Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mice, Inbred BALB CHistocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Molecular cloning and epitope analysis of the peanut allergen Ara h 3. (1/684)

Peanut allergy is a significant IgE-mediated health problem because of the increased prevalence, potential severity, and chronicity of the reaction. Following our characterization of the two peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a third peanut allergen, Ara h 3. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ara h 3 shows homology to 11S seed-storage proteins. The recombinant form of this protein was expressed in a bacterial system and was recognized by serum IgE from approximately 45% of our peanut-allergic patient population. Serum IgE from these patients and overlapping, synthetic peptides were used to map the linear, IgE-binding epitopes of Ara h 3. Four epitopes, between 10 and 15 amino acids in length, were found within the primary sequence, with no obvious sequence motif shared by the peptides. One epitope is recognized by all Ara h 3-allergic patients. Mutational analysis of the epitopes revealed that single amino acid changes within these peptides could lead to a reduction or loss of IgE binding. By determining which amino acids are critical for IgE binding, it might be possible to alter the Ara h 3 cDNA to encode a protein with a reduced IgE-binding capacity. These results will enable the design of improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for food-hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Solution structure of a lipid transfer protein extracted from rice seeds. Comparison with homologous proteins. (2/684)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the three dimensional structure of rice nonspecific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP), a 91 amino acid residue protein belonging to the broad family of plant ns-LTP. Sequence specific assignment was obtained for all but three HN backbone 1H resonances and for more than 95% of the 1H side-chain resonances using a combination of 1H 2D NOESY; TOCSY and COSY experiments at 293 K. The structure was calculated on the basis of four disulfide bridge restraints, 1259 distance constraints derived from 1H-1H Overhauser effects, 72 phi angle restraints and 32 hydrogen-bond restraints. The final solution structure involves four helices (H1: Cys3-Arg18, H2: Ala25-Ala37, H3: Thr41-Ala54 and H4: Ala66-Cys73) followed by a long C-terminal tail (T) with no observable regular structure. N-capping residues (Thr2, Ser24, Thr40), whose side-chain oxygen atoms are involved in hydrogen bonds with i + 3 amide proton additionally stabilize the N termini of the first three helices. The fourth helix involving Pro residues display a mixture of alpha and 3(10) conformation. The rms deviation of 14 final structures with respect to the average structure is 1.14 +/- 0.16 A for all heavy atoms (C, N, O and S) and 0.72 +/- 0.01 A for the backbone atoms. The global fold of rice ns-LTP is close to the previously published structures of wheat, barley and maize ns-LTPs exhibiting nearly identical pattern of the numerous sequence specific interactions. As reported previously for different four-helix topology proteins, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic mechanisms of fold stabilization were found for the rice ns-LTP. The sequential alignment of 36 ns-LTP primary structures strongly suggests that there is a uniform pattern of specific long-range interactions (in terms of sequence), which stabilize the fold of all plant ns-LTPs.  (+info)

Production in Escherichia coli and site-directed mutagenesis of a 9-kDa nonspecific lipid transfer protein from wheat. (3/684)

The sequence encoding a wheat (Triticum durum) nonspecific lipid transfer protein of 9 kDa (nsLTP1) was inserted into an Escherichia coli expression vector, pET3b. The recombinant protein that was expressed accumulated in insoluble cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and was purified and refolded from them. In comparison with the corresponding protein isolated from wheat kernel, the refolded recombinant protein exhibits a methionine extension at its N-terminus but has the same structure and activity as demonstrated by CD, lipid binding and lipid transfer assays. Using the same expression system, four mutants with H5Q, Y16A, Q45R and Y79A replacements were produced and characterized. No significant changes in structure or activity were found for three of the mutants. By contrast, lipid binding experiments with the Y79A mutant did not show any increase of tyrosine fluorescence as observed with the wild-type nsLTP1. Comparison of the two tyrosine mutants suggested that Tyr79 is the residue involved in this phenomenon and thus is located close to the lipid binding site as expected from three-dimensional structure data.  (+info)

Two-dimensional electrophoresis of Malassezia allergens for atopic dermatitis and isolation of Mal f 4 homologs with mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. (4/684)

The yeast Malassezia furfur is a natural inhabitant of the human skin microflora that induces an allergic reaction in atopic dermatitis. To identify allergens of M. furfur, we separated a crude preparation of M. furfur antigens as discrete spots by 2-D PAGE and detected IgE-binding proteins using sera of atopic dermatitis patients. We identified the known allergens, Mal f 2 and Mal f 3, and determined N-terminal amino acid sequences of six new IgE-binding proteins including Mal f 4. The cDNA and genomic DNA encoding Mal f 4 were cloned and sequenced. The gene was mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and encoded Mal f 4 composed of 315 amino acids and a signal sequence of 27 amino acids. We purified Mal f 4, which had a molecular mass of 35 kDa from a membrane fraction of a lysate of cultured cells. Thirty of 36 M. furfur-allergic atopic dermatitis patients (83.3%) had elevated serum levels of IgE to purified Mal f 4, indicating that Mal f 4 is a major allergen. There was a significant correlation of the Phadebas RAST unit values of Mal f 4 and the crude antigen, but not between Mal f 4 and the known allergen Mal f 2.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of American cockroach tropomyosin (Periplaneta americana allergen 7), a cross-reactive allergen. (5/684)

Inhalation of allergens produced by the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) induces IgE Ab production and the development of asthma in genetically predisposed individuals. The cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of P. americana tropomyosin allergen have been achieved. The protein shares high homology with other arthropod tropomyosins (80% identity) but less homology with vertebrate ones (50% identity). The recombinant allergen was produced in E. coli as a nonfusion protein with a yield of 9 mg/l of bacterial culture. Both natural and recombinant tropomyosins were purified by isoelectric precipitation. P. americana allergen 1 (Per a 1) and Per a 7 (tropomyosin) are to date the only cross-reacting allergens found in cockroaches. ELISA and Western blot inhibition experiments, using natural and recombinant purified tropomyosins from shrimp and cockroach, showed that tropomyosin induced cross-reactivity of IgE from patients allergic to these allergens, suggesting that this molecule could be a common allergen among invertebrates.  (+info)

Molecular dissection of mitogillin reveals that the fungal ribotoxins are a family of natural genetically engineered ribonucleases. (6/684)

Mitogillin and the related fungal ribotoxins are highly specific ribonucleases which inactivate the ribosome enzymatically by cleaving the 23-28 S RNA of the large ribosomal subunit at a single phosphodiester bond. The site of cleavage occurs between G4325 and A4326 (rat ribosome numbering) which are present in one of the most conserved sequences (the alpha-sarcin loop) among the large subunit ribosomal RNAs of all living species. Amino acid sequence comparison of ribotoxins and guanyl/purine ribonucleases have identified domains or residues likely involved in ribonucleolytic activity or cleavage specificity. Fifteen deletion mutants (each 4 to 8 amino acid deletions) in motifs of mitogillin showing little amino acid sequence homology with guanyl/purine ribonucleases were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. Analyses of the purified mutant proteins identified those regions in fungal ribotoxins contributing to ribosome targeting and modulating the catalytic activity of the toxin; some of the identified motifs are homologous to sequences in ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. This mutational study of mitogillin together with the recently published x-ray structure of restrictocin (a close relative of mitogillin) supports the hypothesis that the specific cleavage properties of ribotoxins are the result of natural genetic engineering in which the ribosomal targeting elements of ribosome-associated proteins were inserted into nonessential regions of T1-like ribonucleases.  (+info)

Production and detailed characterization of biologically active olive pollen allergen Ole e 1 secreted by the yeast Pichia pastoris. (7/684)

The glycoprotein Ole e 1 is a significant aeroallergen from the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen, with great clinical relevance in the Mediterranean area. To produce a biologically active form of recombinant Ole e 1, heterologous expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was carried out. A cDNA encoding Ole e 1, fused to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor prepropeptide using the pPIC9 vector, was inserted into the yeast genome under the control of the AOX1 promoter. After induction with methanol, the protein secreted into the extracellular medium was purified by ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The structure of the isolated recombinant Ole e 1 was determined by chemical and spectroscopic techniques, and its immunological properties analysed by blotting and ELISA inhibition with Ole e 1-specific monoclonal antibodies and IgE from sera of allergic patients. The allergen was produced at a yield of 60 mg per litre of culture as a homogeneous glycosylated protein of around 18.5 kDa. Recombinant Ole e 1 appears to be properly folded, as it displays spectroscopic properties (CD and fluorescence) and immunological reactivities (IgG binding to monoclonal antibodies sensitive to denaturation and IgE from sera of allergic patients) indistinguishable from those of the natural protein. This approach gives high-yield production of homogeneous and biologically active allergen, which should be useful for scientific and clinical purposes.  (+info)

Sequence-divergent units of the ABA-1 polyprotein array of the nematode Ascaris suum have similar fatty-acid- and retinol-binding properties but different binding-site environments. (8/684)

Polyproteins comprise long polypeptides that are post-translationally cleaved into proteins of different function, or tandemly repetitive polypeptides which are processed into multiple versions of proteins which are presumed to have the same function. In the latter case the individual units of the polyprotein can differ substantially in sequence. Identity of function between the different units therefore cannot be assumed. Here we have examined the ABA-1 polyprotein allergen of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and found it to contain units which show a 50% difference in amino acid sequence. The parasite therefore produces at least two radically different forms of the allergen encoded within the polyprotein array. In fluorescence-based ligand-binding assays, recombinant polypeptides representing the two forms (designated ABA-1A1 and ABA-1B1) showed similar binding affinities for a range of fluorescent active-site probes [retinol, dansylundecanoic acid, dansyl-DL-alpha-amino-octanoic acid, cis-parinaric acid (cPnA)] and for the non-specific hydrophobic surface probe 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonic acid. However, the molecular environments in the active sites are markedly different, as indicated by disparate fluorescence emission peaks and intensities of bound probes. CD showed that the proteins have similar secondary structures but differ in susceptibility to chemical denaturation/unfolding by guanidinium chloride. Both retain a single conserved tryptophan residue in a characteristic non-polar environment, as revealed by extreme fluorescence blue shift. Thus the gross differences in sequence of the two proteins are not reflected in their ligand-binding specificities but in their binding-site environments.  (+info)

*Systemic lupus erythematosus

Autoreactive B cells, maturated coincidentally, normally do not receive survival signals by antigen planted on follicular ... That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... When apoptotic material is not removed correctly by phagocytes, they are captured instead by antigen-presenting cells, which ...

*Isoantibodies

It is possible that food and environmental antigens (bacterial, viral or plant antigens) have epitopes similar enough to A and ... Therefore, it can be thought of as an antigen that is present in some members of the same species, but is not common to all ... In the case of the species Homo sapiens, for example, there are a significant number of antigens which are different in every ... When antigens from another individual are introduced into another's body, these isoantibodies immediately bind to and destroy ...

*ABO blood group system

... or plant antigens) have epitopes similar enough to A and B glycoprotein antigens. The antibodies created against these ... ABO antigens are found having similar roles on epithelial cells as well as red blood cells. The ABO antigen is also expressed ... The removal of A and B antigens still does not address the problem of the Rh blood group antigen on the blood cells of Rh ... ABO at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ABO blood groups, antibodies and antigens explained ...

*Vaccine

"Expression of a ScFv-E2T fusion protein in CHO-K1 cells and alfalfa transgenic plants for the selective directioning to antigen ... Transgenic plants have been identified as promising expression systems for vaccine production. Complex plants such as tobacco, ... Another example is the expression of a fusion protein in alfalfa transgenic plants for the selective directioning to antigen ... "Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants". Planta. 222 (3): 484-493. doi:10.1007/s00425-005-1556-y ...

*Hepatitis B vaccine

The bacteria then infect a plant, which will produce the surface antigens. When a human eats the plant, their body is ... Blumberg had identified Australia antigen, an important first step. But all of the other steps-the ones critical to making a ... genetically engineering plants to produce the vaccine includes extracting the gene that codes for Hepatitis B surface antigens ... As a result, researchers have been working to engineer plants capable of producing the ingredients necessary to make vaccines ...

*DNA clamp

"Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants". Eur ... The sequence of PCNA is well conserved between plants and animals, indicating a strong selective pressure for structure ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Pyrococcus furiosus". Protein Sci. 10 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1110/ps.36401. PMC 2249843 . ... "Structural and biochemical studies of human proliferating cell nuclear antigen complexes provide a rationale for cyclin ...

*Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

"Two E2F elements regulate the proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter differently during leaf development". Plant Cell. 14 ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic ... PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the ... "Entrez Gene: PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Leonardi E, Girlando S, Serio G, Mauri FA, Perrone G, Scampini S, Dalla ...

*Watermelon mosaic virus

... assay ELISA uses an antibody that specifically recognizes the virus of interest by binding to the antigen created by the plant ... "Watermelon mosaic 2 potyvirus". Plant Viruses Online. University of Idaho. "About Plant Viruses". Florida Department of ... Aphids pick up the plant virus during probing and transmit it non-persistently to other hosts for a period of time up to a few ... WMV-2 Genome Plant Viruses Online Database on Watermelon Mosaic 2 Mosaic Virus Disease of Vine Crops Fact Sheet Description of ...

*Podophyllotoxin

... of a human mitochondrial protein homologous to the bacterial and plant chaperonins and to the 65 kDa mycobacterial antigen". ... a combination of six genes from the mayapple enabled production of the etoposide aglycone in tobacco plants. It is present at ... family of bacterial and plant proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 264: 12001-12008. Jindal, S.; Dudani, A.K.; Singh, B.; Harley, C.B.; ...

*GroEL

... a human mitochondrial protein homologous to the bacterial and plant chaperonins and to the 65-kilodalton mycobacterial antigen ...

*Potato leafroll virus

"Validation of ELISA for the detection of potato virus antigen in sap of potato plant leaves" OEPP/EPPO Bulletin (2011) 41:30-38 ... Plants that are infected with the virus produce only small to medium tubers that are not preferable in market. When plants are ... Potato plants infected with PLRV will produced infected tubers. If infected tubers are planted they will give rise to infected ... PLRV infects many other plants in the family Solanacea and can also infect some non-solanaceous plants. Because of the wide ...

*Kidd antigen system

... was discovered by Plant et al. in 1953, individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their ... The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps ... The Jk antigen is important in transfusion medicine. People with two Jk(a) antigens, for instance, may form antibodies against ... The Jk antigen is found on a protein responsible for urea transport in the red blood cells and the kidney. The gene encoding ...

*Heterophile antigen

It is widely present in some plants bacteria animal and birds. However it is not present in rabbit. Therefore antibodies are ... Example: Forssman antigen, cross reacting microbial antigen so antibodies to these antigens produced by one species cross react ... Heterophile antigens: certain antigens of similar nature, if not identical, present in different tissues in different ... hetereogenetic antigen is shared by different species. Other heterophile antigen are responsible for some diagnostic ...

*QS21

QS-21 is a purified plant extract that enhances the ability of the immune system to respond to vaccine antigens. It is derived ... The extract contains water soluble triterpene glucoside compounds, which are members of a family of plant-based compounds ...

*Plant expressed vaccine

The plant-based vaccine production method works by isolating a specific antigen protein, one that triggers a human immune ... The plants then start producing the exact protein that will be used for vaccinations. The flexibility of the plant expressed ... Plant expressed vaccine or project GreenVax[dead link] In 2000, a patent entitled Vaccines expressed in plants U.S. Patent ... Other uses of plant expressed vaccines including the successful creation of edible bananas that protect against the Norwalk ...

*A10

... a British Isles plant community HLA-A10, a broad antigen serogroup of the Human MHC HLA-A Homeobox A10, a human gene Subfamily ...

*Immune system

Immunoproteomics Immunostimulator Original antigenic sin Plant disease resistance Polyclonal response Tumor antigens Vaccine- ... but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant. Individual plant cells respond ... antigens during a process called antigen presentation. Antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are ... Tumor antigens are presented on MHC class I molecules in a similar way to viral antigens. This allows killer T cells to ...

*ELISA

... usually an antigen, in a liquid sample or wet sample. The ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and plant ... The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ... The antigen-containing sample is applied to the plate, and captured by antibody. The plate is washed to remove unbound antigen ... Since it is necessary to remove any unbound antibody or antigen by washing, the antibody or antigen has to be fixed to the ...

*BanLec

... expression can be induced by the plant hormone methyl jasmonate. BanLec exists as a homodimer of two identical 15 kDa ... Koshte VL, Aalbers M, Calkhoven PG, Aalberse RC (1992). "The potent IgG4-inducing antigen in banana is a mannose-binding lectin ... but BanLec is the first jacalin-related lectin from the monocot family of plants, while all other members are dicots; other ... "The Tetrameric Plant Lectin BanLec Neutralizes HIV through Bidentate Binding to Specific Viral Glycans". Structure. 25 (5): 773 ...

*Priming

... in which seeds are soaked before planting Priming (immunology), a process occurring when a specific antigen is presented to ... Priming may refer to: Priming (agriculture), a form of seed planting preparation, ... a simple monosaccharide found in plants Intertrial priming (psychology) Response priming (psychology) Negative priming ( ...

*Sucrose-phosphate synthase

Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 47: 431-444. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.47.1.431. PMID 15012296 ... indicating the structure is conserved enough for the antibody to recognize the enzyme as an antigen. Furthermore, genomic ... and Bonpl". Plant Physiology. 95 (2): 623-627. doi:10.1104/pp.95.2.623. PMC 1077577 . PMID 16668028. Guy, Charles L.; Huber, ... While it is currently unclear if this seryl residue homolog in other plant SPSes is phosphorylated to suppress SPS activity, ...

*Pathosystem

In breeding crop plants for horizontal resistance to their parasites, the disciplines of plant breeding, plant pathology, and ... The gene-for-gene relationship is an approximate botanical equivalent of antigens and antibodies in mammals. For each ... A plant pathosystem is one in which the host species is a plant. The parasite is any species in which the individual spends a ... It brings together various crop science disciplines such as entomology, nematology, plant pathology, and plant breeding. It ...

*Pathogenicity island

... o-antigen synthesis, serum resistance, immunoglobulin A proteases, apoptosis, capsule synthesis, and plant tumorigenesis via A ... Pathogenicity islands are found in both animal and plant pathogens. Additionally, PAIs are found in both gram-positive and gram ...

*TCP protein domain

This family of transcription factors are exclusive to vascular plants. They can be divided into two groups, TCP-C and TCP-P, ... The TCP domain is necessary for specific binding to promoter elements of the Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene and ... Cubas P, Lauter N, Doebley J, Coen E (April 1999). "The TCP domain: a motif found in proteins regulating plant growth and ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR005333 TCP family at PlantTFDB: Plant Transcription ...

*List of geneticists

US plant geneticist, cloning of transposable elements, plant stress response Malcolm Ferguson-Smith (born 1931) UK ... won Nobel Prize for immune recognition of antigen Curt Connors in the Spider-Man comics Moira MacTaggert in the X-Men comics ... German plant geneticist, focused on cytoplasmic inheritance Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin (1855-1935), Russian plant geneticist, ... Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927), Danish botanist who in 1909 coined the word "gene" Jonathan D. G. Jones, British plant molecular ...

*Zinc deficiency

Plant breeding can improve zinc uptake capacity of plants under soil conditions with low chemical availability of zinc. ... Pra1 (pH regulated antigen 1) is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc. Zinc deficiency can be classified as ... Zinc deficiency can occur in soil, plants, and animals. There is some evidence that zinc may have an effect on cancer and ... Effect of zinc fertilization on rice plants and on the population of the rice-root nematodeHirschmanniella oryzae Jzincournal ...
The distribution of Ole e I (the major olive pollen allergen) and its transcripts was investigated in the anther from premeiotic stages until the dehiscent pollen stage. Crude protein extracts were analyzed by immunoblotting and probed with a monoclonal antibody to Ole e I. The protein, with three variants, was found to accumulate from the early microspore stage onwards. In addition to the previously reported localization of the protein, Ole e I has been immunolocalized for the first time within the pollen wall and in the tapetum. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis using specific oligonucleotides and RNA extracted from whole anthers revealed that the Ole e I gene is expressed from the late tetrad stage onwards. No expression was found in control tissues such as petals, roots or leaves. Light microscopy in situ hybridization on developing flower buds and dehiscent pollen confirmed the transcripts to be present in both the microspores and the sporophytic tissue (tapetum). ...
Hollenbach, B., Schreiber, L., Hartung, W., & Dietz, K. - J. (1997). Cadmium leads to stimulated expression of the lipid transfer protein genes in barley: Implications for the involvement of lipid transfer proteins in wax assembly. Planta, 203(1), 9-19. doi:10.1007/ ...
protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein; FUNCTIONS IN: lipid binding; INVOLVED IN: lipid transport; LOCATED IN: endomembrane system; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Bifunctional inhibitor/plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage (InterPro:IPR016140), Plant lipid transfer protein/seed storage/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor (InterPro:IPR003612), Plant lipid transfer protein and hydrophobic protein, helical (InterPro:IPR013770); BEST Arabidopsis thaliana protein match is: protease inhibitor/seed storage/lipid transfer protein (LTP) family protein (TAIR:AT4G12510.1); Has 534 Blast hits to 530 proteins in 51 species: Archae - 0; Bacteria - 0; Metazoa - 0; Fungi - 0; Plants - 534; Viruses - 0; Other Eukaryotes - 0 (source: NCBI BLink ...
In plants, a family of ubiquitous proteins named non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (ns-LTPs) facilitates the transfer of fatty acids, phospholipids and steroids between membranes. Recent data suggest that these secreted proteins play a key role in the formation of cuticular wax layers and in defence mechanisms against pathogens. In this study, X-ray crystallography has been used to examine the structural details of the interaction between a wheat type 2 ns-LTP and a lipid, l--α--palmitoyl-phosphatidyl glycerol. This crystal structure was solved ab initio at 1.12 Å resolution by direct methods. The typical α--helical bundle fold of this protein is maintained by four disulfide bridges and delineates two hydrophobic cavities. The inner surface of the main cavity is lined by non-polar residues that provide a hydrophobic environment for the palmitoyl moiety of the lipid. The head-group region of this lipid protrudes from the surface and makes several polar interactions with a conserved patch of ...
Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in wax or cutin deposition in the cell walls of expanding epidermal cells and certain secretory tissues.
Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are type of proteins, 9-kDa proteins present in high quantity as much as 4 percent of the total soluble protein in higher plants. Lipid-transfer proteins (LTP) are responsible for transfer (in vitro), of phospholipids between membranes as well as binds to acyl chains. Some important roles played by LTP are embryogenesis, participation in cutin formation, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions and defense reactions against phytopathogens, though the validity of some these roles is needs to be determined. Recent studies show several important functions in the cell. Biosynthesis of many membrane lipids occurs at the (ER) endoplasmic reticulum, then they are dispensed by vesicular transport and lipid transfer proteins. Lysosomal lipid transfer proteins are types of proteins are multifunctional in nature. Though the mechanism and functions of most LTPs are yet to be determined, lipid transfer proteins in plants are involved in surface ...
1FK0: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
1FK4: Structural basis of non-specific lipid binding in maize lipid-transfer protein complexes revealed by high-resolution X-ray crystallography.
El Archivo Digital UPM alberga en formato digital la documentacion academica y cientifica (tesis, pfc, articulos, etc..) generada en la Universidad Politecnica de Madrid.Los documentos del Archivo Digital UPM son recuperables desde buscadores: Google, Google Academics, Yahoo, Scirus, etc y desde recolectores OAI: E-ciencia, DRRD, Recolecta (REBIUN-FECYT), Driver, Oaister, etc.
In addition to Equ c 1, another horse lipocalin allergen, Equ c 2, is expressed. (23) Lipocalin allergens are usually present in hair dandruff.. Lipocalins are members of the calycin superfamily. Despite the diversity at the primary sequence level and a sequence identity often less than 20%, all lipocalins share a conserved folding pattern, a similar three-dimensional structure and one to three conserved regions: an 8-stranded ß-barrel flanked by an a-helix at the C-terminal end of the polypeptide chain. (3, 26) The central cavity of the lipocalin ß-barrel serves for the binding and transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol (retinol-binding protein), odorant molecules (bovine odorant-binding protein), and pheromones (as in mouse and rat: mouse major urinary protein, mMUP1, and rat urinary a2-globulin). (2). Although the overall amino acid identity between lipocalins is usually below 20%, in some cases the sequential identity over animal species can be well above 20%. For ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Metastasis, the spreading of cancer cells from a primary tumor to seed secondary tumors in distant sites, is the main cause of mortality in breast cancer patients (Oppenheimer, 2006). Recent studies suggest that EMT plays a central role in motility and dissemination of cancer cells (Thiery et al., 2009). This dynamic and reversible process is necessary for efficient metastatic colonization (Brabletz, 2012) and is regulated by several signaling cascades that activate specific transcription factors (Huber et al., 2005).. In this study, we show that the PtdIns-transfer protein Nir2 potentiates EMT in mammary cells (Fig. 3) and is required for lung metastasis of breast cancer cells (Fig. 6). Remarkably, the expression level of Nir2 is upregulated in response to EMT inducers (Fig. 3A), such as EGF and TGFβ, and is markedly enhanced in human breast cancer tissue (Fig. 7). These results introduce Nir2 as a new positive regulator of EMT and breast cancer metastasis. Indeed, depletion of Nir2 by shRNA ...
Jeal H, Draper A, Harris J, Taylor AN, Cullinan P, Jones M, Determination of the T cell epitopes of the lipocalin allergen, Rat n 1. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 Dec;34(12):1919-25 ...
Latest Plant Lipids Private Limited import data and Plant Lipids Private Limited export data along with the details of top 25 importers and exporters of similar products.
Analysis of the purified recombinant Gly m 4l protein.(A) The recombinant Gly m 4l protein induced with 0.5 mM IPTG at 37°C for 1-5 h in E.coli BL21 (DE3). (
Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant Gly m 4l protein.(A) The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant Gly m 4l protein against the hyphal growth of P. so
One example of a diagnostic application of recombinant birch allergens is found in a study examining allergen-specific serum IgE antibodies using the recombinant allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4, as examined in birch-sensitive patients from the province of Cuneo, in northwestern Italy. It was reported that of 372 patients, 215 (58%) had serum IgE antibodies to Bet v 1, 166 (45%) to Bet v 2, and 35 (9%) to Bet v 4. Mono-sensitisation to Bet v 1 occurred in 146 (39%) of patients; in 96 (26%) to Bet v 2; and in only 4 (1%) to Bet v 4. Thirty-nine sera (11%) did not contain allergen-specific IgE antibodies to any of these three individual birch pollen allergens. All 372 sera (100%) had IgE antibodies against natural Birch pollen extract; 162 (44%) contained IgE antibodies reacting with Apple extract (75% of Bet v 1 positive sera). The study concluded that the 3 recombinant birch pollen allergens alone could identify 90% of birch pollen-sensitive patients (7 ...
This study intend to verify whether the different levels of severity of the clinical allergic reactions to peach are associated to sensitization towards different allergenic molecules of peach. In particular, we will analyze the reactivity towards the peach allergens Pru p 1, Pru p 3 and Pru p 4 and towards the birch pollen allergens Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4. The patients (with allergic symptoms of any severity provoked by the consumption of peach) will be divided into two groups: the first group showing oral allergy syndrome (OAS), the second group showing systemic symptoms of different severity, up to anaphylaxis.. All the patients will be submitted to: complete clinical investigation; skin prick test with a panel of common food/inhalant commercial extracts; skin tests by the prick + prick method with fresh fruits and vegetables; skin prick test with purified peach LTP (Pru p 3) The sera of the patients will be used for: immunoblotting with peach extract and immunoblotting inhibition ...
Serological and skin-test diagnosis of birch pollen allergy with recombinant Bet v I, the major birch pollen allergen (pages 50-60). G. MENZ, C. DOLECEK, U. SCHÖNHEIT-KENN, F. FERREIRA, M. MOSER, T. SCHNEIDER, M. SUTER, G. BOLTZ-NITULESCU, C. EBNER, D. KRAFT and R. VALENTA. Version of Record online: 27 APR 2006 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.1996.tb00056.x. ...
Specific allergy vaccination is an efficient treatment for allergic disease; however, the development of safer vaccines would enable a more general use of the treatment. Determination of molecular structures of allergens and allergen-Ab complexes facilitates epitope mapping and enables a rational approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular surface area of Bet v 1 and is clearly conformational. A synthetic peptide representing a sequential motif in the epitope (11 of 16 residues) did not inhibit the binding of mAb BV16 to Bet v 1, illustrating limitations in the use of peptides for B cell epitope characterization. The single amino acid substitution, Glu(45)-Ser, was introduced in the epitope and completely abolished the binding of mAb ...
BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of theubiquitous PR-10 family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins. In recentyears, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity toBet v 1 was identified. In addition, determination of the Bet v 1structure revealed the existence of a large superfamily of structurallyrelated proteins. In this study, we aimed to identify and classify all Betv 1-related structures from the Protein Data Bank and all Bet v 1-relatedsequences from the Uniprot database. RESULTS: Structural comparisons ofrepresentative members of already known protein families structurallyrelated to Bet v 1 with all entries of the Protein Data Bank yielded 47structures with non-identical sequences. They were classified into elevenfamilies, five of which were newly identified and not included in theStructural Classification of Proteins database release 1.71. The taxonomicdistribution of these families extracted from the Pfam protein familydatabase ...
BACKGROUND: The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of theubiquitous PR-10 family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins. In recentyears, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity toBet v 1 was identified. In addition, determination of the Bet v 1structure revealed the existence of a large superfamily of structurallyrelated proteins. In this study, we aimed to identify and classify all Betv 1-related structures from the Protein Data Bank and all Bet v 1-relatedsequences from the Uniprot database. RESULTS: Structural comparisons ofrepresentative members of already known protein families structurallyrelated to Bet v 1 with all entries of the Protein Data Bank yielded 47structures with non-identical sequences. They were classified into elevenfamilies, five of which were newly identified and not included in theStructural Classification of Proteins database release 1.71. The taxonomicdistribution of these families extracted from the Pfam protein familydatabase ...
The mechanisms by which immune responses to nonpathogenic environmental antigens lead to either allergy or nonharmful immunity are unknown. Single allergen-specific T cells constitute a very small fraction of the whole CD4(+) T cell repertoire and can be isolated from the peripheral blood of humans according to their cytokine profile. Freshly purified interferon-gamma-, interleukin (IL)-4-, and IL-10-producing allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells display characteristics of T helper cell (Th)1-, Th2, and T regulatory (Tr)1-like cells, respectively. Tr1 cells consistently represent the dominant subset specific for common environmental allergens in healthy individuals; in contrast, there is a high frequency of allergen-specific IL-4-secreting T cells in allergic individuals. Tr1 cells use multiple suppressive mechanisms, IL-10 and TGF-beta as secreted cytokines, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death 1 as surface molecules. Healthy and allergic individuals exhibit all three ...
Purified Native Bovine Bos d 11 (β-casein) Allergen Protein from Creative Biomart. Native Bovine Bos d 11 (β-casein) Allergen Protein can be used for research.
In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, ...
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IgE mediated allergy to corn has been documented, in some cases, to relate to heat stable lipid transfer proteins from corn (e.g., Pastorello et al J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003 Oct;112(4):775-83). However, corn, like any food, is a collection of proteins and the complete array of corn proteins that may be responsible for allergic responses, presumably including labile proteins, has not been established. Based upon studies of other foods and allergens, we know that people may become sensitized to various combinations of proteins, and specific areas of proteins (epitopes), and that the specific pattern of response may be reflected in clinical outcomes. Some proteins of corn would presumably be more stable to processing (e.g., lipid transfer proteins) and digestion than others. Therefore, depending upon a persons corn allergy profile and the processing through which a corn ingredient went, one may predict clinical reactions would occur in some instances and not others. These variables, not ...
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bcFoods Item Allergens feature helps manufacturers and processors keep track of the item allergens that go into their products.
Allergen is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Allergen is available on the Drugs.com website.
Avoiding allergens during the holidays is important to your health. Learn more about avoiding allergens during the holidays at Discovery Health.
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Galant Food Co. in San Leandro, Calif. recalled about 1,650 pounds of fresh and frozen calzone products because of misbranding and an undeclared allergen.
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1341 /gene="cab" /number=2 BASE COUNT 524 a 334 c 339 g 549 t ORIGIN 1 tctagacttt ttaaaatgtt taattttttt ttacacatat ggtaaatatc tttattttta 61 aattatgtaa ttaaaaatta ctgttgaaac attgattcag aaacaaattt aaaaataaat 121 ttaaaatatt ttttatatta ttttagaata atatatttaa aagaatttct gctaattaaa 181 tatttttttt aaaatttatt attaattaat taaaaataaa aaaaataaaa accccaaacg 241 aaagaatggg aattgattta gatatctatc aaaagaatcc tgtaaatcat acgtggcatg 301 acagtagcct taaatctgtt gaaagaaaat ctaacgtgga ggaatccaca tccaatagat 361 tgctgctgac atgtacattt cctgaatcac ataaatcgcc acaacaatcg gcaaacagaa 421 ccaagtctaa tctaaaagct ctcaggcatc accatggcaa cctctgctat ccaacaatct 481 gctttcgctg gccaaacagc tttgaagcag tccaatgagc tcgtctgcaa gatcggtgcc 541 gtcggtggtg gtcgcgtttc catgcgtaga accgtcaaaa gtgctccaac cagcatctgg 601 tacgttacat tttgttgcat gcattaatct attttatgag caaaaaacat gagagagagg 661 gaaatattgt tctgattact tataaacagg tatggccctg accgcccaaa gtacttgggt 721 ccattctctg accaaatccc atcatacctg accggtgaat tccctgggga ctacgggtgg 781 gatactgctg gattatcagc ...
Что представляет собой березовый деготь, его основные свойства. От каких паразитов помогает избавиться данный препарат, схемы лечения. Противопоказания и недостатки березового дегтя.
যিকোনো মানুহৰে কোনো বস্তুলৈ এলাৰ্জি থাকিব পাৰে যদিও কিছুমান মানুহৰ এলাৰ্জি প্ৰৱণতা বেছি আৰু সোনকালে আক্ৰান্ত হয়। এলাৰ্জিৰ কাৰণো অসংখ্য। ফুলৰ ৰেণুৰ দৰে প্ৰাকৃতিক দ্ৰব্যৰ পৰা আৰম্ভ কৰি জৈৱ-ৰাসায়নিক প্ৰক্ৰিয়ালৈ এলাৰ্জিৰ কাৰণ হব পাৰে। এই ধৰণৰ কাৰকবোৰক এলাৰ্জেন(allergen) বোলা হয়।. যেতিয়া কোনো এলাৰ্জেন শৰীৰত প্ৰৱেশ কৰে বা তেনে ধৰণৰ প্ৰতিক্ৰিয়া সৃষ্টি কৰিব পৰা দ্ৰব্য শৰীৰত ...
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BY27 是一种有效、选择性的 BET BD2 抑制剂,对 BRD2,BRD3,BRD4 和 BRDT 的 BD2 结构域的选择性分别是 BD1 的 38、5、7 和 21 倍。BY27 具有抗癌作用。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
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Chimaeric toxins have considerable therapeutic potential to treat various malignancies. We have previously used the fungal ribonucleolytic toxin restrictocin to make chimaeric toxins in which the ligand was fused at either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of the toxin. Chimaeric toxins containing ligand at the C-terminus of restrictocin were shown to be more active than those having ligand at the N-terminus of the toxin. Here we describe the further engineering of restrictocin-based chimaeric toxins, anti-TFR(scFv)-restrictocin and restrictocin-anti-TFR(scFv), containing restrictocin and a single chain fragment variable (scFv) of a monoclonal antibody directed at the human transferrin receptor (TFR), to enhance their cell-killing activity. To promote the independent folding of the two proteins in the chimaeric toxin, a linear flexible peptide, Gly-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ser, was inserted between the toxin and the ligand to generate restrictocin-linker-anti-TFR(scFv) and anti-TFR(scFv)-linker-restrictocin. ...
Mugwort is a common name for several species of aromatic plants in the genus Artemisia. In Europe, mugwort most often refers to the species Artemisia vulgaris, or common mugwort. While other species are sometimes referred to by more specific common names, they may be called simply "mugwort" in many contexts. For example, one species, Artemisia argyi, is often called "mugwort" in the context of Traditional Chinese Medicine but may be also referred to by the more specific name "Chinese mugwort". Artemisia princeps is Korean mugwort (Korean name: ssuk, 쑥). It is also found in Japan and Japanese mugwort is known as yomogi (ヨモギ). Mugworts are used medicinally, especially in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean traditional medicine. Some mugworts have also found a use in modern medicine for their anti-herpetic effect. They are also used as an herb to flavor food. In Korea, mugworts were also used for plain, non-medicinal consumption; in South Korea, mugworts, called ssuk, are still used as a staple ...
Background. Several studies have investigated levels of T-cell-derived interleukin (IL)-10 in individuals with atopic dermatitis, with conflicting results. Aims/Hypothesis. In order to address whether stratification of disease severity may help resolve the different findings, the hypothesis was tested that individuals with severe atopic dermatitis have a lower frequency of circulating IL-10-producing, allergen-specific CD4+ T cells than do individuals with mild disease. Methods. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from individuals with severe (n = 12) and mild atopic dermatitis (n = 10) and from nonatopic controls (n = 10), we investigated production by CD4+ T cells of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 in response to phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin and Der p1 allergen. Results. It was observed that there were significantly higher frequencies of allergen-specific circulating CD4+ T cells producing TNF-α- IL-4-, IL-5- and IL-13, and lower frequencies of these
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to purify the major oak pollen allergen, Que a 1, to perform biochemical and immunological characterization of the allergen and to develop an experimental native (n) Que a 1 ImmunoCAP(R). METHODS: Que a 1 was purified from oak pollen extract using affinity chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional (2D) PAGE, mass spectrometry (MS), N-terminal sequencing and specific IgE inhibition on ImmunoCAP. Samples from 16 subjects sensitized to oak pollen were analyzed by ImmunoCAP for IgE reactivity to nQue a 1, and recombinant (r)Bet v 1 and 2 (profilin). They were also studied in IgE immunoblotting. RESULTS: The purity of nQue a 1 was ,95%, since a single band was observed on silver-stained SDS-PAGE. The identity was verified by MS analysis, and 2D-PAGE revealed several isoforms. The obtained N-terminal sequence of 50-amino-acid residues from nQue a 1 showed a 58-74% sequence identity with other pathogenesis-related class 10 allergens. Specific ...
Epidemiological studies have linked the high prevalence rates of IgE-mediated allergic diseases to an increase in exposure to traffic-related air pollutants such as diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). There is growing experimental evidence that organic compounds of DEPs, predominantly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), participate in the development and maintenance of allergic airway diseases. In this study we investigated the impact of organic extracts of urban aerosol (AERex) containing various PAH concentrations on the activation of human basophils. Whole blood samples from six birch pollen-allergic and five control subjects were repeatedly incubated in the presence of AERex with or without recombinant Bet v 1 (rBet v 1). Basophils were analyzed for CD63 expression as a measure of basophil activation by using multiparameter flow cytometry. Basophils, when exposed in vitro to AERex and rBet v 1, expressed CD63 significantly more than with antigen activation alone. AERex synergized with rBet ...
T cell lines (TCL) and CD4+ T cell clones (TCC) with specificity for the rye grass allergen Lolium perenne (Lol p) I were isolated from the blood of nine donors, six having active atopic disease, two being in remission, and one having IgE anti-Lol pI Abs but not atopic disease. The T cell epitopes of Lol pI were determined by TCLs and TCCs reactivity with 23 overlapping, 20 amino acid-long peptides spanning the entire length of the 230 amino acid-long allergen. In addition, the Th subsets (Th1, Th2, Th0, Thp) were determined by measuring IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 in the supernatants of TCC activated with Lol pI and irradiated APC. TCC from individuals from which a large panel of clones were obtained from 10(5) PBMC initial cultures recognized multiple peptides (5-9) and 23 overlapping peptides a total of 16 were recognized by at least one TCC from one of the patients. These 16 peptides were derived from all areas of the Lol pI molecule, indicating the ability of human Th cells to recognize many ...
SDAP (Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins) is a Web server that provides database information and various cobputational tools for the study of allergenic proteins. The database component of SDAP contains information the allergen name, source, sequence, structure, IgE epitopes, and literature references, and links to the major protein (PDB, SWISS-PROT, PIR, NCBI) and literature (PubMed, MEDLINE) servers. The computational component in SDAP uses an original algorithm based on conserved properties of amino acid side chains to identify regions of known allergens similar to user-supplied peptides or selected from the SDAP database of IgE epitopes. This and other bioinformatics tools can be used to rapidly determine potential cross-reactivities between allergens and to screen novel proteins for the presence of IgE epitopes they may share with known allergens. SDAP was developed guided by the allergens list from the IUIS (International Union of Immunological Societies) website, ...
Looking for online definition of common mugwort in the Medical Dictionary? common mugwort explanation free. What is common mugwort? Meaning of common mugwort medical term. What does common mugwort mean?
Familial vitamin E deficiency is caused by mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) gene. Kono et al. (p. 1106, published online 18 April; see the Perspective by Mesmin and Antonny) studied natural mutations in α-TTP. α-TTP bound phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates (PIPs), especially PI(4,5)P2, and a disease-related missense mutation abolished PIP binding but not α-tocopherol binding. The x-ray crystal structure of the α-TTP-PIP complex suggested that PIP binding opens the lid of the α-tocopherol-binding pocket to facilitate the release of α-tocopherol. Thus, PIP binding to α-TTP at the target membrane may facilitate the release of α-tocopherol in the hydrophobic pocket of α-TTP to the lipid bilayer of the target membrane, providing a mechanism for the transfer of lipids from the lipid-transfer protein to the target membrane.. ...
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AccessGUDID - ImmunoCAP Allergen t227, Allergen component nOle e 7 LTP, Olive (07333066005799)- ImmunoCAP Allergen t227, Allergen component nOle e 7 LTP, Olive
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Fast growing evergreen with a tall, pyramidal growth habit. Dark green foliage will become slightly bronzed in the winter. Attractive bark is soft red with a shredded surface texture. ...
Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes . Jerry R. Barrow ; Mary E. Lucero ; Ronald E. Aaltonen ;Terra Latinoamericana 2012, 30 (1). Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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3M Durapore Hypoallergenic Surgical Tape comes in 1/2, 1, 2, 3 inch rolls and has silk-like softness and is hypoallergenic. Buy this durable tape today.
The 14 major allergens are required by law to be declared on all packaging in bold and restaurants must provide allergen information to their customers.
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Question 2: Hypoallergenic pets still produce ________, but because of their coat type or absence of fur or absence of a gene that produces a certain protein, typically produce fewer allergens than others of the same species. ...
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Pure Encapsulations manufactures hypoallergenic, research-based dietary supplements that are designed to deliver predictable and desired results to help your body operate at its fullest potential. Committed to sourcing pure, premium ingredients.
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Sorry, but the advert you were looking for has expired. To see more employment opportunities with Rothamsted Research, please click here. Perhaps you were looking for something totally different? In that case, it might be best start a new job search from our Home Page. You might also find our Site Map useful too. ...
Can anyone share an Allergen Testing SOP? Short on time. Need help - posted in Allergen Management: Hello all, Can anyone please share an Allergen Testing SOP. My plant is preparing to undergo an BRC Audit , and we currently dont perform any allergen testing. We just ordered Neogen kits to test for the presense of milk and soy. Short on time here. need some help.
E I Du Pont De Nemours And (NYSE: DD) and 3M (NYSE:MMM) are both large-cap industrials companies, but which is the superior investment? We will contrast the two businesses based on the strength of their risk, profitability, institutional ownership, earnings, valuation, dividends and analyst recommendations. Risk & Volatility E I Du Pont De Nemours And […]
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Click HERE to view our Allergens and Macronutrients list ***PLEASE BE AWARE THE KITCHEN HANDLES ALL MAJOR ALLERGENS SO THERE MAY BE TRACE ELEMENTS IN OUR FOOD***
How to Safeguard Your Home Against Allergens. An allergen is any substance that sets off an allergic reaction. If you suffer from outdoor allergies, allergens within your home can exacerbate the problem. You can learn how to safeguard your...
Testiranje na alergije (pojedinačno ili paneli). U ponudi 650 alergena i 70 alergenih komponenti. Novi standard u alergološkom testiranju!
You have no job and no money! Whats the point in arresting you? Cant pay the lawyer or the court f ...Find answers to the question, Im Americas Most Wanted !facts Lol But Why Havent I Been Arrested Yet ? Is It The System Or Is It My Walls Lol from people who know at Ask Experience.
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P e t te si rady a zku enosti na t ma p i it u n ch boltc - je bolestiv .Chyst m na p i it u n ch boltc na plastickou chirurgii v Chotovin ch. A jeliko .
Once in a while a medicinal ally comes along that completely captivates my heart and mind. Over the last year or so the birch polypore fungus has been the ally in question and it is everything that the peoples medicine should be - local, abundant, safe and powerfully healing. Latin - Pitptoporus betulinus - Piptoporus…
Once in a while a medicinal ally comes along that completely captivates my heart and mind. Over the last year or so the birch polypore fungus has been the ally in question and it is everything that the peoples medicine should be - local, abundant, safe and powerfully healing. Latin - Pitptoporus betulinus - Piptoporus…
Pepin county, Wisconsin Plants Allergy Info for Research - Complete Online Significant Allergens and Plants Reference for Pepin county in Fall
Listed here are upcoming and recent events organized by AllerGen and/or its partners, or that are otherwise of relevance to the Network.. ...
Listed here are upcoming and recent events organized by AllerGen and/or its partners, or that are otherwise of relevance to the Network.. ...
Made with ingredients that are free from the top 8 allergens. It took over four years to create, and only the best ingredients made the cut ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen major allergen, Jun a 1. AU - Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi. AU - Goldblum, R. M.. AU - Kurosky, A.. AU - Wood, Thomas. AU - Schein, C. H.. AU - Brooks, E. G.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Background: Cedar pollens cause allergic disease in diverse geographic areas. We have recently purified and characterized the major mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen allergen, Jun a 1. Objective: A full-length complementary DNA for Jun a 1 was cloned and sequenced, and the recombinant protein was expressed. Methods: Messenger RNA from mountain cedar pollen was purified and Jun a 1 sequences were established with use of reverse transcriptase-PCR and primers based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Jun a 1 and the homologous protein Cry j 1. Portions of the nucleotide sequence were confirmed by comparison with N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the intact tryptic fragments of the purified native protein. Recombinant Jun a 1 was ...
Japanese cedar pollinosis collectively refers to an allergic disease caused by Japanese cedar pollen. Patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis primarily have allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis. Patients develop sneezing and nasal discharge immediately after Japanese cedar pollens enter their nose, and have nasal occlusion after a while. Also, when Japanese cedar pollens enter their eyes, they have itchy, runny and bloodshot eyes. When the symptoms are strong, antigen components of pollens not absorbed in the nose may flow from the nose to the throat, causing itchiness of the throat and coughing. Further, symptoms such as headache due to nasal occlusion, slight fever due to inflammatory reactions in the nose and the throat, and dullness may occur ...
Food allergens are a major public health concern. Among them, peanut allergy is one of the commonfood allergies. To avoid unexpected contact with food allergens, food labels are strictly used to indicate thepresence of specific allergens. With the increasing awareness of food allergies, the presence of undeclared peanut in cumin lead to huge recalls in recent years. Although ELISA is the most commonly used technique to detect allergens, its false-positive rate is a major concern due to its cross-reactivity. We developed a method with high specificity and sensitivity to overcome this issue by using a high sensitivity triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to detect peanut allergen Ara h1 in commercially available spices and seasonings. ...
Physician reviewed timothy grass pollen allergen extract patient information - includes timothy grass pollen allergen extract description, dosage and directions.
Cypress pollen is another source of pollen coronae in Japan. However, the season of Japanese cypress pollen is almost same as that of our cedar pollen so that it is hard to distinguish its contribution from the cedar pollens contribution. (The amount of cypress pollen is less than cedar pollen ...
IVTEAM #Intravenous literature: Lachapelle, J.M. (2014) A comparison of the irritant and allergenic properties of antiseptics. European Journal of Dermatology. February 3rd. [epub ahead of print].. Abstract:. Over recent years, interest in the use of antiseptics has been reinforced as these molecules are not concerned by the problem of bacterial resistance. Whereas the in vitro efficacy of antiseptics has been well-studied, much less is known regarding their irritant and allergenic properties. This review provides an update on the comparative irritant and allergenic properties of commonly-used antiseptics in medicine nowadays. All antiseptics have irritant properties, especially when they are misused. Povidone-iodine has an excellent profile in terms of allergenicity. Allergic contact dermatitis is uncommon but is often misdiagnosed by practitioners, who confuse allergy and irritation. Chlorhexidine has been incriminated in some cases of allergic contact dermatitis; it is considered a relatively ...
Peanut allergy is one of the most serious of the immediate hypersensitivity reactions to foods in terms of persistence and severity of the reaction and appears to be a growing problem. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is currently being examined as a treatment option because of the persistence of this hypersensitivity reaction and the lack of effective treatment. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of peanut-specific IT is vital to ensure the eventual, successful treatment of peanut-allergic patients.. The goal of this proposal is to develop peanut immunotherapy (IT) for patients with peanut allergic reactions. This innovative application is designed to utilize the extensive knowledge of the allergens involved in peanut hypersensitivity to devise an immunotherapeutic approach that would lower the risk of anaphylactic reactions and would down regulate peanut-specific T cells in peanut-allergic patients. Previous attempts to utilize peanut-specific immunotherapy have been unsuccessful ...

Frontiers | Transient Expression of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen in Nicotiana benthamiana for Use as a Diagnostic Antigen | Plant...Frontiers | Transient Expression of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen in Nicotiana benthamiana for Use as a Diagnostic Antigen | Plant...

Plant-based systems can be a safe and cost-effective alternative for the production of dengue virus antigens. In this work, two ... Plant-based systems can be a safe and cost-effective alternative for the production of dengue virus antigens. In this work, two ... The generated plant made NS1, even without extensive purification, showed potential to be used for the development of the NS1 ... Interestingly, it was found that transient production of NS1-ER and NS1 ELP-ER using vacuum infiltration of whole plants, which ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2019.01674/full

A Plant-Produced Antigen Elicits Potent Immune Responses against West Nile Virus in MiceA Plant-Produced Antigen Elicits Potent Immune Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice

Characterization of Antiserum against Plant-Derived DIII Antigen. Antisera obtained at week 11 from mice of the 25 μg plant- ... A Plant-Produced Antigen Elicits Potent Immune Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice. Junyun He,1 Li Peng,1 Huafang Lai,1 ... For example, we used nontransgenic N. benthamiana plants for DIII production in this study. As a result, the wild-type plant ... Plant-Produced DIII Elicits Potent Systemic Immune Response in Mice. To evaluate the immunogenicity of plant-derived DIII, BALB ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/952865/

Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants | SpringerLinkExpression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants | SpringerLink

Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the s gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacteriummediated ... The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants ... Mason HS, Lam DMK, Arntzen CJ (1992) Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 89: ... Richter LJ, Thanavala Y, Arntzen CJ, Mason HS (2000) Production of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants for oral ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00425-005-1556-y

Frontiers | Antigen Production in Plant to Tackle Infectious Diseases Flare Up: The Case of SARS | Plant ScienceFrontiers | Antigen Production in Plant to Tackle Infectious Diseases Flare Up: The Case of SARS | Plant Science

For the M protein, this is the first description of production in plants, while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that ... The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for ... The availability of recombinant N and M proteins from plants opens the way to further evaluation of their potential utility for ... while for plant-derived N protein we demonstrate that it is recognized by sera of patients from the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00054/full

PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. | Plant CellPCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. | Plant Cell

Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene.. S Kosugi, Y Ohashi ... The Plant Cell Sep 1997, 9 (9) 1607-1619; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.9.9.1607 ... The Plant Cell Sep 1997, 9 (9) 1607-1619; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.9.9.1607 ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/9/9/1607

PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. | Plant CellPCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. | Plant Cell

Your Name) has sent you a message from Plant Cell Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Cell web ... PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene.. S Kosugi, Y Ohashi ... The Plant Cell Sep 1997, 9 (9) 1607-1619; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.9.9.1607 ... The Plant Cell Sep 1997, 9 (9) 1607-1619; DOI: 10.1105/tpc.9.9.1607 ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/9/9/1607?ijkey=ebbaf29c09907835193316fd92dfeac21cf4439e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Localization of Phytopathogenic Bacterial-Antigens in Plant-Tissue Sections by Immunoprinting Elisa using Biotinilated...Localization of Phytopathogenic Bacterial-Antigens in Plant-Tissue Sections by Immunoprinting Elisa using Biotinilated...

Cambra, M., Cambra, M.A., Gorris, M. T., Lopez, M.M. (1994). Localization of Phytopathogenic Bacterial-Antigens in Plant-Tissue ... Localization of Phytopathogenic Bacterial-Antigens in Plant-Tissue Sections by Immunoprinting Elisa using Biotinilated ...
more infohttp://redivia.gva.es/handle/20.500.11939/4936

Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells ...Phytochemical-rich medicinal plant extracts suppress bacterial antigens-induced inflammation in human tonsil epithelial cells ...

Results The herbal plant extracts (≤5 µg/mL) were not cytotoxic to HTonEpiC. The extracts exhibited a broad range of reduction ... This study evaluated anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemical-rich extracts prepared from 12 herbal plants using human ... bacterial antigens) for 4 h and then exposed to ethanol extracts (EE) or aqueous extracts (AE) for 20 h. The secretion of four ... There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/articles/3469/

https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:188209https://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:188209

Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties Anne-Marie Bruyns, Geert De Jaeger, Myriam ... Bacterial and plant-produced scFv proteins have similar antigen-binding properties. ISSN:. 0014-5793. Author:. Bruyns, Anne- ... "Bacterial and Plant-produced scFv Proteins Have Similar Antigen-binding Properties." FEBS LETTERS 386.1 (1996): 5-10. Print. ... "Bacterial and Plant-produced scFv Proteins Have Similar Antigen-binding Properties." Febs Letters 386 (1): 5-10. ...
more infohttps://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:188209

Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens : Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result...Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens : Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result...

Furthermore, the plant-expressed antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicityin mice fed the transgenic plants. After oral ... Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing Rift Valley fever virus antigens: Mice exhibit systemic immune responses as the result ... Antigen production, Arabidopsis thaliana, Rift valley fever virus, Plant vaccine, Transformation National Category Immunology ... Here, we report the expression in transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) of Rift Valley fever virusantigens. The antigens ...
more infohttp://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:949160

Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC dia | Open-iPlant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC dia | Open-i

Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (A) Recognition of ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 by three different ... Figure 4: Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (A) Recognition of ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 by three ... Figure 4: Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 as antigen for EC diagnosis. (A) Recognition of ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 by three ... Plant purified TG2 recognition was also assayed by Western Blot (Figure 4C) confirming that the full-length ER- and vac-TG2 ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4664624_fpls-06-01067-g004&req=4

Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants<...Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants<...

Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. / ... Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. ... Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. In ... Geminiviral vectors based on bean yellow dwarf virus for production of vaccine antigens and monoclonal antibodies in plants. ...
more infohttps://asu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/geminiviral-vectors-based-on-bean-yellow-dwarf-virus-for-producti

CDC - Asthma and Allergies: Prevention of Work-related Asthma: Study Details - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health TopicCDC - Asthma and Allergies: Prevention of Work-related Asthma: Study Details - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic

Animal-derived antigens, Plants. Specific Agent. Cow dander, grains. Occupation. Farmers. Outcome/Diagnosis. Occupational ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/niosh-rhd/asthma/StudyDetails.aspx?study_id=40

CDC - Asthma and Allergies: Prevention of Work-related Asthma: Study Search Results - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health TopicCDC - Asthma and Allergies: Prevention of Work-related Asthma: Study Search Results - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic

Animal-derived antigens. Laboratory animal allergy (LAA). details. Primary. Fishwick D. 2011. HMW. Flour dust. Plants. ... Plants. Latex aeroallergen levels. details. Secondary. Hinze. 1997. HMW. Cow hair allergen. Animal-derived antigens. ... Animal-derived antigens, Plants. Occupational asthma. details. Secondary. Talini D. 2013. LMW. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI). ... Plants. Occupational Asthma. details. Primary. Thulin. 2002. HMW. Laboratory animal allergen. Animal-derived antigens. ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/niosh-rhd/asthma/StudyList.aspx

Pharmaceutical proteins in plants: A strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens -...Pharmaceutical proteins in plants: A strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens -...

Production of protective antigens in transgenic plants, or "pharming," is a promising emerging approach, and a zoonosis-like TB ... Pharmaceutical proteins in plants: A strategic genetic engineering approach for the production of tuberculosis antigens. ... component is aimed at assessing the production efficacy and stability of the TB antigens in different compartments of the plant ...
more infohttp://publications.cirad.fr/une_notice.php?dk=547462

Allergies - Health Video: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaAllergies - Health Video: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Allergens like pollen are nothing more than foreign plant antigens. The stimulus for sneezing gets triggered when allergens ... Allergens like pollen are nothing more than foreign plant antigens. The stimulus for sneezing gets triggered when allergens ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/anatomyvideos/000002.htm

IFN-γ Mediates Crescent Formation and Cell-Mediated Immune Injury in Murine Glomerulonephritis | American Society of NephrologyIFN-γ Mediates Crescent Formation and Cell-Mediated Immune Injury in Murine Glomerulonephritis | American Society of Nephrology

The current studies use a model of crescentic GN induced by a planted exogenous antigen, sheep globulin, to address the ... These studies use a model of proliferative, crescentic GN induced by a planted exogenous antigen, which is CD4+-dependent in ... Total antigen-specific Ig and splenocyte interleukin-2 production were unchanged, but antigen-specific serum IgG2a was reduced ... Although in many forms of human GN the antigens involved are unknown, GN may result from immune responses to exogenous antigens ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/10/4/752?ijkey=c7083f179c06603af8f89e0a2aabbe070165ddcd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Outdoor air pollution, climatic changes and allergic bronchial asthma | European Respiratory SocietyOutdoor air pollution, climatic changes and allergic bronchial asthma | European Respiratory Society

Plant-derived allergens. Pollen in urban areas. Respiratory allergy induced by antigens released by pollen grains is very ... Other plant-derived antigens responsible for epidemic asthma in urban areas. Soybean dust was responsible for outbreaks of ... However, as the exposure level increases, there may be biochemical alterations of the plants 158 (table 3⇓). Plants can absorb ... Air pollution can influence the plant allergenic content, and by affecting plant growth, it can affect both the amount of ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/20/3/763?ijkey=7ca61a92f3edac3d923a106800d2c7e74c32cca5&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Pathology Flashcards by John DeWaard | BrainscapePathology Flashcards by John DeWaard | Brainscape

Binding to extrinsic antigens *Planted antigens include DNA nucleosomes, other nuclear proteins, bacterial, or other microbial ... Immune-mediated deposition of antigen/antibody complexes derived from bacterial antigens after infection *Infection is resolved ... Likely a consequence of antigen-antibody complex deposition and complement activation. *Antigens may be from infection, ... or to extrinsic molecules planted w/in the glomerulus *Binding to intrinsic glomerular antigens *Primary membranous nephropathy ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pathology-6828613/packs/10860859

Systemic lupus erythematosus - WikipediaSystemic lupus erythematosus - Wikipedia

Autoreactive B cells, maturated coincidentally, normally do not receive survival signals by antigen planted on follicular ... In close proximity to TBM, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are localised in GC, which attach antigen material to their surface ... Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... That leads to maturation of DCs and also to the presentation of intracellular antigens of late apoptotic or secondary necrotic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systemic_lupus_erythematosus

Allergies | Multimedia Encyclopedia | Health Information | St. Lukes HospitalAllergies | Multimedia Encyclopedia | Health Information | St. Luke's Hospital

Allergens like pollen are nothing more than foreign plant antigens. The stimulus for sneezing gets triggered when allergens ...
more infohttps://www.stlukes-stl.com/health-content/health-ency-multimedia/17/000002.htm

International Conference on Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin in September 2021 in VancouverInternational Conference on Advances in Cellular Immunology and Auto Immunity, Immunoglobulin in September 2021 in Vancouver

Autoantibodies, auto-antigens and vaccine antigens in plant cells. Nucleic acid associated autoantigens. Intracellular ... Tumor antigens and recombinant autoantigens. Autoantibody explosion. Cellular and retinal auto antigens. Auto-antibodies in ...
more infohttps://waset.org/advances-in-cellular-immunology-and-auto-immunity-immunoglobulin-conference-in-september-2021-in-vancouver

RGD Gene Chemical Interaction Report - Rat Genome DatabaseRGD Gene Chemical Interaction Report - Rat Genome Database

zopolrestat inhibits the reaction [Antigens, Plant results in increased expression of IL13 mRNA]. PMID:21334316. ...
more infohttps://rgd.mcw.edu/rgdweb/report/annotation/table.html?term=CHEBI:46609&id=68949

hala | Institute of Experimental Botany CAShala | Institute of Experimental Botany CAS

Plant antigens cross-react with rat polyclonal antibodies against KLH-conjugated peptides. ... PLANT CELL 2010 Fulltext: PDF link on intranet only * Arabidopsis RAB geranylgeranyl transferase beta-subunit mutant is ... PLANT CELL 20 1330-1345 2008 Fulltext: PDF link on intranet only ... Evolution of the land plant exocyst complexes Cvrčková F., ... Juraj Sekereš (Cell Biology Lab) - EXO70A1 targets the plant exocyst complex to the plasma membrane via interactions with ...
more infohttp://www.ueb.cas.cz/en/users/hala
  • This hypothesis was tested by comparing the development of GN in C57BL/6 mice deficient in the gene for IFN-γ (IFN-γ -/-) with GN in genetically normal C57BL/6 mice (IFN-γ +/+), by examining glomerular crescent formation and effector pathways of glomerular injury, and by assessing the nature of the systemic immune response to the nephritogenic antigen. (asnjournals.org)
  • Indeed, virus-specific and 'orphan' vaccine candidates and therapeutics represent one of the most interesting applications of the plant-based technology, especially when it is necessary to produce 'rapid response' vaccines such as those directed against bioterrorism agents and diseases with pandemic potential, like influenza. (frontiersin.org)
  • These are promising findingsand provide a basis for further studies on edible plant vaccines against the Rift Valley fever virus. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present invention provides pharmaceutical compositions of such antigens and/or vaccines. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 were recognized by three anti-TG2 monoclonal antibodies that bind different epitopes proving that plant-produced antigen has immunochemical characteristics similar to those of human TG2. (nih.gov)
  • To test their usefulness as antigen their recognition by the mAbs 2G3, 5G7, or 4E1, which recognize different TG2 epitopes, was analyzed by immunoblot. (nih.gov)
  • Both vac-TG2 and ER-TG2 were positively recognized by these antibodies as is shown Figure 4A, confirming that although in humans TG2 is a localized in the cytosol, the introduction into the plant secretory pathway do not affect the structure of the epitopes recognized by these mAbs. (nih.gov)
  • The authors thank Dr. G.D. May, Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant research Inc., Ithaca, NY, USA, for providing the EFE gene promoter of banana. (springer.com)
  • PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. (plantcell.org)
  • After oral intake of fresh transgenic plant material, a proportionof the mice elicited specific IgG antibody responses, as compared to the control animals that were fedwild-type plants and of which none sero-converted. (diva-portal.org)
  • The other examines the host's immune response to an antigen planted in glomeruli ( 4 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Use of transgenic carrot plants producing human interleukin-18 for modulation of mouse immune response," in New Research on Biotechnology in Biology and Medicine , A. M. Egorov and G. Zaikov, Eds. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to test the performance of the plant purified ER-TG2 and vac-TG2 version in CD screening test an ELISA was performed using a pool of 12 sera of CD patient and control healthy donors (Figure 4B). (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we show that transgenic plants can be readily used to express and produce Rift Valley Fever virusproteins, and that the plants are immunogenic when given orally to mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • In: Cellular and Molecular Biology of Plant Stress, UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology, New Series. (springer.com)
  • The basic principle behind the practice of immunization is that the body's own immune system is stimulated to produce a humoral or cellular response against a specific disease-causing organism by exposing the system to an antigen of the causative agent without actually bringing on the full symptoms of the disease. (google.ca)
  • Dickman MB (2004) Can model plants help banana improvement through biotechnology? (springer.com)
  • There is a growing interest in discovering plant-based anti-inflammatory compounds as potential alternatives to conventional drugs. (peerj.com)
  • Therefore, it can be thought of as an antigen that is present in some members of the same species, but is not common to all members of that species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen preparation plays a crucial role in the development of a diagnostic test, and plants represent an ideal biofactory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • First, it must be ensured that the stimulatory antigen is no longer capable of causing the disease with which it is associated, or at most only causes subclinical symptoms. (google.ca)
  • Several factors influence this interaction, i.e. , type of air pollutant, plant species, nutrient balance, climatic factors, degree of airway sensitisation and hyperresponsiveness of exposed subjects. (ersjournals.com)
  • The role for the exocyst complex subunits Exo70B2 and Exo70H1 in the plant-pathogen interaction. (cas.cz)
  • The generated plant made NS1, even without extensive purification, showed potential to be used for the development of the NS1 diagnostic tests in resource-limited areas where dengue is endemic. (frontiersin.org)