A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS suspected to be the cause of most cases of MERKEL CELL CARCINOMA, a rare but highly lethal form of skin cancer.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Membrane-associated tyrosine-specific kinases encoded by the c-src genes. They have an important role in cellular growth control. Truncation of carboxy-terminal residues in pp60(c-src) leads to PP60(V-SRC) which has the ability to transform cells. This kinase pp60 c-src should not be confused with csk, also known as c-src kinase.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern Africa. They are dark colored and have a variable social structure.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Large crested BIRDS in the family Cacatuidae, found in Australia, New Guinea, and islands adjacent to the Philippines. The cockatiel (species Nymphicus hollandicus) is much smaller.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (1/1802)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (2/1802)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Different regulation of the p53 core domain activities 3'-to-5' exonuclease and sequence-specific DNA binding. (3/1802)

In this study we further characterized the 3'-5' exonuclease activity intrinsic to wild-type p53. We showed that this activity, like sequence-specific DNA binding, is mediated by the p53 core domain. Truncation of the C-terminal 30 amino acids of the p53 molecule enhanced the p53 exonuclease activity by at least 10-fold, indicating that this activity, like sequence-specific DNA binding, is negatively regulated by the C-terminal basic regulatory domain of p53. However, treatments which activated sequence-specific DNA binding of p53, like binding of the monoclonal antibody PAb421, which recognizes a C-terminal epitope on p53, or a higher phosphorylation status, strongly inhibited the p53 exonuclease activity. This suggests that at least on full-length p53, sequence-specific DNA binding and exonuclease activities are subject to different and seemingly opposing regulatory mechanisms. Following up the recent discovery in our laboratory that p53 recognizes and binds with high affinity to three-stranded DNA substrates mimicking early recombination intermediates (C. Dudenhoeffer, G. Rohaly, K. Will, W. Deppert, and L. Wiesmueller, Mol. Cell. Biol. 18:5332-5342), we asked whether such substrates might be degraded by the p53 exonuclease. Addition of Mg2+ ions to the binding assay indeed started the p53 exonuclease and promoted rapid degradation of the bound, but not of the unbound, substrate, indicating that specifically recognized targets can be subjected to exonucleolytic degradation by p53 under defined conditions.  (+info)

Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (4/1802)

The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences.  (+info)

A telomere-independent senescence mechanism is the sole barrier to Syrian hamster cell immortalization. (5/1802)

Reactivation of telomerase and stabilization of telomeres occur simultaneously during human cell immortalization in vitro and the vast majority of human cancers possess high levels of telomerase activity. Telomerase repression in human somatic cells may therefore have evolved as a powerful resistance mechanism against immortalization, clonal evolution and malignant progression. The comparative ease with which rodent cells immortalize in vitro suggests that they have less stringent controls over replicative senescence than human cells. Here, we report that Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts possess substantial levels of telomerase activity throughout their culture life-span, even after growth arrest in senescence. In our studies, telomerase was also detected in uncultured newborn hamster skin, in several adult tissues, and in cultured fibroblasts induced to enter the post-mitotic state irreversibly by serum withdrawal. Transfection of near-senescent dermal fibroblasts with a selectable plasmid vector expressing the SV40 T-antigen gene resulted in high-frequency single-step immortalization without the crisis typically observed during the immortalization of human cells. Collectively, these data provide an explanation for the increased susceptibility of rodent cells to immortalization (and malignant transformation) compared with their human equivalents, and provide evidence for a novel, growth factor-sensitive, mammalian senescence mechanism unrelated to telomere maintenance.  (+info)

The introduction of dominant-negative p53 mutants suppresses temperature shift-induced senescence in immortal human fibroblasts expressing a thermolabile SV40 large T antigen. (6/1802)

Immortal human fibroblasts, SVts8 cells, which express a heat-labile SV40 large T antigen, induces a senescence-like phenomenon in response to upward shift in temperature. Cells with arrested division show strong induction of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. We examined how p53 and pRB are involved in this phenomenon since they are major targets of the T antigen. Transfection of cells with plasmids encoding the wild-type T antigen or human papilloma virus type 16 E6/E7 proteins completely abolished the arrest in cell division, a plasmid encoding the E6 protein suppressed it markedly, while a plasmid encoding E7 had no effect. Plasmids encoding dominant-negative p53 mutants also suppressed the arrest in cell division to various degrees. Upon temperature shift, p21 mRNA was upregulated 10-fold in SVts8 cells, but only slightly in clones expressing the wild-type T antigen or dominant-negative p53 mutants. These data demonstrate that p53 plays a major role in this senescence-like phenomenon.  (+info)

Overexpression of D-type cyclins, E2F-1, SV40 large T antigen and HPV16 E7 rescue cell cycle arrest of tsBN462 cells caused by the CCG1/TAF(II)250 mutation. (7/1802)

tsBN462 cells, which have a point mutation in CCG1/TAF(II)250, a component of TFIID complex, arrest in G1 at the nonpermissive temperature of 39.5 degrees C. Overexpression of D-type cyclins rescued the cell cycle arrest of tsBN462 cells, suggesting that the cell cycle arrest was through Rb. Consistent with this, overexpression of E2F-1, whose function is repressed by the hypophosphorylated form of Rb, also rescued the cell cycle arrest. Moreover, expression of the viral oncoproteins SV40 large T antigen and HPV16 E7, which both bind Rb and inactivate its function, rescued the cell cycle arrest, whereas HPV16 E6 did not. Mutation of the Rb-binding motif in E7 abrogated its ability to rescue the cell cycle arrest. Expression of exogenous cyclin D1, SV40 large T antigen or CCG1/TAF(II)250 increased cyclin A expression at 39.5 degrees C. Coexpression of HPV16 E7 and adenovirus E1b19K, which blocks apoptosis, rescued the proliferation of tsBN462 cells at 38.5 degrees C. To investigate the mechanism underlying the lack of cyclin D1 expression, deletion analysis of cyclin D1 promoter was performed. The 0.15 kbp cyclin D1 core promoter region, which lacks any transcription factor binding motifs, still exhibited a temperature-sensitive phenotype in tsBN462 cells suggesting that CCG1/TAF(II)250 is critical for the function of the cyclin D1 core promoter.  (+info)

Concerted expression of BK virus large T- and small t-antigens strongly enhances oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. (8/1802)

Previous studies have shown that the human polyomavirus BK (BKV) genome contains an oestrogen response element (ERE). This isolated element binds its cognate receptor in vitro and can mediate 17beta-oestradiol-induced gene expression when linked to a heterologous promoter. The roles of the ERE- and the AP-1-binding sites in oestrogen receptor-directed transcription from the complete BKV promoter/enhancer (Dunlop strain) have been examined and the effects of the general co-activator CBP and large T- and small t-antigens on oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription have been investigated. A constitutive activated oestrogen receptor stimulated BKV promoter activity in HeLa cells. Mutations in either the ERE- or the AP-1-binding sites did not impair oestrogen receptor-induced activation of the BKV Dunlop promoter, while mutations in both binding motifs almost completely abolished oestrogen receptor-induced transcription. Simultaneous expression of large T- and small t-antigens strongly activated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. When expressed separately, only large T-antigen moderately stimulated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. The stimulatory effect of large T-antigen on the activity of the oestrogen receptor is probably indirect because no physical interaction between the two proteins was detected in a two-hybrid assay. Large T-antigen abrogated the synergistic effect on transcription between this nuclear receptor and the general co-activator CBP. The findings that the BKV early proteins amplify oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription may have important biological implications in individuals with raised oestrogen concentrations.  (+info)

1. Types of Polyomaviruses: There are several types of polyomaviruses that can infect humans, including the common cold virus (Rhinovirus), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and the newly identified Parechovirus.
2. Infection: Polyomaviruses can be transmitted through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva, or through contaminated surfaces. Inhaling the virus can lead to an infection in the respiratory tract.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of polyomavirus infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual's age and overall health. Common symptoms include runny nose, cough, fever, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, polyomaviruses can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and other respiratory disorders.
4. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of a polyomavirus infection is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual, as well as through laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture.
5. Treatment: There is no specific treatment for polyomavirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers, may also be recommended.
6. Prevention: Preventing the spread of polyomaviruses can be challenging, but good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and disinfecting surfaces can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against certain types of polyomaviruses.
7. Prognosis: In most cases, polyomavirus infections are mild and self-limiting, with symptoms resolving on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe infections can be life-threatening, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.
8. Epidemiology: Polyomaviruses are common and widespread, with the majority of individuals worldwide being infected at some point in their lives. Outbreaks of polyomavirus infections can occur in settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, and daycare centers, where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
9. Research: Research on polyomaviruses is ongoing to better understand the viruses, their transmission, and their clinical impact. This includes development of vaccines and antiviral medications, as well as studies to identify risk factors for severe infections and to improve diagnostic tests.
10. Public health: Polyomaviruses are a public health concern, particularly in settings where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. Prevention strategies include practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.

Overall, polyomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a range of diseases, from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening. Understanding the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, epidemiology, research, and public health implications of polyomavirus infections is essential for providing appropriate care and preventing outbreaks.

MCC typically affects older adults, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 60. The disease is more common in fair-skinned individuals, especially those who have had prolonged exposure to the sun. MCC can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most commonly found on the face, neck, and arms.

The symptoms of MCC can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but they may include:

* A firm, shiny nodule or lump on the skin
* Painless lumps or swelling in the affected area
* Redness, scaliness, or oozing of the skin around the nodule
* Itching or burning sensations in the affected area

If MCC is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for MCC typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be recommended to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for MCC is generally poor, as it tends to be an aggressive disease that can spread quickly to other parts of the body. However, early detection and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.

It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.

The term "leukoencephalopathy" refers to any disease or condition that affects the white matter of the brain, which is composed of nerve fibers covered in a fatty insulating substance called myelin. In LEPM, this degeneration occurs in multiple areas of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a multifocal pattern of damage.

The symptoms of LEPM usually become apparent in early childhood and may include:

* Vision loss or blurred vision
* Seizures
* Difficulty with movement and balance
* Cognitive decline
* Speech difficulties

As the disease progresses, patients may experience increasing disability and loss of motor function, leading to difficulties with walking, speaking, and performing everyday activities. The exact progression of LEPM is highly variable, and some individuals may experience more rapid decline than others.

The cause of LEPM is a genetic mutation in the PLP1 gene, which codes for a protein called proteolipid protein (PLP). This protein plays a critical role in the maintenance of myelin sheaths around nerve fibers, and mutations in the PLP1 gene lead to degeneration of these sheaths and the loss of axons.

There is currently no cure for LEPM, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression. This may include medications to control seizures, physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and flexibility, and vision aids to improve visual function. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be considered as a potential treatment option.

Overall, LEPM is a severe and debilitating disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals and their families. While there is currently no cure, ongoing research into the genetics and pathophysiology of this disease may lead to new treatment options in the future.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

There are several types of skin neoplasms, including:

1. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC): This is the most common type of skin cancer, and it usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or a flat, scaly patch. BCC is highly treatable, but if left untreated, it can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): This type of skin cancer is less common than BCC but more aggressive. It typically appears as a firm, flat, or raised bump on sun-exposed areas. SCC can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
3. Melanoma: This is the most serious type of skin cancer, accounting for only 1% of all skin neoplasms but responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma can appear as a new or changing mole, and it's essential to recognize the ABCDE signs (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variation, Diameter >6mm, Evolving size, shape, or color) to detect it early.
4. Sebaceous gland carcinoma: This rare type of skin cancer originates in the oil-producing glands of the skin and can appear as a firm, painless nodule on the forehead, nose, or other oily areas.
5. Merkel cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive skin cancer that typically appears as a firm, shiny bump on the skin. It's more common in older adults and those with a history of sun exposure.
6. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the immune system and can appear as a rash, nodules, or tumors on the skin.
7. Kaposi sarcoma: This is a rare type of skin cancer that affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It typically appears as a flat, red or purple lesion on the skin.

While skin cancers are generally curable when detected early, it's important to be aware of your skin and notice any changes or unusual spots, especially if you have a history of sun exposure or other risk factors. If you suspect anything suspicious, see a dermatologist for an evaluation and potential biopsy. Remember, prevention is key to avoiding the harmful effects of UV radiation and reducing your risk of developing skin cancer.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

SV40 large TAg, other polyomavirus large T antigens, adenovirus E1a proteins, and oncogenic human papillomavirus E7 proteins ... The transforming activity of TAg is due in large part to its perturbation of the retinoblastoma (pRb) and p53 tumor suppressor ... SV40 DNA replication is initiated by binding of large T-antigen to the origin region of the genome. The function of T-antigen ... T-antigen also binds and inactivates tumor suppressor proteins (p53, p105-Rb). This causes the cells to leave G1 phase and ...
Courtneidge, Sara A.; Smith, Alan E. (2 June 1983). "Polyoma virus transforming protein associates with the product of the c- ... The genes for the small tumor antigen (STag), middle tumor antigen (MTag), and large tumor antigen (LTag) are encoded in the " ... the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen. MTag occurs only in a few known polyomaviruses, while STag and LTag are ... The middle tumor antigen (also called the middle T-antigen and abbreviated MTag or MT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of ...
Unlike for other polyomaviruses, MCV sT antigen transforms cells in vitro by activating cap-dependent translation. MCV also ... MCV T antigen has similar features to the T antigens of other polyomaviruses, which are known oncoproteins, and is expressed in ... genome and encodes characteristic polyomavirus genes from opposite strands including a large T antigen, a small T antigen (LT ... Shuda M, Kwun HJ, Feng H, Chang Y, Moore PS (September 2011). "Human Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen is an oncoprotein ...
... polyomavirus transforming antigen - polypeptide - polysaccharide - porphyrin - Posttranslational modification - potassium - ... transforming growth factor - transforming growth factor alpha - transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor ... CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ...
... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins See List ... transforming growth factor beta MeSH D12.776.467.374.440.890 - interferon type i MeSH D12.776.467.374.440.890.125 - interferon ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D23.050.327.150 - deltaretrovirus antigens MeSH D23.050.327.150.500 - htlv-i antigens ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D23.050.285.329 - carcinoembryonic antigen MeSH D23.050.285.550 - neprilysin MeSH ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
Unlike for SV40, the MCV small T antigen directly transforms rodent cells in vitro. The middle tumor antigen is used in model ... Lyon IARC polyomavirus is related to raccoon polyomavirus.[citation needed] The following 14 polyomaviruses with human hosts ... These include the sea otter polyomavirus 1 and Alpaca polyomavirus Another virus is the giant panda polyomavirus 1. Another ... "Discovery of STL polyomavirus, a polyomavirus of ancestral recombinant origin that encodes a unique T antigen by alternative ...
... but its presence may increase the transforming efficiency of LTag. In other polyomaviruses, such as Merkel cell polyomavirus, ... and sometimes other tumor antigens as well, such as the murine polyomavirus middle tumor antigen). Polyomavirus STag proteins ... The genes for both the small and the large tumor antigen are encoded in the "early region" of the polyomavirus genome, so named ... In oncogenic polyomaviruses, the tumor antigens are responsible for the transformation activity, although the exact molecular ...
"The specific interaction of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60src, with two cellular proteins." Cell 25.2 (1981 ... "Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus." Nature 269.5626 (1977): 346-8. Brugge, ... "Enhancement of cellular src gene product associated tyrosyl kinase activity following polyoma virus infection and ... "The specific interaction of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, pp60src, with two cellular proteins." Cell 25(2) (1981 ...
... which is primarily responsible for the virus's transforming activity. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), also known as Human ... Some polyomavirus LTag proteins - most notably the well-studied SV40 large tumor antigen from the SV40 virus - are oncoproteins ... In oncogenic polyomaviruses, the tumor antigens are responsible for the transformation activity, although the exact molecular ... Lane, D. P.; Crawford, L. V. (1979-03-15). "T antigen is bound to a host protein in SY40-transformed cells". Nature. 278 (5701 ...
When these cells are transformed by the polyoma virus, higher tyrosine activity is observed in the cellular matrix, which is ... For example, the T-cell antigen receptor leads to intracellular signalling by activation of Lck and Fyn, two proteins that are ... that have been transformed by the polyomavirus possess higher tyrosine activity in the cellular matrix. Furthermore, tyrosine ... The polyoma virus affects tyrosine kinase activity inside the nuclear matrix. Fibroblasts are cells involved in wound healing ...
"Similar cell surface antigens on hamster cells transformed by different papovaviruses". Journal of Immunology. 118 (6): 2295- ... The papovaviruses have since been split into two categories: papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.) In his first faculty ... Wright, P. J.; Bernhardt, G.; Major, E. O.; Di Mayorca, G. (1976). "Comparison of the serology, transforming ability, and ... "Comparison of wild-type BK virus DNA and BK virion DNA rescued from virus-transformed BHK cells". Virology. 103 (1): 1-10. doi: ...
... the cause of infectious laryngotracheitis in poultry SV40 large T antigen, a proto-oncogene derived from polyomavirus SV40 Heat ... an extension for many web browsers Laplace transform Less than Logic Theorist, a computer program written in 1955-56 to prove ...
Brugge, Joan S.; Erikson, E.; Erikson, R.L. (1981). "The specific interaction of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein, ... "Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus". Nature. Springer Science and Business ... "Enhancement of cellular src gene product associated tyrosyl kinase activity following polyoma virus infection and ...
The transformed cells often express permanently some viral genes. This leads to the presentation of viral antigenic peptides ... Kaposi sarcoma virus and Merkel cell polyoma virus cause skin cancers. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) causes T cell ... In some patients, the majority of the tumor-specific T cells recognize mutated antigens. The contribution of these antigens to ... The carcinoma cells still harbour the viral genes and antigens. As expected T cell responses against antigens encoded by genes ...
... acutely transforming or slowly transforming. In acutely transforming viruses, the viral particles carry a gene that encodes for ... Merkel cell polyomavirus - a polyoma virus - is associated with the development of Merkel cell carcinoma Not all oncoviruses ... In SV40, the large T antigen (LT) is an analogue; LT also binds to several other cellular proteins, such as p107 and p130, on ... slowly transforming viruses have very long tumor latency compared to acutely transforming viruses, which already carry the ...
... in which MMTV-LTR is used to drive the expression of mammary gland specific polyomavirus middle T-antigen, leading to a rapid ... Siegel, P. M.; Shu, W; Cardiff, R. D.; Muller, W. J.; Massagué, J (2003). "Transforming growth factor beta signaling impairs ... Guy, C. T.; Cardiff, R. D.; Muller, W. J. (1992). "Induction of mammary tumors by expression of polyomavirus middle T oncogene ... The role of autocrine transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling on motility and survival in PymT cells derived from ...
"Simian virus 40 large T antigen and p53 are microtubule-associated proteins in transformed cells". Cell Growth & ... Butel has studied polyomavirus SV40 infection in humans and animals for most of her career. She has published studies on the ... Her area of expertise is on polyomavirus pathogenesis of infections and disease. She has more than 120 publications on PubMed. ... "Viral microRNA effects on pathogenesis of polyomavirus SV40 infections in syrian golden hamsters". PLOS Pathogens. 10 (2): ...
"T antigen mutations are a human tumor-specific signature for Merkel cell polyomavirus". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... an obsolete term originally used for acutely transforming retroviruses). The development of cancer is determined by a variety ... Merkel cell polyomavirus closely related to SV40 and mouse polyomaviruses that have been used as animal models for cancer ... The most recently discovered human cancer virus is a polyomavirus (Merkel cell polyomavirus) that causes most cases of a rare ...
... of a CHO cell line transfected with the polyomavirus large T antigen gene and a DNA expression vector encoding polyomavirus ... Methodology varies depending on the organism to transform. While plants can be transformed with a construct introduced into ... which is carried apart from the EBNA-1 gene and the mouse polyomavirus large T antigen EpiCHO system, which consists ... Graham FL, Smiley J, Russell WC, Nairn R (July 1977). "Characteristics of a human cell line transformed by DNA from human ...
An P, Sáenz Robles MT, Pipas JM (13 October 2012). "Large T antigens of polyomaviruses: amazing molecular machines". Annual ... interacts with viral transforming proteins and cellular transcription factor E2F1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (2 ... and a molecule called proliferating cell nuclear antigen, or PCNA, which speeds DNA replication and repair by helping to attach ... E4F1 EID1 ENC1 FRK HBP1 HDAC1 HDAC3 Histone deacetylase 2 Insulin JARID1A Large tumor antigen LIN9 MCM7 MORF4L1 MRFAP1, MyoD ...
In the summer of 1979, studies of polyomavirus middle T and v-Src associated kinase activities led to the discovery of tyrosine ... Protein phosphorylation Eckhart W, Hutchinson MA, Hunter T (1979). "An activity phosphorylating tyrosine in polyoma T antigen ... 2012). "N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-2 negates anti-proliferative effect of transforming growth factor beta ... that negatively regulates the anti-proliferative function of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in endothelial cells. ...
Molecular mimicry refers to an overlap in structural similarity between a viral antigen and a self-antigen. The bystander ... An example would be the JC polyomavirus, in which its tropism is limited to glial cells since its enhancer is only active in ... Persistent viruses can sometimes transform host cells into cancer cells. Viruses such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), human ... Nevertheless, induction of apoptosis in major immune cells or antigen-presenting cells may also act as a mechanism of ...
"Differential tumorigenicity of 3T3 cells transformed in vitro with polyoma virus and in vivo selection for high tumorigenicity ... One such antigen was MAGE-A1. The coexistence of a progressing melanoma with melanoma-specific T cells implicitly does not ... CAFs can also secrete transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), which is associated with EMT, a process by which cancer cells ... As many fibroblasts are transformed into CAFs during carcinogenesis, this reduces the amount of ECM produced and the ECM that ...
... is a novel broadly expressed tumor antigen recognized by antigen-specific T cells". Clin. Cancer Res. 14 (17): 5503-11. doi: ... The promoter of the human MMP7 contains a TATA box, an activator protein 1 (AP-1) site, and two inverted polyomavirus enhancer ... However, the opposite effects of TGF-β on MMP7 were observed among transformed cells. In human glioma cell lines and human ...
April 2019). "Antibodies reacting to mimotopes of Simian virus 40 large T antigen, the viral oncoprotein, in sera from children ... 2017). "Detection of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA in Serum Samples of Healthy Blood Donors". Frontiers in Oncology. 7: 294. doi ... Dressman D, Yan H, Traverso G, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (July 2003). "Transforming single DNA molecules into fluorescent ... March 2020). "Droplet-digital PCR assay to detect Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences in chorionic villi from spontaneous ...
Polyomavirus Transforming" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming" was a major or ... Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming*Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming. *Polyomavirus Tumor Antigens. *Antigens, Polyomavirus ... "Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming" by people in Profiles. ...
... together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into a retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus ... Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene ... The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into a retrovirus vector pGV16 ... Truncated forms of the polyomavirus middle T antigen can substitute for the small T antigen in lytic infection. Templeton D, ...
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Small tumor antigen of polyomaviruses: role in viral life cycle and cell transformation. Khalili K, Sariyer IK, Safak M. ... Transforming activities of JC virus early proteins. Frisque RJ, Hofstetter C, Tyagarajan SK. Frisque RJ, et al. Adv Exp Med ... Biogenesis of JC polyomavirus associated extracellular vesicles. Morris-Love J, OHara BA, Gee GV, Dugan AS, ORourke RS, ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Animals, Genetically Modified; Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming/genetics; Antineoplastic Agents/ ... These include a syngeneic model using E0771 mammary tumor cells as well as the Polyoma Middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic model ...
Phosphatidylinositol metabolism in cells transformed by polyomavirus middle T antigen.. Ulug ET; Hawkins PT; Hanley MR; ...
Polyomavirus Middle T Antigens Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Polyomavirus T Proteins Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens ... Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming Preferred Concept UI. M0001437. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Polyomavirus antigens which ... Polyomavirus Tumor Antigens Polyomaviruses Large T Proteins Polyomaviruses Middle T Proteins Polyomaviruses Small T Proteins ... Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Narrower Concept UI. M0001440. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Preferred ...
Antigens, Polyomavirus Tumor Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens Polyomavirus Tumor Antigens Transforming Antigens, Polyomavirus ... Polyomavirus Middle T Antigens. Polyomavirus Small T Antigens. Polyomavirus T Proteins. Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens. ... T Antigens, SV40. T Proteins, Polyomavirus. T Proteins, SV40. Transforming Antigens, Polyomavirus. Tumor Antigens, Polyomavirus ... Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming - Preferred Concept UI. M0001437. Scope note. Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection ...
Polyomavirus Middle T Antigens Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Polyomavirus T Proteins Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens ... Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming Preferred Concept UI. M0001437. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Polyomavirus antigens which ... Polyomavirus Tumor Antigens Polyomaviruses Large T Proteins Polyomaviruses Middle T Proteins Polyomaviruses Small T Proteins ... Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Narrower Concept UI. M0001440. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Preferred ...
Large T antigens (LTA) encoded by polyoma viruses are oncoproteins, which are thought to require support of cellular heat shock ... protein 70 (HSP70) to exert their transforming activity. Here we evaluated the capability of MAL3-101, a synthetic HSP70 ... This has been mainly attributed to immune escape by antigen loss, rendering us in the need of new vaccination targets. Patients ... This has been mainly attributed to immune escape by antigen loss, rendering us in the need of new vaccination targets. Patients ...
Manfredi JJ, Prives C. The transforming activity of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen. Biochim Biophysica Acta. 1994;1198(1): ... Immunohistochemical demonstration of common antigen of polyomaviruses in routine histologic tissue sections of animals and man ... We immunolabeled infected oligodendrocytes in the engrafted Rag2-/- Mbpshi/shi mouse for the mitosis-associated antigen Ki67 ... Large T antigen promotes JC virus replication in G2-arrested cells by inducing ATM- and ATR-mediated G2 checkpoint signaling. J ...
CD53Antigens, CD24Antigens, CD13Antigens, ProtozoanAntigens, CD86Antigens, Polyomavirus TransformingAntigens, CD95HLA Antigens ... AntigensAntigens, CDAntigens, CD8Antigens, NeoplasmAntigens, CD3Antigens, SurfaceAntigens, BacterialAntigens, CD38Antigens, ... AntigensAntigens, CDAntigens, CD8Antigens, NeoplasmAntigens, CD3Antigens, SurfaceAntigens, BacterialAntigens, CD38Antigens, ... C-TypeAntigens, CD58Antigens, CD4Antigens, CD47Antigens, CD11bProstate-Specific AntigenAntigens, CD11cO AntigensHLA-A2 Antigen ...
Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens 10% * Telomere Shortening 10% * Retinoblastoma Protein 9% * Middle East 9% ...
Polyomavirus Transforming Antigens 100% * Viral Tumor Antigens 88% * Endothelial Cells 53% * Simian virus 40 51% ... Epidermal Growth Factor, Transforming Growth Factor Alpha, Transforming Growth Factor Beta, Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor, ... Extended life of human corneal endothelial cells transfected with the SV40 large T antigen. Wilson, S. E., Lloyd, S. A., He, Y ... Impact of oral immunization with Acanthamoeba antigens on parasite adhesion and corneal infection. Leher, H., Kinoshita, K., ...
T Proteins, Polyomavirus use Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming T Proteins, SV40 use Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming ... T Cell Antigen Receptor use Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell T Cell Antigen Receptor alpha Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene ... T-Cell Antigen Receptor use Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell T-Cell Antigen Receptor alpha-Chain Gene Rearrangement use Gene ... T-Cell Antigen Receptors use Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell T-Cell Co-Stimulator, Inducible use Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator ...
Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T Antigen Induces Cellular Senescence for Host Growth Arrest and Viral Genome Persistence ... genome and expresses viral transforming antigens (TAgs). MCC tumor cells also express signature genes detected in skin-resident ... Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Polyomavirus/genética , Polyomavirus/ ... Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/patologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por ...
In rodent cells, SV40 generates both large and small T-antigens to inhibit pRb and p53 as well as a protein phosphatase (PP2A ... The most commonly used transformed cell lines have contributed greatly to cell biological research but have a number of well- ... Studies of mechanisms responsible for tumorigenesis have exploited SV40, a polyomavirus that was discovered in a monkey cell ... Ahuja, D., Saenz-Robles, M. T., and Pipas, J. M. (2005). Pipas, SV40 large T antigen targets multiple cellular pathways to ...
Neoplasm N0000171169 Antigens, Nuclear N0000171192 Antigens, Plant N0000171147 Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming N0000171164 ... HLA-A Antigens N0000171097 HLA-A1 Antigen N0000171096 HLA-A2 Antigen N0000171095 HLA-A3 Antigen N0000171098 HLA-B Antigens ... HLA-B27 Antigen N0000171101 HLA-B35 Antigen N0000171099 HLA-B7 Antigen N0000171102 HLA-B8 Antigen N0000171103 HLA-C Antigens ... HLA-D Antigens N0000171114 HLA-DP Antigens N0000171105 HLA-DQ Antigens N0000171106 HLA-DR Antigens N0000171108 HLA-DR1 Antigen ...
... we began to test whether polyoma virus middle T antigen also had such activity. We were excited to find that middle T antigen ... Other retroviral transforming proteins were soon found to be tyrosine kinases, and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ... Thus, it was totally unexpected that the protein kinase activity associated with polyoma virus middle T antigen should be able ... A: In 1977, we were studying polyoma virus, a small DNA tumor virus that causes tumors in rodents. We were trying to identify ...
Dyson N, Bernards R, Friend SH, Gooding LR, Hassell JA, Major EO, Large T antigens of many polyomaviruses are able to form ... Transforming activities of JC virus early proteins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;577:288-309. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Common and unique features of T antigens encoded by the polyomavirus group. J Virol. 1992;66:3979-85 .PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Human Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen is an oncoprotein targeting the 4E-BP1 translation regulator. J Clin Invest. ...
Two transgenic mouse models with spontaneous tumor development were generated, directing the expression of SV40T antigen (Tag) ... of colon cancer and do not allow the analysis of antitumor immune response because of the lack of known tumor-specific antigens ... Animals, Antibodies, Neoplasm, Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming, Carcinoma, Colorectal Neoplasms, Disease Models, Animal, ... Two transgenic mouse models with spontaneous tumor development were generated, directing the expression of SV40T antigen (Tag) ...
The transplantation antigen on ST1 cells is at the moment under test again. This time I have included an SV40 transformed BHK ... namely a study on the histone-like proteins in the polyoma virus capsid and their relationship to the DNA. He is moving to ... On one plate with 4 x 105 cells there were 75 transformed foci on a background of normal cells. 6 of these (ST1-6) were picked ... as well as to Vittorio Defendi for T-antigen. I hope that there is some progress with Helene Smiths repeat experiment. Geoff ...
Association of p62c-yes with polyomavirus middle T-antigen mutants correlates with transforming ability. ... Transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts and tumor induction by the middle T antigen of polyomavirus carried in an avian ... Antigen drives very low affinity B cells to become plasmacytes and enter germinal centers. ... Differences in intracellular location of pp60src in rat and chicken cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus. ...
Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen mRNA level is increased following in vivo UV-radiation. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 2. 5(7): ... Growth-inhibitory effect of STI571 on cells transformed by the COL1A1/PDGFB rearrangement. Int J Cancer. 2001 May 1. 92(3):354- ... 19] Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is unique in the 10-member family of human polyomaviruses (HPyV) in that it causes cancer ... Clear cell acanthoma usually stains positive for epithelial membrane antigen and negative for carcinoembryonic antigen. With ...
... cancer research and of course through subsequent work discovering the tissue antigens and his concept that cancer transforming ... EB: The animal viruses were becoming established as subjects for study and when polyoma virus was discovered and then Dr. Sarah ... The other thing is that even though he had formulated the oncogene theory from the transmission genetically of the transforming ... of the incidence of cases in the outbreak with the activity during the preparation of Q fever antigens, which produced ...
2 days ago Sv40 large t antigen (simian vacuolating virus 40 tag) is a hexamer 11:11 outline 15:38 big picture polyomavirus 17: ... In 1961, SV40 2007-07-09 · The Committee concluded that "the biological evidence is strong that SV40 is a transforming virus, ... Polyomavirus infections in humans. Svarta, homosexuella och handikappade barn har ingått Mellan 56-61 så fann man att en form ... Other studies reported that SV40 T-antigen, a viral protein, binds to Please note that this is not a comprehensive list of all ...
  • The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. (uchicago.edu)
  • the expression of viral T antigens is crucial for growth of virus-positive tumor cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Our results uncover the mechanism of a host stress response regulating human polyomavirus genome maintenance in viral persistency, which may lead to targeted intervention for MCC. (bvsalud.org)
  • We were excited to find that middle T antigen became phosphorylated in immunoprecipitates, and by the middle of 1979, we had shown through the use of viral mutants that the presence of this protein kinase activity correlated well with the ability of middle T antigen to transform mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, transgenic mice harboring the viral-encoded large T-antigen (LT-Ag) alone develop tumors of neuroectodermal origin, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) and glioblastomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Other studies reported that SV40 T-antigen, a viral protein, binds to Please note that this is not a comprehensive list of all SV40-associated cancers or all medical/scientific articles written about the detection of SV40 in cancer. (netlify.app)
  • This heritability of virus-transformed phenotype, even in the absence of viral replication [ 9 ], led Howard Temin to postulate that in the infected cell, the RSV genome made a DNA copy which then integrated into host chromosomal DNA [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The piggyBac transposon-mediated expression of SV40 T antigen efficiently immortalizes mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). (uchicago.edu)
  • Studies have reported differing frequencies of detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) in association with human lymphomas. (nih.gov)
  • This time I have included an SV40 transformed BHK as a control as well as ST6. (nih.gov)
  • Virus förmåga att framkalla cancer är en följd av att Minst fyra satser vaccin smittat med ett virus kallat SV40 släpptes uppges ha visat att apviruset var en möjlig orsak till cancer hos människor. (netlify.app)
  • Kinetics of Senescence-associated Changes of Gene Expression in an Epithelial, Temperature-sensitive SV40 Large T Antigen Model. (netlify.app)
  • Read Cancer from the story Kost & kunskap by Nikki_Jansson (Nikki Janzon) SV40- viruset spreds förstås som en löpeld och vi kan hitta den i mängder av Start studying Virologi 9 - Virus och Cancer. (netlify.app)
  • Svarta, homosexuella och handikappade barn har ingått Mellan 56-61 så fann man att en form av oralt poliovaccin hade kontaminerats av SV40, även om SV40 tekniskt sett ger tumörer och inte cancer. (netlify.app)
  • The phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins was discovered in 1979 during our analysis of the protein kinase activity that phosphorylates the middle T antigen of polyoma virus in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Other retroviral transforming proteins were soon found to be tyrosine kinases, and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was shown to have tyrosine kinase activity that is stimulated by EGF binding. (nih.gov)
  • This finding was quickly followed by the demonstration by others that the v-Fps and v-Abl retroviral transforming proteins are tyrosine kinases, and that the EGF receptor also has tyrosine kinase activity that is stimulated by EGF binding. (nih.gov)
  • Cytokine -- Non-antibody immune system proteins released by one type of cell in response to a specific antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that MCPyV large T (LT) antigen expression in human skin fibroblasts causes a novel nucleolar stress response, followed by p21-dependent senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs), which are required for MCPyV genome maintenance. (bvsalud.org)
  • ALV replicates in chick embryo fibroblasts but does not transform them. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is closely related but carries the src oncogene and transforms fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) RNA was confirmed by RNAScope in situ hybridization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Based on Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) status and morphology, MCCs are often divided into several distinct subsets: pure MCPyV-positive, pure MCPyV-negative, and combined MCC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer induced by a life-long human infection of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent advances have been made by an accumulation of studies on Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is highly associated and integrated in most Merkel cell carcinomas ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence from studies in humans. (nih.gov)
  • These include a syngeneic model using E0771 mammary tumor cells as well as the Polyoma Middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic model. (nih.gov)
  • The presence of phosphotyrosine in the middle T antigen was the first indication that tyrosine could be a target for phosphorylation by a protein kinase. (nih.gov)
  • As soon as Marc Collett and Ray Erikson, then at University of Colorado in Denver, reported in 1978 that the RSV-transforming protein, v-Src, had protein-kinase activity when assayed in an immunoprecipitate, we began to test whether polyoma virus middle T antigen also had such activity. (nih.gov)
  • In the course of analyzing by acid hydrolysis which amino acid was phosphorylated in middle T antigen, we discovered that the phosphate was not linked to serine or threonine but to another amino acid. (nih.gov)
  • We guessed that this might be tyrosine, quickly made some phosphotyrosine, and showed that the product of acid hydrolysis of phosphorylated middle T antigen co-migrated with the synthetic phosphotyrosine. (nih.gov)
  • Two transgenic mouse models with spontaneous tumor development were generated, directing the expression of SV40T antigen (Tag) either constitutively (Vil-Cre × LoxP-Tag-transgenic mice) or stochastically (Vil-Cre-ER(T2) × LoxP-Tag-transgenic mice) into the putative stem cell region of the crypt of Lieberkühn. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. (lookformedical.com)
  • Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. (lookformedical.com)
  • Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. (lookformedical.com)
  • A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. (lookformedical.com)
  • Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. (lookformedical.com)
  • Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). (lookformedical.com)
  • The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA). (lookformedical.com)
  • CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (lookformedical.com)
  • When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. (lookformedical.com)
  • Interest had centered on a single protein called middle T (or tumor) antigen, which is encoded by one of the three alternatively spliced mRNAs generated from the so-called early region of the polyoma virus genome. (nih.gov)
  • Raccoon polyomavirus may contribute to the development of malignant brain tumors of raccoons. (cdc.gov)
  • We characterized from these tumors a candidate etiologic agent, raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV). (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, a multivalent target binding protein may bind to both a tumor antigen and a cytotoxic agent, and can be used for delivery of radionuclides, drugs, toxins or other cytotoxic agents to tumor cells. (allindianpatents.com)
  • This effect was accompanied by reduced large T antigen (LT) expression. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The multifunctional nuclear protein large T-antigen was detectable by immunohistochemical analyses in a subset of neoplastic cells. (cdc.gov)
  • We will isolate 5 more clones in the ST series (starting from scratch but infecting low serum cells), grow them into large batches and if you are willing and interested will send them to you for testing, as well as to Vittorio Defendi for T-antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, in one MCC cell line (WaGa), T antigen knockdown rendered cells less sensitive to artesunate, while for two other MCC cell lines, we could not substantiate such a relation. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • Moreover, we showed that v-Src- transformed cells have elevated levels of phosphotyrosine in protein. (nih.gov)
  • The transplantation antigen on ST1 cells is at the moment under test again. (nih.gov)
  • On one plate with 4 x 105 cells there were 75 transformed foci on a background of normal cells. (nih.gov)
  • [ 7 ] In KAs, cells that stain positive with proliferating-cell nuclear antigen immunostaining are distributed only in the outer edges of the tumor, corresponding to the proliferating squamous epithelial cells. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, cells within an SCC that stain positive with proliferating-cell nuclear antigen immunostaining are more diffusely distributed. (medscape.com)
  • The BPV-1 E1 ORF encodes two gene products expressed in BPV transformed cells from the major early promoter, P89. (nih.gov)
  • More recent findings, however, indicate that E1-M is not essential for stable plasmid replication in BPV-1 transformed cells (25). (nih.gov)
  • Isolated fractions were examined for their capacity to bind [125I]C1q as a measure of immune complex levels, and for their ability to bind soluble tumour-specific antigen as well as to react with antigens expressed at the surface of viable hepatoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • However, cells transformed by RSV maintained stable properties through many mitoses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus the concept of integration of DNA tumor virus genomes in transformed somatic cells was debated, and was demonstrated in 1968 [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although of clinical diagnostic and prognostic value, the currently widely used PSA (prostate specific antigen) biomarker does not fulfil the above mentioned requirements, and there is an immense search for new more specific and sensitive biomarkers in order to provide the necessary information regarding screening, classification, prognosis and prediction. (abcdocz.com)
  • Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. (uchicago.edu)
  • Shortly thereafter, we found that v-Src, the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) transforming protein, and c-Src, its cellular progenitor, also have tyrosine kinase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Adenovector-mediated gene transfer of active transforming growth factor-beta1 induces prolonged severe fibrosis in rat lung. (mcmaster.ca)
  • However, natural disease studies of human infection and experimental disease studies suggest that a potential outcome of some polyomavirus (PyV) infections is tumor formation ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In order to distinguish between KA and SCC, further histologic studies can be used, including proliferating-cell nuclear antigen immunostaining. (medscape.com)
  • HLA-restricted presentation of WT1 tumor antigen in B-lymphoblastoid cell lines established using a maxi-EBV system. (tmpukandalab.com)
  • We have identified a candidate etiologic agent, dubbed raccoon polyomavirus, that was present in the tumor tissue of all affected animals but not in tissues from 20 unaffected animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Much of what we know about the immune system and its relationship to cancer was discovered by scientists affiliated with the Cancer Research Institute (CRI), which since 1953 has served as the world's leading (and for several decades only) nonprofit organization dedicated exclusively to transforming cancer patient care by advancing immunotherapy and the science behind it. (cancerresearch.org)
  • Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle. (uchicago.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions. (lookformedical.com)