Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (1/1378)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

Apoptosis during breast carcinoma progression. (2/1378)

The purpose of this study was to investigate apoptosis, proliferation, and the expression of apoptosis-influencing proteins bcl-2 and bax and estrogen and progesterone receptors during breast carcinoma progression. The material consisted of 53 paired breast carcinoma samples representing primary and recurrent tumors and 24 control samples. The recurrent sample was located either in the breast scar tissue or at a distant metastatic site. Apoptosis was detected both morphologically and by 3' end labeling of fragmented DNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated immunohistochemically by the MIB index. The expressions of bcl-2, bax, and estrogen and progesterone receptors were studied immunohistochemically. There was a significant increase in the extent of apoptosis and proliferation in recurrent tumors compared to the primary lesions (P = 0.015 and P = 0.038, respectively). In primary tumors with an apoptotic index of >0.50%, the survival of the patients was significantly shorter (P = 0.015). In cases with a significant increase in apoptosis or proliferation in the recurrent tumor, the survival of the patients was significantly shorter (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively). Of the variables analyzed, bcl-2 expression and a positive estrogen receptor status were significantly associated with a low extent of apoptosis (P = 0.010 and P = 0.042, respectively). Their changes were parallel to the changes in apoptosis during tumor progression, although the associations did not reach statistical significance. The results show that increased apoptosis is associated with a worse prognosis in breast carcinoma. A significant increase in apoptosis in recurrent breast carcinoma lesions predicts a worse clinical outcome.  (+info)

Yeast and human genes that affect the Escherichia coli SOS response. (3/1378)

The sequencing of the human genome has led to the identification of many genes whose functions remain to be determined. Because of conservation of genetic function, microbial systems have often been used for identification and characterization of human genes. We have investigated the use of the Escherichia coli SOS induction assay as a screen for yeast and human genes that might play a role in DNA metabolism and/or in genome stability. The SOS system has previously been used to analyze bacterial and viral genes that directly modify DNA. An initial screen of meiotically expressed yeast genes revealed several genes associated with chromosome metabolism (e.g., RAD51 and HHT1 as well as others). The SOS induction assay was then extended to the isolation of human genes. Several known human genes involved in DNA metabolism, such as the Ku70 end-binding protein and DNA ligase IV, were identified, as well as a large number of previously unknown genes. Thus, the SOS assay can be used to identify and characterize human genes, many of which may participate in chromosome metabolism.  (+info)

Replication-mediated DNA damage by camptothecin induces phosphorylation of RPA by DNA-dependent protein kinase and dissociates RPA:DNA-PK complexes. (4/1378)

Replication protein A (RPA) is a DNA single-strand binding protein essential for DNA replication, recombination and repair. In human cells treated with the topoisomerase inhibitors camptothecin or etoposide (VP-16), we find that RPA2, the middle-sized subunit of RPA, becomes rapidly phosphorylated. This response appears to be due to DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and to be independent of p53 or the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. RPA2 phosphorylation in response to camptothecin required ongoing DNA replication. Camptothecin itself partially inhibited DNA synthesis, and this inhibition followed the same kinetics as DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation. DNA-PK activation and RPA2 phosphorylation were prevented by the cell-cycle checkpoint abrogator 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which markedly potentiates camptothecin cytotoxicity. The DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) was found to bind RPA which was replaced by the Ku autoantigen upon camptothecin treatment. DNA-PKcs interacted directly with RPA1 in vitro. We propose that the encounter of a replication fork with a topoisomerase-DNA cleavage complex could lead to a juxtaposition of replication fork-associated RPA and DNA double-strand end-associated DNA-PK, leading to RPA2 phosphorylation which may signal the presence of DNA damage to an S-phase checkpoint mechanism. KEYWORDS: camptothecin/DNA damage/DNA-dependent protein kinase/RPA2 phosphorylation  (+info)

OBA/Ku86: DNA binding specificity and involvement in mammalian DNA replication. (5/1378)

Ors-binding activity (OBA) was previously semipurified from HeLa cells through its ability to interact specifically with the 186-basepair (bp) minimal replication origin of ors8 and support ors8 replication in vitro. Here, through competition band-shift analyses, using as competitors various subfragments of the 186-bp minimal ori, we identified an internal region of 59 bp that competed for OBA binding as efficiently as the full 186-bp fragment. The 59-bp fragment has homology to a 36-bp sequence (A3/4) generated by comparing various mammalian replication origins, including the ors. A3/4 is, by itself, capable of competing most efficiently for OBA binding to the 186-bp fragment. Band-shift elution of the A3/4-OBA complex, followed by Southwestern analysis using the A3/4 sequence as probe, revealed a major band of approximately 92 kDa involved in the DNA binding activity of OBA. Microsequencing analysis revealed that the 92-kDa polypeptide is identical to the 86-kDa subunit of human Ku antigen. The affinity-purified OBA fraction obtained using an A3/4 affinity column also contained the 70-kDa subunit of Ku and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. In vitro DNA replication experiments in the presence of A3/4 oligonucleotide or anti-Ku70 and anti-Ku86 antibodies implicate Ku in mammalian DNA replication.  (+info)

Androgen receptor expression in male breast carcinoma: lack of clinicopathological association. (6/1378)

Androgen receptor (AR) expression was retrospectively analysed in 47 primary male breast carcinomas (MBCs) using a monoclonal antibody on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. AR immunopositivity was detected in 16 out of 47 (34%) cases. No association was found with patient age, tumour stage, progesterone receptor (PGR) or p53 protein expression. Well-differentiated MBCs tended to be AR positive more often than poorly differentiated ones (P = 0.08). A negative association was found between ARs and cell proliferative activity: MIB-1 scores were higher (25.4%) in AR-negative than in AR-positive cases (21.11%; P = 0.04). A strong positive association (P = 0.0001) was found between ARs and oestrogen receptors (ERs). In univariate analysis, ARs (as well as ERs and PGRs) were not correlated with overall survival; tumour histological grade (P = 0.02), size (P = 0.01), p53 expression (P = 0.0008) and MIB-1 scores (P = 0.0003) had strong prognostic value. In multivariate survival analysis, only p53 expression (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.02) retained independent prognostic significance. In conclusion, the lack of association between AR and most clinicopathological features and survival, together with the absence of prognostic value for ER/PGR status, suggest that MBCs are biologically different from female breast carcinomas and make it questionable to use antihormonal therapy for patients with MBC.  (+info)

The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic activity regulates DNA end processing by means of Ku entry into DNA. (7/1378)

The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is required for double-strand break repair in mammalian cells. DNA-PK contains the heterodimer Ku and a 460-kDa serine/threonine kinase catalytic subunit (p460). Ku binds in vitro to DNA termini or other discontinuities in the DNA helix and is able to enter the DNA molecule by an ATP-independent process. It is clear from in vitro experiments that Ku stimulates the recruitment to DNA of p460 and activates the kinase activity toward DNA-binding protein substrates in the vicinity. Here, we have examined in human nuclear cell extracts the influence of the kinase catalytic activity on Ku binding to DNA. We demonstrate that, although Ku can enter DNA from free ends in the absence of p460 subunit, the kinase activity is required for Ku translocation along the DNA helix when the whole Ku/p460 assembles on DNA termini. When the kinase activity is impaired, DNA-PK including Ku and p460 is blocked at DNA ends and prevents their processing by either DNA polymerization, degradation, or ligation. The control of Ku entry into DNA by DNA-PK catalytic activity potentially represents an important regulation of DNA transactions at DNA termini.  (+info)

Self assembly of NuMA: multiarm oligomers as structural units of a nuclear lattice. (8/1378)

NuMA is a nuclear matrix protein in interphase and relocates to the spindle poles in mitotis. Different NuMA constructs, in which either N- or C-terminal domains were deleted, and the full-length construct were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the NuMA polypeptides were purified to homogeneity and allowed to assemble in vitro. Electron microscopy showed that NuMA can build multiarm oligomers by interaction of the C-terminal globular domains. Each arm of the oligomer corresponds to a NuMA dimer. Oligomers with up to 10 or 12 arms have been observed for both full-length NuMA and for constructs that still contain the proximal part of the C-terminal tail domain. Other results from this laboratory have shown that transient overexpression of NuMA in HeLa cells induces a nuclear scaffold with a quasi-hexagonal organization that can fill the nuclei. Here we show that computer modelling of the three-dimensional packing of NuMA into such scaffolds can explain the different spacing of the hexagons seen when constructs with different coiled-coil lengths are used. Thus, the 12 arm oligomer, for which we have in vitro evidence, may be the structural unit from which the nuclear scaffold in transfected cells is built.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The DNA end-binding protein Ku regulates silencing at the internal HML and HMR loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Vandre, Catherine L.. AU - Kamakaka, Rohinton T.. AU - Rivier, David H.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - Heterochromatin resides near yeast telomeres and at the cryptic mating-type loci, HML and HMR, where it silences transcription of the α- and a-mating-type genes, respectively. Ku is a conserved DNA end-binding protein that binds telomeres and regulates silencing in yeast. The role of Ku in silencing is thought to be limited to telomeric silencing. Here, we tested whether Ku contributes to silencing at HML or HMR. Mutant analysis revealed that yKu70 and Sir1 act collectively to silence the mating-type genes at HML and HMR. In addition, loss of yKu70 function leads to expression of different reporter genes inserted at HMR. Quantitative chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that yKu70 binds to HML and HMR and that binding of Ku to these internal ...
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Human Ku heterodimeric protein composed of Ku70 and Ku80 subunits plays an important role in the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway as a sensor of
|strong|Mouse anti Human MRE11 antibody|/strong| recognizes the double-strand break repair protein MRE11A, also known as AT-like disease DNA recombination and repair protein, MRE11 homolog 1, MRE11 ho…
In eukaryotic cells, double-strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA are generally repaired by the pathway of homologous recombination or by DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Both pathways have been highly conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, but no equivalent NHEJ system has been identified in prokaryotes. The NHEJ pathway requires a DNA end-binding component called Ku. We have identified bacterial Ku homologs and show that these proteins retain the biochemical characteristics of the eukaryotic Ku heterodimer. Furthermore, we show that bacterial Ku specifically recruits DNA ligase to DNA ends and stimulates DNA ligation. Loss of these proteins leads to hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation in Bacillus subtilis. These data provide evidence that many bacteria possess a DNA DSB repair apparatus that shares many features with the NHEJ system of eukarya and suggest that this DNA repair pathway arose before the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages diverged.. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Ku70 antibody [N1N3] (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Ku70 pAb (GTX101848) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
A- Caafimaadka wadnaha: qaraha wuxuu yareeyaa halista wadna qabadka iyo unugyada murqaha wadnaha in ay duqoobaan, wuxuu kaloo ka hortagaa in xididada wadnaha ay subag ama dufan ay ku samaysmaan, qoraal lagu daabacay joornaalka dhiig-karka ee ka soo baxa wadanka maraykanka waxay cilmibaarayaal ku soo bandhigeen in qaraha uu yareeyo cadaadiska dhiigga ku dhaca dadka buurbuuran. ...
Berikut lirik lagu Mestinya Ku Akhiri Semua - Jrocks, dilengkapi kord kunci gitar Mestinya Ku Akhiri Semua - Jrocks, dipersembahkan oleh MAINGITARDULU
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Consort \ CONDUCTOMETER KIT UK PLUG \ C6030KU for more molecular products just contact us
This is the first line from the Ku Klux Klans (KKK) Objects and Character of the Order (Horn, 1939, p. 38). Although these are not words that most modern Americans would ascribe to the Klan, one will find descriptions that depict the Klan as instruments...
Waliwo abamu ku mmwe abalekedde bakyala bammwe obuvunaanyizibwa bw’okulabirira amaka olwo mukazi wattu n’asiiba ku muliraano ng’asabiriza omunnyo, amajaani n’amafuta kyokka ng’alina omusajja akeera ku makya n’agenda okukola. |br /||br /|Tetugaanyi olumu ssente zibula naye era olina okuyi.
Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NUMA1 gene. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 has been shown to interact with PIM1, Band 4.1, GPSM2 and EPB41L1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137497 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000066306 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Sparks CA, Bangs PL, McNeil GP, Lawrence JB, Fey EG (Oct 1993). Assignment of the nuclear mitotic apparatus protein NuMA gene to human chromosome 11q13. Genomics. 17 (1): 222-224. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1307. PMID 8406455. Entrez Gene: NUMA1 nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1. Bhattacharya, Nandini; Wang Zeping; Davitt Christine; McKenzie Ian F C; Xing Pei-Xiang; Magnuson Nancy S (Jul 2002). Pim-1 associates with protein complexes necessary for mitosis. Chromosoma. Germany. 111 (2): 80-95. doi:10.1007/s00412-002-0192-6. ISSN 0009-5915. PMID 12111331. Mattagajasingh, S N; Huang S C; Hartenstein J S; Snyder M; ...
PRKDC (DNA-activated Serine/threonine Protein Kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, DNA-PK catalytic subunit, DNPK1, HYRC, HYRC1), P9003-01P - Get the Best Quote/Price and read Reviews, Features and Research Applications
Fig. 3. 4.1N translocates from plasma membrane to nucleus and binds NuMA in PC12 cells in response to NGF treatment. After NGF (50 ng/ml) treatment, 4.1N concentration decreases gradually in non-nuclear fractions (A) but increases in nuclear fractions (C). As a control, the concentration of α-tubulin is unchanged in non-nuclear fractions (B) and remains undetectable in all nuclear fractions (D). E, 4.1N coimmunoprecipitates with NuMA in response to NGF treatment. PC12 cells were treated with 50 ng/ml NGF, and at the indicated times cells were lysed and immunoprecipitated (IP) with anti-NuMA antibody. Coprecipitated 4.1N was detected by Western blotting as described. F, Western blot of NuMA shows that same amount of the NuMA protein was immunoprecipitated in each lane.G, EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells does not alter 4.1N levels in non-nuclear fractions. H, 4.1N remains undetectable in nuclear fractions after EGF (50 ng/ml) treatment of PC12 cells. I, NGF treatment does not alter 4.1N ...
Our findings provide a function for the carboxy-terminal region of ligase IV and suggest that BRCT domains of other proteins may mediate contacts between DNA repair components. In addition, our data implicate mammalian ligase IV in V(D)J recombination and the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, …
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of a 460 kDa subunit that contains the catalytic domain (DNA-PKcs) complexed with two polypeptides of 70 kDa and 80 kDa (Ku70 and Ku80) which comprise the Ku autoantigen. DNA-PKcs requires association with DNA via Ku for catalytic activation and is implicated in double strand break repair, V(D)J recombination and transcription. We have utilised a cell-free system of concentrated Xenopus laevis egg extracts to investigate the regulation and possible functions of DNA-PK. Recently, we have shown that this system can reproduce events of apoptosis, including activation of an apoptotic protease that cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Here, we report that DNA-PK is rapidly inactivated with the onset of apoptosis in this system. Loss of activity is concomitant with cleavage of the catalytic subunit, whereas the Ku subunits are stable. Cleavage and inactivation of DNA-PKcs is prevented by prior addition of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 or inhibition of ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The N-terminal region of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit is required for its DNA double-stranded break-mediated activation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding the 80-kDa subunit protein of the human autoantigen Ku (p70/p80) recognized by autoantibodies from patients with scleroderma-polymyositis overlap syndrome. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DNA-dependent protein kinase. T2 - Epigenetic alterations and the role in genomic stability of cancer. AU - George, Vazhappilly Cijo. AU - Ansari, Shabbir Ahmed. AU - Chelakkot, Vipin Shankar. AU - Chelakkot, Ayshwarya Lakshmi. AU - Chelakkot, Chaithanya. AU - Menon, Varsha. AU - Ramadan, Wafaa. AU - Ethiraj, Kannatt Radhakrishnan. AU - El-Awady, Raafat. AU - Mantso, Theodora. AU - Mitsiogianni, Melina. AU - Panagiotidis, Mihalis I.. AU - Dellaire, Graham. AU - Vasantha Rupasinghe, H. P.. PY - 2019/4/1. Y1 - 2019/4/1. N2 - DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a member of phosphatidylinositol-kinase family, is a key protein in mammalian DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair that helps to maintain genomic integrity. DNA-PK also plays a central role in immune cell development and protects telomerase during cellular aging. Epigenetic deregulation due to endogenous and exogenous factors may affect the normal function of DNA-PK, which in turn could impair DNA repair and contribute to ...
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts as a molecular sensor for DNA damage. Involved in DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) required for double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J recombination. Must be bound to DNA to express its catalytic properties. Promotes processing of hairpin DNA structures in V(D)J recombination by activation of the hairpin endonuclease artemis (DCLRE1C). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is also required for the NHEJ ligation step. Required to protect and align broken ends of DNA. May also act as a scaffold protein to aid the localization of DNA repair proteins to the site of damage. Found at the ends of chromosomes, suggesting a further role in the maintenance of telomeric stability and the prevention of chromosomal end fusion. Also involved in modulation of transcription. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates Ser-139 of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Phosphorylates ...
DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in human cells is initiated by Ku heterodimer binding to a DSB, followed by recruitment of core NHEJ factors including DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), XRCC4-like factor (XLF), and XRCC4 (X4)-DNA ligase IV (L4). Ku also interacts with accessory factors such as aprataxin and polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase-like factor (APLF). Yet, how these factors interact to tether, process, and ligate DSB ends while allowing regulation and chromatin interactions remains enigmatic. Here, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and mutational analyses show APLF is largely an intrinsically disordered protein that binds Ku, Ku/DNA-PKcs (DNA-PK), and X4L4 within an extended flexible NHEJ core complex. X4L4 assembles with Ku heterodimers linked to DNA-PKcs via flexible Ku80 C-terminal regions (Ku80CTR) in a complex stabilized through APLF interactions with Ku, DNA-PK, and X4L4. Collective results unveil the solution ...
Plasmid pEYFP-C1-NuMA from Dr. Michael Mancinis lab contains the insert Homo sapiens nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NUMA1). This plasmid is available through Addgene.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Ku80 carboxy terminus stimulates joining and artemis-mediated processing of DNA ends. AU - Weterings, Eric. AU - Verkaik, Nicole S.. AU - Keijzers, Guido. AU - Florea, Bogdan I.. AU - Wang, Shih Ya. AU - Ortega, Laura G.. AU - Uematsu, Naoya. AU - Chen, David J.. AU - Van Gent, Dik C.. PY - 2009/3/1. Y1 - 2009/3/1. N2 - Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is predominantly mediated by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in mammalian cells. NHEJ requires binding of the Ku70-Ku80 heterodimer (Ku70/80) to the DNA ends and subsequent recruitment of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKCS) and the XRCC4/ligase IV complex. Activation of the DNA-PKCS serine/threonine kinase requires an interaction with Ku70/80 and is essential for NHEJ-mediated DSB repair. In contrast to previous models, we found that the carboxy terminus of Ku80 is not absolutely required for the recruitment and activation of DNA-PKCS at DSBs, although cells that harbored a carboxy-terminal ...
In response to genotoxic stress, the p53 tumor suppressor protein exerts a G1 cell cycle arrest that is dependent on its ability to transactivate downstream target genes. This p53-dependent G1 block is reversed by the binding of Mdm-2 to p53, preventing further transactivation. Interestingly, following DNA damage, the mdm-2 gene is also transcriptionally activated by p53, and therefore, the question of how p53 can continue to transactivate genes in the presence of its own negative regulator has remained unanswered. Here, we provide evidence that phosphorylation of Mdm-2 protein by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) blocks its ability to associate with p53 and regulate p53 transactivation. The data support a model by which DNA-PK activation by DNA damage and phosphorylation of Mdm-2 renders the Mdm-2 protein unable to inhibit p53 transactivation, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Following DNA repair, the loss of DNA-PK activity results in newly synthesized Mdm-2 protein that is unphosphorylated ...
SCR7 and its Oxidized Form, SCR7-pyrazine Induce Cancer Cell Death by Inhibiting Nonhomologous DNA End joining in a Ligase IV Dependent Manner ...
This paper explains the cloning, purification, and serological applications of matrix antigen MAG1 of recombinant protein, which was assessed for its potential use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of infection in humans. was localized to the ground substance of the tissue cyst and could be detected in immunoblots of extracts from cysts but not from tachyzoites (21).… More →. ...
This paper explains the cloning, purification, and serological applications of matrix antigen MAG1 of recombinant protein, which was assessed for its potential use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of infection in humans. was localized to the ground substance of the tissue cyst and could be detected in immunoblots of extracts from cysts but not from tachyzoites (21).… More →. ...
ENAP. If ENA or any of the components of the CLS ENA test are ordered on CLS requisition, even if Mitogen Advanced Diagnostic Lab or MADL is also written on the CLS requisition, order ENAP ...
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ligD1; ATP-dependent DNA ligase clustered with Ku protein, LigD; K01971 bifunctional non-homologous end joining protein LigD [EC:] ...
tr:M9U2I4_9ACTN] ligD; ATP-dependent DNA ligase clustered with Ku protein; K01971 bifunctional non-homologous end joining protein LigD [EC:] ...
Abaveterineri bavuga ko aborozi bakwiye kuyoboka uburyo bugezweho bwo guteza inka zabo intanga aho kuzibangurira ku bimasa, kuko ngo bizitera indwara zirimo imitezi, bikaba byanaziviramo kuramburura.. Aborozi binka bo basanga hakwiye gushyirwaho uburyo bwo kuvura ibyo bimasa, kuko ubu buryo bwo guteza intanga ngo batabwizeye neza.. Aborozi bo mu murenge wa Kinazi baganiriye na IGIHE, bavuga ko kubangurira inka ukoresheje ikimasa ari byo biborohera kuruta gukoresha uburyo bugezweho bwo gutera intanga.. Niyigena yagize ati Ubwa mbere nayiteje intanga yanga gufata, ubwo mpitamo kuyijyana ku kimasa ihita ifata, ndumva ibyoroshye ku muntu ufite amikoro make ari ku kimasa kuko haba igihe uteje intanga ikabyara nabi.. Umukozi wikigo cyigihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere ubuhinzi nubworozi mu Rwanda (RAB) mu ishami rya Isar Songa, Dr Diane Niwemukiza, avuga ko abakibangurira ku bimasa bakagombye kubicikaho kuko bigira ingaruka zikomeye ku nka nko kuba zakanduzanya indwara zitandukanye.. Ati Ingaruka ...
Vaidutis Kučinskas - Lietuvos genetikas, akademikas, profesorius, habilituotas biomedicinos mokslų daktaras, nusipelnęs Lietuvos sveikatos apsaugos darbuotojas[1]. Vaidutis Kučinskas yra gerai žinomas žmogaus ir medicininės genetikos specialistas, ilgametis Vilniaus universiteto Medicinos fakulteto Žmogaus ir medicininės genetikos katedros vedėjas (ŽMGK) ir Vilniaus universiteto ligoninės (VUL) Santariškių klinikų Medicininės genetikos centro (MGC) direktorius. Jis yra genetikos ir genomikos vadovėlių vidurinei mokyklai, kolegijoms ir universitetams autorius. Profesoriaus V. Kučinsko mokslo darbai daugiausiai susiję su lietuvio genomo ir lietuvių tautos genų fondo tyrimais. Jų rezultatai pateikti daugelyje tarptautinių mokslo kongresų, konferencijų ir simpoziumų, publikuoti daugiau nei 600 mokslo straipsnių genetikos ir genomikos klausimais. Nemaža šių straipsnių dalis atspausdinta prestižiniuose tarptautiniuose mokslo žurnaluose (Nature, Nature Genetics, PLoS ...
Energie, nutriční hodnoty, vitamíny a minerální látky v potravině Kuřecí stehenní řízek Vaigl a syn a v dalších více než 100 000 potravinách. Uložte si Kuřecí stehenní řízek Vaigl a syn do svého jídelníčku zdarma.
DNA is susceptible to continuous egregious environmental and biological hazards that can significantly damage its composition. Cellular exposure to ra
Khamiis, Luulyo, 15, 2021 (HOL) - Wararka naga soo gaaraya degmada Halgan ee gobolka Hiiraan ayaa sheegaya in weerar madaafiic ah lagu qaaday Saldhiga ciidamada Itoobiya ay ku leeyihiin degmadaasi.
Amakuru yibihuha usanga anyaruka ku mbuga nka Whatsaap, Telegram, Instagram nizindi duhuriraho turi benshi ku buryo bigoye kuyatandukanya namakuru mpamo. Gusa hari ibintu bimwe na bimwe wasuzuma ukamenya niba koko ari ibihuha cyangwa se harimo ukuri. Hari nkukuntu umuntu akora ubutumwa bwibinyoma agahita abushyira muri groupe ya whatsaap ihuriwemo nabantu nkicumi. Ugasanga kuko ba bantu …. Ni gute wasuzuma ukuri kwinkuru zo ku mbuga nkoranyambaga Read More ». ...
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) eliminates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by direct ligation. NHEJ involves binding of the KU heterodimer to double-stranded DNA ends, recruitment of DNA-PKcs (MRX complex in yeast), processing of ends, and recruitment of the DNA ligase IV (LIG4)-XRCC4 complex, which brings about ligation. A recent study shows that bacteria accomplish NHEJ using just two proteins (Ku and DNA ligase), whereas eukaryotes require many factors. NHEJ repairs DSBs at all stages of the cell cycle, bringing about the ligation of two DNA DSBs without the need for sequence homology, and so is error-prone ...
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) eliminates DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by direct ligation. NHEJ involves binding of the KU heterodimer to double-stranded DNA ends, recruitment of DNA-PKcs (MRX complex in yeast), processing of ends, and recruitment of the DNA ligase IV (LIG4)-XRCC4 complex, which brings about ligation. A recent study shows that bacteria accomplish NHEJ using just two proteins (Ku and DNA ligase), whereas eukaryotes require many factors. NHEJ repairs DSBs at all stages of the cell cycle, bringing about the ligation of two DNA DSBs without the need for sequence homology, and so is error-prone ...
selected list-past 5 years. Vidi P-A, Ling L, Lelièvre SA, Irudayaraj PJ. Nanoscale histone localization in live cells reveals reduced chromatin mobility in response to DNA damage. J Cell Sci. 128:599-604, 2015. Bazzoun D, Lelièvre SA, Talhouk R. Beyond the channel: Role of connexins in regulating normal and cancerous processes in the mammary gland. In Intercellular Communication in Cancer, Springer (In press). Weaver C, Teegarden D, Hwalla N, Welch A, Lelièvre SA. International Breast Cancer and Nutrition: A model for research, training and policy in diet, epigenetics, and chronic disease prevention. Adv Nutr. 5:566-7, 2014.. Lelièvre SA. Taking a chance on epigenetics, (opinion article) Front. Genet. 2014. Vidi PA, Liu J, Jayaraman S, Dorfman G, Salles D, Gray M, Abad P, Moghe PV, Irudayaraj JMK, Wiesmüller L, and Lelièvre SA. The Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein, NuMA, controls the presence of the ISWI ATPase SNF2h at DNA Breaks. Nucleic Acids Research, 42:6365-79, 2014.. Lelièvre ...
An ENA (Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies) panel detects the presence of one or more specific autoantibodies in the blood. Autoantibodies are produced when a persons immune system mistakenly targets and attacks the bodys own tissues. This attack can cause inflammation, tissue damage, and other signs and symptoms that are associated with an autoimmune disorder.. ENA are a subset of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies directed against proteins found in the nucleus of cells. Certain autoimmune disorders are characteristically associated with the presence of one or more extractable nuclear antigen antibodies. This association can be used to help diagnose an autoimmune disorder and to distinguish between disorders.. The ENA panel is typically a group of 6-10 autoantibody tests. The number of tests offered will depend on the laboratory and the needs of the doctors and patients it serves. ENA panel tests, and other less common ENA tests, may be able to be ordered separately depending on the ...
1. OlovnikovAM. 1973 A theory of marginotomy. The incomplete copying of template margin in enzymic synthesis of polynucleotides and biological significance of the phenomenon. J Theor Biol 41 181 190. 2. LongheseMP. 2008 DNA damage response at functional and dysfunctional telomeres. Genes Dev 22 125 140. 3. GreiderCW. BlackburnEH. 1985 Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts. Cell 43 405 413. 4. LydallD. 2009 Taming the tiger by the tail: modulation of DNA damage responses by telomeres. EMBO J 28 2174 2187. 5. FisherTS. ZakianVA. 2005 Ku: a multifunctional protein involved in telomere maintenance. DNA Repair (Amst) 4 1215 1226. 6. BoultonSJ. JacksonSP. 1998 Components of the Ku-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway are involved in telomeric length maintenance and telomeric silencing. EMBO J 17 1819 1828. 7. MaringeleL. LydallD. 2002 EXO1-dependent single-stranded DNA at telomeres activates subsets of DNA damage and spindle checkpoint ...
17. Katagiri, T., Saito, H., Shinohara, A., Ogawa, H., Kamada, N., Nakamura Y. and Y. Miki. Multiple possible sites of BRCA2 interacting with DNA repair protein Rad51. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, 21, 217-222. 1998, CI=43.. 18. Gasior, S., Wang, A., Kohra, Y., Shinohara, A. and D.K. Bishop. Rad52 associates with RPA and functions with Rad55 and Rad57 to assemble meiotic recombination complexes. Genes & Dev., 12, 2208-2221, 1998, CI=183.. 19. Bishop, D.K., Ear, U., Bhattacharyya, A., Calderone, C., Beckett, M., Weichselbaum, R. and A. Shinohara. Xrcc3 is required for assembly of Rad51-complexes in vivo. J. Biol. Chem., 273, 21482-21488. 1998, CI=213.. 20. Takata, M., Sasaki, M., Sonoda, E., Morrison, C., Hashimoto, M., Utsumi, H., Yamaguchi-Iwai, Y., Shinohara, A., and S. Takeda. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining pathways of DNA double-strand break repair have overlapping roles in maintenance of chromosome integrity. EMBO J., 17, 5497-5508. 1998, CI=797.. 21. Nishitani, ...
ATM and the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase activate NF-kappaB through a common MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p90(rsk) signaling pathway in response to distinct forms of DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Mar; 24(5):1823-35 ...
Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies (RNP, Smith, SSA, & SSB),ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research and development. ARUP offers an extensive test menu of highly complex and unique medical tests in clinical and anatomic pathology. Owned by the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories client,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
DNA-PKcs is a PIKK activated by binding of its Ku70 and Ku80 partners to DNA ends (Suwa et al., 1994). The search for endogenous substrates initially led to transcription factors such as p53, Sp1, c-Myc and c-Jun but eventually yielded a wide range of other proteins (Goodwin and Knudsen, 2014). Mutant cells display DNA repair defects, a prolonged proliferative arrest and decreased survival after exposure to radiation or other genotoxic agents (Lees-Miller et al., 1995). While attention initially focused on p53 activation, DNA-PKcs was also found to phosphorylate the Ku proteins along with other NHEJ factors, including XRCC4, Lig4 and XLF, implicating DNA-PKcs in NHEJ, the primary mode of DSB repair throughout the cell cycle (Chang et al., 2017). Remarkably, our current understanding that DNA-PKcs serves an essential role in NHEJ has remained largely untested, built on studies in a small number of DNA-PKcs-deficient cell lines [e.g. DNA-PKcs−/− MO59J human glioma (Lees-Miller et al., 1995)] ...
CC-115 is a dual inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), with potential antineoplastic activity. CC-115 binds to and inhibits the activity of DNA-PK and both raptor-mTOR (TOR complex 1 or TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TOR complex 2 or TORC2), which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation of cancer cells expressing DNA-PK and TOR. DNA-PK, a serine/threonine kinase and a member of the PI3K-related kinase subfamily of protein kinases, is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks via the DNA nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway.
OK-1035 is a potent and selective DNA-PK inhibitor. When a synthetic peptide was used as a substrate, OK-1035 caused 50% inhibition of DNA-PK activity at 8 microM. OK-1035 inhibited the phosphorylation by DNA-PK of consensus peptide as well as that of recombinant human wild type-p53. Kinetic studies indicated that OK-1035 inhibited DNA-PK activity in an ATP-competitive manner.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Cell surface expression of the 70-kD component of Ku, a DNA-binding nuclear autoantigen.: The Ku complex, a heterodimer of 86- and 70-kD proteins, is a nuclear
YPF forecast that 2016 capital expenditures would decline toward the lower end of a $5-$6B range and expected a devaluation of the peso next year that would exceed inflation.
A settlement amount of US$150 million will be paid by YPF to Exmar in consideration of the early termination of the agreements and withdrawing the arbitration proceedings.
2010 Velma V., Carrero Z., Cosman M., Hebert M.D. Coilin interacts with Ku proteins and inhibits in vitro non-homologous DNA end joining. FEBS Lett. 2010 Dec 1;584(23):4735-9. Epub 2010 Nov 9.PMID: 21070772 [5] Hebert MD. Phosphorylation and the Cajal body: modification in search of function. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010 Apr 15;496(2):69-76. Epub 2010 Mar 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 20193656; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2850958. ...
Qanjidhka thyroid-ka wuxuu ku yaallaa dhuunta, wuxuuna labada dhinac ka xigaa tuunbada hawa mareenka qeybteeda kore , waxaana uu soo daayaa hormoono wax ku ool u ah shaqada jirka, sida kuwa kontoroola habka loo yaqaano metabolism (habka burburinta ama dhisida nafaqada taasoo jirku u isticmaalo tamar ahaan). Waxaa kale oo ay maamulaanama kontoroolaan shaqooyin kale oo aad u tira badan sida, neefsashada, garaaca wadnaha, neerfayaasha maskaxda iyo xungulaha, miisaanka jirka, awooda murqaha, heer kulka jira iyo cadadka k olesterolka. Marka ay yaraato soo deynta hormoonada laga soo daayo qanjirkaan waxaa ay saamayn balaaran ku yeeshaan dhamaan shaqadii ay qaybta ka ahaayeen.. Dumarka gaar ahaan kuwooda dada weyn ayuu ugu badan yahay xanuunkaan. Inta badan ma sababa wax calaamad ah markuu bilowga yahay. Balse hadii aan la daweyn waxuu keenayaa calaamado ama cilado hor leh sida cayil xad dhaafa, kalagowsyo xanuun, dhalmo laaan iyo xanuuno saamayn ku yeesha wadnaha.. WAA MAXAY CILLADAHA KU DHACDA ...
Effect of Ku86, DNA-PKcs, or PARP-1 deficiency on morphology, apoptosis, and proliferative potential of the intestinal epithelium in successive generations of t
Kjo sjellje e Tramezzanit nuk i ka p lqyer Gashit dhe ka dal me nj vendim personal p r t braktisur komb taren. Po ashku edhe Taulant Xhaka pas gjestin q kreu n z vend simin n ndeshje me Zvicr n ku p rplasi bidonin ujit n tok ka krijuar nj armiq si me trajnerin De Biasi dhe Tramezzanin ...
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Rindu pantai? - dh agak lama MZ tak balik kg especially bersama mr hubby..last sekali balik, MZ balik dgn my boys jer (my nephew& niece tlg drive my car) so last few weeks... ...
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Rindu pantai? - dh agak lama MZ tak balik kg especially bersama mr hubby..last sekali balik, MZ balik dgn my boys jer (my nephew& niece tlg drive my car) so last few weeks... ...
U tekstu se govori o mjestu, ulozi i odnosu predstavničkog sustava i neposredne demokracije unutar trijade političkog, legalnog i popularnog konstitucionalizma. Upućuje se i na ustavnoteorijsku i političku apologiju ustava i...
Related to my other question. I know that the coelom is derived from mesoderm.. Coelom seems to form during organogenesis within 3rd and 8th week of embryogenesis. However, that answer is not either enough exact or it is wrong.. I am reading the thing in Kimball 5e and Gilbert 9e, but cannot find an exact mention about the thing. I know for sure that the coelom develops within gastrulation and organogenesis, since it is forming from mesoderm.. When does coelom form exactly?. ...
Nuclear antigens. *Oxidative burst. *pH, intracellular ionized calcium, magnesium, membrane potential. *Protein expression and ... Various combinations (DNA/surface antigens, etc.). Applications[edit]. The technology has applications in a number of fields, ... co-expression of cell surface and intracellular antigens can also be analyzed.[37] In marine biology, the autofluorescent ... "Demonstration that antigen-binding cells are precursors of antibody-producing cells after purification with a fluorescence- ...
PCNA stimulates both polymerases (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; red ring). The RFC (replication factor C) complex with ... required for Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) binding and recruitment of accessory subunits respectively.[45] CysB ... nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • delta DNA polymerase complex. • cytosol. Biological process. • nucleotide-excision ... Alternatively, Polδ is associated with lamins and the nuclear envelope during G1/S arrest or early S phase; mutations in lamins ...
ORF73 - LANA, latency-associated nuclear antigen- tethers genome to chromosome during latency, also regulates host gene ... state expressing the viral latency-associated nuclear antigen, LANA. Crucial for the Entry of the KSHV [10] is the EPH receptor ... PAN, polyadenylated nuclear RNA - non-coding linear and circular RNAs miRNAs (mirKs) - viral microRNAs expressed during latency ... Direct Transcriptional Targets of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Rta Lytic Switch Protein by Conditional Nuclear ...
February 2009). "Nuclear signalling by tumour-associated antigen EpCAM". Nature Cell Biology. 11 (2): 162-71. doi:10.1038/ ... Balzar M, Winter MJ, de Boer CJ, Litvinov SV (October 1999). "The biology of the 17-1A antigen (Ep-CAM)". Journal of Molecular ... Münz M, Kieu C, Mack B, Schmitt B, Zeidler R, Gires O (July 2004). "The carcinoma-associated antigen EpCAM upregulates c-myc ... Litvinov SV, Velders MP, Bakker HA, Fleuren GJ, Warnaar SO (April 1994). "Ep-CAM: a human epithelial antigen is a homophilic ...
The second component is the autoimmune antigen Ku. On its own, DNA-PKcs is inactive and relies on Ku to direct it to DNA ends ... DNA-PKcs is the catalytic subunit of a nuclear DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase called DNA-PK. ... Ting NS, Kao PN, Chan DW, Lintott LG, Lees-Miller SP (January 1998). "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen ... Matheos D, Ruiz MT, Price GB, Zannis-Hadjopoulos M (October 2002). "Ku antigen, an origin-specific binding protein that ...
... cells also express Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). In vivo, Male mice develop tumors earlier and at a greater frequency ... High-affinity specific androgen and estrogen receptors are present in the cytosol and nuclear fractions. The LNCaP line is ... and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) however, M, C4, and C5 sublines express 5-10X more PSA mRNA. M, C4, C5 and C4-2 also ...
EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) Antibody to EBNA slowly appears 2 to 4 months after onset of symptoms and persists for the rest of a ... Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen detection. While it is not normally recognizable until several weeks into the disease, and is ... Early antigen (EA) Anti-EA IgG appears in the acute phase of illness and disappears after 3 to 6 months. It is associated with ... The antibodies involved in the test do not interact with the Epstein-Barr virus or any of its antigens. The monospot test is ...
... an analysis of 622 nuclear families". Tissue Antigens. 62 (2): 162-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00071.x. PMID 12889996. ... Kaibe M, Takakuwa K, Murakawa H, Ishii K, Tamura M, Tanaka K (2006). "Studies on the human leukocyte antigens in patients with ... Matsuyama M, Hashimoto K, Yamasaki Y, Shirakura R, Higuchi R, Miyajima T, Amemiya H (1981). "HLA-DR antigens in pemphigus among ... Tissue Antigens. 41 (2): 57-64. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1993.tb01980.x. PMID 8475491. Undlien D, Friede T, Rammensee H, Joner G ...
... an analysis of 622 nuclear families". Tissue Antigens. 62 (2): 162-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00071.x. PMID 12889996. ... HLA-DQ8 (DQ8) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... These split antigens are the allele products of the DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0305, respectively. DQB1*0302 and is found most often in ... and 2.Zhou L, Lin B, Xie Y, Liu Z, Yan W, Xu A (2005). "Polymorphism of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 genes of ...
... interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in ... Podust VN, Podust LM, Goubin F, Ducommun B, Huebscher U (1995). "Mechanism of inhibition of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- ... with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (4): 2766-74. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and p21waf1/cip1. A dynamic exchange of partners". J. ...
Anti-RA33 antibodies can be easily detected by immunoblotting employing crude nuclear extracts or the recombinant antigen. ... The antigen was therefore named RA33. Protein sequencing of highly purified RA33 revealed that it was identical to hetergoneous ... Steiner et al.: Purification and partial sequencing of the nuclear autoantigen RA33 shows that it is indistinguishable from the ... RA33, also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, is an autoantigen in human systemic autoimmune diseases. In ...
... antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki-67). Antigen KI-67 is a nuclear protein that is associated with cellular ... Gerdes J, Schwab U, Lemke H, Stein H (1983). "Production of a mouse monoclonal antibody reactive with a human nuclear antigen ... PCNA - Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, expressed during the DNA synthesis. Immunofluorescent antibody staining against ... Antigen KI-67 also known as Ki-67 or MKI67 (Marker Of Proliferation Ki-67) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MKI67 ...
GS-ANA are antibodies directed to granulocyte specific nuclear antigens. Atypical ANCA are thought to be antigens similar to ... p-ANCA without nuclear extension has perinuclear staining without nuclear extension and GS-ANA shows nuclear staining on ... The c-ANCA antigen is specifically proteinase 3 (PR3). p-ANCA antigens include myeloperoxidase (MPO) and bacterial permeability ... The most common antigens used on an ELISA microtitre plate are MPO and PR3, which are usually tested for after a positive IF ...
Differential role of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (50): 39458-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006626200. PMID ...
"Entrez Gene: MINA MYC induced nuclear antigen". Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two ...
"Human SHPRH is a ubiquitin ligase for Mms2-Ubc13-dependent polyubiquitylation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". ... "Human SHPRH suppresses genomic instability through proliferating cell nuclear antigen polyubiquitination". The Journal of Cell ...
Myeloid cell Nuclear Differentiation Antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded as MNDA gene. The myeloid cell nuclear ... nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen ... Briggs RC, Atkinson JB, Miranda RN (May 2005). "Variable expression of human myeloid specific nuclear antigen MNDA in monocyte ... "Entrez Gene: MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen". Burrus GR, Briggs JA, Briggs RC (February 1992). " ...
"Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "Large scale identification of human hepatocellular carcinoma-associated antigens by autoantibodies". Journal of Immunology. 169 ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ... The ubiquitination system functions in a wide variety of cellular processes, including: Antigen processing Apoptosis Biogenesis ... human leukocyte antigen F-associated (FAT10), autophagy-8 (ATG8) and -12 (ATG12), Few ubiquitin-like protein (FUB1), MUB ( ...
The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) or latent nuclear antigen (LNA, LNA-1), is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... Kellam P, Boshoff C, Whitby D, Matthews S, Weiss RA, Talbot SJ (1997). "Identification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1 ... Garber AC, Hu J, Renne R (July 2002). "Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) cooperatively binds to two sites within the ... Lim C, Sohn H, Gwack Y, Choe J (November 2000). "Latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ...
Cui D, Jin G, Gao T, Sun T, Tian F, Estrada GG, Gao H, Sarai A (2004). "Characterization of BRCAA1 and its novel antigen ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. Bibcode: ...
... ligation inhibits TCR/CD3-induced IL-2 production by blocking Ca2+ flux and nuclear factor of activated T cell nuclear ... Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. Soares ...
2002). "A proteomics approach to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-binding proteins in human cell lysates. ... NLS-dependent protein nuclear import complex. • nucleolus. • nucleus. Biological process. • positive regulation of gene ... "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (33): 12130-5. doi ...
The high concentration of dsDNA and the absence of human nuclear antigens in the kinetoplast provides a specific substrate for ... "Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. ... The kinetoplast found in C.luciliae allows them to be used for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies, a type of anti-nuclear ... Anti-nuclear antibodies are a common feature in SLE and anti-dsDNA antibodies are highly specific for the disease. ...
Latent antigens[edit]. All EBV nuclear proteins are produced by alternative splicing of a transcript starting at either the Cp ... Protein/gene/antigen Stage Description EBNA-1 latent+lytic EBNA-1 protein binds to a replication origin (oriP) within the viral ... The initiation codon of the EBNA-LP coding region is created by an alternate splice of the nuclear protein transcript. In the ... EBER-1/EBER-2 are small nuclear RNAs, which bind to certain nucleoprotein particles, enabling binding to PKR (dsRNA-dependent ...
The encoded protein also interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Some transcripts of this gene overlap in a tail-to- ... that interacts with the p50 subunit of DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen". The Journal of Biological ... October 2013). "PDIP38 is translocated to the spliceosomes/nuclear speckles in response to UV-induced DNA damage and is ... September 2007). "The cell adhesion receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 regulates ...
Shivji, Mahmud K.K. (1992). "Proliferating cell nuclear antigen is required for DNA excision repair". Cell. 69 (2): 367-374. ... identifying proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as part of the NER complex and identifying mammalian repair polymerases. ... "POLN, a Nuclear PolA Family DNA Polymerase Homologous to the DNA Cross-link Sensitivity Protein Mus308". Journal of Biological ...
Matsuoka S, Yamaguchi M, Matsukage A (April 1994). "D-type cyclin-binding regions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". The ... "Cyclin D1 repression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 integrates nuclear DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function". Proceedings ... Baldin V, Lukas J, Marcote MJ, Pagano M, Draetta G (May 1993). "Cyclin D1 is a nuclear protein required for cell cycle ... Independent of CDK, cyclin D1 binds to nuclear receptors (including estrogen receptor α, thyroid hormone receptor, PPARγ and AR ...
"Entrez Gene: SNRP70 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70kDa polypeptide (RNP antigen)". Spritz RA, Strunk K, Surowy CS, ... snRNP70 also known as U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70 kDa is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNRNP70 gene. ... Klein Gunnewiek JM, van Aarssen Y, van der Kemp A, Nelissen R, Pruijn GJ, van Venrooij WJ (August 1997). "Nuclear accumulation ... snRNP70 is a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein that associates with U1 spliceosomal RNA, forming the U1snRNP a core component of ...
Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ... Consequentially, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1, will up-regulate the expression ... Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility complex and T-cell receptors in the absence of antigen presentation ...
... nuclear workers whose own marrow had been damaged by irradiation caused by a criticality accident at the Vinča Nuclear ... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 48 (1): 237-43. doi:10.1016/j.ejrnm.2016.12.013.. ... the donor should preferably have the same human leukocyte antigens (HLA) as the recipient. About 25 to 30 percent of allogeneic ...
A critical role for nuclear liver X receptors alpha and beta". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31900-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202993200. ... "Expression of apolipoprotein C-IV is regulated by Ku antigen/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma complex and ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ...
2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... 1999). "Identification and characterization of a novel cytokine, THANK, a TNF homologue that activates apoptosis, nuclear ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
"Tissue Antigens. 64 (5): 575-80. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2004.00310.x. PMID 15496200.. ... The appearance of anti-nuclear antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis was found to correlated with A1-B8-DR3.[26] One of the ... An A1::DQ2 appears in India, however its major antigen genes superficially resemble European A1-B8 and it appears to be a ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ...
nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • condensed nuclear ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ... an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein that interacts with BRCA2". Oncogene. 20 (3): 336-45. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204098. ... "Analysis of murine Brca2 reveals conservation of protein-protein interactions but differences in nuclear localization signals ...
... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ... Anti-nuclear antibody. *PBC: *Anti-gp210. *Anti-p62. *Anti-sp100. *ENA: *Anti-topoisomerase/Scl-70 ...
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal. Nature Reviews Immunology 5''' (4) 331-342. [1 ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
... or using human leukocyte antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction ( ... This genetic material is known as the nuclear genome of the individual, because it is found in the nucleus. ... Proving a relationship based on comparison of the mitochondrial genome is much easier than that based on the nuclear genome. ... Besides the nuclear DNA in the nucleus, the mitochondria in the cells also have their own genetic material termed the ...
Human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and p21waf1/cip1. A dynamic exchange of partners. „J. ... Białko p21 (WAF1) jest w stanie oddziaływać z jądrowym antygenem komórek proliferujących (proliferating cell nuclear antigen − ... Interaction of CR6 (GADD45gamma ) with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control. „J. Biol. Chem.". ... Regulation of DNA replication and repair proteins through interaction with the front side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen ...
Primarna funkcija IL-8 citokina je da regrutuje neutrofile da fagocitoziraju antigen koji je pobudio antigenski obrazac toll- ... Vlahopoulos S, Boldogh I, Casola A, Brasier AR (September 1999). "Nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent induction of interleukin-8 ... gene expression by tumor necrosis factor alpha: evidence for an antioxidant sensitive activating pathway distinct from nuclear ...
Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ... "Targeting of nuclear factor-kappaB and proteasome by dithiocarbamate complexes with metals". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 13 ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Lotze MT, Tracey KJ (April 2005). "High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal". Nature ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... TRAF-2 mediates CD30-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
A type of organism consisting of cells which have a nucleus enclosed within a distinct nuclear membrane, unlike prokaryotes. ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... which act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as ... system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens.[2] ...
nuclear membrane. • membrane. • transcription factor complex. • bicellular tight junction. • nucleoplasm. • nucleolus. • ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ... Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 ... Li J, Melvin WS, Tsai MD, Muscarella P (2004). "The nuclear protein p34SEI-1 regulates the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent ...
regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune response. • epidermis development. • actin polymerization or ... Activated WASP leads to nuclear localization of actin filaments and this can lead to premature apoptosis, aneuploidy and ... of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream of antigen ... "The intersectin 2 adaptor links Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp)-mediated actin polymerization to T cell antigen ...
nuclear membrane. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • postsynapse. Biological process. • negative regulation of ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ...
Upregulated in eosinophils post antigen exposure.[21] Cystic fibrosis Possible correlation with severity of the lung ... nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like1), MAX1, C/EBPα, CHOP-10 (C/EBP homologous protein 10), POU3F1 (POU domain, class 3, ...
The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts, which are sudden changes from one antigen to another. ... nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2.[65] ... If a human influenza virus is produced that has entirely new antigens, everybody will be susceptible, and the novel influenza ... Therapeutic biologics are designed to activate the immune response to virus or antigens. Typically, biologics do not target ...
... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... "N6-Methyladenosine in nuclear RNA is a major substrate of the obesity-associated FTO". Nature Chemical Biology. 7 (12): 885- ...
Discoveries concerning nuclear reprogramming, the process that instructs specialized adult cells to form early stem cells- ... cells-the preeminent component of the immune system that initiates and regulates the body's response to foreign antigens.[34] ... For the discovery of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and elucidation of a unifying mechanism that regulates ...
Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... gp210 is a 200kDa protein involved in anchoring components of the nuclear pore to the nuclear membrane. The p62 antigen is a ... known as extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs). This led to the characterisation of ENA antigens and their respective antibodies ... The antigens of the anti-Sm antibodies are the core units of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), termed A to G, and ...
... "budd through nuclear membrane". Completed viral replication occurs within 12 hours of infection. Vacuoles of mature virions are ... be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. ...
1989). "Isolation of cDNA clones encoding the human Sm B/B' auto-immune antigen and specifically reacting with human anti-Sm ... Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein N is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNRPN gene.[4][5] ... small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex. • U2-type prespliceosome. • cell nucleus. • nucleoplasm. • U1 snRNP. • U2 snRNP. ... "Entrez Gene: SNRPN small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N".. *^ White HE, Durston VJ, Harvey JF, Cross NC (2006). " ...
In contrast, eukaryotes make mRNA in the cell nucleus and then translocate it across the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm, ... Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... AR, an androgen-activated transcription factor, belongs to the steroid nuclear receptor family. Development of the prostate is ... Prostate cancer screening is controversial.[1][3] Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does ... Although the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the US has resulted in diagnosis at earlier age and ...
nuclear speck. Biological process. • negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • cell maturation. • extrathymic ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... "Co-adjuvant effects of retinoic acid and IL-15 induce inflammatory immunity to dietary antigens". Nature. 471 (7337): 220-4. ... "A Novel Fusion of ALT-803 (Interleukin (IL)-15 Superagonist) with an Antibody Demonstrates Antigen-specific Antitumor ...
QMCF cell lines express Large-T antigen and EBNA-1 proteins which bind the viral sequences on the QMCF plasmid and hence ... EBNA-1 protein binding site as nuclear retention elements ensure stable propagation of plasmids in mammalian cells. In addition ...
Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among ... In the absence of nuclear elimination, the accumulation of repeat sequences is constrained by the volume occupied by the ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens *^ a b Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery ... Kidd antigen protein - urea transporter;. *RhAG - gas transporter, probably of carbon dioxide, defines Rh Blood Group and the ...
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), or cyclin, is a non-histone acidic nuclear protein [ PMID: 2884104 ] that plays a key role in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication [ PMID: 1346518 ]. (
  • Homologues of PCNA have also been identified in the archaea (known as DNA polymerase sliding clamp) [ PMID: 10542158 , PMID: 10438605 ] and in Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) and in nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. (
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for rat proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA clamp that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase δ in eukaryotic cells and is essential for replication. (
  • PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or monoclonal antibody termed Ki-67 can be used for grading of different neoplasms, e.g. astrocytoma. (
  • Imaging of the nuclear distribution of PCNA (via antibody labeling) can be used to distinguish between early, mid and late S phase of the cell cycle. (
  • Recurrence of meningiomas versus proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positivity and AgNOR counting. (
  • This study attempts to correlate the silver nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) with clinicopathological features of biological activity. (
  • DNA ploidy data were then compared with immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): ringmaster of the genome. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein is one of the central molecules responsible for decisions of life and death of the cell. (
  • The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter function resides within a 192-bp region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site). (
  • The regulatory region of Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene consists of a promoter region (-168 to +24 with respect to the transcription initiation site) and an upstream region containing three homeodomain protein binding sites (HDB) (-357 to -165). (
  • Sequences similar to the transcription factor E2F recognition site have been found within the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene promoter. (
  • Recently, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which in mammalian cells is an auxiliary subunit of DNA polymerase delta and is essential for in vitro leading strand SV40 DNA replication, was purified from yeast. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for the G1-S transition in the cell cycle and hence mitogenesis, was detected primarily in the S3 segment of the proximal tubule, with maximal expression at 2 d postischemia. (
  • Our results also indicate an association between Clock proteins and the upstream region of pcna (proliferating cellular nuclear antigen) gene. (
  • Studies have shown that histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are highly expressed in cancers. (
  • The Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative is manufactured for Research Use Only or for diagnostics purposes. (
  • Comparison of rectal mucosal proliferation measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and whole crypt dissection. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry has become a standard method to measure cell proliferation. (
  • Like another p53-regulated gene, p21WAF1/CIP1, whose product binds to cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), GADD45 has been associated with growth suppression. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was originally characterised as a DNA sliding clamp for replicative DNA polymerases and as an essential component of the eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replisome. (
  • PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. (
  • The purpose of this research was to evaluate the clinical significance of p16INK4A, p14ARF, p53, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in tumor progression of cervical cancer. (
  • We have previously defined the promoter elements, sites IIa and IIb, in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene that are essential for meristematic tissue-specific expression. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a versatile protein involved in all pathways of DNA metabolism. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is required for completion of the DNA synthesis step of DNA replication as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA. (
  • Following normothermic ischemia, nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity was largely abolished during reperfusion in the vulnerable CA1 neurons, prior to cell death. (
  • In the CA3 region, a transient decrease in nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity was observed. (
  • In the dentate gyrus region, no down-regulation of nuclear or total PCNA protein was observed during reperfusion. (
  • Sources of variability in quantitating proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by image analysis were evaluated in paraffin sections of 18 ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) and grade 1 (G1) carcinomas. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) belongs to the DNA sliding clamp family. (
  • Human seminoma: immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen using NCL-PCNA. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a 36 kD protein which is highly conserved between species. (
  • They gave an EBV-specific, brilliant punctate nuclear ACIF staining similar to that of the rabbit antipeptide antibodies. (
  • Dillner J., Eliasson L., Sternås L., Kallin B., Klein G., Lerner R.A. (1985) The Use of Antibodies against Synthetic Peptides for Studying the EBV Nuclear Antigen. (
  • The presence of antibodies against extractable nuclear antigen is highly suggestive of systemic rheumatic disease. (
  • An ENA (Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies) panel detects the presence of one or more specific autoantibodies in the blood. (
  • Certain autoimmune disorders are characteristically associated with the presence of one or more extractable nuclear antigen antibodies. (
  • Based on flow cytometry and various approaches, including two established murine anti-PD-1 antibody clones, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing and confocal imaging, we describe a staining pattern assigned to a nuclear antigen cross-reacting with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies. (
  • METHODS--Cytoplasmic staining was carried out in samples from 40 cases of acute leukaemia with monoclonal antibodies against the myeloid antigen CD13, the lymphoid antigens CD3, CD22, mu chain and the enzymes terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). (
  • Nuclear antigens (NA) that colocalize with host chromatin have been detected by antibodies to T. spiralis antigens, but the functions of these NA are unresolved. (
  • Antibodies against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) in multiple scl" by Patrick F. Bray, J Luka et al. (
  • Antibodies against Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) in multiple sclerosis CSF, and two pentapeptide sequence identities between EBNA and myelin basic protein. (
  • We performed three different assays for antibodies in CSF to three major EBV antigens from patients with MS and controls. (
  • For CSF test requests, see Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies - CSF . (
  • Here we use an integrative genomics approach in order to localize genetic factors influencing levels of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG antibodies, as a measure of history of infection with this pathogen, in large Mexican American families. (
  • Anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies were assayed by counter immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and immunoblotting in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (
  • Immunoassay reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum) to determine antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). (
  • Diagnostic and clinical utility of antibodies against the nuclear body promyelocytic leukaemia and Sp100 antigens in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. (
  • BACKGROUND: The lack of an immunoassay that detects antibodies to promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein, the primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific multiple nuclear dot (MND) antigen, has prompted us to develop a line immunoassay (LIA) for the simultaneous detection of PML and Sp100 MND-specific autoantibodies. (
  • Epstein, A.L. and Clevenger, C.V., Identification of nuclear antigens in human cells by immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and immuno-biochemical methods using monoclonal antibodies. (
  • The ENA ( extractable nuclear antigen) panel is a blood test that looks for antibodies to 6 or 7 different proteins in the body. (
  • Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are fundamental for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases, and have been determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) for decades. (
  • ENA stands for extractable nuclear antigen antibodies. (
  • Antibodies in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reacted with a nuclear acidic protein called Sm antigen, and these antibodies were used as reagents to identify Sm antigen in preparative fractionation procedures. (
  • These studies demonstrate that spontaneously occurring anti-nuclear antibodies in disease states may be used to study the properties of cellular proteins which are present in trace amounts. (
  • A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune response. (
  • Eight EBNA and EBV DNA-carrying lines showed nuclear staining with the antipeptide antibody, whereas five EBV DNA negative lines failed to stain. (
  • For example, Scl-70 antigen is less negatively charged, which can result in the antigen traveling in the same direction as the antibody. (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (IPO-38) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-7628, RRID AB_1077331. (
  • In the current study, we report the preparation of 89 Zr-desferrioxamine B (DFO)-J591, a novel 89 Zr-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) construct for targeted immunoPET and quantification of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in vivo. (
  • In single antibody ELISAs the antigen is coated and only a detector antibody is used. (
  • Traditional competition antigen ELISAs are coated with a captor antibody and a competitive antigen is labelled with the chromogen. (
  • The IgG antibody has 2 antigen binding sites. (
  • This antibody can be antigen purified or protein A or G purified. (
  • the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. (
  • Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against human Nuclear antigen. (
  • Prior studies on patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) showed that 100% are EBV-seropositive and that their blood contains higher antibody titers than those of controls to both transformation and lytic cycle antigens. (
  • A supershift assay using an anti-PCF2 antibody showed the involvement of PCF2 in site IIa (site IIb) binding activities in rice nuclear extracts, particularly in meristematic tissues. (
  • MBS9310485 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the rheumatoid arthritis associated nuclear antigen (RANA) antibody, ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (
  • The ELISA analytical biochemical technique of the MBS9310485 kit is based on RANA antibody-RANA antigen interactions (immunosorbency) and an HRP colorimetric detection system to detect RANA antigen targets in samples. (
  • For the qualitative determination of Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Associated Nuclear Antigen Antibody (Anti-RANA) in Human serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (
  • Threshold settings for positive nuclear and antibody signals minimally affected the overall reliability. (
  • The specificity of this antibody has been confirmed by WB and IHC against the antigen. (
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human Tonsil stained with Pan-Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (NM106). (
  • Immunofluorescent staining of paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLa cells with Pan-Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (NM106) followed by goat anti-Mouse IgG-CF488 (Green). (
  • SDS-PAGE Analysis Purified Pan-Nuclear Antigen Monoclonal Antibody (NM106). (
  • EQUIVOCAL: Presence or absence of IgG antibody to EBV Nuclear Antigen cannot be determined. (
  • POSITIVE: Indicates detectable levels of IgG antibody to EBV Nuclear Antigen. (
  • The ENA panel is usually ordered as a follow-up after a positive ANA (Anti-Nuclear Antibody) test in a person who has signs and symptoms of an autoimmune disease. (
  • The antiserum raised against a 14-residue copolymer of glycine and alanine gave brilliant EBV-specific nuclear staining in the anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) assay, in line with the original definition of the EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) [Reedman, B. M. & Klein, G. (1973) Int. J. Cancer 11, 499-520]. (
  • Several lines of evidence are compatible with the hypothesis that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) or leader protein (EBNA-LP) affects expression of the EBV latent infection membrane protein LMP1. (
  • The EBNA 2 (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2) transcription factor is essential for B-cell transformation by the cancer-associated EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) and for the continuous proliferation of infected cells. (
  • EBNA 2 activates transcription from the viral Cp (C promoter) during infection to generate the 120 kb transcript that encodes all nuclear antigens required for immortalization by EBV. (
  • Fluorescence polarization-based biochemical high throughput confirmation assay to identify inhibitors of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1). (
  • Among 93 patients with MS, 79 (85%) had CSF that reacted with a 70 kD protein, shown to be the nuclear antigen, EBNA-1, whereas only 11 (13%) of 81 EBV-seropositive controls reacted, p less than 0.001. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA 1) plays a key role in the life cycle of the virus and is consistently expressed in all these tumour types. (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen EBNA-1 is essential for viral genome maintenance in vitro and may be the only EBV protein expressed by the majority of latently infected cells in vivo. (
  • Identification of carrot cDNA clones encoding a second putative proliferating cell-nuclear antigen, DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein. (
  • Highly conserved structure of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein) gene in plants. (
  • The recombinant rice XRCC1 (OsXRCC1) protein binds single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) as well as double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and also interacts with rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen (OsPCNA) in a pull-down assay. (
  • MA1-7628 detects Nuclear protein from human samples. (
  • However, further comparisons revealed that only one major protein antigen (band at an approximate molecular weight of 81,000) was represented in all the assayed human tumors while being absent from human placenta or kidney. (
  • The antigenic protein with an approximate molecular weight of 81,000 was found associated with the nuclear matrix fraction. (
  • The experiments described here were undertaken to determine the mechanisms through which the EBV-encoded nuclear protein EBNA3C blocks the cell p14 ARF and p16 INK4A tumor suppressor-mediated inhibition of EBV-infected B-cell growth, thereby unfettering EBV-driven B-cell proliferation. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1. (
  • p21ras function is important for T cell antigen receptor and protein kinase C regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. (
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen can interact with DNA polymerase epsilon on linear DNA templates, even in the absence of other auxiliary factors (replication factor C, replication protein A), and thereby stimulate its primer recognition and DNA synthesis. (
  • The hnRNP core protein antigens remain associated with the host chromatin, which appears to collapse into internal aggregates and along the nuclear envelope. (
  • The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. (
  • We have investigated the structure of the small nuclear RNP (snRNP) U1 by combining EM of complete and partially protein-deficient particles with immunoelectron microscopy employing mAbs against known components of the U1 snRNP. (
  • Most investigations in B cells have focused on the role of genes whose function are important for B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-induced protein synthesis and increased cell size. (
  • Which was generated against aconcentrated nuclear protein extract prepared from late stage human myeloid leukaemia HL-60 cells. (
  • DNA affinity chromatography showed that Sm antigen was associated with nuclear protein fractions which had DNA-binding capacity. (
  • PCF1 and PCF2 specifically bind to cis elements in the rice proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene. (
  • An extractable nuclear antigen panel, or an ENA Panel, tests for presence of autoantibodies in the blood that react with proteins in the cell nucleus. (
  • Immunochemical staining of electrophoretically separated chromosomal proteins transferred to nitrocellulose sheets revealed numerous antigens in chromatin preparations from several human tumors, placenta, and normal kidney. (
  • In NPC, EBV infection has type II latency mechanism [ 6 ], which is featured by several noncoding RNAs, latent membrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, and LMP2B), and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) [ 7 ]. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed marketing of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to detect Ebola virus antigens (proteins) in human blood from certain living individuals and samples from certain recently deceased individuals suspected to have died from Ebola (cadaveric oral fluid). (
  • Autoantibodies to these antigens are associated with particular connective tissue disorders. (
  • The diagnosis of autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is done through analysis of clinical symptoms and signs, but also through the identification of the autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens. (
  • This is a qualitative assay for sreening and identification of specific IgG autoantibodies against Extractable Nuclear Antigens in human serum. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is the one EBV antigen that is expressed in all EBV associated malignancies. (
  • Background: Epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) plays a crucial role in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the most common cancer of head and neck cancer in Asian countries with high incidents. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
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  • A binding factor(s) to these sequences with similar binding specificity to that of E2F has been detected in nuclear extracts of Drosophila Kc cells. (
  • These alternative platforms differ in their antigen profiles, sensitivity and specificity, raising uncertainties regarding standardisation and interpretation of incongruent results. (
  • The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) has been shown to tether viral DNA fragments to chromosomes and is proposed to maintain the KSHV genome. (
  • Extractable Nuclear Antigens (ENAs) are over 100 different soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens. (
  • Demonstration of cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in acute leukaemia using flow cytometry. (
  • AIMS--To detect cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens using flow cytometry in acute leukaemia and to use this technique for double marker combinations. (
  • Structure of the human gene for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • 4 , 5 It is recognized, however, that antigen receptor-triggered macromolecular synthesis and gene expression places enormous bioenergetic demands on lymphocytes. (
  • The myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is detected only in nuclei of cells of the granulocyte-monocyte lineage. (
  • Value of Quantitative assessment of Myeloid Nuclear Differentiation Antigen expression and other flow cytometric parameters in the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome. (
  • Flow cytometry in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes and the value of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen. (
  • Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the differential diagnosis with follicular lymphoma. (
  • Purification, characterization and docking studies of the HIN domain of human myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA). (
  • Significance of myeloid antigen expression in precursor T lymphoblastic lymphoma. (
  • This study reports the novel finding that the EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), a second major effector of phenotypic change m EBV-infected cells, can independently upregulate bfl-1 mRNA levels m BL cell lines. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are critical for lymphoblastoid cell line outgrowth. (
  • Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method. (
  • Recombinant human Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, was expressed in E.coli and purified by conventional chromatography techniques. (
  • The antisera raised against peptide no. 107, a copolymer of alanine and glycine deduced from the third internal repeat (IR3) sequence, gave brilliant nuclear staining in the anticomplement immunof1ourescence assay (AC IF) on eight EBV-carrying lines (Figure 1a),whereas five EBV-negative lines were not stained (Table 2). (
  • Comparison of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma: An Immunohistochemical Study," Analytical Cellular Pathology , vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 185-192, 1998. (
  • Due to the special viral antigen expression, NPC has become an attractive target for clinical therapies. (
  • RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. (
  • Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses. (
  • Free in the nucleoplasm, somewhat associated with the chromatin and hardly, if at all associated with the nuclear matrix. (
  • While immunoabsorption of the antisera with placenta chromatin removed some of the immunochemical staining, many of the electrophoretically separated antigens resisted repeated immunoabsorptions. (
  • Fractionation of HeLa cells into three cytoplasmic and several nuclear fractions showed that almost all the antigens recognized by antisera to dehistonized chromatin were nuclear. (
  • Reliability of quantitating proliferative cell nuclear antigen. (
  • Schiff WM, Hwang JC, Ober MD, Olson JL, Dhrami-Gavazi E, Barile GR, Chang S, Mandava N. Safety and efficacy assessment of chimeric ribozyme to proliferating cell nuclear antigen to prevent recurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. (
  • We find that B lymphocytes rapidly increase glucose uptake and glycolysis following B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) crosslinking. (
  • Functional interactions of a homolog of proliferating cell nuclear antigen with DNA polymerases in Archaea. (
  • Localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin, c-Fos, and clusterin in the postischemic kidney. (
  • Dual mode of interaction of DNA polymerase epsilon with proliferating cell nuclear antigen in primer binding and DNA synthesis. (
  • Using four characterized mutants of proliferating cell nuclear antigen containing three or four alanine residue substitutions on the C-terminal side and the back side of the trimer, we have tested the kinetics of primer binding and nucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerase epsilon in different assays. (
  • In contrast with what has been found in interaction studies between DNA polymerase delta and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, our data suggested that stimulation of DNA polymerase epsilon primer binding involves interactions with both the C-terminal side and the back side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • The significance of this dual interaction is discussed with reference to the physiological roles of DNA polymerase epsilon and its interaction with the clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen. (
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
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  • Pluciennik A, Burdett V, Baitinger C, Iyer RR, Shi K, Modrich P. Extrahelical (CAG)/(CTG) triplet repeat elements support proliferating cell nuclear antigen loading and MutLa endonuclease activation. (
  • Iyer RR, Pluciennik A, Genschel J, Tsai MS, Beese LS, Modrich P. MutLalpha and proliferating cell nuclear antigen share binding sites on MutSbeta. (
  • Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. (
  • Kayamba V, Monze M, Asombang AW, Zyambo K, Kelly P. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14 ARF and p16 INK4A is essential for immortal human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. (
  • MAb 235-1 recognizes an antigen associated with the nuclei in human cells. (
  • Genome-wide evidence of both significant linkage and association was obtained on chromosome 6 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and replicated in an independent Mexican American sample of large families (minimum p -value in combined analysis of both datasets is 1.4×10 −15 for SNPs rs477515 and rs2516049). (
  • Infection of human epidermoid carcinoma No. 2 cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) leads to a reorganization of antigens associated with both the small and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (snRNP and hnRNP). (
  • To address these questions, a model Ag, hen egg lysozyme, was targeted to various subcellular compartments of mouse sarcoma cells, and the resulting cells were tested for presentation of three lysozyme epitopes in vitro and for presentation of nuclear Ag in vivo. (
  • In vivo studies demonstrate that class II + tumor cells, and not host-derived cells, are the predominant APC for class II-restricted nuclear Ags. (
  • In Astatotilapia burtoni, the fish retina increases by adding new retinal cells at the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and in the outer nuclear layer (ONL). (
  • RESULTS--The gentle permeabilisation induced by this method permitted preservation of the membrane antigens and the size and morphology of the cells. (
  • Concomitant depletion of NA from infected cell nuclei suggests a role of these products in regulating nuclear functions of host cells. (
  • Note nuclear staining of proliferating tumor cells. (
  • Role of 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT in Di. (
  • 68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT is a known molecular imaging marker in prostate cancer. (
  • After surgery, 68 Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT showed residual disease along the posterior and inferior margin of the postoperative cavity. (
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a 100-kDa, type II transmembrane glycoprotein and is one of the best characterized oncogenic markers or targets ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • CONCLUSIONS--This technique is simple, rapid, sensitive and reproducible and it is suitable for double staining procedures, such as nuclear and cytoplasmic, nuclear and membrane, or cytoplasmic and membrane. (
  • 5 , 6 Therefore, one of the fundamental aspects of B-cell responses to antigen challenge that may be critical in vivo is the provision of metabolic substrates to provide ATP and anabolic precursors for cellular growth. (
  • Structural determination of the sialic acid polysaccharide antigens of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups B and C with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance. (
  • The application of 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance to the analysis of some sialic acid-containing meningococcal polysaccharide antigens is described. (