recovered, particularly that for MSP-1(19) (age-adjusted odds ratios: 0.32 [95% confidence interval, 0.05, 1.87; P = 0.168] for AMA-1, 0.19 ...
BACKGROUND: Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during pregnancy affect the transplacental transfer of antibodies against several pathogens from mother to fetus, although the effect of malaria and HIV infection on the transfer of antimalarial antibodies remains unclear. METHODS: Levels of total immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgG subtypes against the following Plasmodium falciparum antigens were measured in 187 pairs of mother-cord plasma specimens from Mozambique: 19-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119), erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA175), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), and parasite lysate. Placental antibody transfer was defined as the cord-to-mother ratio (CMR) of antibody levels. RESULTS: Maternal malaria was associated with reduced CMR of EBA175 IgG (P = .014) and IgG1 (P = .029), AMA1 IgG (P = .002), lysate IgG1 (P = .001), and MSP1 IgG3 (P = .01). Maternal HIV was associated with reduced CMR of MSP1 IgG1 (P = .022) and IgG3 ...
A longitudinal study on immune responses in relation to protection against clinical malaria episodes will be conducted in Apac District, Uganda. Three cohorts will be recruited: children 1 to 5 years of age (n=250), children 6 to 10 years of age (n=125) and adults 25 and above (n=125). After finger prick sampling (~300µL) and examination at enrolment, participants will be followed up for one year. Follow-up will include fortnightly active case detection and three-monthly cross-sectional surveys. Clinical malaria attacks and the associated clinical and parasitological parameters will be related to immunological profiles determined utilizing a protein microarray as a capture substratum to profile the humoral immune response against a vast number of parasite antigens.. For individuals who experience a clinical malaria attack or who are diagnosed with high density parasitaemia (≥15,000 parasites/µL) during cross-sectional surveys, a 5mL blood sample is obtained to determine the diversity of ...
Micronemes are cellular organs, or organelles, possessed by Apicomplexa protozoans that are restricted to the apical third of the protozoan body. They are surrounded by a typical unit membrane. On electron microscopy they have an electron-dense matrix due to the high protein content. They are specialized secretory organelles important for gliding motility and host cell invasion. These organelles secrete several proteins such as the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1, or PfAMA1, and Erythrocyte family antigen, or EBA, family proteins. These proteins specialize in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors and facilitating erythrocyte entry. Only by this initial chemical exchange can the parasite enter into the erythrocyte via actin-myosin motor complex. It has been posited that this organelle works cooperatively with its counterpart organelle, the rhoptry, which also is a secretory organelle. It is possible that, while the microneme initiates erythrocyte-binding, the rhoptry secretes ...
1. Miles M.A, Llewellyn M.S, Lewis M.D. et al. The molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Trypanosoma cruzi and parallel research on Leishmania: looking back and to the future. Parasitology. 2009;136(12):1509-28 2. Coura J.R, Dias J.C. Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104(Suppl 1):31-40 3. Ocana-Mayorga S, Llewellyn M.S, Costales J.A. et al. Sex, subdivision, and domestic dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi lineage I in southern Ecuador. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(12):e915 4. Parker E.R, Sethi A. Chagas disease: coming to a place near you. Dermatol Clin. 2011;29(1):53-62 5. Junqueira C, Caetano B, Bartholomeu D.C. et al. The endless race between Trypanosoma cruzi and host immunity: lessons for and beyond Chagas disease. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010;15(12):e29 6. Rodrigues C.M, Valadares H.M, Francisco A.F. et al. Coinfection with different Trypanosoma cruzi strains interferes with the host immune response to ...
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Antibody responses to a panel of Plasmodium falciparum malaria blood-stage antigens in relation to clinical disease outcome in Sudan.
Monoclonal antibodies with broad reactivity against antigens on the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, are isolated from two subjects and are found to have an unusual insertion of an immunoglobulin-like domain from a different chromosome, illustrating a new mechanism of antibody diversification. This paper reports the isolation of monoclonal antibodies with broad reactivity against Plasmodium falciparum antigens from two subjects living in a malaria-endemic region in Kilifi, Kenya. The antibodies are unusual in that they carry large insertions of an immunoglobulin-like domain from LAIR1, an Ig superfamily inhibitory receptor encoded on chromosome 19. The antibodies bind to polymorphic surface antigens on the parasite surface; binding depends on the mutated form of the insert. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism of antibody diversification, and the existence of conserved epitopes that may be suitable candidates for the development of a malaria vaccine. Plasmodium falciparum
Five new articles published this week in PLOS Medicine ranging from malaria to HIV to cardiovascular health. Arjen Dondorp and colleagues investigate whether the plasma level of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 can be ...
We have developed an ELISA that employs monoclonal anti-Toxoplasma SAG1 (p30) as the capture antibody to detect T. gondii circulating antigens in patients serum samples. Using serum spiked with Toxoplasma soluble and with SAG1 recombinant proteins, the detection limits were 31.25 ng/mL and 62.50 ng/mL, respectively. We obtained positive results in 28% (21/75) and 11% (23/206) of probable active and chronic toxoplasmosis serum samples, respectively. Western blot analysis on pooled antigen-positive serum samples showed antigenic bands of molecular weights 25 and 75 kDa from sera of probable active infection and five antigenic bands ranging in size from 26 to 33 kDa from chronic infection sera. This assay would be useful as an initial serum selection step in developing a Toxoplasma antigen detection test and for characterization studies ...
Plasmodium falciparum STEVOR protein (41-60): binds red blood cell membrane proteins to prevent invasion by Plasmodium falciparum; amino acid sequence in first source
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Among 1521 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples screened, 50 were negative by HRP2 based RDT test. Molecular testing was carried out using these 50 RDT negative samples by assuming that 1471 RDT positive samples carried pfhrp2 gene. It was found that 2.4% (36/1521) and 1.8% (27/1521) of samples were negative for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes, respectively. However, the frequency of pfhrp2 deletions varied between the sites ranging from 0-25% (2.4, 95% CI; 1.6-3.3). The frequency of both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion varied from 0-8% (1.6, 95% CI; 1.0-2.4 ...
1PSM: Solution structure of a polypeptide containing four heptad repeat units from a merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum.
Role of the PEXEL in export of Plasmodium falciparum proteins to the infected erythrocyteTwo proposedmodels of PEXEL-mediated export are shown (A, 1 and 2). A1)
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
Malaria continues to be a significant health problem in India. Several of the intended Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens are
Behind ever art is a man, behind the man is the race and behind the race is the social and natural environment and these influences are sure to be reflected on folklore. There is an enormous amount of influence of folklore in our old and modern Bengali literature. In Bangladesh folklore activities were much accelerated when The Bangla Academy in Dhaka in 1955 to promote research work on Bengali language and literature and collected, preserved, and published folklore materials. Mohammad Sayeedur started his professional life in Bangla academy Folklore division at 1962 by the guideline of Jainul abedin, Jashim uddin and others, who builds up a lot of collection of tangible and intangible folk heritage by himself, those which are the valuable national properties of our country. But now a day, his huge collections are being destroyed for lack of authority, space and proper preservation. In this Mohammod Sayeedur Folk Heritage Museum and Research centre, where the scientists of different countries ...
Final results from Phase III trial suggest substantial public health benefits could be provided by the RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate in endemic regions in sub-Saharan Africa; vaccine efficacy enhanced by administration of a booster dose ...
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UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XVIII. Polymorphisms of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen-2 gene in isolates from symptomatic patients. AU - Basco, Leonardo K.. AU - Tahar, Rachida. AU - Escalante, Ananias. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Merozoite surface antigen-2 (MSA-2) is a polymorphic genetic marker that is highly discriminatory for characterizing Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Genetic diversity of isolates obtained from symptomatic patients residing in Yaounde, Cameroon was analyzed by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of amplification products. Of 137 isolates, 25 (18%) had only FC27-type alleles, 40 (29%) had only 3D7-type alleles, and 72 (53%) had multiple parasite populations with both alleles. Of 295 fragments, 145 (49.2%) and 150 (50.8%) belonged to FC27 and 3D7 alleles, respectively. There were 23 different MSA-2 alleles (10 FC27-type and 13 3D7-type that yielded 44 different combinations in ...
Background. Acquired immunity to malaria develops with increasing age and repeated infections. Understanding immune correlates of protection from malaria infection would facilitate vaccine development and identification of biomarkers that reflect changes in susceptibility resulting from ongoing malaria control efforts. Methods. The relationship between IgG antibody and IFN-gamma and IL-10 responses to the 42 kD C-terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (MSP142) and risk-of-(re)infection were examined following drug-mediated clearance of parasitemia in 94 adults and 95 children in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Results. Positive IFN-gamma ELISA and ELISPOT responses to MSP-142 3D7 were associated with delayed time-to-(re)infection whereas high-titer IgG antibodies to MSP-142 3D7 or FVO alleles were not independently predictive of risk-of-(re)infection. When IFN-gamma and IL-10 responses were both present, the protective effect of IFN-gamma was abrogated. A Cox
Surface proteins of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites binding to the erythrocyte receptor, glycophorin.: Invasion of erythrocytes by the malarial parasite is a r
RFP ANNOUNCEMENT: OPERATION OF A FACILITY FOR THE TESTING OF MALARIA VACCINES IN ADULT HUMAN SUBJECTS - NIH-NIAID-DIR-04-01 RELEASE DATE: September 2, 2003 NOTICE: NOT-AI-03-054 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (http://www.niaid.nih.gov) RECEIPT DATE: December 16, 2003 DESCRIPTION The Malaria Vaccine Development Unit (MVDU), NIAID, has a mandate to develop the process for manufacture of pilot lots of clinical grade material of promising malaria vaccine candidate antigens; to produce clinical grade prototype malaria vaccines through collaborations or contract manufacture; to undertake Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity trials in the USA and undertake Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies in populations endemic for malaria. The MVDU program has resulted in eight antigens that either have or are likely in the near future to be prepared as clinical grade antigens suitable for Phase 1 trials. Several other antigens are at an earlier stage of development and some of these are likely ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) form Plasmodium falciparum. Native Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) form Plasmodium falciparum. (MAB0598) - Products - Abnova
Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that resides inside a parasitophorous vacuole. During infection, Toxoplasma actively remodels the transcriptome of its hosting cells with profound and coupled impact on the host immune response. We report that Toxoplasma secretes GRA24, a novel dense granule protein which traffics from the vacuole to the host cell nucleus. Once released into the host cell, GRA24 has the unique ability to trigger prolonged autophosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the host cell p38α MAP kinase. This noncanonical kinetics of p38α activation correlates with the up-regulation of the transcription factors Egr-1 and c-Fos and the correlated synthesis of key proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-12 and the chemokine MCP-1, both known to control early parasite replication in vivo. Remarkably, the GRA24-p38α complex is defined by peculiar structural features and uncovers a new regulatory signaling ...
We describe the cloning of a novel antigen of Plasmodium falciparum which contains a hydrophobic domain typical of an integral membrane protein. This antigen is designated apical membrane antigen 1 because it appears to be located in the apical complex. Apical membrane antigen 1 appears to be transported to the merozoite surface near the time of schizont rupture. ...
Antibodies that target the P. falciparum merozoite and prevent blood-stage infection are key mediators of protective immunity. However, studies have largely focused on understanding IgG responses. The dynamics of IgM induction and maintenance and its functional activity that could contribute to protection have not been established. Here, we show that IgM was rapidly induced during a primary low-dose P. falciparum infection of malaria-naïve adults and appeared to be prominent in most patients with clinical malaria in individuals with life-long malaria exposure, including adults. Contrary to the expectation that IgM is a short-lived response to primary infection, we found that IgM responses persisted after infection with no apparent difference in antibody decay rates between IgM and IgG in Kenyan children or following a primary malaria infection acquired in Australian travelers. Providing a mechanistic link between IgM and immunity, we found that IgM inhibited merozoite invasion in a ...
1B9W: The crystal structure of C-terminal merozoite surface protein 1 at 1.8 A resolution, a highly protective malaria vaccine candidate.
Pam3CSK4 is a synthetic derivative of triacylated lipoproteins that conserves most of the immune stimulatory activity of full-length lipoproteins [29]. Here, we explored the impact of the lipopeptide Pam3CSK4 in whole blood from dogs. To the best of our knowledge, the findings of the present study give new insights, for the first time, on the inflammatory effects that, the Pam3CSK4 TLR2 agonist alone or in combination with L. infantum antigen, induce in ex vivo whole blood dogs in different stages of Leishmania infection (sick, "resistant" and non-infected healthy dogs).. Our findings demonstrate that the Pam3CSK4 TLR2 agonist alone significantly increased the production of TNF-α as previously described [30, 31]. In agreement with the present study, stimulation of purified canine polymorphmononuclear cells (PMNs) with lipoteichoic acid, a ligand of TLR2, promoted the release of pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 [32]. In this study, the Pam3CSK4 TLR2 agonist alone also significantly increased the ...
A compartmental deterministic model is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of transmission-blocking vaccines of malaria, which targets at the parasite stage in the mosquito. The model is rigorously analyzed and numerical simulations are performed. The results and implications are discussed.
Background erythrocyte membrane proteins-1 a variant antigen from the malaria parasite is potentially a focus on for the immune system response. and DBLβ-δ domains DBLα site and EXON 2 site of PfEMP1 we assessed the Compact disc4 T cell reactions of malaria-exposed donors from Benin Western Africa with a FACS centered assay. Results All of the three peptide swimming pools elicited a Compact disc4 T cell response inside PD 169316 a percentage of malaria-exposed and nonexposed donors. Compact disc4 T cell proliferation happens at a comparatively higher magnitude to peptide swimming pools through the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors surviving in Benin than in the united kingdom malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These results claim that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of the variant antigen could be assessed. Further tests of specific peptides inside a positive pool allows us to determine those conserved sequences recognized by a lot of people. These kinds ...
The duration of Plasmodium falciparum infections. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The development of a blood-stage malaria vaccine has largely focused on the subunit approach. However, the limited success of this strategy, mainly due to antigenic polymorphism and the failure to maintain potent parasite-specific immune responses, indicates that other approaches must be considered. Whole parasite (WP) vaccines offer many advantages over sub-units; they represent every antigen on the organism, thus limiting the effects of antigenic polymorphism, and similarly they compensate for individual Immune-Response (Ir) gene-regulated non-responsiveness to any particular antigen. From a development perspective, they negate the need to identify and compare the relative efficacies of individual candidate antigens. WP vaccines induce protective immunity that is largely cell-mediated.. ...
Marques, PX, O Donovan, J, Williams, EJ, Gutierrez, J, Worrall, S, McElroy, M, Proctor, A, Brady, C, Sammin, D, Bassett, H, Buxton, D, Maley, S, Markey, BK and Nally, JE (2012) Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigens reactive with antibodies from serum, amniotic, and allantoic fluids from experimentally infected pregnant ewes ...
Researchers have produced a detailed map that outlines thousands of physical interactions that take place between proteins found in the deadly malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.
PfAP2Tel localizes to telomeric foci at the nuclear periphery of blood stage parasites in vivo. B) Immunofluorescence assays were performed with anti-PfAP2Tel antibodies (red) in ring (R) and schizont (S) stage P. falciparum parasites. Nuclear DNA was stained with DAPI (blue). Confirmed nuclear distribution of PfAP2Tel. PfAP2Tel localized to the nuclear periphery as discrete foci; this pattern was especially evident in the schizont stage. C) Immunofluorescence assays with anti-PfAP2Tel antibodies (green) were combined with DNA Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of telomere ends (red) in ring (R) stage parasites. Nuclear DNA was stained with DAPI (blue). For B and C, scale bars indicate 5 μm (Rings) and 1 μm (Schizonts). PfAP2Tel co-localized with telomeric clusters at the nuclear periphery 80% of the time (N=50 cells). Overall, these results show that PfAP2Tel localizes to a compartment similar to telomeric clusters throughout the parasite blood stage life cycle.Sierra-Miranda M, ...
(Phys.org) -Can scientists rid malaria from the Third World by simply feeding algae genetically engineered with a vaccine? Thats the question biologists at UC San Diego sought to answer after they demonstrated last May ...
BRADLEY, JE, ELSON, L, TREE, TIM, STEWART, G, GUDERIAN, R, CALVOPINA, M, PAREDES, W, ARAUJO, E and NUTMAN, TB (1995) RESISTANCE TO ONCHOCERCA-VOLVULUS - DIFFERENTIAL CELLULAR AND HUMORAL RESPONSES TO A RECOMBINANT ANTIGEN, OVMBP20/11 ...
Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 Antibody (OAMA04150) | Monoclonal Antibody | Clone: B1242M | Application: | Species reactivity: | Alias:
This review gives an overview of the erythrocyte invasion process, which has been described to include several different antigens.. ...
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The mutant showed a different (delayed) course of parasitemia in BALB/c mice and BALB/c mice showed a delayed death from infection. Mutant blood stages showed a restricted host cell range ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine model for assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing the target antigen Pfs25. AU - Mlambo, Godfree. AU - Maciel, Jorge. AU - Kumar, Nirbhay. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Currently, there is no animal model for Plasmodium falciparum challenge to evaluate malaria transmission-blocking vaccines based on the well-established Pfs25 target antigen. The biological activity of transmission-blocking antibodies is typically assessed using an assay known as the membrane feeding assay (MFA). It is an in vitro method that involves mixing antibodies with cultured P. falciparum gametocytes and feeding them to mosquitoes through an artificial membrane followed by assessment of infection in the mosquitoes. We genetically modified Plasmodium berghei to express Pfs25 and demonstrated that the transgenic parasites (TrPfs25Pb) are susceptible to anti-Pfs25 antibodies during mosquito-stage development. The ...
Sarah Steinfurth (2016) : Studien zur Identifizierung der Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) Bindungsdomänen für die Endothelrezeptoren CD9 und P-Selektin. Marius Schmitt (2016) : Localization of Plasmodium vivax (Grassi and Feletti, 1890) VIR proteins by means of Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) transgenic cell lines.. Eugenia Reit (2015) : Production of transgenic CHO-cell lines for investigation of interaction of Plasmodium falciparum with the human endothelial receptors VCAM-1, PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin.. Michael Dörpinghaus (2015) : Development of a system to characterize the binding properties of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains to human endothelial receptors. Lisa Roth (2015) : Characterization of binding characteristics of human endothelial receptors among human erythrocytes infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. Ellen Drews (2014) : Etablierung lentiviraler Expressionssysteme zur Charakterisierung der ...
The P. vivax parasite exhibits higher genetic diversity than P. falciparum, especially for the gene families associated with merozoite invasion or immune response modulation (e.g., the msp3, vir, and msp7 gene families) [20-22]. The high genetic diversity and natural selection of P. vivax vaccine targets is common existed in isolates world-wide [23,24]. The PvMSP1 locus codes for a major asexual blood-stage antigen currently proposed as a malaria vaccine candidate antigen. Reports of extensive polymorphism of this protein from field isolates and clones from different geographical areas remain a major challenge. Numerous studies on the genetic diversity of PvMSP1 in P. vivax field isolates have been carried out in many different geographic areas [25,26]. However, there is no available data for PvMSP142 from southern border areas adjacent to Myanmar and the inland cases in China.. In this study, we present several sets of genetic information for PvMSP142 of populations from inland China and CMB ...
Background: A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA) but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods: An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC) co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens ...
The polymorphic merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) of is a major asexual blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. more than one gene type. Temporal, but not spatial, variance was found in the distribution of MSP-1 gene types Zanosar in the Amazon. Interestingly, some gene types occurred more frequently than expected from random assortment of allelic types in different blocks, as previously found in other areas of endemicity. We also compared the antibody recognition of polymorphic (block 2), dimorphic (block 6), and conserved (block 3) regions of MSP-1 in Amazonian malaria patients and clinically immune Africans, using a panel of recombinant peptides. Results were summarized as follows. (i) All blocks were targeted by naturally acquired cytophilic antibodies of the subclasses IgG1 and IgG3, but the balance between IgG1 and IgG3 depended on the subjects cumulative exposure to malaria. (ii) The balance between IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and the duration of antibody responses differed in relation to ...
The polymorphic merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) of is a major asexual blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. more than one gene type. Temporal, but not spatial, variance was found in the distribution of MSP-1 gene types Zanosar in the Amazon. Interestingly, some gene types occurred more frequently than expected from random assortment of allelic types in different blocks, as previously found in other areas of endemicity. We also compared the antibody recognition of polymorphic (block 2), dimorphic (block 6), and conserved (block 3) regions of MSP-1 in Amazonian malaria patients and clinically immune Africans, using a panel of recombinant peptides. Results were summarized as follows. (i) All blocks were targeted by naturally acquired cytophilic antibodies of the subclasses IgG1 and IgG3, but the balance between IgG1 and IgG3 depended on the subjects cumulative exposure to malaria. (ii) The balance between IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses and the duration of antibody responses differed in relation to ...
Antibodies can bind proteins via the Fab and Fc regions. The Fc interacts with receptors on the cells of the immune system causing effector responses such as phagocytosis and complement mediating lysis, however, pathogens have also developed a way to interact with human antibodies through regions on the Fc. We are currently trying to understand the mechanism underlying the binding of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to IgM. The Cμ4 domain of multimeric IgM has been shown to bind to the C-terminal Duffy Binding Like (DBL) domains of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) expressed by CSA-binding and rosetting strains of Plasmodium falciparum. CSA-binding has been linked to pregnancy associated malaria and rosetting (the binding of infected to uninfected erythrocytes) has been shown to correlate with many clinical manifestations of severe malaria in children living in sub-Saharan Africa. The binding of IgM has been termed as "non-immune" because its interaction ...
The RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate has been under development since the 1980s with partners from the public and private sectors. The collaboration involves researchers in many GAVI-eligible countries in Africa, including Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania, and in the United States and Europe. In January 2001, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative entered into a public-private partnership specifically to develop the vaccine for infants and young children living in malaria-endemic regions in sub-Saharan Africa.. A large-scale Phase III safety and efficacy trial began in May 2009. The study is being conducted in eleven sites across sub-Saharan Africa. The study has enrolled 15,460 infants and children in two age groups, 5-17 months and 6-12 weeks of age at the time of the first vaccination. First results on children aged 5-17 months were reported in October 2011 in the New England Journal of Medicine. Those results indicated that three ...
Background: P35 and P22 Toxoplasma gondii proteins are recognized by specific IgG at the early infection stage, making them ideal for acute toxoplasmosis pregnancy control. Both proteins have been studied to discriminate between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. However, results were hardly comparable because different protein obtainment procedures led to different antigens, the referencepanels used were not optimally typified, and avidity tests were either not performed or narrowly examined. Methods: We bioinformatically predicted P35 andP22 regions with the highest density of epitopes, and expressed them in pET32/BL21DE3 alternative expression system, obtaining the soluble proteins rP35a and rP22a. We assessed their diagnostic performance using pregnant woman serum samples typified as: not infected, NI (IgG−, IgM−), typical-chronic, TC (IgM−, IgG+), presumably acute, A (IgG+, IgM+, low-avidity IgG), and recentlychronic, RC (IgG+, IgM+, high-avidity IgG ...
Emerging evidence suggests that antibodies against merozoite proteins involved in Plasmodium falciparum invasion into the red blood cell (RBC) play an important role in clinical immunity to malaria. The protein family of parasite antigens known as P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein like homolog (PfRh) is required for RBC invasion. PfRh5 is the only member within the PfRh family that cannot be genetically deleted, suggesting it plays an essential role in parasite survival. This antigen forms a complex with the cysteine-rich P. falciparum Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr), on the merozoite surface during RBC invasion. The PfRh5 ectodomain sequence and a C-terminal fragment of PfRipr were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and baculovirus-infected cells, respectively. Immunization of rabbits with these recombinant proteins induced antibodies able to inhibit growth of various P. falciparum strains. Antibody responses to these proteins were investigated in a treatment re-infection study ...
Vol 9: Diversifying Selection on the Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein (TRAP) Gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand.. This article is from PLoS ONE, volume 9.AbstractSporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are transmitted to human hosts by A. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) that are infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfEMP1 is synthesized during the parasites blood stage (erythrocytic schizogony) inside the RBC, during which the clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria are manifested. Acting as both an antigen and adhesion protein, it is thought to play a key role in the high level of virulence associated with P. falciparum. It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. An elusive protein, its chemical structure and molecular properties were revealed only after a decade, in 1995. It is now established that there is not one but a large family of PfEMP1 proteins, genetically regulated (encoded) by a group of about 60 genes called var. Each P. falciparum is ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 25522250. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Dec;10(12):e1004520. All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. Here, we identify cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion. We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K+ environment, typical of blood plasma, activates a bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase to raise cytosolic cAMP levels and activate protein kinase A, which regulates microneme secretion. We also show that cAMP regulates merozoite cytosolic Ca2+ levels via induction of an Epac pathway and demonstrate that increases in both cAMP and Ca2+ are essential to trigger microneme secretion. Our identification of the different ...
The Clp chaperones and proteases play an important role in protein homeostasis in the cell. They are highly conserved across prokaryotes and found also in the mitochondria of eukaryotes and the chloroplasts of plants. They function mainly in the disaggregation, unfolding and degradation of native as well as misfolded proteins. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the Clp chaperones and proteases in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite contains four Clp ATPases, which we term PfClpB1, PfClpB2, PfClpC and PfClpM. One PfClpP, the proteolytic subunit, and one PfClpR, which is an inactive version of the protease, were also identified. Expression of all Clp chaperones and proteases was confirmed in blood-stage parasites. The proteins were localized to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic organelle that accommodates several important metabolic pathways in P. falciparum, with the exception of PfClpB2 (also known as Hsp101), which was found in the parasitophorous ...
Studies were conducted to determine how malaria parasites are cleared from the blood after antimalarial treatment. Neither artesunate nor quinine decreased parasitized red cell deformability or increased antibody binding. In acute falciparum malaria, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA) was observed in erythrocytes without malaria parasites (RESA-red blood cell [RBC]), indicating prior parasitization. In uncomplicated malaria, RESA-RBC numbers increased significantly (P=.002) within 24 h of starting artesunate but rose much more slowly (7 days) after quinine treatment. In severe malaria, RESA-RBC increased significantly (P=. 001) within hours of starting artesunate but not with quinine treatment (P=.43). RESA-RBCs were not produced after drug treatment of malaria parasite cultures in vitro. Rapid malaria parasite clearance after treatment with artemisinin derivatives results mainly from the extraction of drug-affected parasites from host erythrocytes-presumably by the spleen. This explains

Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review. - NextBio articleVaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review. - NextBio article

Antigens, Protozoan Protozoan Proteins Protozoan Vaccines Vaccines, Attenuated Vaccines, DNA Vaccines, Synthetic ... Antigens, Protozoan Dog Diseases Dogs Humans Leishmania donovani Leishmaniasis, Visceral Neglected Diseases Protozoan Proteins ... Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including ... and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine ...
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Identification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii - GeoScience.netIdentification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii - GeoScience.net

Identification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii ... Expression of the major bradyzoite antigen BAG1 is reduced, and staining with Dolichos biflorus lectin shows reduced cyst wall ... Two forms of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are associated with intermediate hosts such as humans: rapidly growing ... Identification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. ...
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Pathology and Pathogenesis of Chagas Heart Disease.Pathology and Pathogenesis of Chagas Heart Disease.

... heart disease is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy that develops in approximately one-third of people infected with the protozoan ... Chagas disease, caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a leading cause of heart disease ( ... Preclinical models of Chagas disease have demonstrated that antigen-specific CD8+ gamma interferon (IFN-)-positive T-cell ... Abstract The infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease in ...
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Molecular Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Plasmid Encoding Rhomboid 4 (ROM4) of Tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondii RH...Molecular Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Plasmid Encoding Rhomboid 4 (ROM4) of Tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondii RH...

Gene cloning, expression and serological evaluation of the 12-kDa antigen-B subunit from Echinococcus granulosus. Ann Trop Med ... The roles of intramembrane proteases in protozoan parasites. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828(12):2908-15. ... Cloning of Toxoplasma Gondii Granular Antigen 5(GRA5) in Expression Eukaryotic Plasmid pcDNA3 and its Expression on CHO CellJ ... Gene cloning of 30 kDa Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites surface antigen (SAG1). Iran J Parasitol. 2007; 2(2): 1-8. ...
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New Perspectives for Therapeutic Intervention during the Chronic Phase of <i>Trypanosoma Cruzi</i...New Perspectives for Therapeutic Intervention during the Chronic Phase of <i>Trypanosoma Cruzi</i...

In addition, the immune response to parasite antigens and host self-antigens are not dissociated and occur concomitantly[10], ... The intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagass disease in humans[1]. About 5 million to 8 million ... but the infection also induces a strong immune response to host self antigens[10]. Therefore, a malfunction of immune ...
more infohttps://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/New-Perspectives-for-Therapeutic-Intervention-during-the-Chronic-Phase-of-iTrypanosoma-Cruzii-Infection/597

Chronic Chagas Heart Disease Management | JACC: Journal of the American College of CardiologyChronic Chagas Heart Disease Management | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology

1996) In vivo detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in hearts of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. Am Heart J 131: ... There are several ways to transmit the protozoan T. cruzi to human beings, including through the feces of a kissing bug, ... Also, a correlation of higher prevalence of T. cruzi antigens (71%) with the inflammatory process has been observed (57). In ... Moreover, it has been reported that patients with ChHD have T. cruzi antigens in fragments of the myocardial biopsy revealed by ...
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more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/antigens+protozoan

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antigens, Protozoan.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antigens, Protozoan.}'

Antigens del estádio tripomastigote sanguíneo de la cepa RA I de Trypanosoma cruzi y de la cepa Boitron de Leishmania ... Studies on antigenic diversity in the malaria S-antigens / by Nina Gloriana-Barzaga.. by Gloriani-Barzaga, Nina , UNDP/World ... The effects of insecticide-treated bed-nets on immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children and pregnant ... Application of the antibody dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay to the identification of protective antigens and the ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntigens,%20Protozoan.%7D

Comparison of microsatellite and antigen-coding loci for differentiating recrudescing Plasmodium falciparum infections from...Comparison of microsatellite and antigen-coding loci for differentiating recrudescing Plasmodium falciparum infections from...

We have compared the ability of five Plasmodium falciparum microsatellites and three antigen-coding loci to differentiate ... 0/Antigens, Protozoan; 0/Antimalarials; 0/DNA, Protozoan; 0/Genetic Markers From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... Antigens, Protozoan / genetics*. Antimalarials / therapeutic use. DNA, Protozoan / genetics. Drug Resistance. Endemic Diseases ... We have compared the ability of five Plasmodium falciparum microsatellites and three antigen-coding loci to differentiate ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Comparison-microsatellite-antigen-coding-loci/16442537.html

Antigens · QED Bioscience IncAntigens · QED Bioscience Inc

Antigen Categories:. SERION Immunologics Native and Recombinant Antigens: Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, and Protozoa. ... Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, and Protozoa Antigens. High quality infectious disease antigens are key reagents for analyzing antibody ... Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen EBNA1, P72. BA1362VS. View. $1,150.00. Quantity. ... responses to bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi. QED Bioscience is proud to be the U.S. distributor of bulk antigen ...
more infohttps://www.qedbio.com/antigens/

Babesia merozoite surface antigen p58
     Summary Report | CureHunterBabesia merozoite surface antigen p58 Summary Report | CureHunter

Babesia merozoite surface antigen p58: from Babesia bigemina; candidate immunogen for inclusion in an antigenically defined ... Babesia merozoite surface antigen p58. Subscribe to New Research on Babesia merozoite surface antigen p58 ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC071621.do

Plasmodium falciparum STARP antigen
     Summary Report | CureHunterPlasmodium falciparum STARP antigen Summary Report | CureHunter

Plasmodium falciparum STARP antigen: may be a target for immunotherapy for sporozoite invasion; partial amino acid sequence ... Plasmodium falciparum STARP antigen. Subscribe to New Research on Plasmodium falciparum STARP antigen ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC109185.do

Interaction between the C-terminal region of TUBB2C and | Open-iInteraction between the C-terminal region of TUBB2C and | Open-i

Affiliation: 1] National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, ... Affiliation: 1] National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, ... Antigens, Protozoan. *CHO Cells. *Carrier Proteins/metabolism. *Cells, Cultured. *Cricetinae. *Cricetulus. *Immunoprecipitation ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3824165_srep03199-f5&req=4

A proposed model for the stage-specific mRNA degradatio | Open-iA proposed model for the stage-specific mRNA degradatio | Open-i

Antigens, Protozoan/genetics. *Poly A/metabolism. *RNA Caps/metabolism. *Uridine/analysis. Related in: MedlinePlus ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2275140_gkn019f7&req=4

pLDH detectability for Plasmodium falciparum and recomb | Open-ipLDH detectability for Plasmodium falciparum and recomb | Open-i

Antigens, Protozoan/blood*/immunology. *Blood/parasitology*. *Blood Donors*. *Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods* ... Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite ... Detection of the pLDH antigen seems to be an adequate screening tool in endemic areas, for this antigen indicates parasite ... Pan Plasmodium pLDH detection was assessed by an ELISA-malaria antigen test. Using crude soluble P. falciparum antigens, an ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3750723_1475-2875-12-279-1&req=4

Low prevalence of antibodies to preerythrocytic but not blood-stage Pl by Gregory S. Noland, Brett Hendel-Paterson et al."Low prevalence of antibodies to preerythrocytic but not blood-stage Pl" by Gregory S. Noland, Brett Hendel-Paterson et al.

... apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175), and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) were ... parasitological immunity may in part be due to reduced antibodies to CSP or LSA-1 and/or vaccine candidate blood-stage antigens ... in areas of unstable malaria transmission may relate in part to infrequent high-level antibodies to preerythrocytic antigens ... and liver-stage antigen 1 (LSA-1) has been associated with protection from clinical malaria. In contrast, age-related ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/qhs_pp/404/

KAKEN - Research Projects | cDNA microarray analysis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (KAKENHI-PROJECT-14571657)KAKEN - Research Projects | cDNA microarray analysis of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (KAKENHI-PROJECT-14571657)

Publications] Yano A: Antigen presentation in protozoan infection.Progress of Medical Patasitology in Japan. 7. 297-308 (2003 ... Publications] Yano A: Roles of IFN-γ on stage conversion of an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. ... Publications] Yano A: Roles of IFN-γ on stage conversion of an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. ... Publications] Yano A: Roles of IFN-γ on stage conversion of an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-14571657/

secreted antigen 1, Babesia gibsoni - Semantic Scholarsecreted antigen 1, Babesia gibsoni - Semantic Scholar

The possible role of microfilarial surface (cuticular) antigens in immuno-diagnosis of human filarial infections has been… ( ... The major radioiodinated cuticular antigens of Onchocerca gibsoni microfilariae are neither species nor onchocerca specific. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/secreted-antigen-1%2C-Babesia-gibsoni/10698488

School of Medicine - Research Output
     - Keio UniversitySchool of Medicine - Research Output - Keio University

Hirano, Y., Takeuchi, H., Suda, K., Hagiwara, T., Miyasho, T., Kawamura, Y., Yamada, S., Oyama, T., Takahashi, T., Wada, N., Saikawa, Y., Ichihara, A. & Kitagawa, Y., 2014 Jan, In : Journal of Surgical Research. 186, 1, p. 269-277 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/1500-school-of-medicine/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false

Broadly reactive antibodies specific for Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 by Arlene E. Dent, Ann M. Moormann et al."Broadly reactive antibodies specific for Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119" by Arlene E. Dent, Ann M. Moormann et al.

Malaria, Falciparum; Merozoite Surface Protein 1; Antigens, Protozoan. Disciplines. Epidemiology , Health Services Research , ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/qhs_pp/1048/

School of Medicine - Research Output
     - Keio UniversitySchool of Medicine - Research Output - Keio University

Hirano, Y., Takeuchi, H., Suda, K., Hagiwara, T., Miyasho, T., Kawamura, Y., Yamada, S., Oyama, T., Takahashi, T., Wada, N., Saikawa, Y., Ichihara, A. & Kitagawa, Y., 2014 Jan, In : Journal of Surgical Research. 186, 1, p. 269-277 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/1500-school-of-medicine/publications/?ordering=title&descending=false

OPUS at UTS: Biochemical characterisation of the 56 and 82 kDa immunodominant gametocyte antigens from Eimeria maxima - Open...OPUS at UTS: Biochemical characterisation of the 56 and 82 kDa immunodominant gametocyte antigens from Eimeria maxima - Open...

Antigens, Protozoan. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Immunodominant Epitopes. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, ... Biochemical characterisation of the 56 and 82 kDa immunodominant gametocyte antigens from Eimeria maxima. Belli, SI Lee, M ... Two immunodominant gametocyte antigens from Eimeria maxima with Mr56 kDa and Mr82 kDa have been identified previously as ... The 56 and 82 kDa antigens were separated from a mixture of proteins in a crude gametocyte lysate by 2D SDS-PAGE, the proteins ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/3906

WHO HQ Library catalog › ISBD viewWHO HQ Library catalog › ISBD view

Antigens, Protozoan.. Dissertations, Academic. National Library of Medicine Call No.: WC 705 92LE ... Antigens del estádio tripomastigote sanguíneo de la cepa RA I de Trypanosoma cruzi y de la cepa Boitron de Leishmania ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-ISBDdetail.pl?biblionumber=23932
  • DI-fusion Putative genes of a variant-specific antigen gene. (ac.be)
  • Putative genes of a variant-specific antigen gene transcription unit in Trypanosoma brucei. (ac.be)
  • The genes and transcripts of an antigen gene expression site from T. brucei. (ac.be)
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen seems to exist as a single form in higher eukaryotic cells and plays multiple roles in nucleic acid metabolism. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • The major radioiodinated cuticular antigens of Onchocerca gibsoni microfilariae are neither species nor onchocerca specific. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Overall, microsatellite loci revealed significantly higher expected heterozygosity and multiplicity of infection levels than antigen-coding loci. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mean expected heterozygosity across all loci in the three populations was significantly higher with microsatellites (0.70, 0.78 and 0.79) than antigen-coding loci (0.53, 0.60 and 0.62) for Mwea, Tiwi and Bondo areas, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)