Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Merkel cell polyomavirus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS suspected to be the cause of most cases of MERKEL CELL CARCINOMA, a rare but highly lethal form of skin cancer.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Merkel Cells: Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Polyomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Mice, Inbred BALB CEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src): Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Psittaciformes: An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Papio ursinus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Y-Box-Binding Protein 1: Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Cockatoos: Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (1/1802)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (2/1802)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Different regulation of the p53 core domain activities 3'-to-5' exonuclease and sequence-specific DNA binding. (3/1802)

In this study we further characterized the 3'-5' exonuclease activity intrinsic to wild-type p53. We showed that this activity, like sequence-specific DNA binding, is mediated by the p53 core domain. Truncation of the C-terminal 30 amino acids of the p53 molecule enhanced the p53 exonuclease activity by at least 10-fold, indicating that this activity, like sequence-specific DNA binding, is negatively regulated by the C-terminal basic regulatory domain of p53. However, treatments which activated sequence-specific DNA binding of p53, like binding of the monoclonal antibody PAb421, which recognizes a C-terminal epitope on p53, or a higher phosphorylation status, strongly inhibited the p53 exonuclease activity. This suggests that at least on full-length p53, sequence-specific DNA binding and exonuclease activities are subject to different and seemingly opposing regulatory mechanisms. Following up the recent discovery in our laboratory that p53 recognizes and binds with high affinity to three-stranded DNA substrates mimicking early recombination intermediates (C. Dudenhoeffer, G. Rohaly, K. Will, W. Deppert, and L. Wiesmueller, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:5332-5342), we asked whether such substrates might be degraded by the p53 exonuclease. Addition of Mg2+ ions to the binding assay indeed started the p53 exonuclease and promoted rapid degradation of the bound, but not of the unbound, substrate, indicating that specifically recognized targets can be subjected to exonucleolytic degradation by p53 under defined conditions.  (+info)

Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (4/1802)

The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences.  (+info)

A telomere-independent senescence mechanism is the sole barrier to Syrian hamster cell immortalization. (5/1802)

Reactivation of telomerase and stabilization of telomeres occur simultaneously during human cell immortalization in vitro and the vast majority of human cancers possess high levels of telomerase activity. Telomerase repression in human somatic cells may therefore have evolved as a powerful resistance mechanism against immortalization, clonal evolution and malignant progression. The comparative ease with which rodent cells immortalize in vitro suggests that they have less stringent controls over replicative senescence than human cells. Here, we report that Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts possess substantial levels of telomerase activity throughout their culture life-span, even after growth arrest in senescence. In our studies, telomerase was also detected in uncultured newborn hamster skin, in several adult tissues, and in cultured fibroblasts induced to enter the post-mitotic state irreversibly by serum withdrawal. Transfection of near-senescent dermal fibroblasts with a selectable plasmid vector expressing the SV40 T-antigen gene resulted in high-frequency single-step immortalization without the crisis typically observed during the immortalization of human cells. Collectively, these data provide an explanation for the increased susceptibility of rodent cells to immortalization (and malignant transformation) compared with their human equivalents, and provide evidence for a novel, growth factor-sensitive, mammalian senescence mechanism unrelated to telomere maintenance.  (+info)

The introduction of dominant-negative p53 mutants suppresses temperature shift-induced senescence in immortal human fibroblasts expressing a thermolabile SV40 large T antigen. (6/1802)

Immortal human fibroblasts, SVts8 cells, which express a heat-labile SV40 large T antigen, induces a senescence-like phenomenon in response to upward shift in temperature. Cells with arrested division show strong induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. We examined how p53 and pRB are involved in this phenomenon since they are major targets of the T antigen. Transfection of cells with plasmids encoding the wild-type T antigen or human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 proteins completely abolished the arrest in cell division, a plasmid encoding the E6 protein suppressed it markedly, while a plasmid encoding E7 had no effect. Plasmids encoding dominant-negative p53 mutants also suppressed the arrest in cell division to various degrees. Upon temperature shift, p21 mRNA was upregulated 10-fold in SVts8 cells, but only slightly in clones expressing the wild-type T antigen or dominant-negative p53 mutants. These data demonstrate that p53 plays a major role in this senescence-like phenomenon.  (+info)

Overexpression of D-type cyclins, E2F-1, SV40 large T antigen and HPV16 E7 rescue cell cycle arrest of tsBN462 cells caused by the CCG1/TAF(II)250 mutation. (7/1802)

tsBN462 cells, which have a point mutation in CCG1/TAF(II)250, a component of TFIID complex, arrest in G1 at the nonpermissive temperature of 39.5 degrees C. Overexpression of D-type cyclins rescued the cell cycle arrest of tsBN462 cells, suggesting that the cell cycle arrest was through Rb. Consistent with this, overexpression of E2F-1, whose function is repressed by the hypophosphorylated form of Rb, also rescued the cell cycle arrest. Moreover, expression of the viral oncoproteins SV40 large T antigen and HPV16 E7, which both bind Rb and inactivate its function, rescued the cell cycle arrest, whereas HPV16 E6 did not. Mutation of the Rb-binding motif in E7 abrogated its ability to rescue the cell cycle arrest. Expression of exogenous cyclin D1, SV40 large T antigen or CCG1/TAF(II)250 increased cyclin A expression at 39.5 degrees C. Coexpression of HPV16 E7 and adenovirus E1b19K, which blocks apoptosis, rescued the proliferation of tsBN462 cells at 38.5 degrees C. To investigate the mechanism underlying the lack of cyclin D1 expression, deletion analysis of cyclin D1 promoter was performed. The 0.15 kbp cyclin D1 core promoter region, which lacks any transcription factor binding motifs, still exhibited a temperature-sensitive phenotype in tsBN462 cells suggesting that CCG1/TAF(II)250 is critical for the function of the cyclin D1 core promoter.  (+info)

Concerted expression of BK virus large T- and small t-antigens strongly enhances oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. (8/1802)

Previous studies have shown that the human polyomavirus BK (BKV) genome contains an oestrogen response element (ERE). This isolated element binds its cognate receptor in vitro and can mediate 17beta-oestradiol-induced gene expression when linked to a heterologous promoter. The roles of the ERE- and the AP-1-binding sites in oestrogen receptor-directed transcription from the complete BKV promoter/enhancer (Dunlop strain) have been examined and the effects of the general co-activator CBP and large T- and small t-antigens on oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription have been investigated. A constitutive activated oestrogen receptor stimulated BKV promoter activity in HeLa cells. Mutations in either the ERE- or the AP-1-binding sites did not impair oestrogen receptor-induced activation of the BKV Dunlop promoter, while mutations in both binding motifs almost completely abolished oestrogen receptor-induced transcription. Simultaneous expression of large T- and small t-antigens strongly activated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. When expressed separately, only large T-antigen moderately stimulated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. The stimulatory effect of large T-antigen on the activity of the oestrogen receptor is probably indirect because no physical interaction between the two proteins was detected in a two-hybrid assay. Large T-antigen abrogated the synergistic effect on transcription between this nuclear receptor and the general co-activator CBP. The findings that the BKV early proteins amplify oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription may have important biological implications in individuals with raised oestrogen concentrations.  (+info)

*Index of biochemistry articles

... polyomavirus transforming antigen - polypeptide - polysaccharide - porphyrin - Posttranslational modification - potassium - ... transforming growth factor - transforming growth factor alpha - transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor ... CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... transforming growth factor beta MeSH D12.776.467.374.440.890 - interferon type i MeSH D12.776.467.374.440.890.125 - interferon ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... polyomavirus transforming MeSH D23.050.327.150 --- deltaretrovirus antigens MeSH D23.050.327.150.500 --- htlv-i antigens MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D23.050.285.329 --- carcinoembryonic antigen MeSH D23.050.285.550 --- neprilysin MeSH ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*Merkel cell polyomavirus

Unlike for other polyomaviruses, MCV small T antigen transforms cells in vitro by activating cap-dependent translation. Merkel ... small T antigen, VP1 and VP2/3 genes [1]. MCV T antigen has similar features to the T antigens of other polyomaviruses, which ... 2009). "Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection I. MCV T antigen expression in Merkel cell carcinoma, lymphoid tissues and ... Polyomaviruses are small (~5400 base pair), non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. MCV is the fifth polyomavirus that ...

*Large tumor antigen

... which is primarily responsible for the virus's transforming activity. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), also known as Human ... Some polyomavirus LTag proteins - most notably the well-studied SV40 large tumor antigen from the SV40 virus - are oncoproteins ... In oncogenic polyomaviruses, the tumor antigens are responsible for the transformation activity, although the exact molecular ... Lane, D. P.; Crawford, L. V. (1979-03-15). "T antigen is bound to a host protein in SY40-transformed cells". Nature. 278 (5701 ...

*SV40 large T antigen

SV40 large TAg, other polyomavirus large T antigens, adenovirus E1a proteins, and oncogenic human papillomavirus E7 proteins ... The transforming activity of TAg is due in large part to its perturbation of the retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53 tumor suppressor ... SV40 DNA replication is initiated by binding of large T-antigen to the origin region of the genome. The function of T-antigen ... T-antigen also binds and inactivates tumor suppressor proteins (p53, p105-Rb). This causes the cells to leave G1 phase and ...

*Middle tumor antigen

doi:10.1016/0042-6822(92)90247-M. Courtneidge, Sara A.; Smith, Alan E. (2 June 1983). "Polyoma virus transforming protein ... The genes for the small tumor antigen (STag), middle tumor antigen (MTag), and large tumor antigen (LTag) are encoded in the " ... the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen. MTag occurs only in a few known polyomaviruses, while STag and LTag are ... The middle tumor antigen (also called the middle T-antigen and abbreviated MTag or MT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ...

*Polyomaviridae

Unlike for SV40, the MCV small T antigen directly transforms rodent cells in vitro. The middle tumor antigen is used in model ... Lyon IARC polyoma virus is related to raccoon polyoma virus. The following 13 polyomaviruses with human hosts had been ... These include the sea otter polyomavirus 1 and Alpaca polyomavirus Another virus is the giant panda polyomavirus 1. Most ... "Discovery of STL polyomavirus, a polyomavirus of ancestral recombinant origin that encodes a unique T antigen by alternative ...

*Joan Brugge

"The specific interaction of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60src, with two cellular proteins." Cell 25.2 (1981 ... "Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus." Nature 269.5626 (1977): 346-8. Brugge, ... "Enhancement of cellular src gene product associated tyrosyl kinase activity following polyoma virus infection and ... "The specific interaction of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60src, with two cellular proteins." Cell 25(2) (1981 ...

*Tyrosine kinase

When these cells are transformed by the polyoma virus, higher tyrosine activity is observed in the cellular matrix, which is ... For example, the T-cell antigen receptor leads to intracellular signalling by activation of Lck and Fyn, two proteins that are ... that have been transformed by the polyomavirus possess higher tyrosine activity in the cellular matrix. Furthermore, tyrosine ... The polyoma virus affects tyrosine kinase activity inside the nuclear matrix. Fibroblasts are cells involved in wound healing ...

*LT

... poultry disease SV40 large T antigen, a proto-oncogene derived from polyomavirus SV40 .lt, Internet country code top-level ... Laplace transform Less than Logic Theorist, a computer program written in 1955-56 to prove mathematical theorems; called "the ...

*Small tumor antigen

... but its presence may increase the transforming efficiency of LTag. In other polyomaviruses, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, ... and sometimes other tumor antigens as well, such as the murine polyomavirus middle tumor antigen). Polyomavirus STag proteins ... The genes for both the small and the large tumor antigen are encoded in the "early region" of the polyomavirus genome, so named ... In oncogenic polyomaviruses, the tumor antigens are responsible for the transformation activity, although the exact molecular ...

*Eugene O. Major

"Similar cell surface antigens on hamster cells transformed by different papovaviruses". Journal of Immunology. 118 (6): 2295- ... The papovaviruses have since been split into two categories: papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.) In his first faculty ... Wright, P. J.; Bernhardt, G.; Major, E. O.; Di Mayorca, G. (1976). "Comparison of the serology, transforming ability, and ... "Comparison of wild-type BK virus DNA and BK virion DNA rescued from virus-transformed BHK cells". Virology. 103 (1): 1-10. doi: ...

*Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes

The transformed cells often express permanently some viral genes. This leads to the presentation of viral antigenic peptides ... Kaposi sarcoma virus and Merkel cell polyoma virus cause skin cancers. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) causes T cell ... In some patients, the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to ... The carcinoma cells still harbour the viral genes and antigens. As expected T cell responses against antigens encoded by genes ...

*Oncovirus

... acutely transforming or slowly transforming. In acutely transforming viruses, the viral particles carry a gene that encodes for ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV-4) is associated with four types of cancers Merkel cell polyomavirus - a polyoma virus - is ... In SV40, the large T antigen (LT) is an analogue; LT also binds to several other cellular proteins, such as p107 and p130, on ... slowly transforming viruses have very long tumor latency compared to acutely transforming viruses, which already carry the ...

*Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis

... in which MMTV-LTR is used to drive the expression of mammary gland specific polyomavirus middle T-antigen, leading to a rapid ... Siegel, P. M.; Shu, W; Cardiff, R. D.; Muller, W. J.; Massagué, J (2003). "Transforming growth factor beta signaling impairs ... Guy, C. T.; Cardiff, R. D.; Muller, W. J. (1992). "Induction of mammary tumors by expression of polyomavirus middle T oncogene ... The role of autocrine transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling on motility and survival in PymT cells derived from ...

*Janet S. Butel

"Simian virus 40 large T antigen and p53 are microtubule-associated proteins in transformed cells". Cell Growth & ... Butel has studied polyomavirus SV40 infection in humans and animals for most of her career. She has published studies on the ... Her area of expertise is on polyomavirus pathogenesis of infections and disease. She has more than 120 publications on pubmed. ... "Viral microRNA effects on pathogenesis of polyomavirus SV40 infections in syrian golden hamsters". PLOS Pathogens. 10 (2): ...

*Virus

T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for Merkel cell polyomavirus. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... an obsolete term originally used for acutely transforming retroviruses). The development of cancer is determined by a variety ... Merkel cell polyomavirus closely related to SV40 and mouse polyomaviruses that have been used as animal models for cancer ... The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a polyomavirus (Merkel cell polyomavirus) that causes most cases of a rare ...

*Tyrosine phosphorylation

In the summer of 1979, studies of polyomavirus middle T and v-Src associated kinase activities led to the discovery of tyrosine ... Protein phosphorylation Eckhart W, Hutchinson MA, Hunter T (1979). "An activity phosphorylating tyrosine in polyoma T antigen ... 2012). "N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-2 negates anti-proliferative effect of transforming growth factor beta ... that negatively regulates the anti-proliferative function of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in endothelial cells. ...

*Tumor microenvironment

"Differential tumorigenicity of 3T3 cells transformed in vitro with polyoma virus and in vivo selection for high tumorigenicity ... One such antigen was MAGE-A1. The coexistence of a progressing melanoma with melanoma-specific T cells implicitly does not ... CAFs can also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which is associated with EMT, a process by which cancer cells ... As many fibroblasts are transformed into CAFs during carcinogenesis, this reduces the amount of ECM produced and the ECM that ...
Molecular Oncology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally identified as key components of signaling pathways involved in mediating responses to IFNs. Previous studies showed that the Src oncoprotein constitutively activates one STAT family member, Stat3. In this study, we investigated STAT activation in a panel of rodent fibroblast cell lines stably transformed by diverse viral oncoproteins. Using a temperature-sensitive mutant of v-Src, we determined that Stat3 is activated within 15 min of shift from nonpermissive to permissive temperature for cell transformation. This finding indicates that v-Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for Stat3 activation and suggests that Stat3 is proximal to signaling initiated by Src. In addition, Stat3 activation is induced by another nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, v-Fps; by polyoma virus middle T antigen, which activates Src family kinases; ...
848 Recapitulating human disease in a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) has become an important source for understanding human tumorigenesis and evaluating novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, molecular expression profiling of tumors has increased our understanding of the molecular diversity of disease and classification of tumors. Since many cancers involve mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and the retinoblastoma (Rb), which deregulate the cell cycle, apoptotic mechanisms, and genomic stability, relevant GEM models which functionally inactive these genes through the expression of the Simian Virus 40 T-antigen (Tag) have been developed for human prostate, breast and lung carcinomas. Expression profiles from three types of GEM tumors have been analyzed to identify both common and tumor-specific gene expression signatures for these three types of epithelial tumors. Mammary tumors were derived from C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice, prostate tumors came from probasin/Tag (TRAMP) mice, and ...
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FOR BULK ORDER REQUESTS PLEASE CONTACT US Description :Recombinant human MAST2 protein was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. Species :Human Tag :GST tag Expression System:Sf9 insect cells using baculovirus Sequence :1-792 Genbank Number :BC015816 Purity :Sample Purity Data. For s
Over the past 2 decades, a number of studies have shown an integral role of PI3K in tumorigenesis (reviewed in ref. 4). This can occur through direct activation of PI3K by oncoproteins, such as polyoma middle T and RTKs, deletion of the PIP3 phosphatase PTEN, and genetic mutation of proteins in the PI3K signaling pathway, including p85, p110, and Akt. In the present study, we provide evidence that decreased expression of the PI3K p85 regulatory subunit can also directly lead to tumor formation in a novel murine model of HCC.. An initial clue of the role of expression of the regulatory subunit of PI3K in cancer comes from the finding that PIK3R1 expression is decreased in many types of human cancers, including prostate, lung, breast, and HCC (Fig. 1A-D). Other human studies have also suggested the possible importance of p85 in human carcinogenesis. For instance, a functional missense mutation in PIK3R1 resulting in reduced p85 expression has been strongly linked with colon cancer (42). Likewise, ...
Thank you very much for your answer. But do you happen to know why the expression of largr T antigen can make the cell grow faster ...
Cells were derived by infection of hTERT-HPNE E6/E7 cells (ATCC CRL-4036) with retroviral vector (pBabeZeo) carrying the SV40 small t antigen
Isolation date: July 2002 Method: developed by infection of hTERT-HPNE E6/E7/K-RasG12D cells (ATCC ® CRL-4038™ ) with retroviral vector (pBabeZeo) carrying the SV40 small t antigen
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Abstract: Abstract Polyomaviruses have provided many insights into control of cell physiology. Studies of their tumor antigens (Tags) have led to appreciation of the role of tyrosine phosphorylation, PI3K and p53 in oncogenic transformation. This work explores signal pathways regulated by polyomavirus small T antigen (PyST) that control differentiation and regulate cell survival in fat, muscle and... read more bone models. Comparisons of murine polyomavirus ST (PyST) to monkey polyomavirus SV40 (SV40 ST) have been especially useful in parsing out the mechanisms involved. This work also makes use of PyST mutants defective in specific interactions. Of the many PyST functions, we particularly illustrate the importance of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) for PyST to regulate differentiation. PP2A regulates almost all cell signaling pathways. The holoenzyme consists of a catalytic C subunit and one of many regulatory B subunits bound to an A scaffolding subunit. Of more than 80 PP2A isoforms, 10% use Abeta as a ...
A bacterial expression system was used to produce simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) in the absence of the extensive posttranslational modifications that occur in mammalian cells. Wild-type T antigen produced in bacteria retained a specific subset of the biochemical activities displayed by its mammalian counterpart. Escherichia coli T antigen functioned as a helicase and bound to DNA fragments containing either site I or the wild-type origin of replication in a manner identical to mammalian T antigen. However, T antigen purified from E. coli did not efficiently bind to site II, an essential cis element within the simian virus 40 origin of replication. It therefore could not unwind origin-containing plasmids or efficiently replicate simian virus 40 DNA in vitro. The ability of protein phosphorylation to modulate the intrinsic preference of full-length T antigen for either site I or site II is discussed.. ...
1FAF: NMR structure of the N-terminal J domain of murine polyomavirus T antigens. Implications for DnaJ-like domains and for mutations of T antigens.
Buy our Recombinant Simian Virus 40 (SV40) SV40 Large T Antigen protein. Ab82118 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus and has been validated in…
Cerebral cortical development requires orderly transitions between neurogenesis and differentiation. Neurogenesis also results in overproduction of neurons that are selectively targeted for apoptosis. In these experiments, we conditionally immortalized (Almazan and McKay, 1992; Yanai and Obinata, 1994; Taher et al., 1995; Eves et al., 1996) neural precursors from embryonic rat cerebral cortex, to contrast estrogen and neurotrophin regulation of p53-dependent cortical differentiation and death.. The large T antigen promotes mammalian cell cycle by inhibiting checkpoint transcription factors like p53 (for review, see Levine, 1997). Consequently, the Ts/U19 large T antigen mutation permits synchronization of differentiation, by conditionally regulating p53-dependent mechanisms. At the nonpermissive temperature (39°C), large T antigen expression ceases and substantial cell death occurs, that is partly caused by apoptosis. At this temperature, we also observed induction of pp53 and p53-dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen. AU - Ikeda, K.. AU - Clark, J. C.. AU - Bachurski, C. J.. AU - Wikenheiser, K. A.. AU - Cuppoletti, J.. AU - Mohanti, S.. AU - Morris, R. E.. AU - Whitsett, J. A.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028041963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028041963&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0028041963. VL - 267. JO - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. JF - American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology. SN - 0363-6135. IS - 3 part 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60.. AU - Courtneidge, Sara. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024387934&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024387934&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2477198. AN - SCOPUS:0024387934. VL - 144. SP - 121. EP - 128. JO - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. JF - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. SN - 0070-217X. ER - ...
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Deppert, W and Walter, G, "Domains of simian virus 40 large t-antigen exposed on the cell surface." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3601 ...
Most of the data on which we base our prostate cancer screening practices is indirect and not definitively linked to the decrease in mortality that has been observed.
SV40 large T antigen is a hexamer protein, an oncogene derived from the polyomavirus SV40 which is capable of transforming a variety of cell types. The viral supernatant was produced by co-transfecting 293T cells with a lentiviral vector containing the SV40 Large T antigen and eGFP, with two other plasmids which make the lentiviral envelop proteins and VSV-G protein. The viral supernatant was aliquoted and stored at -70OC immediately after purification and concentration. Features: ...
Carroll, R B. and Gurney, E G., "Time-dependent maturation of the simian virus 40 large t antigen-p53 complex studied by using monoclonal antibodies." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 1326 ...
generating the core 1 O-glycan Gal-beta1-3GalNAc-alpha1-Ser/Thr (T antigen), which is a precursor for many extended O-glycans in ...
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Simian virus (SV40) large T antigen, molecular model. This antigen is from the simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40). Large T antigens play a role in regulating the viral life cycle of the polyomaviridae viruses, such as SV40. SV40 is found in monkeys such as Rhesus monkeys and macaques. Potentially tumour-causing in primates and humans, it is used in laboratory research and in vaccines. - Stock Image C025/1808
The simian virus 40 small T-associated 56,000-Mr (56K) and 32K cellular proteins were shown to be closely related to the polyomavirus medium T-associated 61K and 37K cellular proteins as demonstrated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and V8 protease peptide mapping. ...
DELETION OF THE CARBOXY TERMINUS OT SIMIAN VIRUS 40 LARGE T ANTIGEN AFFECTS VIRAL LATE GENE EXPRESSION A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Terryl Stacy DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover, New Hampshire March 8,1990 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Looking for online definition of T-antigen in the Medical Dictionary? T-antigen explanation free. What is T-antigen? Meaning of T-antigen medical term. What does T-antigen mean?
Oncogenes of DNA tumor viruses encode proteins that cause cells to divide incessantly, eventually leading to formation of a tumor. These oncoproteins have now been found to antagonize the innate immune response of the cell (link to paper).. Most cells encountered by viruses are not dividing, and hence do not efficiently support viral DNA synthesis. The genomes of adenoviruses, polyomaviruses, and papillomaviruses encode proteins that cause cells to divide. This effect allows for efficient viral replication, because a dividing cell is producing the machinery for DNA synthesis. Under certain conditions, infections by these viruses do not kill cells, yet they continue to divide due to the presence of viral oncoproteins. Such incessant division gives the cells new properties - they are called transformed cells - and they may eventually become a tumor.. These so-called viral oncoproteins include large T antigen (of SV40, a polyomavirus); E6 and E7 (papillomavirus), and E1A (adenovirus). These viral ...
This topic contains 11 study abstracts on Simian virus 40 (SV40) indicating it may contribute to Simian virus 40 (SV40), Mesothelioma, and Cancer Metastasis
Kupffer cells have been isolated from transgenic mice carrying a thermolabile SV40 large tumor antigen under the H2Kb promoter (kind gift of D. Kioussis, NIMR, London). The cells grow with Interferon-gamma at 33oC, at which temperature the promoter is turned on and the SV40T Ag is active. They differentiate at 39oC. These cells are now being characterised: cytokine and NO liberation is stimulated, surface receptors are assessed at the mRNA and protein level, and phagocytosis and uptake of bacterial components are being measured. Results will be compared with the functional characteristics of primary Kupffer cells isolated from normal mice (see also 3R project 73-00) Conclusions and Relevance for 3R ...
in Research in Veterinary Science (2009), 87(1), 123-32. In the present study we developed an enzymatic approach (through the use of collagenase and dispase) to isolate bovine intestinal epithelial cells. Using this method, freshly isolated jejunocytes could be ... [more ▼]. In the present study we developed an enzymatic approach (through the use of collagenase and dispase) to isolate bovine intestinal epithelial cells. Using this method, freshly isolated jejunocytes could be distinguished from simultaneously isolated colonocytes, as the jejunocytes specifically exhibited the small intestinal peptidase gene transcript, as well as an active alkaline phosphatase. The transformation of both types of cell suspension was performed by retroviral infection, using reproduction-defective viruses bearing the gene coding for the large T antigen of the leukaemia simian virus (SV40). The success of the transfection was demonstrated by (1) a significant increase in cell passage numbers (52-53 vs. 7 passages ...
U.S. researchers uncover molecular evidence of simian virus 40 (SV40) infections in tissue samples from four children born after 1982.
Hintergrund und Fragestellung: Die Etablierung von humanen Zellinien wurde bisher häufig limitiert durch die in der Regel nach einigen Passagen auftretende Krise der Zellen in Kultur. Zur...
Transgenic mice were generated using a construct that encodes mouse polyoma virus large T antigen, one of three oncogenic products of the "early region" of the polyoma viral genome. Of 16 transgenic families developed, 1 was characterized by a neurologic disorder consisting of constant tremor and recurrent seizures. Morphologic analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) of affected transgenic mice included: classical light and electron microscopic examination; immunohistochemical assessment of the presence and localization of myelin-specific proteins, of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, of the oligodendrocyte marker galaetosyl cerebro-side, and of large T; double immunolabeling of glial fibrillary acidic protein or galactosyl cerebro-side and large T to identify the CNS cell type in which large T is expressed; and in situ hybridization to study myelin basic protein gene expression. Our results suggest that polyoma large T is expressed in astrocytes, possibly resulting in ...
Marine mammals, such as whales, have a high proportion of body fat and so are susceptible to the accumulation, and associated detrimental health effects, of lipophilic environmental contaminants. Recently, we developed a wild-type cell line from humpback whale fibroblasts (HuWa). Extensive molecular assessments with mammalian wild-type cells are typically constrained by a finite life span, with cells eventually becoming senescent. Thus, the present work explored the possibility of preventing senescence in the HuWa cell line by transfection with plasmids encoding the simian virus large T antigen (SV40T) or telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). No stable expression was achieved upon SV40 transfection. Transfection with TERT, on the other hand, activated the expression of telomerase in HuWa cells. At the time of manuscript preparation, the transfected HuWa cells (HuWaTERT) have been stable for at least 59 passages post-transfection. HuWaTERT proliferate rapidly and maintain initial cell ...
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase. The interaction between early viral antigens and cell cycle regulators represents an important mechanism through which viruses deregulate cell cycle ...
WU polyomavirus is a recently described polyomavirus found in patients with respiratory infections. Of 2,637 respiratory samples tested in St. Louis, Missouri, 2.7% were positive for WU polyomavirus by PCR, and 71% were coinfected with other respiratory viruses. Persistent human infection with WU polyomavirus is described ...
The role of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T antigen) as a DNA helicase at the replication fork was studied. We found that a T-antigen hexamer complex acts during the unidirectional unwinding of appropriate DNA substrates and is localized directly in the center of the fork, contacting the adjacent double strand as well as the emerging single strands. When bidirectional DNA unwinding, initiated at the viral origin of DNA replication, was analyzed, a larger T-antigen complex that is simultaneously active at both branch points of an unwinding bubble was observed. The size and shape of this helicase complex imply that the T-antigen dodecamer complex, assembled at the origin and active in the localized melting of duplex DNA, is subsequently also used to continue DNA unwinding bidirectionally. Then, however, the dodecamer complex does not split into two hexamer subunits that track along the DNA; rather, the DNA is threaded through the intact complex, with the concomitant extrusion of ...
WU polyomavirus was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates in 2 (2.5%) of 79 children with respiratory infections (both infected with respiratory syncytial virus) and in 5 (6.4%) of 78 asymptomatic children during the same winter season in Canada. The strains were closely related to Australian and American viruses based on analysis of large T antigen (TAg) and VP2 genes. The pathogenic role of WU virus is still uncertain.
This study has explored the functional significance of genes within a previously described Tag expression signature, which includes many genes dysregulated through the loss of p53 and Rb function and which is highly expressed in human TNBC [8]. Based upon an analysis of gene expression of 51 human breast cancer cell lines, we identified MDA-MB-231 cells as a TNBC cell line that robustly expresses the Tag signature. We designed a human siRNA library to knock-down the up-regulated genes in the Tag signature and utilized the high-throughput readout of proliferation changes to efficiently screen for genes whose loss of function significantly reduced cell growth. The identification of RRM1, RRM2 and CHK1 as key regulators of TNBC growth suggests that this screening method is an effective tool for identifying potential drugable targets. Our further validation of these candidates in other cell lines and xenograft models suggests that we have identified a potentially useful drug combination, gemcitabine ...
Resveratrol exhibits a strong cytotoxic activity in cultured cells and has an antiviral action against polyomavirus: potential clinical use. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
SV40 T-antigen antibody [PAb419] for ICC/IF, IP. Anti-SV40 T-antigen mAb (GTX16848) is tested in Simian virus 40 samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
VSV-g Epitope Tag (YTDIEMNRLGK), 0.1 mg. Epitope tags are short peptide sequences that are easily recognized by tag-specific antibodies.
not, multiscale data are fluid to Паркет, ламинат, массив, линолеум 2010 and observing or targeting. primarily, following developments mix found to the gespecialiseerd of the notion, and are transported with membrane journals. Паркет, ламинат, массив, линолеум 2010 fluids propose separated to the depth of the diode with large T equations.
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A human polyomavirus was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) specimens. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) genome undergoes clonal integration into the host cell chromosomes of MCC tumors and expresses small T antigen and truncated large T antigen. Previous studies have consistently reported that MCPyV can be detected in approximately 80% of all MCC tumors. We sought to increase the sensitivity of detection of MCPyV in MCC by developing antibodies capable of detecting large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we expanded the repertoire of quantitative PCR primers specific for MCPyV to improve the detection of viral DNA in MCC. Here we report that a novel monoclonal antibody detected MCPyV large T antigen expression in 56 of 58 (97%) unique MCC tumors. PCR analysis specifically detected viral DNA in all 60 unique MCC tumors tested. We also detected inactivating point substitution mutations of TP53 in the two MCC specimens that lacked large T antigen expression and in ...
A short sequence of predominantly basic amino acids Pro-Pro-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Lys-Val from SV40 Large T is responsible for the normal nuclear location of the protein. Alteration of Lys-128 to each of six different residues other than Arg renders Large T cytoplasmic, whereas single amino acid changes in the surrounding region impair but do not prevent nuclear accumulation. When transposed to the amino terminus of cytoplasmic Large T species, or Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or of chicken muscle pyruvate kinase, the sequence around Lys-128 of Large T is able to direct the recipient protein to the nucleus. This demonstrates that these amino acids can be sufficient for nuclear location and can act as a nuclear location signal. A computer search of over 2500 proteins reveals that some other nuclear proteins (for example, BK virus Large T, SV40 VP2 and adenovirus 72kDa DNA binding protein) contain very similar basic tracts, but so too do some presumed non-nuclear proteins (for example, poliovirus ...
Expression of Human Neurotrophic Polyomavirus JCV Late Gene Product Agnoprotein in Human Medulloblastoma. Del Valle, Luis; Gordon, Jennifer; Enam, Sahnila; Delbue, Serena; Croul, Sidney; Abraham, Selvajothi; Radhakrishnan, Sujatha; Assimakopoulou, Martha; Katsetos, Christos D.; Khalili, Kamel // JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute;2/20/2002, Vol. 94 Issue 4, p267 Investigates the expression of human neurotrophic polyomavirus JCV agnoprotein gene in human medulloblastoma. Components of JCV genome; Role of polyomavirus JCV in demyelinating disease; Effect of T antigen on the nerve cells. ...
Many humans have antibodies against simian lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV), but its DNA has not been found in humans. Identification of human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) led us to compare the seroprevalence and cross-reactivity of LPyV and HpyV9. Results could indicate that humans who have antibodies against LPyV are infected by HPyV9.
In this work we report on cytotxicity versus two different cell lines: a normal mouse firbroblast line and tumoral one. The results clearly show that RV can exert a cytotoxic action both against a normal stabilized fibroblast cell line and human tumor cells. The human tumor line seems to be slightly more sensitive to the drug and this recalls results previously obtained in our laboratory with MEX: a partially purified natural mixture [18]. The antiviral activity of resveratrol towards murine polyomavirus infection was also evaluated. The exposure to the drug was carried at a concentration of RV which did not show a significant cytotoxic effect. It is known that resveratrol can exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and, also, it regulates multiple cellular events associated with carcinogenesis: for a relatively recent review see [28]. The cytotoxicity of RV is only apparently paradoxical; as a matter of fact this drug induces cell cycle arrest and stimulates the Reactive Oxygen ...
COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying the monkey virus SV40. Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. Jensen FC, Girardi AJ, Gilden RV, Koprowski H ...
In eukaryotes, chromosomal DNA replication initiates from specific regions of chromosomes known as the origins of replication. Replication origins are activated by a two‐step reaction to initiate DNA synthesis. In the first step, called licensing, the Mcm2-7 complex, which is the core component of the replicative helicase, is loaded onto replication origins as a double hexamer to form the pre‐replicative complex, pre‐RC (reviewed in [1]). However, the loaded Mcm2-7 complex is inactive at this point. In the second step, which is called initiation, or firing, the Mcm2-7 complex is activated, and bidirectional replication forks including active replicative helicase are formed (reviewed in [2]). The active form of replicative helicase consists of at least Cdc45 and the GINS complex (Sld5, Psf1, Psf2, and Psf3) in addition to the Mcm2-7 complex and is called the CMG complex (Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS) [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9]. Therefore, the key to understand the firing reaction is to ...
This genus contains viruses, which are detected on the skin (human polyomaviruses 6 and 7) and in the gastrointestinal tract (human polyomavirus 10 (MW polyomavirus); human polyomavirus 11 (STL polyomavirus)).. ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Simian Virus 40 Major Capsid VP1 protein (ab74565). Please download our general…
Drush Make (as of Drush version 5) is now included in Drush, the command line tool for Drupal (or follow this link to the Drush handbook page for more information on how to use Drush itself). Drush Make was previously a separate project and had its own separate project page: http://drupal.org/project/drush_make What Drush Make does is, through the implementation of flat files (similar in appearance to .info files from modules), provide a mechanism to fetch data from practically any source you tell it to, and package it. This includes downloading Drupal core as well as other contributed modules available on drupal.org. It also provides the ability to fetch: code from git repos, including tag-specific ditto for svn ditto for git, including checking out a particular branch after cloning the repo grabs .tar.gz stuff, wget-style - useful for libraries can fetch and apply patches The package created can then be used for distribution or as a platform build that can then be deployed and instancified/cloned
Expressing SV40 tsA58 large T antigen. Verots S3 cultured in protein-free MEM. G418-resistant. Monkey cell lines require import and export permits according to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES ...
p53 is a cellular-encoded phosphoprotein first identified in protein complexes with the large tumor (T) antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40) (Linzer and Levine, 1979; Lane and Crawford, 1979). High...
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LTs ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered as a novel human polyomavirus that is associated with ~80% of Merkel Cell Carcinomas. The Large Tumor antigen (LT) is an early viral protein which has a variety of functions, including manipulation of the cell cycle and initiating viral DNA replication. Phosphorylation plays a critical regulatory role for polyomavirus LT proteins, but no investigation of MCPyV LT phosphorylation has been performed to date. In this report mass spectrometry analysis reveals three unique phosphorylation sites: T271, T297 and T299. In vivo replication assays confirm that phosphorylation of T271 does not play a role in viral replication, while modification at T297 and T299 have dramatic and opposing effects on LTs ability to initiate replication from the viral origin. We test these mutants for their ability to bind, unwind, and act as a functional helicase at the viral origin. These studies provide a framework for understanding how phosphorylation of LT may
The levels of c-myc, c-fos, and JE mRNAs accumulate in a biphasic pattern following infection of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells with polyomavirus. Maximal levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs were seen within 1 hr and were nearly undetectable at 6 hr after infection. At 12 hr after infection mRNA levels were again maximal and remained elevated thereafter. Empty virions (capsids) and recombinant VP1 protein, purified from Escherichia coli, induced the early but not the late phase of mRNA accumulation. Virions, capsids, and recombinant VP1 protein stimulated [3H]thymidine nuclear labeling and c-myc mRNA accumulation ina dose-responsive manner paralleling their affinity for the cell receptor for polyoma. The second phase of mRNA accumulation is regulated by the viral early gene products, as shown by polyomavirus early gene mutants and by a transfected cell line (336a) expressing middle tumor antigen upon glucocorticoid addition. These results suggest that polyomavirus interacts with the cell membrane ...
Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the papova virus family. It is a remarkably simple virus, just encoding three structural proteins and two non-structural proteins, and takes histones from the host cell to condense its genome into a mini-chromosome. SV40 has served as a paradigm model in the early days of molecular biology. Many mammalian expression vectors are based on SV40 sequences, and it has been much-used in studies of DNA replication and of cellular transformation by Large T antigen. In the past 15 years, it has also served as an important model in the field of endocytosis and membrane trafficking, as it was the first virus discovered to utilise a clathrin-independent endocytic uptake route involving caveolae and other types of membrane invaginations . The organelles in which the virus is internalised are often tubular, move along microtubules, and serve as transport carriers to the endoplasmic reticulum. Since SV40 can be easily purified and ...
4FGN: Analysis of the Costructure of the Simian Virus 40 T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain with Site I Reveals a Correlation between GAGGC Spacing and Spiral Assembly.
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We have recently discovered a new human polyomavirus monoclonally-integrated into human Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) that we call Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPy...
a_benign_virus_normally_found_in_the_skin_can_lead_to_a_type_of_rare_lethal_skin_cancer_specifically_infection_by_the_merkel_cell_polyomavirus_can_lead_to_merkel_cell_carcinoma_in_immunecompromised_individuals_researchers_have_now_identified_a_type_of_skin_cell_as_the_target_of_the_virus_in_humans_this_study_from_the_perelman_school_of_medicine_at_the_university_of_pennsylvania_establis
In recent years the scientific literature in the field of the prostate carcinoma (PCa) pointed out on the genetic heterogeneity and mutations occurring in this tumour, while little attention was given to the causes of PCa onset, in particular infectiuos agents. In this brief commentary, we wish to point out recent advancements done on the role of the human polyomavirus BK (BKPyV) in the development of PCa by harnessing both humoral and cellular immune responses. Altogether, these new insights suggest that BKPyV is involved in the transforming activity during the multistep process of PCa development. Although these findings do not provide evidence for a causal relationship between BKPyV and PCa development, additional investigations with novel techniques will help to make it a concrete event. ...
None of the four human polymaviruses that were known in early 2008 - JC, BK, KI and WU - had been shown to cause cancer. The subsequent identification of a new polyomavirus associated with Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrates the type of evidence that is required to prove that a virus is oncogenic in humans.. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare human skin cancer, although its incidence has increased in the past twenty years from 500 to 1500 cases per year. This cancer occurs more frequently than expected in individuals who are immunosuppressed, such as those who have received organ transplants or who have AIDS. A similar pattern of susceptibility is also observed for Kaposis sarcoma, a tumor that is caused by the herpesvirus HHV-8. Therefore it was suggested that MCC might also be caused by an infectious agent.. To identify the etiologic agent of MCC, the nucleotide sequence of total mRNA from several MCC tumors was determined and compared with the sequence of mRNA from a normal ...
We detected WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from lungs transplanted into a recipient with Job syndrome by using immunoassays specific for the WUPyV viral protein 1. Co-staining for an epithelial cell marker identified most WUPyV viral protein 1-positive cells as respiratory epithelial cells ...
Our Translant Service is proposing doing Polyomavirus on EVERY transplant kidney (formalin fixed paraffin embedded) via immunostains and/or tissue PCR. Does anyone know of a reference lab that can handle this with a rapid turnaround time.. Rick ...
ABO blood group, the major human blood group system, dependent on the presence or absence of A and B antigens, which are largely glycolipids on the cell membrane. The gene for A is responsible for synthesis of N-acetyl-α-d-galactosaminyl transferase, whereas that for B is responsible for α-d-galactosyl transferase. Either A or B is created when one of these hexasaccharides is positioned by a specific transferase in 1→3 linkage to the β-d-galactose of an H-active oligosaccharide. Type O occurs when neither transferase is present or, very rarely (Bombay phenotype), when H antigen does not exist. When both transferases are present, type AB results. Differences in degree of transferase activity are determined at the same locus: weak transferase gives rise to weak antigens (A2, A3Ax, B3Bx). Similar oligosaccharides, especially in bacterial cell walls, immunize persons lacking A or B so that their serum contains anti-A or anti-B activity. A and B antigens are on the mucopolysaccharides of ...
Tumor protein p53, encoded in humans by the TP53 gene, was originally identified based on its interaction with the large T antigen of simian virus 40 (SV40). p53 is expressed at low levels in most cell types but is upregulated in many transformed (cancer) cell lines. In response to cellular stress, p53 regulates over 100 target genes that control cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, DNA repair, and metabolic changes. p53 protein has multiple domains that include DNA-binding, transactivation, and oligomerization activities. Mutations in the TP53 gene cause loss of tumor suppression activity and are found in more than 50% of human tumors. Multiple isoforms of p53 are known, with distinct DNA-binding and transcriptional activation properties. p53 is also known as cellular tumor antigen p53, p53 tumor suppressor, transformation-related protein 53, BCC7, LFS1, TRP53, and antigen NY-CO-13.. ...
With our dedicated customer support team, 30-day no-questions-asked return policy, and our price match guarantee, you can rest easy knowing that were doing everything we can to save you time, money, and stress.. ...
Simian Virus 40 or Simian vacuolating virus 40 - a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. As with other polyomaviruses, it is a DNA virus that can cause tumors. ...
Author Summary MCV is a novel human polyomavirus that has recently been discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but highly aggressive skin cancer. Several independent studies have confirmed that MCV is present in ∼80% of MCC tumors. However, very little is known about how the interaction between MCV and its human hosts contributes to the virus-induced cancers. Many aspects of the infectious life cycle of MCV are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that the MCV-encoded large T antigen can bind to host protein Brd4, which in turn serves as a scaffold that functionally recruits cellular DNA replication factors for replication of MCV viral DNA in host cells. This study is the first report to demonstrate mechanistic details of MCVs recruitment of the host cell DNA replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus. Importantly, our work demonstrates that blocking the Brd4 and MCV LT interaction can prevent MCV
Polyomaviruses are a group of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that can infect birds, rodents, and primates. Members of the group include simian virus 40 (SV40) and murine polyomavirus (mPyV) as well as a number of human polyomaviruses such as the BK and JC viruses (BKV and JCV, respectively). Recently, a new human polyomavirus was found to be linked to Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive type of skin cancer[1]. All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 icosahedral lattice[2]. The cell-surface receptors for SV40, mPyV, BKV, JCV, and possibly other polyomaviruses are gangliosides, which are complex, sialic acid-containing sphingolipids that reside primarily in lipid rafts. SV40 uses the ganglioside GM1, BKV binds GD1b and GT1b, and mPyV attaches to GD1a and GT1b[3][4]. Crystal structures are available for complete mPyV particles and for mPyV VP1 pentamers in complex with ganglioside receptor fragments[5][6] as well as ...
JC virus (JCV) is a double-stranded DNA polyomavirus co-evolving with humans since the time of their origin in Africa. JCV seems to provide new insights into the history of human populations, as it suggests an expansion of humans from Africa via two distinct migrations, each carrying a different lineage of the virus. A possible alternative to this interpretation could be that the divergence between the two lineages is due to selective pressures favouring adaptation of JCV to different climates, thus making any inference about human history debatable. In the present study, the evolution of JCV was investigated by applying correspondence analysis to a set of 273 fully sequenced strains. The first and more important axis of ordination led to the detection of 61 nt positions as the main determinants of the divergence between the two virus lineages. One lineage includes strains of types 1 and 4, the other strains of types 2, 3, 7 and 8. The distinctiveness of the Caucasian lineage (types 1 and 4), largely
Bennett, S.M., Jiang, M., and Imperiale, M.J. (2013). Role of cell type-specific ER-associated degradation in polyomavirus trafficking. J. Virol., in press.. Broekema, N.M. and Imperiale, M.J. (2013). miRNA regulation of BK polyomavirus replication during early infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110:8200-8205.. Jiang, M., Zhao, L., Gamez, M., and Imperiale, M.J. (2012). Roles of ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage responses during lytic BK polyomavirus infection. PLoS Pathog. 8(8): e1002898. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002898.. Christensen, J.B., Ewing, S.G., and Imperiale, M.J. (2012). Identification and characterization of a DNA binding domain on the adenovirus IVa2 protein. Virology 433:124-130.. Imperiale, M.J. (2012). Dual-use research after the avian influenza controversy. B. Atom. Sci. http://thebulletin.org/web-edition/op-eds/dual-use-research-after-the-av..... Bennett, S.M., Broekema, N.B., and Imperiale, M.J. (2012). BK polyomavirus: emerging pathogen. Microbes Infect. ...
In HIV infection, complete immunological clearance of the foreign antigen does not occur, resulting in chronic immune activation. Because chronic immune activation may contribute to disease progression in HIV infection, immunomodulators may have therapeutic value in early HIV disease prior to development of opportunistic infections. The clinical benefits of methotrexate appear to derive from an anti-inflammatory effect; thus, it may reduce the state of chronic immune activation.. Patients are randomized to receive methotrexate at Dose 1 or 2 (low doses) for 12 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up. If interim safety monitoring and viral burden results for the two cohorts support continuation, a third cohort of patients receive methotrexate starting at Dose 2 for the first 2 weeks, then at Dose 3 for the next 2 weeks, and at Dose 4 for the remaining 8 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up.. AS PER AMENDMENT 1/10/97:. The Dose 1 (the lowest dose) has been eliminated; the first 10 patients are now assigned ...
In HIV infection, complete immunological clearance of the foreign antigen does not occur, resulting in chronic immune activation. Because chronic immune activation may contribute to disease progression in HIV infection, immunomodulators may have therapeutic value in early HIV disease prior to development of opportunistic infections. The clinical benefits of methotrexate appear to derive from an anti-inflammatory effect; thus, it may reduce the state of chronic immune activation.. Patients are randomized to receive methotrexate at Dose 1 or 2 (low doses) for 12 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up. If interim safety monitoring and viral burden results for the two cohorts support continuation, a third cohort of patients receive methotrexate starting at Dose 2 for the first 2 weeks, then at Dose 3 for the next 2 weeks, and at Dose 4 for the remaining 8 weeks, with 8 weeks of follow-up.. AS PER AMENDMENT 1/10/97:. The Dose 1 (the lowest dose) has been eliminated; the first 10 patients are now assigned ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a murine cellular SV40 T antigen in SV40-transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells. AU - Linzer, D. I H. AU - Maltzman, W.. AU - Levine, A. J.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018692275&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018692275&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6253135. AN - SCOPUS:0018692275. VL - 44. SP - 215. EP - 224. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. IS - 1. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Guildford, UK, 26 February 2007: ReNeuron Group plc today announces that it has entered into a revenue-sharing agreement with the international Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research (LICR) and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, US, concerning newly-patented research conducted by these institutions on certain gene-based somatic cell expansion technology.. ReNeurons entitlement to revenues generated from the commercial exploitation of this technology stems from a pre-existing agreement between ReNeuron and the LICR going back to 1998. The expansion technology developed at the LICR and Dana-Farber concerns the controlled expansion, or conditional immortalisation, of a range of somatic cells using the SV40 Large T Antigen with a gene variant that renders the cell lines genetically stable and therefore suitable for a range of commercial drug discovery applications. The cell expansion technology has been patented in all major territories worldwide, and, together with an earlier patent in which ...
The long-term goal of this renewal application is to understand the mechanisms responsible for generating and maintaining antiviral CD8 T cell responses require...
Selected genes are highlighted in orange, bookmarked genes are green. - Chemical increases gene, - Chemical decreases gene, - Chemical increases and decreases gene simultaneosly, No arrows - gene doesnt interact with the chemical. - Gene should be increased/decreased most of the time and the chemical does it. - Gene should be increased/decreased most of the time but the chemical does the opposite. ...
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The Development of a Radioimmuno-Assay for Carcino-Embryonic Antigen with some Applications. Clinical Evaluation of Cercino-Ernbryonic Antigen, ...
Má tá tú ag taisteal go Poblacht na hAfraice Láir, gheobhaidh tú leideanna praiticiúla agus eolas áisiúil sa mhír comhairle taistil agus san eolas nuashonraithe.
I am nearing my preparation for my next LDA (low dose antigen) therapy. I start the protocol in three days. I have mentioned this therapy in past posts and will attempt to explain it this weekend when I start.
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One of the major limitations of highly active antiretroviral therapy is its inability to inhibit the replication of polyomavirus JC (JCV), the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an acquired immunodeficiency syndromeâ€"defining illness. We previously demonstrated the induction of interferon (IFN)â€"stimulated genes (ISGs) by JCV. In the present study, we characterize the specific viral events required to induce ISGs and the potential antiviral effects of type I IFN on JCV replication in human fetal glial cells in the presence and absence of type I IFNs. Productive JCV replication was essential for the induction of the antiviral host response. JCV replication at all steps was significantly inhibited in the presence of IFN, and neutralizing anti-IFN antibody rescued the inhibitory effect of IFN. These results support the use of IFN as an adjunct therapy for patients with PML. Because IFN cannot cross the blood-brain barrier to achieve its direct antiviral ...
The Polyomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with circular dsDNA genomes of approximately 5 kbp. The family includes four genera whose members have restricted host range, infecting mammals and birds. Polyomavirus genomes have also been detected recently in fish. Merkel cell polyomavirus and raccoon polyomavirus are associated with cancer in their host; other members are human and veterinary pathogens. Clinical manifestations are obvious in immunocompromised patients but not in healthy individuals. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Polyomaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/polyomaviridae.
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is common in the human population with a seropositivity of approximately 60%. The virus is chronically shed from healthy skin, but the genuine host cell remains unknown and a permissive cell culture system is lacking. The viral genome is in an episomal state in cells where MCPyV has been found. The virus is not harmful in healthy individuals, but it is involved in the pathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in elderly and immunosuppressed individuals. Approximately 80% of all examined MCC specimens are MCPyV-positive. Two hallmarks of virus-positive MCCs are integrated viral genome and expression of truncated large T-antigen (tLT-ag). The non-coding control region (NCCR), encompassing the origin of replication and the promoter/enhancer controlling the expression of the early and late viral genes, of most MCPyV isolates are quasi identical to the reference strain MCC350. However, the NCCR of MCPyV isolated from healthy skin (strain 16b), feces (strain HB039C), ...

Interferon-α and -β Restrict Polyomavirus JC Replication in Primary Human Fetal Glial Cells: Implications for Progressive...Interferon-α and -β Restrict Polyomavirus JC Replication in Primary Human Fetal Glial Cells: Implications for Progressive...

p53 in polyoma virus transformed REF52 cells. Mor, Orna; Read, Moira; Fried, Mike // Oncogene;12/18/97, Vol. 15 Issue 25, p3113 ... Genetic variability of the small t antigen of the novel KI, WU and MC polyomaviruses. Ciccozzi, Massimo; Babakir-Mina, Muhammed ... Generation of chimeric hamster polyomavirus VP1 virus-like particles harboring three tumor-associated antigens. Aleksaitė, Eglė ... To study the genetic variability of these viruses, an evolutionary analysis of the large T antigen, small t antigen, VP1, VP2 ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/26240133/interferon-and-restrict-polyomavirus-jc-replication-primary-human-fetal-glial-cells-implications-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-therapy

Polyomavirus in human cancer development.  - PubMed - NCBIPolyomavirus in human cancer development. - PubMed - NCBI

Polyomavirus Infections/complications*. Substance. *Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text ... Polyomavirus in human cancer development.. Lee W1, Langhoff E.. Author information. 1. Mount Sinai Medical School, New York, ... In animal studies, polyoma viruses have been found to be viral agents for oncogenesis and to produce a wide range of ... The human polyoma viruses (JCV and BKV), along with their simian cousin (SV40), are ubiquitous viruses that are primarily ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16626045?dopt=Abstract

Interaction between activin-A and follistatin-288 on Ac | Open-iInteraction between activin-A and follistatin-288 on Ac | Open-i

Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming/physiology. *Cell Line, Transformed. *Cell Transformation, Viral. *Dose-Response ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC153493_1477-7827-1-29-5&req=4

Blood glucose levels reflect the tumor burden and the e | Open-iBlood glucose levels reflect the tumor burden and the e | Open-i

Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming. *Autoimmune Diseases/immunology. *Blood Glucose/metabolism. *Crosses, Genetic. *Female ... Self antigens expressed by solid tumors Do not efficiently stimulate naive or activated T cells: implications for immunotherapy ... Self antigens expressed by solid tumors Do not efficiently stimulate naive or activated T cells: implications for immunotherapy ... The simian virus 40 T antigen (Tag) expressed under the control of the rat insulin promoter (RIP) induced pancreatic beta-cell ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2199023_JEM.970276f1&req=4

retinoblastomas familial drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineretinoblastomas familial drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming. Conjunctiva. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Injections. Mice. Mice, Transgenic ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Stilbenes; ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=retinoblastomas+familial+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Immortalized liver endothelial cells: A cell culture model for studies of motility and angiogenesis<...Immortalized liver endothelial cells: A cell culture model for studies of motility and angiogenesis<...

HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and ... transformed sinusoidal endothelial cells (TSECs), maintains an endothelial phenotype as well as some HSEC-specific features. ... HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and ... HSECs were isolated from mouse liver using CD31-based immunomagnetic separation, immortalized with SV40 large T-antigen, and ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/immortalized-liver-endothelial-cells-a-cell-culture-model-for-stu

Trp53 deletion stimulates the formation of metastatic pancreatic tumor by Jennifer P. Morton, David S. Klimstra et al."Trp53 deletion stimulates the formation of metastatic pancreatic tumor" by Jennifer P. Morton, David S. Klimstra et al.

... mouse model after the somatic and sporadic delivery of avian retroviruses encoding the mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen to ... Animals; Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; Chickens; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; *Gene Deletion; Injections; Mice ... mouse model after the somatic and sporadic delivery of avian retroviruses encoding the mouse polyoma virus middle T antigen to ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1995/

Chronic social isolation is associated with metabolic gene expression changes specific to mammary adipose tissue<...Chronic social isolation is associated with metabolic gene expression changes specific to mammary adipose tissue<...

In the C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen FVB/N (TAg) mouse model of "triple-negative" breast cancer, the heightened stress response elicited ... In the C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen FVB/N (TAg) mouse model of "triple-negative" breast cancer, the heightened stress response elicited ... In the C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen FVB/N (TAg) mouse model of "triple-negative" breast cancer, the heightened stress response elicited ... In the C3(1)/SV40 T-antigen FVB/N (TAg) mouse model of {"}triple-negative{"} breast cancer, the heightened stress response ...
more infohttps://www.scholars.northwestern.edu/en/publications/chronic-social-isolation-is-associated-with-metabolic-gene-expres

Clonal insulinoma cell line that stably maintains correct glucose responsiveness<...Clonal insulinoma cell line that stably maintains correct glucose responsiveness<...

These results demonstrate that transformed β-cells can maintain a highly differentiated phenotype during prolonged propagation ... lines have been derived from insulinomas arising in transgenic mice expressing the SV40 T antigen gene under control of the ... These results demonstrate that transformed β-cells can maintain a highly differentiated phenotype during prolonged propagation ... These results demonstrate that transformed β-cells can maintain a highly differentiated phenotype during prolonged propagation ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/clonal-insulinoma-cell-line-that-stably-maintains-correct-glucose-2

Dermatology - Fingerprint
     - Mayo ClinicDermatology - Fingerprint - Mayo Clinic

Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens Lymphangioma Topical Administration Ovary Dermatologic Surgical Procedures Arachnid Vectors ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/dermatology-2/fingerprints/

Gata-3 negatively regulates the tumor-initiating capacity of mammary luminal progenitor cells and targets the putative tumor...Gata-3 negatively regulates the tumor-initiating capacity of mammary luminal progenitor cells and targets the putative tumor...

... accelerated tumor progression in mice carrying the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-driven polyomavirus middle T antigen ( ... accelerated tumor progression in mice carrying the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-driven polyomavirus middle T antigen ( ... accelerated tumor progression in mice carrying the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-driven polyomavirus middle T antigen ( ... accelerated tumor progression in mice carrying the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter-driven polyomavirus middle T antigen ( ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/gata-3-negatively-regulates-the-tumor-initiating-capacity-of-mamm

Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen<...Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen<...

Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Cell Separation Viral Tumor Antigens ... Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen. AM.J. ... Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen. / Ikeda, K ... title = "Immortalization of subpopulations of respiratory epithelial cells from transgenic mice bearing SV40 large T antigen", ...
more infohttps://keio.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/immortalization-of-subpopulations-of-respiratory-epithelial-cells

Kidney Care Unit - Research Output
     - Kyushu UniversityKidney Care Unit - Research Output - Kyushu University

Early disappearance of urinary decoy cells in successfully treated polyomavirus BK nephropathy. Matsukuma, Y., Masutani, K., ... Predictive Value of the Combination of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Count and Urinary Cytology in BK Polyomavirus-associated ... creatinine increase and exacerbation of tubulointerstitial inflammation during the first two months in resolving polyomavirus ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/kidney-care-unit/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle

SV40 T antigen and telomerase are required to obtain immortalized human adult bone cells without loss of the differentiated...SV40 T antigen and telomerase are required to obtain immortalized human adult bone cells without loss of the differentiated...

These results demonstrate that reconstitution of telomerase activity in transformed SV40 T-antigen human osteoblast precursors ... These results demonstrate that reconstitution of telomerase activity in transformed SV40 T-antigen human osteoblast precursors ... These results demonstrate that reconstitution of telomerase activity in transformed SV40 T-antigen human osteoblast precursors ... These results demonstrate that reconstitution of telomerase activity in transformed SV40 T-antigen human osteoblast precursors ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/sv40-t-antigen-and-telomerase-are-required-to-obtain-immortalized

Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60.<...Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60.<...

Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens Polyomavirus 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Viral Tumor Antigens Protein-Tyrosine Kinases ... Courtneidge, S. (1989). Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60. Current Topics in ... Courtneidge, S 1989, Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60., Current Topics in ... Further characterisation of the complex containing middle T antigen and pp60. In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/further-characterisation-of-the-complex-containing-middle-t-antig-2

DI-fusion Photoreceptor cell tumors in transgenic mice.DI-fusion Photoreceptor cell tumors in transgenic mice.

Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming -- genetics -- metabolism. Blotting, Northern. Brain Neoplasms -- metabolism -- pathology. ...
more infohttp://difusion.ulb.ac.be/vufind/Record/ULB-DIPOT:oai:dipot.ulb.ac.be:2013/156407/Details

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

antigens, differentiation, myelomonocytic - analysis (1) 1 Filter by. Remove filter. antigens, polyomavirus transforming - ... Polyomavirus , PATHOLOGY , Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming - analysis , Brain Neoplasms - chemistry , JC Virus - genetics ... To investigate the presence and the role of polyomaviruses JC (JCV), BK (BKV), and the simian polyomavirus (SV40) in human ... Polyomavirus - genetics , Kidney Pelvis - pathology , BK Virus - genetics , Polyomavirus Infections - pathology , BK Virus - ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Monga,%20Guido,%20MD

Enhancement of MSH receptor- and GAL4-mediated gene transfer by switching the nuclear import pathway<...Enhancement of MSH receptor- and GAL4-mediated gene transfer by switching the nuclear import pathway<...

Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens Viral Tumor Antigens DNA-Binding Proteins Genetic Therapy Lysine ... based on that of the SV40 large T-antigen, is linked. We also use a chimeric GAL4-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) fusion ... based on that of the SV40 large T-antigen, is linked. We also use a chimeric GAL4-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) fusion ... based on that of the SV40 large T-antigen, is linked. We also use a chimeric GAL4-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) fusion ...
more infohttps://research.nu.edu.kz/en/publications/enhancement-of-msh-receptor-and-gal4-mediated-gene-transfer-by-sw

Establishment of a protocol to extend the lifespan of human hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells<...Establishment of a protocol to extend the lifespan of human hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells<...

keywords = "GH-secreting adenoma, Immortalization, Pituitary cell line, SV40 T-antigen, TERT", ... the other SV40 large T antigen. This approach extended the lifespan of cells derived from a human growth hormone-secreting ... the other SV40 large T antigen. This approach extended the lifespan of cells derived from a human growth hormone-secreting ... the other SV40 large T antigen. This approach extended the lifespan of cells derived from a human growth hormone-secreting ...
more infohttps://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/establishment-of-a-protocol-to-extend-the-lifespan-of-human-hormo

Induction of endogenous telomerase (hTERT) by c-Myc in WI-38 fibroblasts transformed with specific genetic elements<...Induction of endogenous telomerase (hTERT) by c-Myc in WI-38 fibroblasts transformed with specific genetic elements<...

Studies have shown that the combined expression of SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag), hTERT, and H-Ras is able to transform human ... Studies have shown that the combined expression of SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag), hTERT, and H-Ras is able to transform human ... Studies have shown that the combined expression of SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag), hTERT, and H-Ras is able to transform human ... Studies have shown that the combined expression of SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag), hTERT, and H-Ras is able to transform human ...
more infohttps://uthsc.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/induction-of-endogenous-telomerase-htert-by-c-myc-in-wi-38-fibrob

Genetically transforming human osteoblasts to sarcoma: Development of an osteosarcoma model<...Genetically transforming human osteoblasts to sarcoma: Development of an osteosarcoma model<...

MSCs and pOB differentiated from the same MSCs were serially transformed with the oncogenes hTERT, SV40 large T antigen and H- ... MSCs and pOB differentiated from the same MSCs were serially transformed with the oncogenes hTERT, SV40 large T antigen and H- ... MSCs and pOB differentiated from the same MSCs were serially transformed with the oncogenes hTERT, SV40 large T antigen and H- ... MSCs and pOB differentiated from the same MSCs were serially transformed with the oncogenes hTERT, SV40 large T antigen and H- ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/genetically-transforming-human-osteoblasts-to-sarcoma-development

Maturation state determines the response of osteogenic cells to surface roughness and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3<...Maturation state determines the response of osteogenic cells to surface roughness and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D<sub>3<...

Both OCT-1 and MLO-Y4 cells were derived from transgenic mice transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen driven by the ... Both OCT-1 and MLO-Y4 cells were derived from transgenic mice transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen driven by the ... Both OCT-1 and MLO-Y4 cells were derived from transgenic mice transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen driven by the ... Both OCT-1 and MLO-Y4 cells were derived from transgenic mice transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen driven by the ...
more infohttps://indiana.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/maturation-state-determines-the-response-of-osteogenic-cells-to-s
  • Subsequent adoptive transfer of virus activated spleen cells into RIP(GP x Tag2) mice further prolonged survival (168 +/- 11 d), demonstrating continued expression of the LCMV-GP tumor antigen and MHC class I. The data show that the tumor did not spontaneously induce or maintain an activated CTL response, revealing a profound lack of immunogenicity in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the data suggest that the risk for induction of chronic autoimmune diseases is limited, which may encourage immunotherapy against antigens selectively but not exclusively expressed by the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • To determine if preosteoblasts (pOB) could be the cell of origin differentiated MSCs were transformed with defined genetic elements. (elsevier.com)
  • At harvest, cell number, alkaline phosphatase-specific activity, and production of osteocalcin, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- β1) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) were measured. (elsevier.com)
  • As an endogenous tumor antigen, the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP) was introduced also under the control of the RIP. (nih.gov)
  • This study is to identify the preferred vaccine dosage (of antigen and adjuvant) and schedule (one or two administrations) of the cell-derived H1N1sw monovalent vaccine in healthy adults b. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To elucidate the presence of these polyomaviruses in the indicated tumor entities and in childhood cancer in general, we have investigated a broad spectrum of pediatric malignancies, with particular emphasis on neuroblastoma from different geographic regions. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • These non-structural proteins are referred to as tumor (T) antigens because they interfere with cell cycle regulation and, in some cases, induce cellular transformation or tumor formation. (ictvonline.org)
  • We are also utilizing an intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) platform in efforts to detect anti-tumor associated antigen (TAA) responses by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as lymphocytes infiltrating the patients' tumor. (duke.edu)
  • Antigens from different pathogens are available as well as tumor associated antigens. (jpt.com)
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (jpt.com)
  • In recently completed studies in a cohort of lung transplant recipients, we identified specific polyfunctional signatures in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets against CMV pp65 and IE-1 antigens that tracked with resistance to CMV infection (manuscript in preparation). (duke.edu)
  • Future studies will also attempt to identify predictive signatures for resistance to BK polyomavirus, the cause of graft threatening nephritis in kidney transplant recipients and cystitis in bone marrow transplant recipients. (duke.edu)
  • Recombinant polyomavirus Vp1 (rVp1), expressed from baculovirus or plasmid constructs in eukaryotic cells, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) under specific chemical and physical conditions (expression of rVp1 in bacteria leads only to capsomeres). (ictvonline.org)
  • 3. Kalnina Z, Silina K, Bruvere R, Gabruseva N, Stengrevics A, Barnikol-Watanabe S, Leja M, Line A. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of SEREX-defined antigen NUCB2 in gastric epithelium, gastritis and gastric cancer. (lu.lv)