PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Material prepared from plants.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The reproductive cells of plants.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3. (1/684)

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Solution structure of a lipid transfer protein extracted from rice seeds. Comparison with homologous proteins. (2/684)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the three dimensional structure of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP), a 91 amino acid residue protein belonging to the broad family of plant ns-LTP. Sequence specific assignment was obtained for all but three HN backbone 1H resonances and for more than 95% of the 1H side-chain resonances using a combination of 1H 2D NOESY; TOCSY and COSY experiments at 293 K. The structure was calculated on the basis of four disulfide bridge restraints, 1259 distance constraints derived from 1H-1H Overhauser effects, 72 phi angle restraints and 32 hydrogen-bond restraints. The final solution structure involves four helices (H1: Cys3-Arg18, H2: Ala25-Ala37, H3: Thr41-Ala54 and H4: Ala66-Cys73) followed by a long C-terminal tail (T) with no observable regular structure. N-capping residues (Thr2, Ser24, Thr40), whose side-chain oxygen atoms are involved in hydrogen bonds with i + 3 amide proton additionally stabilize the N termini of the first three helices. The fourth helix involving Pro residues display a mixture of alpha and 3(10) conformation. The rms deviation of 14 final structures with respect to the average structure is 1.14 +/- 0.16 A for all heavy atoms (C, N, O and S) and 0.72 +/- 0.01 A for the backbone atoms. The global fold of rice ns-LTP is close to the previously published structures of wheat, barley and maize ns-LTPs exhibiting nearly identical pattern of the numerous sequence specific interactions. As reported previously for different four-helix topology proteins, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic mechanisms of fold stabilization were found for the rice ns-LTP. The sequential alignment of 36 ns-LTP primary structures strongly suggests that there is a uniform pattern of specific long-range interactions (in terms of sequence), which stabilize the fold of all plant ns-LTPs.  (+info)

Production in Escherichia coli and site-directed mutagenesis of a 9-kDa nonspecific lipid transfer protein from wheat. (3/684)

The sequence encoding a wheat (Triticum durum) nonspecific lipid transfer protein of 9 kDa (nsLTP1) was inserted into an Escherichia coli expression vector, pET3b. The recombinant protein that was expressed accumulated in insoluble cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and was purified and refolded from them. In comparison with the corresponding protein isolated from wheat kernel, the refolded recombinant protein exhibits a methionine extension at its N-terminus but has the same structure and activity as demonstrated by CD, lipid binding and lipid transfer assays. Using the same expression system, four mutants with H5Q, Y16A, Q45R and Y79A replacements were produced and characterized. No significant changes in structure or activity were found for three of the mutants. By contrast, lipid binding experiments with the Y79A mutant did not show any increase of tyrosine fluorescence as observed with the wild-type nsLTP1. Comparison of the two tyrosine mutants suggested that Tyr79 is the residue involved in this phenomenon and thus is located close to the lipid binding site as expected from three-dimensional structure data.  (+info)

Two-dimensional electrophoresis of Malassezia allergens for atopic dermatitis and isolation of Mal f 4 homologs with mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. (4/684)

The yeast Malassezia furfur is a natural inhabitant of the human skin microflora that induces an allergic reaction in atopic dermatitis. To identify allergens of M. furfur, we separated a crude preparation of M. furfur antigens as discrete spots by 2-D PAGE and detected IgE-binding proteins using sera of atopic dermatitis patients. We identified the known allergens, Mal f 2 and Mal f 3, and determined N-terminal amino acid sequences of six new IgE-binding proteins including Mal f 4. The cDNA and genomic DNA encoding Mal f 4 were cloned and sequenced. The gene was mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and encoded Mal f 4 composed of 315 amino acids and a signal sequence of 27 amino acids. We purified Mal f 4, which had a molecular mass of 35 kDa from a membrane fraction of a lysate of cultured cells. Thirty of 36 M. furfur-allergic atopic dermatitis patients (83.3%) had elevated serum levels of IgE to purified Mal f 4, indicating that Mal f 4 is a major allergen. There was a significant correlation of the Phadebas RAST unit values of Mal f 4 and the crude antigen, but not between Mal f 4 and the known allergen Mal f 2.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of American cockroach tropomyosin (Periplaneta americana allergen 7), a cross-reactive allergen. (5/684)

Inhalation of allergens produced by the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) induces IgE Ab production and the development of asthma in genetically predisposed individuals. The cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of P. americana tropomyosin allergen have been achieved. The protein shares high homology with other arthropod tropomyosins (80% identity) but less homology with vertebrate ones (50% identity). The recombinant allergen was produced in E. coli as a nonfusion protein with a yield of 9 mg/l of bacterial culture. Both natural and recombinant tropomyosins were purified by isoelectric precipitation. P. americana allergen 1 (Per a 1) and Per a 7 (tropomyosin) are to date the only cross-reacting allergens found in cockroaches. ELISA and Western blot inhibition experiments, using natural and recombinant purified tropomyosins from shrimp and cockroach, showed that tropomyosin induced cross-reactivity of IgE from patients allergic to these allergens, suggesting that this molecule could be a common allergen among invertebrates.  (+info)

Molecular dissection of mitogillin reveals that the fungal ribotoxins are a family of natural genetically engineered ribonucleases. (6/684)

Mitogillin and the related fungal ribotoxins are highly specific ribonucleases which inactivate the ribosome enzymatically by cleaving the 23-28 S RNA of the large ribosomal subunit at a single phosphodiester bond. The site of cleavage occurs between G4325 and A4326 (rat ribosome numbering) which are present in one of the most conserved sequences (the alpha-sarcin loop) among the large subunit ribosomal RNAs of all living species. Amino acid sequence comparison of ribotoxins and guanyl/purine ribonucleases have identified domains or residues likely involved in ribonucleolytic activity or cleavage specificity. Fifteen deletion mutants (each 4 to 8 amino acid deletions) in motifs of mitogillin showing little amino acid sequence homology with guanyl/purine ribonucleases were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. Analyses of the purified mutant proteins identified those regions in fungal ribotoxins contributing to ribosome targeting and modulating the catalytic activity of the toxin; some of the identified motifs are homologous to sequences in ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. This mutational study of mitogillin together with the recently published x-ray structure of restrictocin (a close relative of mitogillin) supports the hypothesis that the specific cleavage properties of ribotoxins are the result of natural genetic engineering in which the ribosomal targeting elements of ribosome-associated proteins were inserted into nonessential regions of T1-like ribonucleases.  (+info)

Production and detailed characterization of biologically active olive pollen allergen Ole e 1 secreted by the yeast Pichia pastoris. (7/684)

The glycoprotein Ole e 1 is a significant aeroallergen from the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen, with great clinical relevance in the Mediterranean area. To produce a biologically active form of recombinant Ole e 1, heterologous expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was carried out. A cDNA encoding Ole e 1, fused to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor prepropeptide using the pPIC9 vector, was inserted into the yeast genome under the control of the AOX1 promoter. After induction with methanol, the protein secreted into the extracellular medium was purified by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The structure of the isolated recombinant Ole e 1 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic techniques, and its immunological properties analysed by blotting and ELISA inhibition with Ole e 1-specific monoclonal antibodies and IgE from sera of allergic patients. The allergen was produced at a yield of 60 mg per litre of culture as a homogeneous glycosylated protein of around 18.5 kDa. Recombinant Ole e 1 appears to be properly folded, as it displays spectroscopic properties (CD and fluorescence) and immunological reactivities (IgG binding to monoclonal antibodies sensitive to denaturation and IgE from sera of allergic patients) indistinguishable from those of the natural protein. This approach gives high-yield production of homogeneous and biologically active allergen, which should be useful for scientific and clinical purposes.  (+info)

Sequence-divergent units of the ABA-1 polyprotein array of the nematode Ascaris suum have similar fatty-acid- and retinol-binding properties but different binding-site environments. (8/684)

Polyproteins comprise long polypeptides that are post-translationally cleaved into proteins of different function, or tandemly repetitive polypeptides which are processed into multiple versions of proteins which are presumed to have the same function. In the latter case the individual units of the polyprotein can differ substantially in sequence. Identity of function between the different units therefore cannot be assumed. Here we have examined the ABA-1 polyprotein allergen of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and found it to contain units which show a 50% difference in amino acid sequence. The parasite therefore produces at least two radically different forms of the allergen encoded within the polyprotein array. In fluorescence-based ligand-binding assays, recombinant polypeptides representing the two forms (designated ABA-1A1 and ABA-1B1) showed similar binding affinities for a range of fluorescent active-site probes [retinol, dansylundecanoic acid, dansyl-DL-alpha-amino-octanoic acid, cis-parinaric acid (cPnA)] and for the non-specific hydrophobic surface probe 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid. However, the molecular environments in the active sites are markedly different, as indicated by disparate fluorescence emission peaks and intensities of bound probes. CD showed that the proteins have similar secondary structures but differ in susceptibility to chemical denaturation/unfolding by guanidinium chloride. Both retain a single conserved tryptophan residue in a characteristic non-polar environment, as revealed by extreme fluorescence blue shift. Thus the gross differences in sequence of the two proteins are not reflected in their ligand-binding specificities but in their binding-site environments.  (+info)

The distribution of Ole e I (the major olive pollen allergen) and its transcripts was investigated in the anther from premeiotic stages until the dehiscent pollen stage. Crude protein extracts were analyzed by immunoblotting and probed with a monoclonal antibody to Ole e I. The protein, with three variants, was found to accumulate from the early microspore stage onwards. In addition to the previously reported localization of the protein, Ole e I has been immunolocalized for the first time within the pollen wall and in the tapetum. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific oligonucleotides and RNA extracted from whole anthers revealed that the Ole e I gene is expressed from the late tetrad stage onwards. No expression was found in control tissues such as petals, roots or leaves. Light microscopy in situ hybridization on developing flower buds and dehiscent pollen confirmed the transcripts to be present in both the microspores and the sporophytic tissue (tapetum). ...
Hollenbach, B., Schreiber, L., Hartung, W., & Dietz, K. - J. (1997). Cadmium leads to stimulated expression of the lipid transfer protein genes in barley: Implications for the involvement of lipid transfer proteins in wax assembly. Planta, 203(1), 9-19. doi:10.1007/ ...
casSAR Dugability of A0AT31 | NLTP5 | Non-specific lipid-transfer protein 5 - Also known as NLTP5_LENCU, NLTP5. Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in wax or cutin deposition in the cell walls of expanding epidermal cells and certain secretory tissues.
protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lipid binding; INVOLVED IN: lipid transport; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Bifunctional inhibitor/plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage (InterPro:IPR016140), Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein and hydrophobic protein, helical (InterPro:IPR013770); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein (TAIR:AT4G12510.1); Has 534 Blast hits to 530 proteins in 51 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 534; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in wax or cutin deposition in the cell walls of expanding epidermal cells and certain secretory tissues.
Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are type of proteins, 9-kDa proteins present in high quantity as much as 4 percent of the total soluble protein in higher plants. Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are responsible for transfer (in vitro), of phospholipids between membranes as well as binds to acyl chains. Some important roles played by LTP are embryogenesis, participation in cutin formation, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions and defense reactions against phytopathogens, though the validity of some these roles is needs to be determined. Recent studies show several important functions in the cell. Biosynthesis of many membrane lipids occurs at the (ER) endoplasmic reticulum, then they are dispensed by vesicular transport and lipid transfer proteins. Lysosomal lipid transfer proteins are types of proteins are multifunctional in nature. Though the mechanism and functions of most LTPs are yet to be determined, lipid transfer proteins in plants are involved in surface ...
1FK0: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
1FK4: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
El Archivo Digital UPM alberga en formato digital la documentacion academica y cientifica (tesis, pfc, articulos, etc..) generada en la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Los documentos del Archivo Digital UPM son recuperables desde buscadores: Google, Google Academics, Yahoo, Scirus, etc y desde recolectores OAI: E-ciencia, DRRD, Recolecta (REBIUN-FECYT), Driver, Oaister, etc.
In addition to Equ c 1, another horse lipocalin allergen, Equ c 2, is expressed. (23) Lipocalin allergens are usually present in hair dandruff.. Lipocalins are members of the calycin superfamily. Despite the diversity at the primary sequence level and a sequence identity often less than 20%, all lipocalins share a conserved folding pattern, a similar three-dimensional structure and one to three conserved regions: an 8-stranded ß-barrel flanked by an a-helix at the C-terminal end of the polypeptide chain. (3, 26) The central cavity of the lipocalin ß-barrel serves for the binding and transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol (retinol-binding protein), odorant molecules (bovine odorant-binding protein), and pheromones (as in mouse and rat: mouse major urinary protein, mMUP1, and rat urinary a2-globulin). (2). Although the overall amino acid identity between lipocalins is usually below 20%, in some cases the sequential identity over animal species can be well above 20%. For ...
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Metastasis, the spreading of cancer cells from a primary tumor to seed secondary tumors in distant sites, is the main cause of mortality in breast cancer patients (Oppenheimer, 2006). Recent studies suggest that EMT plays a central role in motility and dissemination of cancer cells (Thiery et al., 2009). This dynamic and reversible process is necessary for efficient metastatic colonization (Brabletz, 2012) and is regulated by several signaling cascades that activate specific transcription factors (Huber et al., 2005).. In this study, we show that the PtdIns-transfer protein Nir2 potentiates EMT in mammary cells (Fig. 3) and is required for lung metastasis of breast cancer cells (Fig. 6). Remarkably, the expression level of Nir2 is upregulated in response to EMT inducers (Fig. 3A), such as EGF and TGFβ, and is markedly enhanced in human breast cancer tissue (Fig. 7). These results introduce Nir2 as a new positive regulator of EMT and breast cancer metastasis. Indeed, depletion of Nir2 by shRNA ...
Jeal H, Draper A, Harris J, Taylor AN, Cullinan P, Jones M, Determination of the T cell epitopes of the lipocalin allergen, Rat n 1. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 Dec;34(12):1919-25 ...
Latest Plant Lipids Private Limited import data and Plant Lipids Private Limited export data along with the details of top 25 importers and exporters of similar products.
Analysis of the purified recombinant Gly m 4l protein.(A) The recombinant Gly m 4l protein induced with 0.5 mM IPTG at 37°C for 1-5 h in E.coli BL21 (DE3). (
Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant Gly m 4l protein.(A) The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant Gly m 4l protein against the hyphal growth of P. so
Ve srovn n ty zem zosob uj c ch Evropu se jako nejv t pij ci uk zali e i. V c ne p t polo ek si d t m ka d p t . V tomto ohledu pijeme v ce ne D nov .
As of today, applications for the specialization at the E&I Institute will be accepted again. The application deadline is September 6, 2020 at 23:59.
Dekubitus ili dekubitalni ulkus je oštećenje kože koje nastaje uslijed dugotrajnog povećanog pritiska na određeni dio tijela. Na nastanak dekubitusa djeluju endogeni i egzogeni čimbenici i unatoč raznim antidekubitalnim pomagalima dekubitus ostaje veliki zdravstvenosocijalni problem. Glavni uzrok dekubitusa je dugotrajni lokalni pritisak na predilekcijska mjesta gdje se on najčešće i pojavljuje. Dekubitus može nastati bez obzira na položaj u kojem se bolesnik nalazi. Bitno je procjenjivati predilekcijska mjesta za nastanak dekubitusa i učinjene postupke evidentirati u sestrinsku dokumentaciju služeći se skalama za dekubitus. Educirano osoblje i kvalitetna njega, kao glavni korak u prevenciji dekubitusa, uključuje i mobilizaciju pacijenata te aktivno i pasivno vježbanje u krevetu. Dekubitus je progresivni proces koji, ako se ne prevenira pritisak, može dovesti do teških oštećenja kože i/ili potkožnih struktura. Razlikujemo četiri stupnja dekubitusa. Prvi stupanj ...
1. Úvod do surdopedie - terminologie Obor, cíl, metody, mezioborové vztahy, předmět zájmu, vymezení základních pojmů 2. Historie péče o sluchově postižené Rozvoj institucí, ústavů a škol pro sluchově postižené, historický vývoj koncepcí vyučování, průkopníci vzdělávání neslyšících 16. 17. století, první ústavy 18. století, Milánský kongres, vývoj péče o sluchově postižené v českých zemích, vývoj metod práce se sluchově postiženými 3. Sluch Význam sluchu, anatomie sluchového analyzátoru, etiologie sluchového postižení, faktory negativně ovlivňující vývoj sluchového ústrojí, důsledky sluchové vady, psychologické zvláštnosti osobnosti sluchově postiženého 4. Diagnostika sluchových vad Klasifikace sluchových vad, diagnostika sluchových vad, objektivní a subjektivní sluchové zkoušky, screeningová vyšetření 5. Řeč sluchově postižených Ontogeneze řeči, stádia vývoje řeči u sluchově postižených, ...
Zajistíme profesionální syntézu oligonukleotidů pro laboratoře i soukromé osoby. Výrazně tak ušetříte při výzkumu jednovláknových molekul DNA. Kontaktuje BIOGEN Praha pro syntézu oligonukleotidů.
Procedure 2016/0279/COD. COM (2016) 595: Proposta di REGOLAMENTO DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO E DEL CONSIGLIO relativo alla scambio transfrontaliero tra lUnione e i paesi terzi di copie in formato accessibile di determinate opere e altro materiale protetto da diritto dautore e da diritti connessi, a beneficio delle persone non vedenti, con disabilità visive o con altre difficoltà nella lettura di testi a stampa. ...
Bet v 1l is a naturally occurring hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. The Bet v 1 protein belongs… Expand ...
One example of a diagnostic application of recombinant birch allergens is found in a study examining allergen-specific serum IgE antibodies using the recombinant allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4, as examined in birch-sensitive patients from the province of Cuneo, in northwestern Italy. It was reported that of 372 patients, 215 (58%) had serum IgE antibodies to Bet v 1, 166 (45%) to Bet v 2, and 35 (9%) to Bet v 4. Mono-sensitisation to Bet v 1 occurred in 146 (39%) of patients; in 96 (26%) to Bet v 2; and in only 4 (1%) to Bet v 4. Thirty-nine sera (11%) did not contain allergen-specific IgE antibodies to any of these three individual birch pollen allergens. All 372 sera (100%) had IgE antibodies against natural Birch pollen extract; 162 (44%) contained IgE antibodies reacting with Apple extract (75% of Bet v 1 positive sera). The study concluded that the 3 recombinant birch pollen allergens alone could identify 90% of birch pollen-sensitive patients (7 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Homology modeling and characterization of IgE binding epitopes of mountain cedar allergen Jun a 3. AU - Soman, Kizhake V.. AU - Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi. AU - Ferreon, Josephine C.. AU - Goldblum, Randall M.. AU - Brooks, Edward G.. AU - Kurosky, Alexander. AU - Braun, Werner. AU - Schein, Catherine H.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The Jun a 3 protein from mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen, a member of group 5 of the family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-proteins), reacts with serum IgE from patients with cedar hypersensitivity. We used the crystal structures of two other proteins of this group, thaumatin and an antifungal protein from tobacco, both ~50% identical in sequence to Jun a 3, as templates to build homology models for the allergen. The in-house programs EXDIS and FANTOM were used to extract distance and dihedral angle constraints from the Protein Data Bank files and determine energy-minimized structures. The mean backbone deviations for the energy-refined ...
This study intend to verify whether the different levels of severity of the clinical allergic reactions to peach are associated to sensitization towards different allergenic molecules of peach. In particular, we will analyze the reactivity towards the peach allergens Pru p 1, Pru p 3 and Pru p 4 and towards the birch pollen allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4. The patients (with allergic symptoms of any severity provoked by the consumption of peach) will be divided into two groups: the first group showing oral allergy syndrome (OAS), the second group showing systemic symptoms of different severity, up to anaphylaxis.. All the patients will be submitted to: complete clinical investigation; skin prick test with a panel of common food/inhalant commercial extracts; skin tests by the prick + prick method with fresh fruits and vegetables; skin prick test with purified peach LTP (Pru p 3) The sera of the patients will be used for: immunoblotting with peach extract and immunoblotting inhibition ...
In Northern and Central Europe, a considerable percentage of pollen and food allergies in adults is caused by allergenic proteins of the Bet v 1-family. This protein family whose name is derived from the major birch pollen allergen belongs to class 10 of the pathogenesis-related proteins (PR10 proteins). These proteins play a role in the immune system of the plant, but their precise physiological function has not been determined yet. Structural studies of members of the Bet v 1-family will not only provide new information regarding their physiological function, but are also an important prerequisite for the production of hypo-allergenic protein variants for immunotherapy. So far, the structures of three different Bet v 1-allergens have been solved. All of them show the typical Bet v 1-fold: a seven-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet and two short V-shaped alpha-helices which in combination with a long C-terminal alpha-helix form a hydrophobic cavity in the protein. During this work, the ...
Specific allergy vaccination is an efficient treatment for allergic disease; however, the development of safer vaccines would enable a more general use of the treatment. Determination of molecular structures of allergens and allergen-Ab complexes facilitates epitope mapping and enables a rational approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular surface area of Bet v 1 and is clearly conformational. A synthetic peptide representing a sequential motif in the epitope (11 of 16 residues) did not inhibit the binding of mAb BV16 to Bet v 1, illustrating limitations in the use of peptides for B cell epitope characterization. The single amino acid substitution, Glu(45)-Ser, was introduced in the epitope and completely abolished the binding of mAb ...
BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of theubiquitous PR-10 family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins. In recentyears, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity toBet v 1 was identified. In addition, determination of the Bet v 1structure revealed the existence of a large superfamily of structurallyrelated proteins. In this study, we aimed to identify and classify all Betv 1-related structures from the Protein Data Bank and all Bet v 1-relatedsequences from the Uniprot database. RESULTS: Structural comparisons ofrepresentative members of already known protein families structurallyrelated to Bet v 1 with all entries of the Protein Data Bank yielded 47structures with non-identical sequences. They were classified into elevenfamilies, five of which were newly identified and not included in theStructural Classification of Proteins database release 1.71. The taxonomicdistribution of these families extracted from the Pfam protein familydatabase ...
BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of theubiquitous PR-10 family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins. In recentyears, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity toBet v 1 was identified. In addition, determination of the Bet v 1structure revealed the existence of a large superfamily of structurallyrelated proteins. In this study, we aimed to identify and classify all Betv 1-related structures from the Protein Data Bank and all Bet v 1-relatedsequences from the Uniprot database. RESULTS: Structural comparisons ofrepresentative members of already known protein families structurallyrelated to Bet v 1 with all entries of the Protein Data Bank yielded 47structures with non-identical sequences. They were classified into elevenfamilies, five of which were newly identified and not included in theStructural Classification of Proteins database release 1.71. The taxonomicdistribution of these families extracted from the Pfam protein familydatabase ...
The mechanisms by which immune responses to nonpathogenic environmental antigens lead to either allergy or nonharmful immunity are unknown. Single allergen-specific T cells constitute a very small fraction of the whole CD4(+) T cell repertoire and can be isolated from the peripheral blood of humans according to their cytokine profile. Freshly purified interferon-gamma-, interleukin (IL)-4-, and IL-10-producing allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells display characteristics of T helper cell (Th)1-, Th2, and T regulatory (Tr)1-like cells, respectively. Tr1 cells consistently represent the dominant subset specific for common environmental allergens in healthy individuals; in contrast, there is a high frequency of allergen-specific IL-4-secreting T cells in allergic individuals. Tr1 cells use multiple suppressive mechanisms, IL-10 and TGF-beta as secreted cytokines, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 as surface molecules. Healthy and allergic individuals exhibit all three ...
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At first, one might think this is a sad story. Can someone actually be allergic to beer? Luckily, it has a happy ending. This tale of woe, comes to us from the journal Allergy. A sad man reported shortness of breath and skin rashes after drinking beer. At first, it sounds like an allergy to everyones favourite fermented beverage. A mans dreams of Oktoberfest debauchery might evaporate like the Angels share. Luckily a team of researchers at the Allergy Unit of the Faenza Hospital, in Italy took pity on this man and went all CSI on his immune system. Allergies to cereal products (i.e. beer) might be due to a nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP). With the vast variety of cereals used to make beer, the researchers proposed that only one kind of cereal might contain a LTP responsible for this allergy. This brave - allergic - soul was subject to a vast number of reaction inducing skin puncture tests. His skin was violated with all sorts of beer related allergens and 36 different commercial beer ...
In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, ...
Lipid Transfer Proteins (LTPs) are found in plants and foods that contain plants. Lipid Transfer Protein Syndrome is an allergy affecting people who have become sensitised to LTPs.
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Thinking about getting a Cavapoo and wondering if they are hypoallergenic? If so, you are not alone. One of my good friends is considering a Cavapoo and I put together this information together for her and though you would benefit from knowing the answer too! Are Cavapoos hypoallergenic? Cavapoos is a hypoallergenic dog breed based …
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The server allows users to present results of various approaches in a single HTML output page. It provides comprehensive information about the prediction that includes score, threshold, distance from threshold, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV). If the PPV is ,80%, then there is a high chance that the protein is a potential allergen. In case of BLAST search, if the query sequence matches with any ARP in the database, then the matched ARP is also shown. AlgPred also allows the mapping of IgE epitopes on allergenic proteins. The output of AlgPred has been shown in Figure 2. A result of hybrid model is shown in Figure 3, which is output of hybrid model. ...
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IgE mediated allergy to corn has been documented, in some cases, to relate to heat stable lipid transfer proteins from corn (e.g., Pastorello et al J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Oct;112(4):775-83). However, corn, like any food, is a collection of proteins and the complete array of corn proteins that may be responsible for allergic responses, presumably including labile proteins, has not been established. Based upon studies of other foods and allergens, we know that people may become sensitized to various combinations of proteins, and specific areas of proteins (epitopes), and that the specific pattern of response may be reflected in clinical outcomes. Some proteins of corn would presumably be more stable to processing (e.g., lipid transfer proteins) and digestion than others. Therefore, depending upon a persons corn allergy profile and the processing through which a corn ingredient went, one may predict clinical reactions would occur in some instances and not others. These variables, not ...
Action limits or threshold values for allergens are important to determine when it is appropriate to use a precautionary allergen statement.Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) has been developed to provide a risk based methodology for food producers to use in assessing the impact of allergen cross contact and provide appropriate precautionary allergen labelling (may-contain ...
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This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. The ligands ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... Upon ligand recognition, the plant PRRs transduce "PAMP-triggered immunity" (PTI). Plant immune systems also encode resistance ... PRRs were first discovered in plants. Since that time many plant PRRs have been predicted by genomic analysis (370 in rice; 47 ...
viral antigen plant". The Hindu. -. 26 November 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 11 January 2021.CS1 maint: others (link) ... IIL is the market leader in veterinary biologicals in India and operates one of the largest plants in the world for veterinary ... Ashland A Fortune 500 specialty chemicals company operates R&D lab and pilot plant space in Genome Valley. Envigo Envigo is a ... Innopolis offers leasing opportunities for wet / dry laboratory spaces, specialized office and pilot plant spaces for Life- ...
X-rays were first used to deliberately mutate plants in 1927. Between 1927 and 2007, more than 2,540 genetically mutated plant ... Gentner, B.; Naldini, L. (2012-11-01). "Exploiting microRNA regulation for genetic engineering". Tissue Antigens. 80 (5): 393- ... The first field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in France and the US in 1986, tobacco plants were engineered ... Hybridization was another way that rapid changes in plant's makeup were introduced. It often increased vigor in plants, and ...
Galasso, Incoronata (2016), "Variability in Seed Traits in a Collection of Cannabis sativa L. Genotypes", Frontiers in Plant ... as well as toxins or antigens as they enter the body). Edestin can also be broken down to edestan. Commercial hemp seeds (for ... Teresa Docimo (September 24, 2014). "Molecular characterization of edestin gene family in Cannabis sativa L". Plant Physiology ... "Immunological responses to Salmonella R antigens. The bacterial cell and the protein edestin as carriers for R oligosaccharide ...
The plant extract QS-21 is a liposome made up of plant saponins from Quillaja saponaria, the soap bark tree. It is a part of ... Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means the ... or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens." In the early days of ... No matter what the mechanism is, alum is not a perfect adjuvant because it does not work with all antigens (e.g. malaria and ...
A. kalrae secretes antigens with haemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Additionally, scientists use mice as animal model to study ... Arthrographis kalrae is capable of pathogenicity in animals (including humans) but not in plants. Most human isolates of A. ... LA, nagashima (2014). "Arthrographis Kalrae soluble antigens present hemolytic and cytotoxic actitvities". Comp Immunol ...
The antigen concentration can also vary significantly between individual fruits on a plant, individual plants, and between ... The dosage also varies due to the difficulty in standardizing the concentration of the antigen in the plant tissue; it can be ... The entire gene is inserted into a plant transformation vector to allow transcription or the epitope within the antigen is ... The plants take up the DNA, grow into new plants, then are cloned to produce large numbers of genetically identical crops. The ...
Specifically, plant on a chip is a miniaturized device in which pollen tissues and ovules could be incubated for plant sciences ... Immunoassay: detect bacteria, viruses and cancers based on antigen-antibody reactions. Ion channel screening (patch clamp) ... "A microsystem-based assay for studying pollen tube guidance in plant reproduction". J. Micromech. Microeng. 25 (5): 054018. ...
"Entrez Gene: COVA1 cytosolic ovarian carcinoma antigen 1". Morré, D. James; Morré, Dorothy M. (1998-11-01). "NADH oxidase ... 24 min". In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant. 37 (1): 19-23. doi:10.1007/s11627-001-0004-3. ISSN 1054-5476. PMID ... activity of soybean plasma membranes oscillates with a temperature compensated period of 24 min". The Plant Journal. 16 (3): ...
"Expression of a ScFv-E2T fusion protein in CHO-K1 cells and alfalfa transgenic plants for the selective directioning to antigen ... Dendritic cell vaccines combine dendritic cells with antigens in order to present the antigens to the body's white blood cells ... The idea of vaccine production via transgenic plants was identified as early as 2003. Plants such as tobacco, potato, tomato, ... Another example is the expression of a fusion protein in alfalfa transgenic plants for the selective directioning to antigen ...
Carnivorous Plant Database. Smythies, B.E. 1965. The distribution and ecology of pitcher-plants (Nepenthes) in Sarawak. UNESCO ... The effect of the Nepenthes alata extract on the cold agglutinin-associated antigens. Nihon Hōigaku Zasshi 45(1): 30-32. PMID ... Carnivorous Plant Newsletter 19(1-2): 19-28. Shivas, R.G. 1984. Pitcher Plants of Peninsular Malaysia & Singapore. Maruzen Asia ... Carnivorous Plants in the tropics, January 12, 2011. Robinson, A. 2012. Nepenthes merrilliana on Samar. Carnivorous Plants in ...
In breeding crop plants for horizontal resistance to their parasites, the disciplines of plant breeding, plant pathology, and ... The gene-for-gene relationship is an approximate botanical equivalent of antigens and antibodies in mammals. For each ... A plant pathosystem is one in which the host species is a plant. The parasite is any species in which the individual spends a ... It brings together various crop science disciplines such as entomology, nematology, plant pathology, and plant breeding. It ...
Li Y, Qi B (2017). "Progress toward Understanding Protein S-acylation: Prospective in Plants". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: ... These proteins are also potent antigens, and are in fact the main immunogens of these two species. Products of nonribosomal ... The plant chloroplast is capable of many of the same modifications that bacteria perform to proteolipids. One database for such ... Proteolipids are abundant in brain tissue, and are also present in many other animal and plant tissues. They are proteins ...
The same team who co-identified the Hepatitis A virus (HAV) developed the first assays that could measure the virus antigen and ... Hepatitis C virus shares amino acid sequence similarity with pestiviruses and flaviviruses as well as members of two plant ... detection by immune electron microscopy of a viruslike antigen associated with illness. Science. 182(4116): pgs. 1026-1028 " ...
Müntz K, Shutov AD (August 2002). "Legumains and their functions in plants". Trends in Plant Science. 7 (8): 340-4. doi:10.1016 ... Antigen presenting is a key role in activation of immune system. It has been discovered that AEP plays role in this critical ... "Biosynthesis of circular proteins in plants". The Plant Journal. 53 (3): 505-15. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313x.2007.03357.x. PMID ... In plant Oldenlandia affinis it generates antimicrobial cyclic peptides which are important for defence against pathogens in ...
It is a biennial plant,[78] a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris in the family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which ... It is a component of the antigens found on the surface of red blood cells that determine blood groups.[62] ... Table 1. Sugar content of selected common plant foods (g/100g)[72] Food item Total. carbohydrateA. including. dietary fiber ... Lactose is the only sugar that cannot be extracted from plants. It can only be found in milk, including human breast milk, and ...
In plants, variation for flooding stress tolerance correlated with stress-induced alternative splicing of transcripts ... post-translational protein splicing and other lessons from the school of antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Medicine. 83 ... Protein splicing has been observed in a wide range of organisms, including bacteria, archaea, plants, yeast and humans. cDNA ... Plant Physiology. 172 (2): 668-89. doi:10.1104/pp.16.00472. PMC 5047075. PMID 27208254. Hanada K, Yang JC (June 2005). "Novel ...
Detecting antigens is yet another way to diagnose the disease. This can be done with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) ... Many treatment plants that take raw water from rivers, lakes, and reservoirs for public drinking water production use ... Antibodies in the serum of humans and animals infected with Cryptosporidium parvum react with several antigens, one of which is ... Equipment failures at the city's antiquated water filtration plant following maintenance were found to have caused the outbreak ...
Plant microtechnique is also a study providing valuable experimental information. Plant microtechnique involves classical ... This method can preserve the immune activity of various antigens well. Both fresh tissue and fixed tissue can be frozen. ... Main article: Histology Since few plant tissues have a color, there is little chromatically difference between plant tissues ... 69-89, doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0118-9_2, ISBN 9781468401189 "Plant Anatomy_Free Hand Sectioning , Microscope , Plant Stem". ...
When two plants share the same incompatibility allele, they are unable to mate. Thus, a plant with a new (and therefore, rare) ... The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is involved in the recognition of foreign antigens and cells. Frequency-dependent ... Another example is plant self-incompatibility alleles. ...
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) controls GM plants that produce or resist pesticides (i.e. Bt corn and Roundup ... Disease in humans can come from biological hazards in the form of infection by bacteria, antigens, viruses, or parasites. ... Pesticides, which are normally used to control unwanted insects and plants, may cause a variety of negative effects on non- ... Many biological hazards are associated with food, including certain viruses, parasites, fungi, bacteria, and plant and seafood ...
In immunology, an MHC pentamer is a reagent used to detect antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. penta prefix -mer suffix Pentamerous ... Metamorphosis, an album by Global Communication Pentamery (botany), having five parts in a distinct whorl of a plant structure ...
VLPs derived from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and composed of the small HBV derived surface antigen (HBsAg) were described in ... Santi L, Huang Z, Mason H (September 2006). "Virus-like particles production in green plants". Methods. 40 (1): 66-76. doi: ... RTS,S is a portion of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein fused to the Hepatitis B surface antigen (RTS), ... Bayer ME, Blumberg BS, Werner B (June 1968). "Particles associated with Australia antigen in the sera of patients with ...
... and manufacturing plants. It will also look at improving manufacturing of Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T cells). ... The plant ceased operation in 1996. A follow-up study from the 1996-2000 period indicated that while there were more cancer ... Dalton, Rex (1 November 2003). "Syngenta ends plant-research deal with Berkeley". Nature. 426 (6964): 216. Bibcode:2003Natur. ... a fire broke out in a production plant storage room, which led to the Sandoz chemical spill and a large amount of pesticide ...
"Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". ... The sequence of PCNA is well conserved between plants, animals and fungi, indicating a strong selective pressure for structure ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843. ... "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin ...
Inhabits the fruit of tomato plants. This species has antigens that are very similar to some antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi, the ... Within a host plant, Phytomonas exhibits a fusiform structure twisted 2-5 times along the longitudinal axis. Within the plant, ... It was found that T. cruzi shares some antigens with P. serpens, and that these antigens could be recognized by rabbit and ... In English, the term phyto- means plant, and comes from the Greek term for plant, phuton. The suffix -monas means "unicellular ...
The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ... ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, plant pathology, and biotechnology, as well as a quality control check in ... The antigen-containing sample is applied to the plate, and captured by antibody. The plate is washed to remove unbound antigen ... Since it is necessary to remove any unbound antibody or antigen by washing, the antibody or antigen has to be fixed to the ...
The PSI is a domain exclusively found in plants, consisting of approximately 100 residues and found in plant aspartic proteases ... Saposins are a class of proteins involved in sphingolipid catabolism and antigen presentation of lipids in humans. Chris ... This repeat suggests a mechanism for the evolution of the relationship with the plant-specific insert (PSI). ... Ponting and Robert Russell identified a circularly permuted version of a saposin inserted into plant aspartic proteinase, which ...
"First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... a rapid antigen test which gives results in 15 minutes was approved for use by WHO.[101] It is able to confirm Ebola in 92% of ... Plants, arthropods, rodents, and birds have also been considered possible viral reservoirs.[1][29] ...
Plants - berry and juices questions.[edit]. Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries roughly have the same lifespan, they ... I've gotten the vaccine so I don't know how good antigen tests would be. Also, home test kits have high error rates. Imagine ... similar to hydroelectric power plant? Or would the costs of maintaining the superfluidity be too high? (talk) 14 ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... ornamental plants and perennial groundcover (about a quarter), and lawns (about 30 times less).[130] Ixodes larvae and nymphs ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in people have been identified in Colombia,[237] and Bolivia.[citation needed] ...
In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... Outside of plants and vertebrates, a much broader diversity of Rad51 recombinase paralog proteins exists. In budding yeast, ...
Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are about 2000-4000 copies per virion. ... Plant virus (Plant to Human). *Animal virus. *Human virome. Other. *Viral disease ...
... as an antigen, Richard F. J. Pfeiffer introduced it in the abdomen of a guinea pig already vaccinated against this disease, and ... Bernard's posthumous essay regarding the nature of the agents implicated in some transformations that happen inside plants, ... and they deduced that it can play the role of antigen, that is if they could overcome the delicate moment of its injection, ...
It is the main immune system found in plants, fungi, insects, and in primitive multicellular organisms.[2][3] The system is not ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... Innate immune systems rapidly defend against infections in all plant and animal life.[2] The innate system is the ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ...
Regulation of plant growthEdit. In plants, signaling by auxins, or phytohormones that order the direction and tropism of plant ... Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Dharmasiri S, Estelle M (2002). "The role of regulated protein degradation in auxin response". Plant Molecular Biology. 49 (3-4 ... Sadanandom A, Bailey M, Ewan R, Lee J, Nelis S (October 2012). "The ubiquitin-proteasome system: central modifier of plant ...
Most plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals sent throughout a plant. Plants use pattern-recognition receptors ... Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Plants[edit]. Main article: Plant disease resistance § Immune system. Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans ... and insects can all cause plant disease. As with animals, plants attacked by insects or other pathogens use a set of complex ...
2. In botany, the property of a plant or plant part that is attached directly by its base to an object or another plant part, i ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... A type of plant tissue responsible for the transport of water from roots to aerial parts of the plant.. ... Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are not used for ...
"Transgenic plants of Nicotiana tabacum L. express aglycosylated monoclonal antibody with antitumor activity". Biotecnologia ... It is the presence or absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what ...
1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... "Assessment of endogenous allergenicity of genetically modified plants exemplified by soybean - Where do we stand?" (PDF). Food ... Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ...
... and many West Africans lack the Duffy antigen - a protein on the surface of the red blood cell that the parasite uses to invade ... Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. Fungi). Acavomonidia. Acavomonadea ...
In order to be a match for a kidney transplant, patients must match blood type and human leukocyte antigen factors with their ... Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 65 (1): 77-82. doi:10.1007/s11130-009-0149-5. ISSN 1573-9104. PMID ...
... plant cells do not terminally differentiate, remaining totipotent with the ability to give rise to a new individual plant. ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... While plants do utilise many of the same epigenetic mechanisms as animals, such as chromatin remodeling, it has been ... miRNAs regulate a large variety of biological functions in plants and animals.[64] So far, in 2013, about 2000 miRNAs have been ...
Discoveries that revealed an unanticipated world of tiny RNAs that regulate gene function in plants and animals.[32] ... cells-the preeminent component of the immune system that initiates and regulates the body's response to foreign antigens.[34] ...
Judge Fletcher suggested that preservatives found in the blood on the tan T-shirt indicated that it may have been planted ( ... and when Judge Huff did order retesting she limited the testing to hairs that were proven not to have Antigen roots ( ... 7] Some argue that Gregonis planted Cooper's blood in order to ensure a positive result.[7] ... Judge Fletcher writes, "Some of those cigarette butts could have easily been planted in the car. Moreover, after initial ...
If one of these new forms of an antigen is sufficiently different from the old antigen, it will no longer bind to the receptors ... Two processes drive the antigens to change: antigenic drift[1][2] and antigenic shift, antigenic drift being the more common. ... In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.[4] The ... A. W. Hampson (2002). "Influenza virus antigens and antigenic drift". In C. W. Potter. Influenza. Elsevier Science B. V. pp. 49 ...
... surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is thought to be non-structural. Its function and ... Plant virus (Plant to Human). *Animal virus. *Human virome. *Archea virus. *Amoeba virus ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Most microorganisms and plants can biosynthesize all 20 standard amino acids, while animals (including humans) must obtain some ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ... Dogs and cats digest animal proteins better than those from plants but products of low-quality animal origin are poorly ...
The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been called the "Rosetta Stone of flowering time".[90] A Gamma ray burst (GRB) ... Fully understanding the key set of genes to the human leucocyte antigen has been described as "the Rosetta Stone of immunology ...
Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are too large to remain airborne and pose no risk. Examples of plants commonly responsible ... A major antigen in these is a protein called Bet V I. Olive pollen is most predominant in Mediterranean regions. Hay fever in ... Allergic rhinitis triggered by the pollens of specific seasonal plants is commonly known as "hay fever", because it is most ... Pollen grains from a variety of plants, enlarged 500 times and about 0.4 mm wide. ...
GalNAc and α-D-GalNAc-Ser/Thr (Tn-antigen) WFA Wisteria floribunda vistárie mnohokvětá koncové GalNAc (např. β-D-GalNAc-(1-4)- ... A new type of beta-propeller architecture formed by oligomerization and interacting with fucoside, fucosyllactose, and plant ... β-D-Gal-(1-3)-α-D-GalNAc-Ser/Thr (T-antigen) ... Biological effects of plant lectins.... *World of Lectin links ... recognition of high mannose-type N-glycans produced by plants and yeast."Glycoconj J. 2005 Nov;22(7-9):453-61. ...
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... ATIs are part of the plant's natural defense against insects and may cause toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal ...
Alternatively, these plants may serve to capture and control sand flies by using their odor compounds or the plants themselves ... immunodiagnosis of parasite antigen; 3. detection of parasite DNA in tissue. Newer PCR based tools have higher sensitivity and ... Studies conducted in recent years show that the plant Bougainvillea glabra may protect against the sand fly . The plant was ... Hebrew University study found that some plants attract sand flies. These plants often attract sand flies up to 14 times more ...
A study from Hokkaido University found a homology between the Hemagglutinin antigen amino acid residues found in the earlier ... that the virus may be the product of three strains from three continents that swapped genes in a lab or a vaccine-making plant ...
... plants, candy and crafts. Tovar also produces quality wooden casks, which are famous in and out of the mountain. Los colonieros ... "Tissue Antigens. 62 (5): 401-407. ISSN 0001-2815.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output . ...
The Hrp system in plant pathogens inject harpins and pathogen effector proteins through similar mechanisms into plants. This ... One such mechanism to detect low calcium concentration has been illustrated by the lcrV (Low Calcium Response) antigen utilized ... Since then, Type VI secretion systems have been found in a quarter of all proteobacterial genomes, including animal, plant, ... which uses this system to introduce the T-DNA portion of the Ti plasmid into the plant host, which in turn causes the affected ...
Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the s gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacteriummediated ... The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants ... Mason HS, Lam DMK, Arntzen CJ (1992) Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89: ... Richter LJ, Thanavala Y, Arntzen CJ, Mason HS (2000) Production of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants for oral ...
What is Antigens, plant? Meaning of Antigens, plant as a finance term. What does Antigens, plant mean in finance? ... plant in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Antigens, plant financial definition of Antigens, plant ... plant. (redirected from Antigens, plant). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Plant. The assets of a ...
Characterization of Antiserum against Plant-Derived DIII Antigen. Antisera obtained at week 11 from mice of the 25 μg plant- ... A Plant-Produced Antigen Elicits Potent Immune Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice. Junyun He,1 Li Peng,1 Huafang Lai,1 ... For example, we used nontransgenic N. benthamiana plants for DIII production in this study. As a result, the wild-type plant ... Plant-Produced DIII Elicits Potent Systemic Immune Response in Mice. To evaluate the immunogenicity of plant-derived DIII, BALB ...
Thus, the plant short-patch base excision repair (short-patch BER) pathway must differ considerably from that in mammals. We ... In plants, there are no DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and DNA ligase III (Lig3) genes. ... Characterization of plant XRCC1 and its interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen Planta. 2008 May;227(6):1233-41. ... In plants, there are no DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and DNA ligase III (Lig3) genes. Thus, the plant short-patch base ...
GH human Recombinant produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plant is a single chain containing 205 amino acids (molecular formula ... GH human Recombinant produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plant is a single chain containing 205 amino acids (molecular formula C ...
Furthermore, the plant-expressed antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicityin mice fed the transgenic plants. After oral ... Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens: Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result ... Antigen production, Arabidopsis thaliana, Rift valley fever virus, Plant vaccine, Transformation National Category Immunology ... Here, we report the expression in transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) of Rift Valley fever virusantigens. The antigens ...
For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that ... The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for ... The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for ... while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong ...
Plant-based systems can be a safe and cost-effective alternative for the production of dengue virus antigens. In this work, two ... Plant-based systems can be a safe and cost-effective alternative for the production of dengue virus antigens. In this work, two ... The generated plant made NS1, even without extensive purification, showed potential to be used for the development of the NS1 ... Interestingly, it was found that transient production of NS1-ER and NS1 ELP-ER using vacuum infiltration of whole plants, which ...
Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties Anne-Marie Bruyns, Geert De Jaeger, Myriam ... Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties. ISSN:. 0014-5793. Author:. Bruyns, Anne- ... "Bacterial and Plant-produced scFv Proteins Have Similar Antigen-binding Properties." FEBS LETTERS 386.1 (1996): 5-10. Print. ... "Bacterial and Plant-produced scFv Proteins Have Similar Antigen-binding Properties." Febs Letters 386 (1): 5-10. ...
Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity ... Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity ... We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. The results show that tandem core ... retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. This technology paves the way for the display of natively folded proteins ...
Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene.. S Kosugi, Y Ohashi ... The Plant Cell Sep 1997, 9 (9) 1607-1619; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.9.9.1607 ... The Plant Cell Sep 1997, 9 (9) 1607-1619; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.9.9.1607 ...
Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL) were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction ... This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human ... bacterial antigens) for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE) or aqueous extracts (AE) for 20 h. The secretion of four ... There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional ...
Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (A) Recognition of ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 by three different ... Figure 4: Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (A) Recognition of ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 by three ... Figure 4: Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (A) Recognition of ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 by three ... Plant purified TG2 recognition was also assayed by Western Blot (Figure 4C) confirming that the full-length ER- and vac-TG2 ...
Production of protective antigens in transgenic plants, or "pharming," is a promising emerging approach, and a zoonosis-like TB ... Pharmaceutical proteins in plants: A strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens. ... component is aimed at assessing the production efficacy and stability of the TB antigens in different compartments of the plant ...
Plant Biology. Chimeric plants-the best of both worlds. *. Working Life. Building bridges ...
Plant Biology. Chimeric plants-the best of both worlds. *. Working Life. Building bridges ... Engineering γδT cells limits tonic signaling associated with chimeric antigen receptors. *View ORCID ProfileJonathan Fisher1,2 ... Engineering γδT cells limits tonic signaling associated with chimeric antigen receptors. By Jonathan Fisher, Roshan Sharma, ... Engineering γδT cells limits tonic signaling associated with chimeric antigen receptors. By Jonathan Fisher, Roshan Sharma, ...
Plant Pathology. Plant nutrient acquisition entices herbivore. *. Working Life. The universe in a classroom ... Binding of CRP thus serves as a marker for antigen-reactive (-reacted) as opposed to mitogen-reative (-reacted) T cells, ... Binding of C-reactive protein to antigen-induced but not mitogen-induced T lymphoblasts ... Binding of C-reactive protein to antigen-induced but not mitogen-induced T lymphoblasts ...
Plant Pathology. Plant nutrient acquisition entices herbivore. *. Working Life. The universe in a classroom ... Bosch et al. developed monoclonal antibodies to detect viral nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein antigens specific to dengue and Zika ... A low-cost, equipment-free rapid antigen test distinguishes dengue virus serotypes and Zika virus in patient sera without ... A low-cost, equipment-free rapid antigen test distinguishes dengue virus serotypes and Zika virus in patient sera without ...
Plant Pathology. Plant nutrient acquisition entices herbivore. *. Working Life. The universe in a classroom ... Lymphocyte motility is vital for trafficking within lymphoid organs and for initiating contact with antigen-presenting cells. ... Two-Photon Imaging of Lymphocyte Motility and Antigen Response in Intact Lymph Node ... Two-Photon Imaging of Lymphocyte Motility and Antigen Response in Intact Lymph Node ...
The PMB-antigen conjugates successfully recruited the antibodies found in human serum, giving an indication that they may be ... Antibiotic-Antigen Conjugates Bring Immunotherapy to Deadly Bacteria. July 9, 2018. 0 ... Several promising antibiotic-antigen conjugate leads have been developed by scientists based at Lehigh University. These ... The scientists then followed up on these efforts by assembling antibiotic-antigen conjugates against gram-negative bacteria. ...
Plants are locked in an ancient arms race with hostile viruses, but genome editing is giving crops the upper hand. ... Researchers Learn from Plant Viruses to Protect Crops. By Claire Asher , February 1, 2018 ...
"Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development". Plant Cell. 14 ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic ... PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the ... "Entrez Gene: PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Leonardi E, Girlando S, Serio G, Mauri FA, Perrone G, Scampini S, Dalla ...
... gut antigens, dauer larva biology, synteny cloning, genome sequencing, evolution of plant parasitism, the nervous system and ... Evolution of plant parasitism. Plant nematology will benefit from immediate investigation of the evolution of plant parasitism ... Implications of sequencing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans genome for plant nematology.. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: ... The C. elegans genome sequence will allow molecular plant nematologists to enumerate presence/absence of plant parasitism- ...
... ... Pectate lyase activity was detected from plant extracts, suggesting the cause of severe necrotic reaction in plants. ... Future development of plant virus expression vectors needs to focus on the most important economic hosts, namely cereals and ... Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) is a species of the group Potexvirus, which infects cereal plants. A new viral vector series named ...
Prostate Specific Antigen [PSA]. PSA blood test is specific to prostate gland but not necessarily a cancer specific test but is ... The study published online in Precision Oncology demonstrates how the plant-based chemicals work together. The research team ... Compounds found in plants have anti-cancer properties * Turmeric, apple peel, and red grapes contain compounds that prevent the ... The team concluded that the plant-based chemicals blocked the uptake of a nutrient needed by prostate cancer cells with ...
... and malaria vaccine antigen (Pfs25), produced in the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii. To achieve a higher production of ... Plant J. 2002, 30, 733-744. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Gregory, J.A.; Topol, A.B.; Doerner, D.Z.; Mayfield, S.P. ... Plant Biotechnol. J. 2010, 8, 719-733. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Tran, M.; Van, C.; Barrera, D.J.; Pettersson, P.L ... Plant Biotechnol. J. 2007, 5, 402-412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]. *Surzycki, R.; Greenham, K.; Kitayama, K.; Dibal, ...
Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in China and Europe, has long been used as a … ... The HSV antigen increased time-dependently in the infected cells, and PPV reduced its expression. The effective concentrations ... Prunella vulgaris L. (Labiatae), a perennial plant commonly found in China and Europe, has long been used as a folk medicine to ... The novelty of PPV is that it also reduces the antigen expression of acyclovir-resistant strain of HSV-1. After incubations ...
Tandem Fusion of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Allows Assembly of Virus-Like Particles in Bacteria and Plants with Enhanced Capacity ... Tandem Fusion of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Allows Assembly of Virus-Like Particles in Bacteria and Plants with Enhanced Capacity ... Tandem Fusion of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Allows Assembly of Virus-Like Particles in Bacteria and Plants with Enhanced Capacity ...
Special issue on plant cell biology. Weve just published our special issue focussing on plant cell biology - check out the ... Building a plant cell wall. In their Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, Staffan Persson and colleagues ... Chasing Calcium in plant peroxisomes. In their research article, Francisco Corpas and Juan Barroso reveal the importance of ... In this interview, our Special Issues guest editor Jenny Russinova discusses her excitement for plant cell biology and what ...
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of ... antigen A Dictionary of Plant Sciences © A Dictionary of Plant Sciences 1998, originally published by Oxford University Press ... Antigen World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Antigen. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins ...
  • Higher monoclonal antibody binding of 67.87% of the antigen was observed when it was expressed with a C-terminal ER retention signal. (
  • Further analysis revealed that plant-produced DIII was processed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-DIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope. (
  • After oral intake of fresh transgenic plant material, a proportionof the mice elicited specific IgG antibody responses, as compared to the control animals that were fedwild-type plants and of which none sero-converted. (
  • A gene encoding a single-chain variable (scFv) antibody fragment was expressed as a cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum-targeted protein in transgenic tobacco plants, In both cases, the scFv accu. (
  • Antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or monoclonal antibody termed Ki-67 can be used for grading of different neoplasms, e.g. astrocytoma. (
  • The possibility of producing complex and diverse therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, antibody conjugates and vaccine antigens, in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been reported [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (
  • in 1951 and is named after a patient (Mrs Kidd delivered a baby with a haemolytic disease of the newborn associated with an antibody directed against a new antigen Jk (a). (
  • Although T cells are presumed to be the critical mediators of graft-versus-leukemia, our previous studies have shown that DLI initiates a complex immune response that includes a potent antibody response to a variety of leukemia-associated antigens ( 16 ). (
  • Using established methods for serological identification of tumor antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning (SEREX) ( 17 , 18 ) we identified a panel of 13 leukemia-associated antigens that were recognized by high titer antibody 1 year after response to DLI. (
  • The cellular basis of immunity and the mechanisms of antigen-antibody interactions are included. (
  • Immunohistochemistry: Lewis A Blood Group Antigen Antibody (7LE) [NB500-525] - Staining of human colon adenocarcinoma (paraffin-embedded sections) with anti-Blood Group Lewis a (7LE). (
  • The antibody 7LE recognizes Lewisa blood group antigen, a carbohydrate determinant carried on both glycolipids and glycoproteins, expressed in colonic epithelial cells. (
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Lewis A Blood Group Antigen Antibody (NB500-525). (
  • Actin1 Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Actin1 in Plant samples. (
  • This mouse monoclonal antibody was generated against plant actin ACT8 and recognizes all tested subclasses of plant actins (arabidopsis ACT1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12) and Dictyosetelium actin. (
  • Transgenic plants expressing a functional single-chain Fv antibody are specifically protected from virus attack," Nature, vol. 366, pp. 469-472, Dec. 2, 1993. (
  • The C-terminal KDEL sequence increases the expression level of a single-chain antibody designed to be targeted to both the cytosol and the secretory pathway in transgenic tobacco," Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 30, pp. 781-793, 1996. (
  • Characterization of recombinant scFv antibody reactive with an apical antigen of Eimeria acervulina," Biotechnology Letters, vol. 23, No. 12, pp. 949-955, Jun. (
  • Fusion proteins comprising a Fusarium-specific antibody linked to antifungal peptides protect plants against a fungal pathogen", Nature Biotechnology, 22(6):Jun. (
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (
  • The gels are blotted onto nitrocellulose and treated with a monoclonal antibody against SV40 T antigen or against the tumor suppressor p53. (
  • Antibody made in response to a foreign red cell antigen is usually not harmful but does require subsequent transfusions to be antigen-negative. (
  • Monoclonal Anti-Actin (plant) antibody recognizes actin in several plant species including Dictyostelium . (
  • Monoclonal Anti-Actin (plant) antibody is suitable for use in western blot (1-2 μg/mL using corn leaves extracts), indirect ELISA and immunohistochemistry. (
  • The next time the same antigen contacts the body, a full-scale immune response is not needed as the body already has a specific antibody available instantly for that antigen. (
  • Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity to accommodate foreign proteins. (
  • Several vaccine antigens, including Norwalk virus capsid protein and hepatitis B core antigen, were expressed using the BeYDV vector at levels up to 1 mg per g of leaf mass. (
  • Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an immunogenic protein that assembles into 30 or 34 nm diameter VLPs. (
  • We have constructed a recombinant viral vector based on potato X virus that provides for expression in the Nicotiana benthamiana plants of a hybrid protein M2eHBc consisting of an extracellular domain of influenza virus M2 protein (M2e) fused to hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). (
  • Cramer CL, Boothe JG, Oishi KK (1999) Transgenic plants for therapeutic proteins: linking upstream and down stream strategies. (
  • Expression systems based on plants may provide solutions to overcome these challenges, because they provide highly scalable production of recombinant proteins at low cost and have a low risk of introducing adventitious human or animal viruses or prions [ 11 , 12 ]. (
  • The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for the development of diagnostic and protection/therapy tools to be quickly manufactured, at low cost and with minimal risk, to face potential new highly infectious SARS-CoV outbreaks. (
  • Interestingly, it was found that transient production of NS1-ER and NS1 ELP-ER using vacuum infiltration of whole plants, which is easier to scale up, rather than syringe infiltration of leaves, greatly improved the accumulation of NS1 proteins. (
  • Bruyns A-M, De Jaeger G, De Neve M, De Wilde C, Van Montagu M, Depicker A. Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties. (
  • Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody) retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. (
  • These results confirmed the usefulness of plant-produced TG2 to develop screening assays.In conclusion, the combination of subcellular sorting strategy with co-expression with a PB inducing construct was sufficient to increase TG2 protein yields.This type of approach could be extended to other problematic proteins, highlighting the advantages of plant based production platforms. (
  • This type of approach could be extended to other problematic proteins, highlighting the advantages of plant based production platforms. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of white blood cells. (
  • Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, another gene was identified (HLA-D). With the advent of molecular technology beginning in the 1980s, more genes that code for proteins that function in the antigen complex have continued to be identified. (
  • The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) are proteins found in the Kidd's blood group, which act as antigens, i.e., they have the ability to produce antibodies under certain circumstances. (
  • Biological aerosols carrying antigenic proteins, such as pollen grains or plant-derived paucimicronic components, can produce allergic symptoms. (
  • Geminiviruses such as bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) have a small, single stranded DNA genome that replicates in the nucleus of an infected plant cell, using the cellular DNA synthesis apparatus and a virus-encoded replication initiator protein (Rep). BeYDV-derived expression vectors contain deletions of the viral genes encoding coat and movement proteins and insertion of an expression cassette for a protein of interest. (
  • This spike fragment resembles the bacterial toxins known as super antigens-proteins that generate excessive reaction from T cells, a vital member of the immune system. (
  • GMO examples: potato plants encoded with immunogenic proteins of Newcastle Disease Virus. (
  • Serum precipitins to a standard commercial antigen panel (including bacteria, fungi, and avian proteins that have been associated with HP in other settings) were negative in the two workers who were tested. (
  • Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the ' s ' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. (
  • cDNA sequence analysis of a 29-kDa cysteine-rich surface antigen of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. (
  • A 29-kDa protein was identified as a surface antigen when mAbs were used to immunoprecipitate the antigen from metabolically 35S-labeled live trophozoites. (
  • The O antigen is a major surface antigen present in gram-negative bacteria, and it is responsible for serological diversity. (
  • A potato has been engineered which expresses hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • Expression of recombinant vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies using plant viral vectors has developed extensively during the past several years. (
  • Here, we report the expression in transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) of Rift Valley fever virusantigens. (
  • Brassicaceae) tissue cultures, recognizes an antigen in the Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) ecotype Columbia that is associated specifically with the plasma membrane of sieve elements, but not companion cells, and accumulates at the earliest stages of sieve element differentiation. (
  • The identity of the RS6 antigen was revealed by reverse transcription-PCR of Arabidopsis leaf RNA using degenerate primers to be an early nodulin (ENOD)-like protein that is encoded by the expressed gene At3g20570 . (
  • Recognizes subclasses 4 and 5 of vegetative plant actins (arabidopsis ACT1, 3, 4, 12). (
  • AtPex16p in peroxisomes of Arabidopsis plants. (
  • The goal of this laboratory exercise is to provide a laboratory experience for undergraduates, in which they apply fundamental genetic principles to the study of a complex developmental process, specifically, root cell shape determination in the simple plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were recognized by three anti-TG2 monoclonal antibodies that bind different epitopes proving that plant-produced antigen has immunochemical characteristics similar to those of human TG2. (
  • In addition to their use in blood grouping, these monoclonal antibodies can be of use in defining the hereditary background (heterogenicity) and structure of the red cell antigen . (
  • A carrot has been engineered to express a Hepatitis B antigen. (
  • An edible hepatitis B antigen vaccine has been developed for maize. (
  • Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is an effective therapy for select lymphomas. (
  • We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. (
  • bacterial antigens) for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE) or aqueous extracts (AE) for 20 h. (
  • 1998). Other comparisons of bacterial, yeast, nematode, plant, mouse and human genomes will reveal unique and surprising aspects of the genetic make-up of organisms. (
  • Several of the identified T-cell epitopes share similarity with common bacterial and viral antigens, suggesting the involvement of pre-existing microbial cross-reactive T cells in rapid and durable tumour regression seen in some patients. (
  • The role that K antigen plays in sensitivity to this phage is unknown, but in a simple model the K antigen would act as a ligand for a receptor on the phage particle. (
  • This study shows that human and mouse T lymphocytes express AMPKα1 and that this is rapidly activated in response to triggering of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). (
  • The development of immunoglobulin receptor repertoire sequencing methods makes it possible to perform repertoire-wide disease association studies of antigen receptor sequences. (
  • The recombinant rice XRCC1 (OsXRCC1) protein binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as well as double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and also interacts with rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (OsPCNA) in a pull-down assay. (
  • PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. (
  • We have previously defined the promoter elements, sites IIa and IIb, in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene that are essential for meristematic tissue-specific expression. (
  • New viral vectors for the expression of antigens and antibodies in plants. (
  • This vector was introduced into plant cells by infiltrating leaves with agrobacteria carrying the viral vector. (
  • Knowing the "self" antigen allows the immune system to rapidly distinguish foreign antigens. (
  • The two classes of histocompatibility molecules allow an organism to in essence establish an inventory of what cells are "self" and to expose foreign antigens to the immune system so that antibodies to these antigens can be made. (
  • In: Hammond J, Mc Garvey P, Yusibov V (eds) Current topics in microbiology and immunology, plant biotechnology: new products and applications, vol 240. (
  • In this project we have put together partners covering methods of antigen production in plants (tobacco plants, Bioforsk/Max Planck Institute), a leading research group in nanoparticle formulation (Langer ́s group at MIT, USA), and two fish immunology/vaccinology groups (NMBU/UIT). (
  • This study provided the proof of principle for rapidly producing immunogenic vaccine candidates against WNV in plants with low cost and scalability. (
  • Thus, we show that transgenic plants can be readily used to express and produce Rift Valley Fever virusproteins, and that the plants are immunogenic when given orally to mice. (
  • These findings suggest that CML66 may be immunogenic in a wide variety of malignancies and may be a target for antigen-specific immunotherapy. (
  • The implementation of extensive screening tests is indispensable to control this disease, and the Dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a promising antigen for the serological diagnosis of dengue fever. (
  • Plant-based systems can be a safe and cost-effective alternative for the production of dengue virus antigens. (
  • This report describes a tumor-associated antigen, termed CML66, initially cloned from a chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cDNA expression library. (
  • On immunohistochemical study, tumor cells exhibited characteristics of mesenchymal and endothelial origin, i.e., strong to moderate immune reactivity against vimentin, factor VIII-related antigen (F8RA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin type 1 lectin (UEA-1), and CD 34, but not against keratin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) or S-100 protein (S100). (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Antigens, Tumor-Associated Antigens and Cancer Therapy. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Antigens, Tumor-Associated Antigens and Cancer Therapy are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICATAACT 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Antigens, Tumor-Associated Antigens and Cancer Therapy . (
  • PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Previously isolated mutants defective in the synthesis of K antigen are resistant to bacteriophage φ16-3. (
  • By screening ca. 100,000 Tn 5 -mutagenized R. meliloti bacteria for resistance to bacteriophage φ16-3, we isolated 119 mutants, 31 of which could not be complemented by genes previously identified as being required for K-antigen synthesis. (
  • Although all of these mutants lack the K antigen, many also have altered lipopolysaccharides (LPS), suggesting that the biochemical pathways for the synthesis of K antigen and LPS have common enzymatic steps. (
  • Our studies have identified new classes of genes required for both the synthesis of K antigen and the symbiotic proficiency of S. meliloti AK631. (
  • We therefore reasoned that resistance to phage φ16-3 could be used as a powerful selection factor in isolating additional mutations in genes required for the synthesis of K antigen. (
  • Screening for mutations in genes involved in K-antigen synthesis by selecting for mutants with resistance to phage φ16-3. (
  • Genes involved in O-antigen synthesis and downstream assembly map to the rfb locus located between the galF and gnd genes in many Enterobacteriaceae . (
  • The hybrid protein M2eHBc was synthesized in the infected N. benthamiana plants in an amount reaching 1-2% of the total soluble protein and formed virus-like particles with the M2e peptide presented on the surface. (
  • 7. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a soluble antigen. (
  • His symptoms were temporally related to working in an area of the plant where soluble machining oils -- a type of MWF -- were used. (
  • In plants, there are no DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) and DNA ligase III (Lig3) genes. (
  • However, the fact that none of these genes were predicted to be glycosyltransferases, as have been found in the succinoglycan ( 5 , 6 , 14 ) and EPS II ( 1 ) biosynthetic regions, suggested that there must be additional genetic loci that encode functions required for K-antigen biosynthesis. (
  • Within this panel of antigens, 11 represented known genes and two represented genes that had not previously been identified. (
  • Such transgenic plants will express alien genes, virtually from any organism, provided the genes are flanked by appropriate controlling elements. (
  • About one-half of the 23 predicted plant PEX genes have been shown via subcellular localizations and/or reverse genetics experiments to code for actual peroxin homologs of yeast or mammalian peroxins. (
  • GH human Recombinant produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plant is a single chain containing 205 amino acids (molecular formula C 1025 H 1570 N 280 O 306 S 7 ) and 6-His-tag at the N-terminal having the total molecular mass of 22.9kDa. (
  • In this work, a transient expression system for the production of human TG2 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves was optimized and reactivity of plant-produced TG2 in CD screening test was evaluated. (
  • Indeed, virus-specific and 'orphan' vaccine candidates and therapeutics represent one of the most interesting applications of the plant-based technology, especially when it is necessary to produce 'rapid response' vaccines such as those directed against bioterrorism agents and diseases with pandemic potential, like influenza. (
  • These are promising findingsand provide a basis for further studies on edible plant vaccines against the Rift Valley fever virus. (
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the encapsulation of antigens in PLGA microspheres for use as vaccines. (
  • This invention relates to the microencapsulation of antigens for use as therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines. (
  • The scientists then followed up on these efforts by assembling antibiotic-antigen conjugates against gram-negative bacteria. (
  • The transgenic nature of the plants and expression of the antigen was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. (
  • The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. (
  • Maximum expression level of 38 ng/g F.W. of leaves was noted in plants transformed with pEFEHBS grown under in vitro conditions, whereas pHER transformed plants grown in the green house showed the maximum expression level of 19.92 ng/g F.W. of leaves. (
  • The transgenic plants were grown up to maturity in the green house and the expression of HBsAg in the fruits was confirmed by RT-PCR. (
  • Attempts were also made to enhance the expression of HBsAg in the leaves of transgenic banana plants by wounding and/or treatment with plant growth regulators. (
  • The NS1 fused to ELP and targeted to the ER (NS1 ELP-ER) showed the highest yield (445 mg/kg), approximately a forty-fold increase in accumulation levels compared to the non-fused protein (NS1-ER), representing the first example of transient expression of DENV NS1 in plant. (
  • Plant-based transient expression systems can be an alternative for the production of this protein. (
  • Plants viruses are increasingly being examined as alternative recombinant protein expression systems. (
  • Future development of plant virus expression vectors needs to focus on the most important economic hosts, namely cereals and legumes, to develop tools to aid breeding of such hosts and systems for edible vaccine production. (
  • This may prove a useful and environmentally safe vector for both transient expression and perhaps transgenic plants. (
  • The HSV antigen increased time-dependently in the infected cells, and PPV reduced its expression. (
  • The novelty of PPV is that it also reduces the antigen expression of acyclovir-resistant strain of HSV-1. (
  • Expression of Engineered Antibodies in Plants: A Possible Tool for Spiroplasma and Phytoplasma Disease Control," Phytopathology, vol. 88, No. 12, pp. 1367-1371, Dec. 1998. (
  • 2. The polynucleotide of claim 1, further comprising a regulatory sequence for expression in a plant, plant organ, plant tissue, or plant cell. (
  • His research interests include the genetics and physiology of sex expression in plants through developmental genetics, somatic hybridization in plants, production of plant cybrids and molecular genetics of stress resistance. (
  • Tobacco expression system will produce surface antigens of piscine reovirus that will be delivered as a nanoparticle-based vaccine to fish. (
  • To test their usefulness as antigen their recognition by the mAbs 2G3, 5G7, or 4E1, which recognize different TG2 epitopes, was analyzed by immunoblot. (
  • Both vac-TG2 and ER-TG2 were positively recognized by these antibodies as is shown Figure 4A, confirming that although in humans TG2 is a localized in the cytosol, the introduction into the plant secretory pathway do not affect the structure of the epitopes recognized by these mAbs. (
  • mAbs recognized epitopes on the 29-kDa native antigen on some but not all clinical isolates tested. (
  • The PMB-antigen conjugates successfully recruited the antibodies found in human serum, giving an indication that they may be capable of harnessing the immune system to eliminate dangerous, disease-causing bacteria. (
  • Plant-parasitic nematodes are obligate parasites that cannot be grown on plates of bacteria as a food source to provide large numbers of individuals as can certain free-living nematodes (e.g. (
  • Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 66, 331-335. (
  • In contrast, S. meliloti mutants that fail to synthesize at least one of these polysaccharides in symbiotically appropriate forms will produce ineffective or Fix − nodules, which contain few bacteria and which are incapable of fixing nitrogen on alfalfa host plants. (
  • An antigen is a molecule (usually a protein ) expressed by a bacteria or virus that is recognized by the adaptive immune system as foreign which can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them. (
  • Antigens include bacteria , cells of transplanted organs , plant pollen and toxins . (
  • Vaccinations usually contain dead bacteria or antigen so the antibodies can familiarise themselves and kill it. (
  • The generated plant made NS1, even without extensive purification, showed potential to be used for the development of the NS1 diagnostic tests in resource-limited areas where dengue is endemic. (
  • At the outer surface of the cell the molecule contains an antigen that has been acquired from the surrounding environment. (
  • Usually an antigen is a molecule , perhaps on the cell surface of a bacterium or virus . (
  • These transgenic plants were multiplied under in vitro using floral apex cultures. (
  • This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human tonsil epithelial cells (HTonEpiC) in vitro . (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication. (
  • Plants are locked in an ancient arms race with hostile viruses, but genome editing is giving crops the upper hand. (
  • The authors thank Dr. G.D. May, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant research Inc., Ithaca, NY, USA, for providing the EFE gene promoter of banana. (
  • Hood EE, Gelvin SB, Melchers LS, Hoekama A (1993) New Agrobacterium helper plasmid for gene transfer to plant cells. (
  • So far, two gene regions that are required for the production of K antigen have been identified. (
  • Using this method, we carried out a large-scale genetic study that resulted in the identification of four new, phenotypically and genetically distinct classes of K-antigen mutations which are not complemented by plasmids carrying the rkp-1 region or the rkpZ + gene. (
  • Kidd antigens are enhanced by enzymes Jk(a-b-) represents the null phenotype and usually results from homozygosity for a silent gene at the JK locus. (
  • Characterization of a wheat class Ib chitinase gene differentially induced in isogenic lines by infection with Puccinia graminis," Plant Science, vol. 103, No. 2, pp. 177-187, 1994. (
  • O-antigen serotypes emerge as a consequence of the gene content rather than sequence variation at this locus ( 44 ). (
  • The O-antigen gene cluster of E. sakazakii has not been previously characterized. (
  • A transgenic plant expressing the glycoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus has been developed and tested in mice as an oral immunogen. (
  • Allergens, like pollen, are nothing more than foreign plant antigens. (
  • Essentially the different HLA arrangement on cells allows the immune system to develop an inventory of "self" antigens in the body. (
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (
  • Innate immune responses are rapid and independent of antigen. (
  • Innate immune systems are found in all classes of plants and animals. (
  • Diverse repertoires of hypervariable immunoglobulin receptors (TCR and BCR) recognize antigens in the adaptive immune system. (
  • The first time that a new antigen comes into contact with the body the response of the immune system will be a complete immune response . (
  • We described the rapid production of the domain III (DIII) of the envelope (E) protein in plants as a vaccine candidate for West Nile Virus (WNV). (
  • For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong in 2003. (
  • Production of protective antigens in transgenic plants, or "pharming," is a promising emerging approach, and a zoonosis-like TB is a good model for investigating the potential of this approach. (
  • Pharma-Planta, a European Commission-funded project and consortium, was set up to address this topic, within which a component is aimed at assessing the production efficacy and stability of the TB antigens in different compartments of the plant cell. (
  • 6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA), a cytokinin plant growth regulator, has been banned for use in bean sprout production in China. (
  • The 128,000 square-foot facility will be the company's highest-volume production plant in the world and begins operations in the second half of 2021 with a mission to produce 600 million QuickVue SARS rapid antigen tests per year for the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19 infections. (
  • This book provides the molecular and biotechnological background for genetic transformation in plants, as well as updated information about the production of antibodies, antigens and other medical and health products by transgenic plants. (
  • In recent years, Prof Galun is engaged in the production of transgenic plants. (
  • When an antigen is introduced into the body it causes the production of antibodies. (
  • Antigens stimulate the production of antibodies: they do not produce them directly. (
  • HBsAg obtained from transgenic banana plants is similar to human serum derived one in buoyant density properties. (
  • In the last decade, studies have highlighted the potential therapeutic compounds found in plants, including chemical in foods such as turmeric, apple peels, red grapes and green tea. (
  • in 1953, individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their urine. (
  • all four diagnoses were confirmed by Legionella urine antigen. (
  • Additional substances with specific blood group activity have been found in certain plants. (
  • In this study, a polysaccharide fraction was prepared from Prunella vulgaris (PPV), and its effects on the expressions of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens in their host Vero cells were investigated with flow cytometry. (
  • After incubations with 25-100 microg/ml of PPV the HSV antigen-positive cells were reduced by 24.8-92.6%, respectively, showing that this polysaccharide fraction has a different mode of anti-HSV action from acyclovir. (
  • For Sinorhizobium meliloti (also known as Rhizobium meliloti ) AK631 to establish effective symbiosis with alfalfa, it must be able to synthesize a symbiotically active form of its K antigen, a capsular polysaccharide containing a Kdo (3-deoxy- d -manno-octulosonic acid) derivative. (
  • This is composed of three parts, a complex lipid, called lipid A (consisting of sugars and fatty acids), that anchors the structure to the outer membrane, a conserved core oligosaccharide, and variable polysaccharide side chains (O antigen) that extend from the latter core. (
  • Removal of Vascuolar Targeting Signal from Class I Vasuolar Chitinase leads to its Extracellular Secretion in Transgenic Tobacco," Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 139-142, Jul. (
  • Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (
  • The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL) were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. (
  • Pectate lyase activity was detected from plant extracts, suggesting the cause of severe necrotic reaction in plants. (
  • The FDA issued an emergency use authorization today for the Quidel Corp. (NSDW:QDEL) QuickVue At-Home COVID-19 test, another antigen test to rapidly collect and test samples at home, without the need to send a sample to a laboratory for analysis. (
  • The O-antigen locus varies in size for each serotype depending on the sugar composition and complexity of the antigen structure ( 34 ). (
  • 5. The composition of claim 3 wherein the adjuvant is coencapsulated with the antigen in the microspheres of said homogeneous population. (
  • The C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase reactant which binds selectively to T (thymus-derived) lymphocytes, was found to bind to lymphoblasts formed upon stimulation with antigens but not with mitogens. (
  • The plant XRCC1 lacks the N-terminal domain (NTD) which is required for Pol beta binding and is essential for mammalian cell survival. (
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Cell. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web site. (
  • The potency of this therapy can be limited by antigen-independent (tonic) signaling, which promotes progressive CAR-T cell inactivation. (
  • We've just published our special issue focussing on plant cell biology - check out the table of contents here , and a selection of the issue's highlights below. (
  • In this interview , our Special Issue's guest editor Jenny Russinova discusses her excitement for plant cell biology and what she hopes to achieve with the issue. (
  • Thomas Ott and colleagues review the challenges and opportunities of quantitative live-cell imaging in plants. (
  • Kidd antigens are located on a red blood cell urea transporter (human urea transporter 11- HUT11 or UT-B1). (
  • In addition, women who hit the allergy trifecta of sensitivity to plants, grass, and trees had a 73% greater chance of developing a mature B-cell lymphoma or related disorder. (
  • for example, group A blood contains A antigens on red cell surfaces and anti-B antibodies in the surrounding serum. (
  • Immunofluorescence microscopy with antigen affinity-purified IgGs showed an unambiguous, steady-state coexistence of AtPex16p in suspension cell peroxisomes and ER. (
  • 1. (Plants) any member of a kingdom of organisms (Fungi) that lack chlorophyll, leaves, true stems, and roots, reproduce by spores, and live as saprotrophs or parasites. (
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (
  • In order to test the performance of the plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 version in CD screening test an ELISA was performed using a pool of 12 sera of CD patient and control healthy donors (Figure 4B). (
  • The antigens used in this study were the N protein and a deletion mutant of the Gn glycoprotein.Transformed lines were analysed for specific mRNA and protein content by RT-PCR and Westernblotting, respectively. (
  • Kidd comprises three antigens on a glycoprotein with 10 transmembrane spanning domains, cytoplasmic N- and C-termini and one extracellular N-glycosylation site. (