Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (1/1378)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

Apoptosis during breast carcinoma progression. (2/1378)

The purpose of this study was to investigate apoptosis, proliferation, and the expression of apoptosis-influencing proteins bcl-2 and bax and estrogen and progesterone receptors during breast carcinoma progression. The material consisted of 53 paired breast carcinoma samples representing primary and recurrent tumors and 24 control samples. The recurrent sample was located either in the breast scar tissue or at a distant metastatic site. Apoptosis was detected both morphologically and by 3' end labeling of fragmented DNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated immunohistochemically by the MIB index. The expressions of bcl-2, bax, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were studied immunohistochemically. There was a significant increase in the extent of apoptosis and proliferation in recurrent tumors compared to the primary lesions (P = 0.015 and P = 0.038, respectively). In primary tumors with an apoptotic index of >0.50%, the survival of the patients was significantly shorter (P = 0.015). In cases with a significant increase in apoptosis or proliferation in the recurrent tumor, the survival of the patients was significantly shorter (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively). Of the variables analyzed, bcl-2 expression and a positive estrogen receptor status were significantly associated with a low extent of apoptosis (P = 0.010 and P = 0.042, respectively). Their changes were parallel to the changes in apoptosis during tumor progression, although the associations did not reach statistical significance. The results show that increased apoptosis is associated with a worse prognosis in breast carcinoma. A significant increase in apoptosis in recurrent breast carcinoma lesions predicts a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Yeast and human genes that affect the Escherichia coli SOS response. (3/1378)

The sequencing of the human genome has led to the identification of many genes whose functions remain to be determined. Because of conservation of genetic function, microbial systems have often been used for identification and characterization of human genes. We have investigated the use of the Escherichia coli SOS induction assay as a screen for yeast and human genes that might play a role in DNA metabolism and/or in genome stability. The SOS system has previously been used to analyze bacterial and viral genes that directly modify DNA. An initial screen of meiotically expressed yeast genes revealed several genes associated with chromosome metabolism (e.g., RAD51 and HHT1 as well as others). The SOS induction assay was then extended to the isolation of human genes. Several known human genes involved in DNA metabolism, such as the Ku70 end-binding protein and DNA ligase IV, were identified, as well as a large number of previously unknown genes. Thus, the SOS assay can be used to identify and characterize human genes, many of which may participate in chromosome metabolism.  (+info)

Replication-mediated DNA damage by camptothecin induces phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-dependent protein kinase and dissociates RPA:DNA-PK complexes. (4/1378)

Replication protein A (RPA) is a DNA single-strand binding protein essential for DNA replication, recombination and repair. In human cells treated with the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin or etoposide (VP-16), we find that RPA2, the middle-sized subunit of RPA, becomes rapidly phosphorylated. This response appears to be due to DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and to be independent of p53 or the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. RPA2 phosphorylation in response to camptothecin required ongoing DNA replication. Camptothecin itself partially inhibited DNA synthesis, and this inhibition followed the same kinetics as DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation were prevented by the cell-cycle checkpoint abrogator 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which markedly potentiates camptothecin cytotoxicity. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was found to bind RPA which was replaced by the Ku autoantigen upon camptothecin treatment. DNA-PKcs interacted directly with RPA1 in vitro. We propose that the encounter of a replication fork with a topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex could lead to a juxtaposition of replication fork-associated RPA and DNA double-strand end-associated DNA-PK, leading to RPA2 phosphorylation which may signal the presence of DNA damage to an S-phase checkpoint mechanism. KEYWORDS: camptothecin/DNA damage/DNA-dependent protein kinase/RPA2 phosphorylation  (+info)

OBA/Ku86: DNA binding specificity and involvement in mammalian DNA replication. (5/1378)

Ors-binding activity (OBA) was previously semipurified from HeLa cells through its ability to interact specifically with the 186-basepair (bp) minimal replication origin of ors8 and support ors8 replication in vitro. Here, through competition band-shift analyses, using as competitors various subfragments of the 186-bp minimal ori, we identified an internal region of 59 bp that competed for OBA binding as efficiently as the full 186-bp fragment. The 59-bp fragment has homology to a 36-bp sequence (A3/4) generated by comparing various mammalian replication origins, including the ors. A3/4 is, by itself, capable of competing most efficiently for OBA binding to the 186-bp fragment. Band-shift elution of the A3/4-OBA complex, followed by Southwestern analysis using the A3/4 sequence as probe, revealed a major band of approximately 92 kDa involved in the DNA binding activity of OBA. Microsequencing analysis revealed that the 92-kDa polypeptide is identical to the 86-kDa subunit of human Ku antigen. The affinity-purified OBA fraction obtained using an A3/4 affinity column also contained the 70-kDa subunit of Ku and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. In vitro DNA replication experiments in the presence of A3/4 oligonucleotide or anti-Ku70 and anti-Ku86 antibodies implicate Ku in mammalian DNA replication.  (+info)

Androgen receptor expression in male breast carcinoma: lack of clinicopathological association. (6/1378)

Androgen receptor (AR) expression was retrospectively analysed in 47 primary male breast carcinomas (MBCs) using a monoclonal antibody on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. AR immunopositivity was detected in 16 out of 47 (34%) cases. No association was found with patient age, tumour stage, progesterone receptor (PGR) or p53 protein expression. Well-differentiated MBCs tended to be AR positive more often than poorly differentiated ones (P = 0.08). A negative association was found between ARs and cell proliferative activity: MIB-1 scores were higher (25.4%) in AR-negative than in AR-positive cases (21.11%; P = 0.04). A strong positive association (P = 0.0001) was found between ARs and oestrogen receptors (ERs). In univariate analysis, ARs (as well as ERs and PGRs) were not correlated with overall survival; tumour histological grade (P = 0.02), size (P = 0.01), p53 expression (P = 0.0008) and MIB-1 scores (P = 0.0003) had strong prognostic value. In multivariate survival analysis, only p53 expression (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.02) retained independent prognostic significance. In conclusion, the lack of association between AR and most clinicopathological features and survival, together with the absence of prognostic value for ER/PGR status, suggest that MBCs are biologically different from female breast carcinomas and make it questionable to use antihormonal therapy for patients with MBC.  (+info)

The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic activity regulates DNA end processing by means of Ku entry into DNA. (7/1378)

The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is required for double-strand break repair in mammalian cells. DNA-PK contains the heterodimer Ku and a 460-kDa serine/threonine kinase catalytic subunit (p460). Ku binds in vitro to DNA termini or other discontinuities in the DNA helix and is able to enter the DNA molecule by an ATP-independent process. It is clear from in vitro experiments that Ku stimulates the recruitment to DNA of p460 and activates the kinase activity toward DNA-binding protein substrates in the vicinity. Here, we have examined in human nuclear cell extracts the influence of the kinase catalytic activity on Ku binding to DNA. We demonstrate that, although Ku can enter DNA from free ends in the absence of p460 subunit, the kinase activity is required for Ku translocation along the DNA helix when the whole Ku/p460 assembles on DNA termini. When the kinase activity is impaired, DNA-PK including Ku and p460 is blocked at DNA ends and prevents their processing by either DNA polymerization, degradation, or ligation. The control of Ku entry into DNA by DNA-PK catalytic activity potentially represents an important regulation of DNA transactions at DNA termini.  (+info)

Self assembly of NuMA: multiarm oligomers as structural units of a nuclear lattice. (8/1378)

NuMA is a nuclear matrix protein in interphase and relocates to the spindle poles in mitotis. Different NuMA constructs, in which either N- or C-terminal domains were deleted, and the full-length construct were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the NuMA polypeptides were purified to homogeneity and allowed to assemble in vitro. Electron microscopy showed that NuMA can build multiarm oligomers by interaction of the C-terminal globular domains. Each arm of the oligomer corresponds to a NuMA dimer. Oligomers with up to 10 or 12 arms have been observed for both full-length NuMA and for constructs that still contain the proximal part of the C-terminal tail domain. Other results from this laboratory have shown that transient overexpression of NuMA in HeLa cells induces a nuclear scaffold with a quasi-hexagonal organization that can fill the nuclei. Here we show that computer modelling of the three-dimensional packing of NuMA into such scaffolds can explain the different spacing of the hexagons seen when constructs with different coiled-coil lengths are used. Thus, the 12 arm oligomer, for which we have in vitro evidence, may be the structural unit from which the nuclear scaffold in transfected cells is built.  (+info)

*Extractable nuclear antigens

... are over 100 different soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens. Autoantibodies to these antigens ... On anti-nuclear antibody tests, these antigens have a speckled pattern. ENAs originally referred to proteins found in a saline ... Extractable Nuclear Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Lock, R.J., Unsworth, D.J. Antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. Has technological drift affected clinical interpretation ...

*Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

... (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic ... "Entrez Gene: PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Leonardi E, Girlando S, Serio G, Mauri FA, Perrone G, Scampini S, Dalla ... Webb G, Parsons P, Chenevix-Trench G (1991). "Localization of the gene for human proliferating nuclear antigen/cyclin by in ... Matsumoto K, Moriuchi T, Koji T, Nakane PK (1987). "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for rat proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...

*Sp100 nuclear antigen

... is an interferon stimulated antigen found in the bile duct of primary biliary cirrhosis. Histologically ... Szostecki C, Guldner HH, Netter HJ, Will H (1990). "Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human nuclear antigen ... Both major classes of Sp100 splice variant proteins localize in part to nuclear dots/PML bodies and other nuclear domains. ... 1999). "Splice variants of the nuclear dot-associated Sp100 protein contain homologies to HMG-1 and a human nuclear ...

*Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1

1995). "Inhibition of antigen processing by the internal repeat region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1". Nature. ... Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional, dimeric viral protein associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It ... Wilson, J.B.; J.L. Bell; A.J. Levine (1996). "Expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 induces B cell neoplasia in ... 2003). "The EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) enhances B cell immortalization several thousandfold". PNAS. 100 (19): 10989-10994. ...

*Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3

The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) is a family of viral proteins associated with the Epstein-Barr virus.[ ... "SCFSkp2 complex targeted by Epstein-Barr virus essential nuclear antigen". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (5): 1749-63. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... Knight JS, Sharma N, Robertson ES (2005). "Epstein-Barr virus latent antigen 3C can mediate the degradation of the ...

*Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2

The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) is one of the six EBV viral nuclear proteins expressed in latently infected B ... 1993). "The Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2 Interacts with an EBNA2 Responsive Cis-element of the Terminal Protein 1 Gene ... 1997). "Both Epstein-Barr Viral Nuclear Antigen 2 (EBNA2) and Activated Notch1 Transactivate Genes by Interacting with the ... to generate a 120kb transcript that encodes all nuclear antigens required for immortalization by EBV.2 Mutation of EBNA2 amino ...

*Epstein-Barr virus nuclear-antigen internal ribosomal entry site

The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear-antigen internal ribosome entry site (EBNA IRES) is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that ... untranslated region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene. The EBNA IRES allows EBNA1 translation to occur ...

*RIOX2

"Entrez Gene: MINA MYC induced nuclear antigen". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two ...

*MCL1

Differential role of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (50): 39458-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006626200. PMID ...

*Ki-67 (protein)

... antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67). Antigen KI-67 is a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be ... Gerdes J, Schwab U, Lemke H, Stein H (1983). "Production of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with a human nuclear antigen ... PCNA - Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, expressed during the DNA synthesis. Immunofluorescent antibody staining against ... Antigen KI-67 also known as Ki-67 or MKI67 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MKI67 gene ( ...

*Anti-nuclear antibody

gp210 is a 200kDa protein involved in anchoring components of the nuclear pore to the nuclear membrane. The p62 antigen is a ... known as extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs). This led to the characterisation of ENA antigens and their respective antibodies ... The antigens of the anti-Sm antibodies are the core units of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), termed A to G, and ... The sp100 antigen is found within nuclear bodies; large protein complexes in the nucleus that may have a role in cell growth ...

*POLDIP2

The encoded protein also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Some transcripts of this gene overlap in a tail-to- ... that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J Biol Chem. 278 (12): ... 2007). "The cell adhesion receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 regulates nucleocytoplasmic ...

*Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody

GS-ANA are antibodies directed to granulocyte specific nuclear antigens. Atypical ANCA are thought to be antigens similar to ... p-ANCA without nuclear extension has perinuclear staining without nuclear extension and GS-ANA shows nuclear staining on ... The c-ANCA antigen is specifically proteinase 3 (PR3). p-ANCA antigens include myeloperoxidase (MPO) and bacterial permeability ... The most common antigens used on an ELISA microtitre plate are MPO and PR3, which are usually tested for after a positive IF ...

*LANA

The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) or latent nuclear antigen (LNA, LNA-1), is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... Kellam P, Boshoff C, Whitby D, Matthews S, Weiss RA, Talbot SJ (1997). "Identification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1 ... Garber AC, Hu J, Renne R (July 2002). "Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) cooperatively binds to two sites within the ... Lim C, Sohn H, Gwack Y, Choe J (November 2000). "Latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ...

*Cyclin D1

Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A (April 1994). "D-type cyclin-binding regions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. ... "Cyclin D1 repression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function". Proc. Natl. ... Baldin V, Lukas J, Marcote MJ, Pagano M, Draetta G (May 1993). "Cyclin D1 is a nuclear protein required for cell cycle ... Independent of CDK, cyclin D1 binds to nuclear receptors (including estrogen receptor α, thyroid hormone receptor, PPARγ and AR ...

*Cyclin D3

Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A (1994). "D-type cyclin-binding regions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. Biol. ...

*Ubiquitin

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ... The ubiquitination system functions in a wide variety of cellular processes, including: Antigen processing Apoptosis Biogenesis ... human leukocyte antigen F-associated (FAT10), autophagy-8 (ATG8) and -12 (ATG12), Few ubiquitin-like protein (FUB1), MUB ( ...

*GADD45A

1994). "Interaction of the p53-regulated protein Gadd45 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Science. 266 (5189): 1376-80 ... 2000). "Characterization of MyD118, Gadd45, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interacting domains. PCNA impedes ... and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) interacting domains. PCNA impedes MyD118 AND Gadd45-mediated negative growth ... and its interactions with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Aurora A kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (29): 22196-201. ...

*NTHL1

2004). "Human NTH1 physically interacts with p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 321 (1 ...

*EBNA1BP2

Henning D, Valdez BC (2001). "Expression of p40/Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 binding protein 2". Biochem. Biophys. Res ... a human protein that interacts with sequences of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 important for plasmid maintenance". J ... Reimers K, Antoine M, Zapatka M, Blecken V, Dickson C, Kiefer P (Jul 2001). "NoBP, a nuclear fibroblast growth factor 3 binding ... "Identification and partial characterization of a Mr 40,000 nucleolar antigen associated with cell proliferation". Cancer Res. ...

*SHPRH

"Human SHPRH is a ubiquitin ligase for Mms2-Ubc13-dependent polyubiquitylation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". ... "Human SHPRH suppresses genomic instability through proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". The Journal of Cell ...

*Ubiquitin C

"Human HLTF functions as a ubiquitin ligase for proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". Proceedings of the ... "Polyubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen by HLTF and SHPRH prevents genomic instability from stalled ...

*HLTF

"Human HLTF functions as a ubiquitin ligase for proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U ...

*GADD45G

... with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (4): 2766-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Yi YW, Kim D, Jung N, Hong SS, Lee HS, Bae I (2000). "Gadd45 family proteins are coactivators of nuclear hormone receptors". ...

*DNA mismatch repair

Flores-Rozas H, Clark D, Kolodner RD (2000). "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Msh2p-Msh6p interact to form an active ... "The MutSalpha-proliferating cell nuclear antigen interaction in human DNA mismatch repair". Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...

*Negrito

Genetic studies on Philippine Negritos, based on polymorphic blood enzymes and antigens, showed that they were similar to their ... likewise noted that the Andamanese's nuclear DNA clusters with that of other Andamanese Islanders, as they carry Haplogroup D- ...
A significant association was recently demonstrated between the presence of anti-Ku antibodies and musculoskeletal features in SSc [8]. The current study focuses on the differences between the clinical presentation of anti-Ku p70- and anti-Ku p80-positive patients, regardless of their diagnoses. The study included six European centers, all known for their expertise in the field of systemic autoimmune diseases. With a total of 73 patients, this cohort is the largest to date and showed an overall 16% higher prevalence of antibodies detected against the Ku p70 subunit as compared with Ku p80, which is a novel finding. These data differ from those of a study by Wang et al. [23], in which they showed a 28% higher prevalence of autoantibodies against p80 on a total of 58 systemic autoimmune patients; however, this population was examined in the United States and presumably differs from our European cohort. Additionally, the anti-Ku antibodies were detected with ELISA or immunoprecipitation by using ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) pathway is one of the major mechanisms for repairing DSBs (double-strand breaks) that occur in genomic DNA. In common with eukaryotic organisms, many prokaryotes possess a conserved NHEJ apparatus that is essential for the repair of DSBs arising in the stationary phase of the cell cycle. Although the bacterial NHEJ complex is much more minimal than its eukaryotic counterpart, both pathways share a number of common mechanistic features. The relative simplicity of the prokaryotic NHEJ complex makes it a tractable model system for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DSB repair. The present review describes recent advances in our understanding of prokaryotic end-joining, focusing primarily on biochemical, structural and cellular aspects of the mycobacterial NHEJ repair pathway.. ...
Double strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious type of DNA damage because they can cause the loss or rearrangement of genomic sequences. Eukaryotic cells have two major repair pathways to tackle this threat: nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ involves the DNA end-binding protein Ku and ligase LIG4, which directly ligates the two DSB ends together. However, sometimes, a short DNA sequence is inserted or deleted in the process or, worse, wrong ends are joined, leading to translocations. In contrast, HR is largely error-free, as it uses an undamaged homologous chromatid as template for repair. The search for this homologous template requires a 3′ single stranded DNA (ssDNA) overhang at the site of damage, which is initiated by the MRN complex (MRX in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with the help of CtIP/Sae2, and extended by conserved exonucleases and helicases EXO1, BLM/Sgs1, and DNA2 (Hustedt and Durocher, 2016). This DSB processing, known as "end ...
In eukaryotic cells, double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA are generally repaired by the pathway of homologous recombination or by DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Both pathways have been highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, but no equivalent NHEJ system has been identified in prokaryotes. The NHEJ pathway requires a DNA end-binding component called Ku. We have identified bacterial Ku homologs and show that these proteins retain the biochemical characteristics of the eukaryotic Ku heterodimer. Furthermore, we show that bacterial Ku specifically recruits DNA ligase to DNA ends and stimulates DNA ligation. Loss of these proteins leads to hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation in Bacillus subtilis. These data provide evidence that many bacteria possess a DNA DSB repair apparatus that shares many features with the NHEJ system of eukarya and suggest that this DNA repair pathway arose before the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages diverged.. ...
Molecular mechanisms operating in cancer cells resistant to IR after CDDP exposure have not been well documented thus far. In the present article, we report that the Ku antigen is likely to play a role in this phenotype.. The L1210/3R cells exhibited a stable cross-resistance to IR because of an increased capacity to repair DSBs compared with parental cells. According to the literature, the increase in Ku DEB activity in resistant cells is likely to explain this phenotype. Indeed, the extreme radiosensitivity and DSB repair deficiency found in Ku80 (Smider et al., 1994; Taccioli et al., 1994) or Ku70 (Lee et al., 1995) rodent mutant cell lines, as well as in the Ku80 (Nussenzweig et al., 1996; Zhu et al., 1996) or Ku70 (Ouyang et al., 1997) knock-out mice, clearly identify Ku as a major component of the DSBs repair apparatus in mammalian cells. In our model, the enhanced Ku DEB activity in L1210/3R cells was not associated with an increase in kinase activity of the whole DNA-PK complex (Fig. ...
Ku70 antibody [N1N3] (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Ku70 pAb (GTX101848) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUMA1 gene. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 has been shown to interact with PIM1, Band 4.1, GPSM2 and EPB41L1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137497 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000066306 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Sparks CA, Bangs PL, McNeil GP, Lawrence JB, Fey EG (Oct 1993). "Assignment of the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA gene to human chromosome 11q13". Genomics. 17 (1): 222-224. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1307. PMID 8406455. "Entrez Gene: NUMA1 nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1". Bhattacharya, Nandini; Wang Zeping; Davitt Christine; McKenzie Ian F C; Xing Pei-Xiang; Magnuson Nancy S (Jul 2002). "Pim-1 associates with protein complexes necessary for mitosis". Chromosoma. Germany. 111 (2): 80-95. doi:10.1007/s00412-002-0192-6. ISSN 0009-5915. PMID 12111331. Mattagajasingh, S N; Huang S C; Hartenstein J S; Snyder M; ...
Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein (NuMA) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SPM300 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH12022-100), Abgent
Fig. 3. 4.1N translocates from plasma membrane to nucleus and binds NuMA in PC12 cells in response to NGF treatment. After NGF (50 ng/ml) treatment, 4.1N concentration decreases gradually in non-nuclear fractions (A) but increases in nuclear fractions (C). As a control, the concentration of α-tubulin is unchanged in non-nuclear fractions (B) and remains undetectable in all nuclear fractions (D). E, 4.1N coimmunoprecipitates with NuMA in response to NGF treatment. PC12 cells were treated with 50 ng/ml NGF, and at the indicated times cells were lysed and immunoprecipitated (IP) with anti-NuMA antibody. Coprecipitated 4.1N was detected by Western blotting as described. F, Western blot of NuMA shows that same amount of the NuMA protein was immunoprecipitated in each lane.G, EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells does not alter 4.1N levels in non-nuclear fractions. H, 4.1N remains undetectable in nuclear fractions after EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells. I, NGF treatment does not alter 4.1N ...
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of a 460 kDa subunit that contains the catalytic domain (DNA-PKcs) complexed with two polypeptides of 70 kDa and 80 kDa (Ku70 and Ku80) which comprise the Ku autoantigen. DNA-PKcs requires association with DNA via Ku for catalytic activation and is implicated in double strand break repair, V(D)J recombination and transcription. We have utilised a cell-free system of concentrated Xenopus laevis egg extracts to investigate the regulation and possible functions of DNA-PK. Recently, we have shown that this system can reproduce events of apoptosis, including activation of an apoptotic protease that cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Here, we report that DNA-PK is rapidly inactivated with the onset of apoptosis in this system. Loss of activity is concomitant with cleavage of the catalytic subunit, whereas the Ku subunits are stable. Cleavage and inactivation of DNA-PKcs is prevented by prior addition of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 or inhibition of ...
MTLHATRGAALLSWVNSLHVADPVEAVLQLQDCSIFIKIIDRIHGTEEGQQILKQPVSERLDFVCSFLQK 1 - 70 NRKHPSSPECLVSAQKVLEGSELELAKMTMLLLYHSTMSSKSPRDWEQFEYKIQAELAVILKFVLDHEDG 71 - 140 LNLNEDLENFLQKAPVPSTCSSTFPEELSPPSHQAKREIRFLELQKVASSSSGNNFLSGSPASPMGDILQ 141 - 210 TPQFQMRRLKKQLADERSNRDELELELAENRKLLTEKDAQIAMMQQRIDRLALLNEKQAASPLEPKELEE 211 - 280 LRDKNESLTMRLHETLKQCQDLKTEKSQMDRKINQLSEENGDLSFKLREFASHLQQLQDALNELTEEHSK 281 - 350 ATQEWLEKQAQLEKELSAALQDKKCLEEKNEILQGKLSQLEEHLSQLQDNPPQEKGEVLGDVLQLETLKQ 351 - 420 EAATLAANNTQLQARVEMLETERGQQEAKLLAERGHFEEEKQQLSSLITDLQSSISNLSQAKEELEQASQ 421 - 490 AHGARLTAQVASLTSELTTLNATIQQQDQELAGLKQQAKEKQAQLAQTLQQQEQASQGLRHQVEQLSSSL 491 - 560 KQKEQQLKEVAEKQEATRQDHAQQLATAAEEREASLRERDAALKQLEALEKEKAAKLEILQQQLQVANEA 561 - 630 RDSAQTSVTQAQREKAELSRKVEELQACVETARQEQHEAQAQVAELELQLRSEQQKATEKERVAQEKDQL 631 - 700 QEQLQALKESLKVTKGSLEEEKRRAADALEEQQRCISELKAETRSLVEQHKRERKELEEERAGRKGLEAR 701 - 770 LQQLGEAHQAETEVLRRELAEAMAAQHTAESECEQLVKEVAAWRERYEDSQQEEAQYGAMFQEQLMTLKE 771 - 840 ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination. Must be bound to DNA to express its catalytic properties. Promotes processing of hairpin DNA structures in V(D)J recombination by activation of the hairpin endonuclease artemis (DCLRE1C). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is also required for the NHEJ ligation step. Required to protect and align broken ends of DNA. May also act as a scaffold protein to aid the localization of DNA repair proteins to the site of damage. Found at the ends of chromosomes, suggesting a further role in the maintenance of telomeric stability and the prevention of chromosomal end fusion. Also involved in modulation of transcription. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates Ser-139 of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Phosphorylates ...
no válida; el nombre "entrez" está definido varias veces con contenidos diferentes Boulton SJ, Jackson SP (marzo de 1998). «Components of the Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway are involved in telomeric length maintenance and telomeric silencing». EMBO J. 17 (6): 1819-28. PMC 1170529. PMID 9501103. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.6.1819. Ko, L; Cardona G R, Chin W W (mayo. de 2000). «Thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, an LXXLL motif-containing protein, functions as a general coactivator». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (UNITED STATES) 97 (11): 6212-7. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 10823961. La referencia utiliza el parámetro obsoleto ,coautores= (ayuda) Ko, Lan; Chin William W (Mar. de 2003). «Nuclear receptor coactivator thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein (TRBP) interacts with and stimulates its associated DNA-dependent protein kinase». J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (13): 11471-9. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12519782. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209723200. Barlev, N A; Poltoratsky V, ...
This paper explains the cloning, purification, and serological applications of matrix antigen MAG1 of recombinant protein, which was assessed for its potential use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of infection in humans. was localized to the ground substance of the tissue cyst and could be detected in immunoblots of extracts from cysts but not from tachyzoites (21).… More →. ...
This paper explains the cloning, purification, and serological applications of matrix antigen MAG1 of recombinant protein, which was assessed for its potential use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of infection in humans. was localized to the ground substance of the tissue cyst and could be detected in immunoblots of extracts from cysts but not from tachyzoites (21).… More →. ...
ENAP. If ENA or any of the components of the CLS ENA test are ordered on CLS requisition, even if "Mitogen Advanced Diagnostic Lab" or "MADL" is also written on the CLS requisition, order ENAP ...
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Ku80 antibody [111] (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (double-strand-break rejoining)) for FACS, ICC/IF, IP, WB. Anti-Ku80 mAb (GTX23107) is tested in Human, Monkey samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
tr:M9U2I4_9ACTN] ligD; ATP-dependent DNA ligase clustered with Ku protein; K01971 bifunctional non-homologous end joining protein LigD [EC:6.5.1.1] ...
ligD1; ATP-dependent DNA ligase clustered with Ku protein, LigD; K01971 bifunctional non-homologous end joining protein LigD [EC:6.5.1.1] ...
Abaveterineri bavuga ko aborozi bakwiye kuyoboka uburyo bugezweho bwo guteza inka zabo intanga aho kuzibangurira ku bimasa, kuko ngo bizitera indwara zirimo imitezi, bikaba byanaziviramo kuramburura.. Aborozi binka bo basanga hakwiye gushyirwaho uburyo bwo kuvura ibyo bimasa, kuko ubu buryo bwo guteza intanga ngo batabwizeye neza.. Aborozi bo mu murenge wa Kinazi baganiriye na IGIHE, bavuga ko kubangurira inka ukoresheje ikimasa ari byo biborohera kuruta gukoresha uburyo bugezweho bwo gutera intanga.. Niyigena yagize ati "Ubwa mbere nayiteje intanga yanga gufata, ubwo mpitamo kuyijyana ku kimasa ihita ifata, ndumva ibyoroshye ku muntu ufite amikoro make ari ku kimasa kuko haba igihe uteje intanga ikabyara nabi".. Umukozi wikigo cyigihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere ubuhinzi nubworozi mu Rwanda (RAB) mu ishami rya Isar Songa, Dr Diane Niwemukiza, avuga ko abakibangurira ku bimasa bakagombye kubicikaho kuko bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku nka nko kuba zakanduzanya indwara zitandukanye.. Ati " Ingaruka ...
DNA is susceptible to continuous egregious environmental and biological hazards that can significantly damage its composition. Cellular exposure to ra
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) eliminates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by direct ligation. NHEJ involves binding of the KU heterodimer to double-stranded DNA ends, recruitment of DNA-PKcs (MRX complex in yeast), processing of ends, and recruitment of the DNA ligase IV (LIG4)-XRCC4 complex, which brings about ligation. A recent study shows that bacteria accomplish NHEJ using just two proteins (Ku and DNA ligase), whereas eukaryotes require many factors. NHEJ repairs DSBs at all stages of the cell cycle, bringing about the ligation of two DNA DSBs without the need for sequence homology, and so is error-prone ...
selected list-past 5 years. Vidi P-A, Ling L, Lelièvre SA, Irudayaraj PJ. Nanoscale histone localization in live cells reveals reduced chromatin mobility in response to DNA damage. J Cell Sci. 128:599-604, 2015. Bazzoun D, Lelièvre SA, Talhouk R. "Beyond the channel: Role of connexins in regulating normal and cancerous processes in the mammary gland." In Intercellular Communication in Cancer, Springer (In press). Weaver C, Teegarden D, Hwalla N, Welch A, Lelièvre SA. International Breast Cancer and Nutrition: A model for research, training and policy in diet, epigenetics, and chronic disease prevention. Adv Nutr. 5:566-7, 2014.. Lelièvre SA. Taking a chance on epigenetics, (opinion article) Front. Genet. 2014. Vidi PA, Liu J, Jayaraman S, Dorfman G, Salles D, Gray M, Abad P, Moghe PV, Irudayaraj JMK, Wiesmüller L, and Lelièvre SA. The Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein, NuMA, controls the presence of the ISWI ATPase SNF2h at DNA Breaks. Nucleic Acids Research, 42:6365-79, 2014.. Lelièvre ...
1. OlovnikovAM. 1973 A theory of marginotomy. The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon. J Theor Biol 41 181 190. 2. LongheseMP. 2008 DNA damage response at functional and dysfunctional telomeres. Genes Dev 22 125 140. 3. GreiderCW. BlackburnEH. 1985 Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts. Cell 43 405 413. 4. LydallD. 2009 Taming the tiger by the tail: modulation of DNA damage responses by telomeres. EMBO J 28 2174 2187. 5. FisherTS. ZakianVA. 2005 Ku: a multifunctional protein involved in telomere maintenance. DNA Repair (Amst) 4 1215 1226. 6. BoultonSJ. JacksonSP. 1998 Components of the Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway are involved in telomeric length maintenance and telomeric silencing. EMBO J 17 1819 1828. 7. MaringeleL. LydallD. 2002 EXO1-dependent single-stranded DNA at telomeres activates subsets of DNA damage and spindle checkpoint ...
17. Katagiri, T., Saito, H., Shinohara, A., Ogawa, H., Kamada, N., Nakamura Y. and Y. Miki. Multiple possible sites of BRCA2 interacting with DNA repair protein Rad51. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, 21, 217-222. 1998, CI=43.. 18. Gasior, S., Wang, A., Kohra, Y., Shinohara, A. and D.K. Bishop. Rad52 associates with RPA and functions with Rad55 and Rad57 to assemble meiotic recombination complexes. Genes & Dev., 12, 2208-2221, 1998, CI=183.. 19. Bishop, D.K., Ear, U., Bhattacharyya, A., Calderone, C., Beckett, M., Weichselbaum, R. and A. Shinohara. Xrcc3 is required for assembly of Rad51-complexes in vivo. J. Biol. Chem., 273, 21482-21488. 1998, CI=213.. 20. Takata, M., Sasaki, M., Sonoda, E., Morrison, C., Hashimoto, M., Utsumi, H., Yamaguchi-Iwai, Y., Shinohara, A., and S. Takeda. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining pathways of DNA double-strand break repair have overlapping roles in maintenance of chromosome integrity. EMBO J., 17, 5497-5508. 1998, CI=797.. 21. Nishitani, ...
In this study, we examined the ability of wortmannin to modulate chlorambucil (CLB) cytotoxicity in lymphocyte samples from patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). It has been suggested previously that enhanced cross-link repair is a primary mechanism of resistance to nitrogen mustards (NMs) in B-CLL. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is involved in the repair of double-strand breaks and in rejoining steps in recombination mechanisms. Mutants defective in this process are hypersensitive to alkylating agents. We have recently demonstrated that the activity of DNA-PK is a determinant in the cellular response of B-CLL to CLB. The DNA-PK gene has homology to the P110 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K). Wortmannin, an inhibitor of P110 PI 3-K, also inhibits DNA-PK activity in vitro. We investigated the effect of wortmannin on DNA-PK activity and CLB toxicity in the lymphocytes from 11 patients with B-CLL. Our results demonstrate that DNA-PK activity is decreased after ...
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DNA-PKcs is a PIKK activated by binding of its Ku70 and Ku80 partners to DNA ends (Suwa et al., 1994). The search for endogenous substrates initially led to transcription factors such as p53, Sp1, c-Myc and c-Jun but eventually yielded a wide range of other proteins (Goodwin and Knudsen, 2014). Mutant cells display DNA repair defects, a prolonged proliferative arrest and decreased survival after exposure to radiation or other genotoxic agents (Lees-Miller et al., 1995). While attention initially focused on p53 activation, DNA-PKcs was also found to phosphorylate the Ku proteins along with other NHEJ factors, including XRCC4, Lig4 and XLF, implicating DNA-PKcs in NHEJ, the primary mode of DSB repair throughout the cell cycle (Chang et al., 2017). Remarkably, our current understanding that DNA-PKcs serves an essential role in NHEJ has remained largely untested, built on studies in a small number of DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines [e.g. DNA-PKcs−/− MO59J human glioma (Lees-Miller et al., 1995)] ...
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
OK-1035 is a potent and selective DNA-PK inhibitor. When a synthetic peptide was used as a substrate, OK-1035 caused 50% inhibition of DNA-PK activity at 8 microM. OK-1035 inhibited the phosphorylation by DNA-PK of consensus peptide as well as that of recombinant human wild type-p53. Kinetic studies indicated that OK-1035 inhibited DNA-PK activity in an ATP-competitive manner.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cell surface expression of the 70-kD component of Ku, a DNA-binding nuclear autoantigen.: The Ku complex, a heterodimer of 86- and 70-kD proteins, is a nuclear
YPF forecast that 2016 capital expenditures would decline toward the lower end of a $5-$6B range and expected a devaluation of the peso next year that would exceed inflation.
2010 Velma V., Carrero Z., Cosman M., Hebert M.D. Coilin interacts with Ku proteins and inhibits in vitro non-homologous DNA end joining. FEBS Lett. 2010 Dec 1;584(23):4735-9. Epub 2010 Nov 9.PMID: 21070772 [5] Hebert MD. Phosphorylation and the Cajal body: modification in search of function. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Apr 15;496(2):69-76. Epub 2010 Mar 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 20193656; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2850958. ...
Qanjidhka thyroid-ka wuxuu ku yaallaa dhuunta, wuxuuna labada dhinac ka xigaa tuunbada hawa mareenka qeybteeda kore , waxaana uu soo daayaa hormoono wax ku ool u ah shaqada jirka, sida kuwa kontoroola habka loo yaqaano metabolism (habka burburinta ama dhisida nafaqada taasoo jirku u isticmaalo tamar ahaan). Waxaa kale oo ay maamulaanama kontoroolaan shaqooyin kale oo aad u tira badan sida, neefsashada, garaaca wadnaha, neerfayaasha maskaxda iyo xungulaha, miisaanka jirka, awooda murqaha, heer kulka jira iyo cadadka k olesterolka. Marka ay yaraato soo deynta hormoonada laga soo daayo qanjirkaan waxaa ay saamayn balaaran ku yeeshaan dhamaan shaqadii ay qaybta ka ahaayeen.. Dumarka gaar ahaan kuwooda dada weyn ayuu ugu badan yahay xanuunkaan. Inta badan ma sababa wax calaamad ah markuu bilowga yahay. Balse hadii aan la daweyn waxuu keenayaa calaamado ama cilado hor leh sida cayil xad dhaafa, kalagowsyo xanuun, dhalmo laaan iyo xanuuno saamayn ku yeesha wadnaha.. WAA MAXAY CILLADAHA KU DHACDA ...
Effect of Ku86, DNA-PKcs, or PARP-1 deficiency on morphology, apoptosis, and proliferative potential of the intestinal epithelium in successive generations of t
Kjo sjellje e Tramezzanit nuk i ka p lqyer Gashit dhe ka dal me nj vendim personal p r t braktisur komb taren. Po ashku edhe Taulant Xhaka pas gjestin q kreu n z vend simin n ndeshje me Zvicr n ku p rplasi bidonin ujit n tok ka krijuar nj armiq si me trajnerin De Biasi dhe Tramezzanin ...
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Rindu pantai? - dh agak lama MZ tak balik kg especially bersama mr hubby..last sekali balik, MZ balik dgn my boys jer (my nephew& niece tlg drive my car) so last few weeks... ...
Tel.: (+370~5) 219 3283, (+370~5) 239 8743 , El. paštas [email protected] , Darbo valandos: 08:00-12:00, 12:30-16:30, 202-204, 355 kab ...
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) eliminates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by direct ligation. NHEJ involves binding of the KU heterodimer to double-stranded DNA ends, recruitment of DNA-PKcs (MRX complex in yeast), processing of ends, and recruitment of the DNA ligase IV (LIG4)-XRCC4 complex, which brings about ligation. A recent study shows that bacteria accomplish NHEJ using just two proteins (Ku and DNA ligase), whereas eukaryotes require many factors. NHEJ repairs DSBs at all stages of the cell cycle, bringing about the ligation of two DNA DSBs without the need for sequence homology, and so is error-prone ...
Principal Investigator:IHARA Makoto, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Radiation science
Abstract Accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks is essential to life. Indeed, defective DNA double-strand break repair can lead to toxicity and large scale sequence rearrangem..
XRCC5_HUMAN] Single stranded DNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase. Has a role in chromosome translocation. The DNA helicase II complex binds preferentially to fork-like ends of double-stranded DNA in a cell cycle-dependent manner. It works in the 3-5 direction. Binding to DNA may be mediated by XRCC6. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. The XRCC5/6 dimer acts as regulatory subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex DNA-PK by increasing the affinity of the catalytic subunit PRKDC to DNA by 100-fold. The XRCC5/6 dimer is probably involved in stabilizing broken DNA ends and bringing them together. The assembly of the DNA-PK complex to DNA ends is required for the NHEJ ligation step. In association with NAA15, the XRCC5/6 dimer binds to the osteocalcin promoter and activates osteocalcin expression. The XRCC5/6 dimer probably also acts as a 5-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (5-dRP lyase), by catalyzing the ...
DSB repair pathways. There are three DNA DSB repair pathways: single-strand annealing (SSA), homologous recombination (HR), and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) (51). In SSA, which requires homologous sequences to flank the break site, the nonhomologous DNA ends are removed, leaving overhangs that are aligned and annealed (45). After annealing, DNA synthesis and ligation occur. SSA results in deletion of the region between homologous sequences. In contrast, HR is a relatively error-free mechanism for DSB repair that relies on the homologous region on the sister chromatid as a template for DNA synthesis (Figure 6A) (1;16). HR is limited to replicating cells (including early embryonic developmental stages) and can be observed only after DNA replication in the S and G2 phases (52) . Finally, NHEJ is a rapid repair mechanism that simply ligates broken DNA ends after minimal or no processing (Figure 6B). NHEJ occurs in all phases of the cell cycle and is thought to be the primary DNA repair pathway ...
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FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010 ...
Gene Information Double-strand breaks in DNA result from genotoxic stresses and are among the most damaging of DNA lesions. This gene encodes a DNA repair factor essential for the nonhomologous end-joining pathway which preferentially mediates repair of double-stranded breaks. Mutations in this gene cause different kinds of severe combined immunodeficiency disorders. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Rabbit polyclonal cAMP Protein Kinase Catalytic subunit antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse, Rat and Rabbit. Referenced in 6…
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab96186 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,ICC/IF…cAMP Protein Kinase Catalytic subunit抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
In this study, we have assessed the mechanism of cytotoxicity in a series of cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells following treatment with equitoxic concentrations of cisplatin. The specific proteolytic degradation and the enzymatic activities of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) were assessed in the cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cell line and two resistant derivative cell lines, CP70 and C30. Forty-eight h following cisplatin treatment, unattached, apoptotic A2780 cells demonstrated a 20-30% decrease in DNA-PK phosphorylation activity. The resistant CP70 and C30 cell lines showed greater decreases in activity approaching 80 and 90%, respectively. The decreases in kinase activity were attributed to proteolytic degradation of the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs). The extent of degradation mimicked the loss of DNA-PK activity, with the resistant cell lines showing the greatest portion of degraded DNA-PKcs. At the same time point, the ability of the DNA-PK Ku ...
Genomic integrity is constantly challenged by DNA lesions, several thousands of which occur in each human cell every day. A particularly hazardous type of DNA lesion is the double-strand break (DSB),...
KU is out for the summer and one of its students is not facing a summer of fun. Hes facing a summer of dealing with a serious felony count, which could involve prison time. The victim is going to have some serious serious facial injuries to deal with. It may be hard to plead this down much due to the seriousness of the injuries. Hes just lucky he didnt kill the guy.. KU students, end of the year, and mass quantities of available booze. Oh yeah. No one could have seen something like this coming. ...
An ENA (Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies) panel detects the presence of one or more specific autoantibodies in the blood. Autoantibodies are produced when a persons immune system mistakenly targets and attacks the bodys own tissues. This attack can cause inflammation, tissue damage, and other signs and symptoms that are associated with an autoimmune disorder.. ENA are a subset of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies directed against proteins found in the nucleus of cells. Certain autoimmune disorders are characteristically associated with the presence of one or more extractable nuclear antigen antibodies. This association can be used to help diagnose an autoimmune disorder and to distinguish between disorders.. The ENA panel is typically a group of 6-10 autoantibody tests. The number of tests offered will depend on the laboratory and the needs of the doctors and patients it serves. ENA panel tests, and other less common ENA tests, may be able to be ordered separately depending on the ...
DNA can be damaged in many ways. Consequently, there are numerous mechanisms to repair it. It is a fascinating field full of innovative concepts (DNA repair was my favorite course during my undergrad studies). Double strand breaks (DSBs) are considered the most genotoxic, which is why many DNA damaging drugs and treatments intended to treat cancer…
The YPF Membership Committee - connecting members with opportunities!. Membership meetings are the second Tuesday of each month from 12 - 1 p.m. at Envision Greater Fond du Lac (23 South Main Street, FDL).. If youre interested in checking out the Membership Committee or joining, please email the co-chair below!. To be considered for the Membership Committee Co-Chair position, simply click here to download and complete the interest form.. COMMITTEE LEADS:. Jackie Runge, [email protected] Jason Zellner, [email protected] Meet our dedicated Membership Team: ...
Argentine government officials are beginning to count the cost of seizing Spanish-owned YPF with more backlash from Europe still to come.
Ku70 es una proteína codificada en humanos por el gen XRCC6.[1]​ Ku70, junto con Ku80, conforman un heterodímero denominado proteína Ku, que se une a los extremos de la doble hebra de ADN que ha sufrido un corte, y es requerida para el procedo de recombinación no homóloga durante la reparación del ADN. También es necesaria en el proceso de recombinación V(D)J, que logra incrementar la diversidad antigénica en el sistema inmune de mamíferos utilizando el proceso de recombinación no homóloga. Además de su papel en el proceso de recombinación no homóloga, Ku también es requerida para el mantenimiento del tamaño del telómero y el silenciamiento de genes subteloméricos.[2]​ Ku fue identificada originalmente en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico, en los cuales, tras ser sometidos a análisis, se encontraron elevados niveles de auto-anticuerpos contra esta proteína.[1]​ Históricamente, Ku70 ha sido referido bajo diversos nombres, tal y como se muestra a continuación: ...
QAYBTII SADEXAAD EE DOODII MAXAAN KU MUTAYSTAY HEYBSOOCA DOOD FURAN QAYBTII SADEXAAD EE DOODII MAXAAN KU MUTAYSTAY HEYBSOOCA DOOD FURAN marka ugu horeysa waxan salaan xushmad & qadariin ku dheehantahey ku salamaya ,dhamaan shaqaalaha websetka ,gaar ahaan mamulka shabakada , sidookale waxaan salan xushmad & qadariin ku dheehantahey waxaan ku salamaya dhamaan akhristaha sharafta badan…
ENA Screen ELISA is an indirect solid phase ELISA for the screening of IgG class autoantibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) in human serum or plasma. (KA1106) - Products - Abnova
Sida ay dadka deegaanka u sheegeen (RBB), dhibaatada waxay ka bilaabatay gaari ciidan oo halkaa marayey oo sida la sheegay ay rasaas ka fakatay, waxaana rasaastaas ku dhintay hal qof, halka dhowr kalena ay ku dhaawacmeen.. Dibadbaxyo rabshado wata ayaa halkaa ka billowday, kuwaasoo ay dadku kaga soo hor jeedeen ciidanka.. Intii ay dibadbaxyadu socdeen ayaa waxay miino waddada dhinaceeda la geliyey la kacday mid ka mid ah gaadiid ay AMISOM leedahay oo halkaa marayey.. Dadka degaanku waxay sheegeen in askarta AMISOM ay rasaas fureen.. Waxay intaa ku dareen oo BBC u sheegeen geerida 2 qof iyo dhaawaca ugu yaraan 5 kale.. BBC waxay la xiriirtay guddoomiyaha degmada Heliwaa, wuxuuse ku gaabsaday in rabshado ay dheceen.. Afhayeenka maamulka gobolka Banaadir, Saalax dheere, oo isna aan wax ka weydiinnay banaanbaxa iyo khasaaraha shacabka soo gaaray ayaa ka gaabsaday inuu ka hadlo.. Wararku waxay sheegayaan in xaaladdu ay caadi ku soo noqotay gelinkii dambe ee maanta.. ...
Ahojky, tak ja sa pripojim :) Ja mam rovnakeho priatela ako Ty - v urcitom smere. On sice za mnou chodi pravidelne, sme spolu ale uz par rokov, ale nebolo to vzdy rovnake - najskor sme sa spolu stretavali vonku, potom chodil on za mnou a ja k nemu este nie, pak ja k nemu viackrat za tyzden a on menej krat za mnou, teraz zasa chodi viacmenej on ku mne a spolocne id. k nim k jeho rod. na navstevu, proste ako nam to vyhovuje kvoli ostatnym veciam - praci a podobne. Zalezi, ako ste spolu dlho. My v tomto problem nemame, skor je problem v tom, ze on aj podla znamenia na nom sedi, ze je skor taky domased a ja skor spolocenska.. tak skor bol problem, ako travit vikend, ked mame volno. Zo zaciatku sme samozrejme spolu podnikali vela veci, casom sa to otupilo, uz si bol asi mnou isty :-), tak sa nesnazil az tak - pretoze to nie je jeho prirodzena stranka.. No a tu som nastupila ja - kdezto on to neprijimal moc pozitivne moje navrhy chodit niekam von (do prirody, na vylety a pod.), takze sme vsetko ...
The human nuclear matrix proteins (hNMP) have reassembling and potential filament forming capabilities. The hNMP200 has a 56kDa nuclear protein that…
Fitch Ratings expects YPF S.A.s (YPF) intended acquisition of Apache Argentina to be credit neutral. The acquisition is believed to nominally increas
P nsk parf m s feromony HOT MIAMI Spicy Man v m pom e vzbudit z jem o va i osobu u opa n ho pohlav . Nenech vejte nic na n hod a nal kejte svoji vysn nou sami ku p mo do sv n ru e... ehm, tedy...
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untuk ummi&mak..tiade kata yang dapat anakanda gambarkan utk menyatakan kasih sayangku untuk kalian...moge hari ibu ini dan hari2 mendatang akan membawa seribu kegembiraan untuk kalian berdua ...
49. Jahrestagung der NEUEN GRUPPE; Implantologie im atrophierten Kiefer. Augmentationen, Kurze & Schmale Implantate oder All-on-Four?
Welche Therapie passt wann und ist langfristig erfolgreicher?; Wiesbaden; Deutschland; 29.10.2015-31.10.2015
MT wanted the download A histone H3K36 with marker from DPW and JYJ. VF decided in download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double strand break repair grocery and product work. download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double covered the hospital and courted the ant. PJT made the download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double strand break, written in lack government and efficacy, and found in the P&. All duplications were and paid the strong download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double strand break repair pathway choice. ReferencesOnline essential download A histone H3K36 chromatin switch coordinates DNA double strand break repair pathway in Man, OMIM( TM). McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University( Baltimore, MD) and National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine( Bethesda, MD), September 7, 2010. Stenson PD, Mort M, Ball EV, Howells K, Phillips AD, Thomas NS, ...
Ran-guanosine triphosphatase orchestrates mitotic spindle assembly by modulation of the interaction between Importin-α/-β and spindle assembly factors (SAFs). The inhibition of SAFs performed by importins needs to be done without much sequestration from abundant nuclear localization signal (NLS) -containing proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms that determine NLS-binding selectivity and that inhibit activity of Importin-β-regulated SAFs (e.g., nuclear mitotic apparatus protein [NuMA]) remain undefined. Here, we present a crystal structure of the Importin-α-NuMA C terminus complex showing a novel binding pattern that accounts for selective NLS recognition. We demonstrate that, in the presence of Importin-α, Importin-β inhibits the microtubule-binding function of NuMA. Further, we have identified a high-affinity microtubule-binding region that lies carboxyl-terminal to the NLS, which is sterically masked by Importin-β on being bound by Importin-α. Our study provides mechanistic ...
Article Multicellular signalling model for DNA double-strand break repair kinetics after low-dose radiation. This paper introduces the Multicellular Signalling (MULTISIG1) model in which DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair initiation requires interc...
BACKGROUND. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by oxidative stress and increased risk of lung carcinoma. Oxidative stress causes DNA damage which can be repaired by DNA-dependent protein kinase complex.. OBJECTIVES. To investigate DNA damage/repair balance and DNA-dependent protein kinase complex in COPD lung and in an animal model of smoking-induced lung damage and to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on Ku expression and function in human bronchial epithelial cells.. METHODS. Protein expression was quantified using immunohistochemistry and/or western blotting. DNA damage/repair was measured using colorimetric assays.. RESULTS. 8-OH-dG, a marker of oxidant-induced DNA damage, was statistically significantly increased in the peripheral lung of smokers (with and without COPD) compared with non-smokers, while the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites (DNA damage and repair) was increased in smokers compared with non-smokers (p = 0.0012) and patients with COPD ...
Nuclear Matrix Protein p84小鼠单克隆抗体[5E10](ab487)(ab487)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被28篇文献引用并得到13个独立的用户反馈。
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired either by homologous recombination (HR) or by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways. Here, we showed that myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) acts as a functional switch in selecting between HR and NHEJ pathways. Mcl-1 was cell cycle-regulated during HR, with its expression peaking in S/G2 phase. While endogenous Mcl-1 depletion reduced HR and enhanced NHEJ, Mcl-1 overexpression resulted in a net increase in HR over NHEJ. Mcl-1 directly interacted with the dimeric Ku protein complex via its Bcl-2 homology 1 and 3 (BH1 and BH3) domains, which are required for Mcl-1 to inhibit Ku-mediated NHEJ. Mcl-1 also promoted DNA resection mediated by the Mre11 complex and HR-dependent DSB repair. Using the Mcl-1 BH1 domain as a docking site, we identified a small molecule, MI-223, that directly bound to BH1 and blocked Mcl-1-stimulated HR DNA repair, leading to sensitization of cancer cells to hydroxyurea- or olaparib-induced DNA replication ...
The overall objective of this study was to identify novel proteins of the nuclear matrix in order to contribute to a better understanding of nuclear structure and organization. To accomplish this, a monoclonal antibody specific for the nuclear matrix was used to screen a human λgt11 expression library. Several cDNAs were isolated, cloned, sequenced, and shown to represent NuMA, the nuclear mitotic spindle apparatus protein. Further characterization of the gene and RNA was undertaken in an effort to obtain information about NuMA. The NuMA gene was present at a single site on human chromosome 11q13. Northern and PCR analysis of NuMA mRNA showed a major 7.2 kb transcript and minor forms of 8.0 and 3.0 kb. The minor forms were shown to be alternatively spliced although their functional significance is not yet understood. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that NuMA oscillates between the nucleus and the microtubule spindle apparatus during the mitotic cell cycle. NuMA appeared as a 200-275 kDa
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant human cAMP Protein Kinase Catalytic subunit (ab56268). Please download our general protocols booklet
Ku70 é uma proteína que em humanos é codificada pelo gene XRCC6.Ku70 junto com Ku80, conformam um heterodimero denominado proteína Ku, que se liga as extremidades da dupla fita de DNA que foi cortado, e é requerida para o processo de recombinação não homóloga durante a reparação do DNA. Também é necessária para o processo de recombinação V(D)J, que consegue aumentar a diversidade antigênica do sistema imune de mamíferos utilizando o processo de recombinação não homóloga. Ku também é necessária para manter o tamanho do telômero e silenciamento de genes subteloméricos. Ku foi originalmente identificado em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico , no qual, após ser submetido a análise, eles encontraram altos níveis de autoanticorpos contra essa proteína. Lupus Ku autoantigen protein p70 ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 1 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 X-ray repair cross-complementing 6 (XRCC6) Interage com GCN5L2, PTTG1, ...
The external environment and internal cellular processes generate DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), a particularly toxic form of DNA damage that can result in chromosome fragmentation, replication failure, mutagenesis and cell death. Cells have evolved effective mechanisms to preserve the mtegrity of the genome including DNA damage signalling, cell cycle checkpoint activation and DNA repair ...
Fig. 3. CIZ1 promotes CM mono-nucleation and DNA replication. (A) Proportion of mono-, bi-, tri- and tetra-nucleated CMs in WT (white) and Tg (green) hearts at 12 weeks (n=,500 CM/mouse, four mice/group), with representative examples of GFP-positive (green) Tg nuclei. (B) Examples of partially divided GFP-positive nuclei (arrows). (C) Hearts of 2-week-old Tg mice had threefold more replicating CMs than WT, detected following incorporation of EdU for 48 h (n=10-12 sections/mouse, ,1000 nuclei, three mice/group). A slight decrease was observed in replicating NMs. (D) Examples of replicating Tg NMs (short arrow) and CMs (long arrow). Cell identity was based on nuclear size/position relative to WGA-stained membrane (Frentzou et al., 2015). (E) CM:NM ratio during development from neonate to young adulthood, in WT (white) and Tg (green) mice. Scale bar=20 μm. Data represented as mean±s.e.m. *P≤0.05, ***P≤0.001 by two-tailed t-test. ...
YPF SA, Argentinas largest oil company, will probably lose three licenses for fields in the southern province of Santa Cruz where it produces 11 percent of its crude, a local official said.
Argentinas state-run oil company YPF SA (YPFD.BA) said it reached a preliminary deal with Royal Dutch Shell Plc (RDSa.L) on Thursday to develop oil and gas assets in the Vaca Muerta shale field, involving a $300 million (239.22 million pounds) investment from Shell.
Argentinas state-run oil company, YPF SA, has reached a deal with the state of New Jersey that might allow the company to avoid billions of dollars in potential liabilities related to the contamination of the Passaic River.
The Spanish government warned on Friday that it would take unspecified retaliatory measures against Argentina if it proceeded with plans to take back control of YPF, the large oil and gas producer, from Repsol, its Spanish parent.
Université de Liège - ULiège , Département des sciences de la vie , GIGA-R : Virologie - Immunologie - Département des sciences de la vie - GIGA-Research ,] ...
Leukemia cells expressing constitutively activated BCR-ABL1 or FLT3/ITD TKs are characterized by a highly error-prone and alternative form of NHEJ (ALT-NHEJ) involving increased expression of LIG3 and PARP1, that is likely responsible for much of the error-prone end-joining repair (12, 14). To date, the mechanism through which TKs activate ALT-NHEJ factors had not been elucidated. Our studies have, for the first time, linked c-MYC, a key downstream target of both BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD to increased expression of the ALT-NHEJ factors LIG3 and PARP1 and increased ALT-NHEJ repair activity.. While elevated expression of c-MYC occurs frequently in human cancers and is associated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcome (36), the effect of high levels of c-MYC on global gene regulation is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that high levels of c-MYC accumulate in the promoter regions of active genes and cause transcriptional amplification, producing increased levels of transcripts within ...
1F2U: Structural biology of Rad50 ATPase: ATP-driven conformational control in DNA double-strand break repair and the ABC-ATPase superfamily.
BLOT kit for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the recombinant extractable nuclear antigens and centromere B in human serum or plasma.
matrin 3 an acidic protein that is a component of the nuclear matrix. May play a role in transcription or may interact with other nuclear matrix proteins to form the internal fibrogranular network. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Complete information for NHEJ1 gene (Protein Coding), Non-Homologous End Joining Factor 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: KU Collegian - Spring 2010, Author: KU College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, Name: KU Collegian - Spring 2010, Length: 28 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2010-08-04
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Timoj trojlalo n je nen padn rostlina, kterou najdete hlavn v moravsk ch les ch. Te by ji mohli po sv t proslavit e t v dci. Izolovali z n l tku trilobolid, kter by mohla pomoci p i v voji l ku proti rakovin . Pokra ujeme ve v zkumu a douf me, e si n s vybere velk farmaceutick firma, k o v voji nad jn ho l ku fka stavu farmakologie a toxikologie L ka sk fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Plzni Eva Kmon kov .
Ubushakashatsi buheruka gukorwa bugaragaza ko imizabibu isa na mauve igira akamaro mu kurinda kanseri yamabere. Umutobe uva muri iyi mizabibu urwanya ibibyimba biza mu mabere akaba ariyo mvano nyamukuru ya kanseri yibere. Ntabwo nyamara bigarukira kuri kanseri yamabere gusa kuko no ku bundi bwoko bwose bwa kanseri gukoresha iyi mizabibu bifasha mu kuyirwanya. Ibi biterwa nuko mu mizabibu harimo resveratrol ikaba izwiho kubyimbura no kurwanya kanseri. Iyi resveratrol byumwihariko ni ingenzi mu kurinda kanseri yamara niyamabere. Si ukuzirinda gusa ahubwo, kuko inarwanya ko yakomeza gukura no gukwirakwira mu mubiri iyo yamaze kuwugeramo.. ...
(Od na eho zvl tn ho zpravodaje) Proti p m mu vysl n NATO do Ir ku se vyslovil Jacques Chirac. Bylo by to velmi nebezpe n , kontraproduktivn a nesrozumiteln pro Ir any, prohl sil dnes Chirac na summitu NATO v Istanbulu.
We have previously described purification and characterization of a nuclear protein, TREF, which interacts specifically with the transcriptional control element, TRA, of the human transferrin receptor (TR) gene. In this report we show that TREF can be separated into two functionally distinct DNA-binding activities. The first DNA-binding activity (TRAC) is highly specific for the 8-bp element TRA and the related Escherichia coli cAMP receptor binding site. This motif is homologous to the phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate- and cAMP-responsive elements of eukaryotic genes and the regulatory proximal sequence elements of the U1 small nuclear RNA gene and is also present in the promoter of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein factor 1 gene. In striking contrast, the second activity exhibits high affinity for the ends of double-stranded DNA in a sequence-unspecific manner and is attributable to the heterodimeric Ku autoantigen. Notably, transcription of Ku is induced during mid-late G0/G1 with ...
Purpose: Oxidative stress in the human lens leads to a wide range of damage including DNA strand breaks, which are likely to contribute to cataract formation. The protein Ku80 is a fundamental component of the nonhomologous end-joining pathway that repairs DNA double strand breaks. This study investigates the putative impact of Ku80 in cataract prevention in the human lens. Methods: The present study used the human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens organ culture. Targeted siRNA was used to deplete Ku80, with Western blot and immunocytochemistry employed to assess Ku80 expression levels. Oxidative stress was induced with hydrogen peroxide and DNA strand breaks measured by alkaline comet assay and γH2AX foci counts. Visual quality of whole human lenses was measured with image analysis software. Results: Expression of Ku80 was predominately found in the cell nucleus of both FHL124 cells and native human lens epithelium. Treatment of FHL124 cells and whole lens cultures with ...
Expression of BCR-ABL oncoprotein in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) promotes neoplastic transformation of hematopoietic stem cells through modulation of diverse pathways. CML is a multistep disease, which evolves as a chronic phase and progresses to blast crisis. This progression has been associated with the appearance and accumulation of new cytogenetic anomalies and mutations. The mechanisms underlying the genomic instability promoted by BCR-ABL remain obscure. Through comparative analysis of different DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms as a function of the BCR-ABL status in human megakaryocytic and CML cell lines, we found that BCR-ABL upregulates error-prone DSB repair pathways [single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end joining] rather than the high-fidelity mechanism of homologous recombination. Intriguingly, expression analysis of DSB repair pathway choice determining factors revealed increased levels of the protein CtIP in BCR-ABL-positive cells, particularly in ...
The nuclear matrix protein, NMP-2, was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific DNA-binding complex localized exclusively to the nuclear matrix. NMP-2 was shown to recognize two binding sites, site A (nt-605 to -599) and site B (nt -441 to -435), in the rat bone-specific osteocalcin gene promoter. This study shows that the NMP-2 binding sites A and B as well as a third NMP-2 binding site (nt -135 to -130) constitute a consensus sequence, ATGCTGGT, and represent an AML-1 recognition motif. AML-1 is a member of the AML transcription factor family which is associated with acute myelogenous leukemia and binds to the sequence TGCTGGT via its DNA-binding runt domain. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that a component of NMP-2 is a member of the AML/PEBP2/runt domain transcription factor family based on cross-competition with AML-1 consensus oligonucleotide. Limited immunoreactivity of NMP-2 with a polyclonal N-terminal AML-1 antibody and inability of the AML-1 partner protein CBF-beta to
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent serious threats to cell survival, and inappropriate response to this threat may lead to genome instability and development of cancer. DSBs can be caused by exogenous agents such as ionizing radiation or certain chemicals, but can also arise during normal endogenous processes, including DNA replication and meiosis. There are two major pathways for repair of DSBs: homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). The former is dependent on sequence homology, is error free, and is most active in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. The latter utilizes little, or no, sequence homology, is often imprecise, functions throughout the cell cycle, and is considered to be the principle mechanism used in vertebrate cells (1, 2). The classical NHEJ machinery requires a set of proteins, including Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4, Artemis and the recently identified XLF (Cernunnos) (3, 4). Alternative, or backup, NHEJ pathway(s), usually ...

Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (P|gentaur.comHuman Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (P|gentaur.com

Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - Gentaur.com - Product info ... 1x Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative found in adi. *. Stock ... 5025 , Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative1 Kit 973.8 USD. *. Catalog ... The Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative is manufactured for Research Use ...
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Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA): Size Polymorphism of EBNA 1 | Microbiology SocietyEpstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA): Size Polymorphism of EBNA 1 | Microbiology Society

... nuclear antigen (EBNA) molecule (EBNA 1) encoded by the BamHI K fragment of the EBV DNA has been determined in 14 EBV-carrying ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA): Size Polymorphism of EBNA 1 * M. J. Allday and A. J. MacGillivray ... of the polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) molecule (EBNA 1) encoded by the BamHI K fragment of the EBV ... Typing Hepatitis B Virus by Homology in Nucleotide Sequence: Comparison of Surface Antigen Subtypes Hiroaki Okamoto, Fumio ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-66-7-1595

Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (RNP, Smith, SSA, & SSB)Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (RNP, Smith, SSA, & SSB)

... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a ... Sm Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies Kit. 5. SS-A (Ro)Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies Kit. 6 ... Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (SSA & SSB). 8. Kansas Nuclear Fragment Forceps. 9. Nuclear Cardiology Facility Planning ... Sm/RNP Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies Kit. 3. SS-B (La) Anti-Extractable Nuclear Antigen (ENA) Antibodies ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/Extractable-Nuclear-Antigen-Antibodies--28RNP--Smith--SSA---26-SSB-29-22718-1/

Proliferating cell nuclear antigenProliferating cell nuclear antigen

... REGULATION. Promoter Structure The major transcription initiation site (cap site) of PCNA is ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen: Biological Overview , Evolutionary Homologs , Developmental Biology , Effects of Mutation ... The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter function resides within a 192-bp region (-168 to +24 with respect to the ... The regulatory region of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene consists of a promoter region (-168 to +24 ...
more infohttp://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/polycomb/pcna3.htm

Anti-EBV Nuclear Antigen antibody (ab20870) | AbcamAnti-EBV Nuclear Antigen antibody (ab20870) | Abcam

Goat polyclonal EBV Nuclear Antigen antibody validated for ELISA, ICC/IF. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length ... Anti-EBV Nuclear Antigen antibody. See all EBV Nuclear Antigen primary antibodies. ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the one EBV antigen that is expressed in all EBV associated malignancies ... Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen. Non reactive with human lymphoid cells. Functions in ELISA against various recombinant EBNA-1 ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/ebv-nuclear-antigen-antibody-ab20870.html

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, C-terminal (IPR022649) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIProliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, C-terminal (IPR022649) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), or cyclin, is a non-histone acidic nuclear protein [PMID: 2884104] that plays a key ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA, C-terminal (IPR022649). Short name: Pr_cel_nuc_antig_C ... Functional interactions of a homolog of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with DNA polymerases in Archaea.. J. Bacteriol. 181 ... Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for rat proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin.. EMBO J. 6 637-42 1987 ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR022649

ENA Screen EIA Auto-Immune Markers 012-MDKES1  Extractable Nuclear AntigensENA Screen EIA Auto-Immune Markers 012-MDKES1 Extractable Nuclear Antigens

ENA Screen EIA Auto-Immune Markers 012-MDKES1 Extractable Nuclear Antigens,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical ... ENA Screen EIA Auto-Immune Markers 012-MDKES1 Extractable Nuclear Antigens, ... ENA Screen EIA Auto-Immune Markers 012-MDKES1 Extractable Nuclear Antigens. Info. ALPCO Diagnostics. Call ALPCO Diagnostics to ...
more infohttp://bio-medicine.org/medicine-products/ENA-Screen-EIA-Auto-Immune-Markers-012-MDKES1--Extractable-Nuclear-Antigens-5259-1/

WikiGenes - POL30 - proliferating cell nuclear antigenWikiGenes - POL30 - proliferating cell nuclear antigen

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Msh2p-Msh6p interact to form an active mispair recognition complex. Flores-Rozas, H., ... ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. I. ATP-mediated interaction with DNA and with proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... Mutations in yeast proliferating cell nuclear antigen define distinct sites for interaction with DNA polymerase delta and DNA ... RAD18-independent ubiquitination of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen in the avian cell line DT40. Simpson, L.J., Ross, A.L., ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/852385.html

Nuclear Antigen Antibody (Monoclonal, IPO-38)
		        
	Nuclear Antigen Antibody (Monoclonal, IPO-38)

Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation and ... Cite Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (IPO-38). The following antibody was used in this experiment: Nuclear Antigen ... MA1-7628 detects Nuclear protein from human samples. MA1-7628 has been successfully used in ELISA, flow cytometry, ... View (1) other Nuclear Antigen antibodies Invitrogen Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (IPO-38). ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Nuclear-Antigen-Antibody-IPO-38-Monoclonal/MA1-7628

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): ringmaster of the genome.Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): ringmaster of the genome.

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein is one of the central molecules responsible for decisions of life and death ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein is one of the central molecules responsible for decisions of life and death ... 8622896 - Abrogation of wild-type p53 mediated growth-inhibition by nuclear exclusion.. 19109096 - Upon oxidative stress, the ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-PCNA/11682006.html

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Proliferating cell nuclear antigen - P15873 (PCNA YEAST)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Proliferating cell nuclear antigen - P15873 (PCNA YEAST)

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/P15873

Extractable nuclear antigens - WikipediaExtractable nuclear antigens - Wikipedia

Extractable Nuclear Antigens are over 100 different soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens. Autoantibodies to these antigens ... On anti-nuclear antibody tests, these antigens have a speckled pattern. ENAs originally referred to proteins found in a saline ... Extractable Nuclear Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Lock, R.J., Unsworth, D.J. Antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens. Has technological drift affected clinical interpretation ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extractable_nuclear_antigens

Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen | PNASAntibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen | PNAS

Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen. J Dillner, L Sternås, B ... Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen ... Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen ... Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/81/15/4652?ijkey=f185cbd2983956ba2475a5fa3bba9f443893a8f7&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

DNA ploidy and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas | SpringerLinkDNA ploidy and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas | SpringerLink

colonic polyps adenomas adenocarcinomas DNA ploidy proliferating cell nuclear antigen This is a preview of subscription content ... Tomita T:p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in islet cell tumors and carcinoids (submitted)Google Scholar ... DNA ploidy data were then compared with immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In ... DNA ploidy and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02064188

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen - definition of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen by The Free DictionaryProliferating cell nuclear antigen - definition of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen by The Free Dictionary

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen synonyms, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen pronunciation, Proliferating cell nuclear ... antigen translation, English dictionary definition of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen. also an·ti·gene n. A molecule that is ... capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune... ... antigen. (redirected from Proliferating cell nuclear antigen). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/Proliferating+cell+nuclear+antigen

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen - WikipediaProliferating cell nuclear antigen - Wikipedia

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic ... "Entrez Gene: PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen". Leonardi E, Girlando S, Serio G, Mauri FA, Perrone G, Scampini S, Dalla ... Webb G, Parsons P, Chenevix-Trench G (1991). "Localization of the gene for human proliferating nuclear antigen/cyclin by in ... Matsumoto K, Moriuchi T, Koji T, Nakane PK (1987). "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for rat proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proliferating_cell_nuclear_antigen

Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Research Products: Novus BiologicalsEpstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Research Products: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A products available through Novus Biologicals. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/common-name/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-3a

Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 4 Research Products: Novus BiologicalsEpstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 4 Research Products: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 4 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 4 products available through Novus Biologicals. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/common-name/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-4

The Use of Antibodies against Synthetic Peptides for Studying the EBV Nuclear Antigen | SpringerLinkThe Use of Antibodies against Synthetic Peptides for Studying the EBV Nuclear Antigen | SpringerLink

Hennessy K. and Kieff, E. One of two EBV nuclear antigens contains a glycine-alanine copolymer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA; 80 ... The Use of Antibodies against Synthetic Peptides for Studying the EBV Nuclear Antigen. ... The Use of Antibodies against Synthetic Peptides for Studying the EBV Nuclear Antigen. In: Levine P.H., Ablashi D.V., Pearson G ... Relationship between amount of EBV-determined nuclear antigen per cell and number of EBV DNA copies per cell. Nature; 266 (5599 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-2625-0_41

Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical...Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical...

Hiroshi Takahashi, Shuichi Fujita, Shigeru Yamabe, et al., "Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in ... Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/1998/105193/cta/

Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human Nuclear Antigen (235-1) | BiotiumMouse Monoclonal anti-Human Nuclear Antigen (235-1) | Biotium

RedDot2 far-red nuclear stain, 200X in DMSO RedDot™2 is a far-red cell membrane-impermeable nuclear dye similar to Draq7™, with ... Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human Nuclear Antigen (235-1) This MAb is an excellent marker for human cells in xenographic model ... MAb 235-1 recognizes an antigen associated with the nuclei in human cells. It can be used to stain the nuclei in cell or tissue ... preparations and can be used as a nuclear marker in subcellular fractions. It produces a speckled pattern in normal and ...
more infohttps://biotium.com/product/monoclonal-anti-human-nuclear-antigen-235-1/

Structure of a mutant form of proliferating cell nuclear antigen that blocks translesion DNA synthesis.  - PubMed - NCBIStructure of a mutant form of proliferating cell nuclear antigen that blocks translesion DNA synthesis. - PubMed - NCBI

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a homotrimeric protein that functions as a sliding clamp during DNA replication. ... Structure of a mutant form of proliferating cell nuclear antigen that blocks translesion DNA synthesis.. Freudenthal BD1, ... Structure of a mutant form of proliferating cell nuclear antigen that blocks translesion DNA synthesis ... Structure of a mutant form of proliferating cell nuclear antigen that blocks translesion DNA synthesis ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19053247

Identification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1, in the human herpesvirus 8 genome.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1, in the human herpesvirus 8 genome. - PubMed - NCBI

Identification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1, in the human herpesvirus 8 genome.. Kellam P1, Boshoff C, Whitby D, ... These data identify a region of HHV-8 encoding for a major immunoreactive latent nuclear antigen (LNA-1), analogous to the ... sera are immunoreactive against discrete nuclear localizing antigens in PEL cell lines. This study sought to identify and ... and K13 gave a nuclear immunofluorescence pattern similar to that observed in BCP-1 cells. Western blot analysis with KS ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10195227?dopt=Abstract

Nuclear antigen recombinant monoclonal antibody, clone NM2984R - (RAB00694) - Products - AbnovaNuclear antigen recombinant monoclonal antibody, clone NM2984R - (RAB00694) - Products - Abnova

Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against human Nuclear antigen. Nuclei of HL60 cells. (RAB00694) - Products - ... Nuclear antigen recombinant monoclonal antibody, clone NM2984R. Nuclear antigen recombinant monoclonal antibody, clone NM2984R ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?catalog_id=RAB00694
  • the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. (gentaur.com)
  • of the polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) molecule (EBNA 1) encoded by the Bam HI K fragment of the EBV DNA has been determined in 14 EBV-carrying lymphoblastoid and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Analysis with the KS patients' sera of HEK 293 cells transfected with a clone encompassing the complete coding region of ORF 73, ORF 72, and K13 gave a nuclear immunofluorescence pattern similar to that observed in BCP-1 cells. (nih.gov)
  • A binding factor(s) to these sequences with similar binding specificity to that of E2F has been detected in nuclear extracts of Drosophila Kc cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Two proteins associated with Sjogren's Syndrome were independently described as antigens A and B, but are now known to be identical to Ro and La respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study sought to identify and characterize these nuclear localizing proteins. (nih.gov)