Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CHLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Inbred C57BLMART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A: An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.ChromonesImmunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.MorpholinesAntigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like: Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mice, Inbred CBAImmunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.

IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge. (1/1290)

IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality.  (+info)

Resistance of CD7-deficient mice to lipopolysaccharide-induced shock syndromes. (2/1290)

CD7 is an immunoglobulin superfamily molecule involved in T and natural killer (NK) cell activation and cytokine production. CD7-deficient animals develop normally but have antigen-specific defects in interferon (IFN)-gamma production and CD8(+) CTL generation. To determine the in vivo role of CD7 in systems dependent on IFN-gamma, the response of CD7-deficient mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock syndromes was studied. In the high-dose LPS-induced shock model, 67% of CD7-deficient mice survived LPS injection, whereas 19% of control C57BL/6 mice survived LPS challenge (P < 0.001). CD7-deficient or C57BL/6 control mice were next injected with low-dose LPS (1 microgram plus 8 mg D-galactosamine [D-gal] per mouse) and monitored for survival. All CD7-deficient mice were alive 72 h after injection of LPS compared with 20% of C57BL/6 control mice (P < 0.001). After injection of LPS and D-gal, CD7-deficient mice had decreased serum IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels compared with control C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.001). Steady-state mRNA levels for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in liver tissue were also significantly decreased in CD7-deficient mice compared with controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD7-deficient animals had normal liver interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA levels, and CD7-deficient splenocytes had normal IFN-gamma responses when stimulated with IL-12 and IL-18 in vitro. NK1.1(+)/ CD3(+) T cells are known to be key effector cells in the pathogenesis of toxic shock. Phenotypic analysis of liver mononuclear cells revealed that CD7-deficient mice had fewer numbers of liver NK1.1(+)/CD3(+) T cells (1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(5)) versus C57BL/6 control mice (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(5); P < 0.05), whereas numbers of liver NK1.1(+)/CD3(-) NK cells were not different from controls. Thus, targeted disruption of CD7 leads to a selective deficiency of liver NK1.1(+)/ CD3(+) T cells, and is associated with resistance to LPS shock. These data suggest that CD7 is a key molecule in the inflammatory response leading to LPS-induced shock.  (+info)

Cutting edge: LFA-1 is required for liver NK1.1+TCR alpha beta+ cell development: evidence that liver NK1.1+TCR alpha beta+ cells originate from multiple pathways. (3/1290)

Using mice deficient for LFA-1, CD44, and ICAM-1, we examined the role of these adhesion molecules in NK1.1+TCR alpha beta+ (NKT) cell development. Although no defect in NKT cell development was observed in CD44-/- and ICAM-1-/- mice, a dramatic reduction of liver NKT cells was observed in LFA-1-/- mice. Normal numbers of NKT cells were present in other lymphoid organs in LFA-1-/- mice. When LFA-1-/- splenocytes were injected i.v. into wild-type mice, the frequency of NKT cells among donor-derived cells in the recipient liver was normal. In contrast, when LFA-1-/- bone marrow (BM) cells were injected i.v. into irradiated wild-type mice, the frequency of liver NKT cells was significantly lower than that of mice injected with wild-type BM cells. Collectively, these data indicate that LFA-1 is required for the development of liver NKT cells, rather than the migration to and/or subsequent establishment of mature NKT cells in the liver.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide analysis and molecular modeling of soluble forms of glycoproteins belonging to the Ly-6, scavenger receptor, and immunoglobulin superfamilies expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (4/1290)

Most cell surface molecules are glycoproteins consisting of linear arrays of globular domains containing stretches of amino acid sequence with similarities to regions in other proteins. These conserved regions form the basis for the classification of proteins into superfamilies. Recombinant soluble forms of six leukocyte antigens belonging to the Ly-6 (CD59), scavenger receptor (CD5), and immunoglobulin (CD2, CD48, CD4, and Thy-1) superfamilies were expressed in the same Chinese hamster ovary cell line, thus providing an opportunity to examine the extent to which N-linked oligosaccharide processing might vary in a superfamily-, domain-, or protein-dependent manner in a given cell. While we found no evidence for superfamily-specific modifications of the glycans, marked differences were seen in the types of oligosaccharides attached to individual proteins within a given superfamily. The relative importance of local protein surface properties versus the overall tertiary structure of the molecules in directing this protein-specific variation was examined in the context of molecular models. These were constructed using the 3D structures of the proteins, glycan data from this study, and an oligosaccharide structural database. The results indicated that both the overall organization of the domains and the local protein structure can have a large bearing on site-specific glycan modification of cells in stasis. This level of control ensures that the surface of a single cell will display a diverse repertoire of glycans and precludes the presentation of multiple copies of a single oligosaccharide on the cell surface. The glycans invariably shield large regions of the protein surfaces although, for the glycoproteins examined here, these did not hinder the known active sites of the molecules. The models also indicated that sugars are likely to play a role in the packing of the native cell surface glycoproteins and to limit nonspecific protein-protein interactions. In addition, glycans located close to the cell membrane are likely to affect crucially the orientation of the glycoproteins to which they are attached.  (+info)

Structural and phylogenetic characterization of human SLURP-1, the first secreted mammalian member of the Ly-6/uPAR protein superfamily. (5/1290)

Members of the Ly-6/uPAR protein family share one or several repeat units of the Ly-6/uPAR domain that is defined by a distinct disulfide bonding pattern between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. The Ly-6/uPAR protein family can be divided into two subfamilies. One comprises GPI-anchored glycoprotein receptors with 10 cysteine residues. The other subfamily includes the secreted single-domain snake and frog cytotoxins, and differs significantly in that its members generally possess only eight cysteines and no GPI-anchoring signal sequence. We report the purification and structural characterization of human SLURP-1 (secreted mammalian Ly-6/uPAR related protein 1) from blood and urine peptide libraries. SLURP-1 is encoded by the ARS (component B)-81/s locus, and appears to be the first mammalian member of the Ly-6/uPAR family lacking a GPI-anchoring signal sequence. A phylogenetic analysis based on the SLURP-1 primary protein structure revealed a closer relationship to the subfamily of cytotoxins. Since the SLURP-1 gene maps to the same chromosomal region as several members of the Ly-6/uPAR subfamily of glycoprotein receptors, it is suggested that both biologically distinct subfamilies might have co-evolved from local chromosomal duplication events.  (+info)

Splenic NK1.1-negative, TCR alpha beta intermediate CD4+ T cells exist in naive NK1.1 allelic positive and negative mice, with the capacity to rapidly secrete large amounts of IL-4 and IFN-gamma upon primary TCR stimulation. (6/1290)

Splenic NK1.1+CD4+ T cells that express intermediate levels of TCR alpha beta molecules (TCRint) and the DX5 Ag (believed to identify an equivalent population in NK1.1 allelic negative mice) possess the ability to rapidly produce high quantities of immunomodulatory cytokines, notably IL-4 and IFN-gamma, upon primary TCR activation in vivo. Indeed, only T cells expressing the NK1.1 Ag appear to be capable of this function. In this study, we demonstrate that splenic NK1.1-negative TCRintCD4+ T cells, identified on the basis of Fc gamma R expression, exist in naive NK1.1 allelic positive (C57BL/6) and negative (C3H/HeN) mice with the capacity to produce large amounts of IL-4 and IFN-gamma after only 8 h of primary CD3 stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, a comparison of the amounts of early cytokines produced by Fc gamma R+CD4+TCRint T cells with NK1. 1+CD4+ or DX5+CD4+TCRint T cells, simultaneously isolated from C57BL/6 or C3H/HeN mice, revealed strain and population differences. Thus, Fc gamma R defines another subpopulation of splenic CD4+TCRint cells that can rapidly produce large concentrations of immunomodulatory cytokines, suggesting that CD4+TCRint T cells themselves may represent a unique family of immunoregulatory CD4+ T cells whose members include Fc gamma R+CD4+ and NK1.1/DX5+CD4+ T cells.  (+info)

Unopposed production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by tumors inhibits CD8+ T cell responses by dysregulating antigen-presenting cell maturation. (7/1290)

Tumor cells gene-modified to produce GM-CSF potently stimulate antitumor immune responses, in part, by causing the growth and differentiation of dendritic cells (DC). However, GM-CSF-modified tumor cells must be gamma-irradiated or they will grow progressively, killing the host. We observed that 23 of 75 (31%) human tumor lines and two commonly used mouse tumor lines spontaneously produced GM-CSF. In mice, chronic GM-CSF production by tumors suppressed Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Interestingly, an inhibitory population of adherent CD11b(Mac-1)/Gr-1 double-positive cells caused the observed impairment of CD8+ T cell function upon direct cell-to-cell contact. The inhibitory cells were positive for some markers associated with Ag presenting cells, like F4/80, but were negative for markers associated with fully mature DC like DEC205, B7. 2, and MHC class II. We have previously reported that a similar or identical population of inhibitory "immature" APC was elicited after immunization with powerful recombinant immunogens. We show here that these inhibitory cells can be elicited by the administration of recombinant GM-CSF alone, and, furthermore, that they can be differentiated ex vivo into "mature" APC by the addition of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Thus, tumors may be able to escape from immune detection by producing "unopposed" GM-CSF, thereby disrupting the balance of cytokines needed for the maturation of fully functional DC. Further, CD11b/Gr-1 double-positive cells may function as "inhibitory" APC under the influence of GM-CSF alone.  (+info)

Mouse NKR-P1B, a novel NK1.1 antigen with inhibitory function. (8/1290)

The mouse NK1.1 Ag originally defined as NK cell receptor (NKR)-P1C (CD161) mediates NK cell activation. Here, we show that another member of the mouse CD161 family, NKR-P1B, represents a novel NK1.1 Ag. In contrast to NKR-P1C, which functions as an activating receptor, NKR-P1B inhibits NK cell activation. Association of NKR-P1B with Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 provides a molecular mechanism for this inhibition. The existence of these two NK1.1 Ags with opposite functions suggests a potential role for NKR-P1 molecules, such as those of the Ly-49 gene family, in regulating NK cell function.  (+info)

The Anti-Ly-6G MicroBead Kit was developed for positive selection or depletion of mouse neutrophils from single-cell suspensions of lymphoid tissues. This product is replaced by the new Anti-Ly-6G MicroBeads UltraPure, mouse (# 130-120-337) that combine the advantages of REAfinity™ Recombinant Antibody technology with UltraPure MicroBeads for a faster isolation of Ly-6G+ cells. - USA
Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) antibody [D7] (lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A) for FACS, IHC-Fr, IP, WB. Anti-Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) mAb (GTX30898) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Clone REA1022 recognizes the type II transmembrane protein Ly-49G, which is a MHC class I receptor also known as Kira-7. It is expressed on NK, NKT, and T cells. It is reported that the binding of Ly-49G with its ligand leads to inhibition of NK cells, T cells cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferation. The antibody reacts with Ly49G receptor of A/J, BALB/c, C3H, CBA,129, FVB, and SJL mice, but not C57BL/6 mice. Additional information: Clone REA1022 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Lëtzebuerg
I then expose these cells to fluorescent antibodies. In the diagram below, the antibodies are illustrated as forked purple objects, attached to a fluorescent probe. After staining the cells with these antibodies which are specific to muscle stem cell antigens such as Sca-1 (aptly named stem cell antigen-1), the cells are placed into a FACS sorter. Using high pressure and an extraordinarily narrow nozzle, the machine is able to probe individual cells at a time with a laser, determining whether they are labeled or not. Using an electric field, labeled cells are given a negative charge while unlabeled ones are given a positive charge, allowing the cells to be separated. Thus, they are "sorted by fluorescence-activation ...
Anti-Ly49C+F+H+I antibody conjugated to FITC [14B11] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to the details of the immunogen for…
Anti-LY75 antibody conjugated to FITC [NLDC-145] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen corresponding to tissue…
LY6G6C兔多克隆抗体(ab107962)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Monoklonale und polyklonale LY9 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für LY9 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
ラット・モノクローナル抗体 ab25377 交差種: Ms 適用: IP,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,FuncS,Flow Cyt,Depletion…Ly6g抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
PE/Cy7 ®偶联Sca1 / Ly6A/E抗体[D7](ab93537)可与小鼠样本反应并经Flow Cyt实验严格验证,实验条件参看说明书。Abcam对所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
LY-293,284 je istraživačka hemikalija. On deluje kao potentan i selektivan pun agonist 5-HT1A receptora. On je izveden putem nekoliko strukturnih simplifikacija na ergolinu baziranih halucinogena, LSD[1] On je selektivan za 5-HT1A sa preko 1000x selektivnošću u odnosu na druge tipove serotoninskog receptora i druge ciljeve.[2] On pokazuje anksiogene efekte u životinjskim studijama.[3]. ...
銀河系包含的恆星數量在2,000億至4,000億顆之間[57][58],還有至少1,000億顆的行星[59]。確切的數值取決於質量非常低的恆星,這些恆星很難檢測得到,特別是距離太陽超過300 ly(90 ...
Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.. PubMed. Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.. 2002-06-01. Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccards similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. ...
It is well established that Ly6Chi monocytes develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) and reside in the bone marrow (BM) until they are mobilized into the circulation. In our study, we found that BM Ly6Chi monocytes are not a homogenous population, as current data would suggest. Using computational analysis approaches to interpret multidimensional datasets, we demonstrate that BM Ly6Chi monocytes consist of two distinct subpopulations (CXCR4hi and CXCR4lo subpopulations) in both mice and humans. Transcriptome studies and in vivo assays revealed functional differences between the two subpopulations. Notably, the CXCR4hi subset proliferates and is immobilized in the BM for the replenishment of functionally mature CXCR4lo monocytes. We propose that the CXCR4hi subset represents a transitional premonocyte population, and that this sequential step of maturation from cMoPs serves to maintain a stable pool of BM monocytes. Additionally, reduced CXCR4 expression on monocytes, upon their exit into the
TY - JOUR. T1 - SCA-1 labels a subset of estrogen-responsive bipotential repopulating cells within the CD24+ CD49fhi mammary stem cell-enriched compartment. AU - Dall, Genevieve V.. AU - Vieusseux, Jessica L.. AU - Korach, Kenneth S.. AU - Arao, Yukitomo. AU - Hewitt, Sylvia C.. AU - Hamilton, Katherine J.. AU - Dzierzak, Elaine. AU - Boon, Wah Chin. AU - Simpson, Evan R.. AU - Ramsay, Robert G.. AU - Stein, Torsten. AU - Morris, Joanne S.. AU - Anderson, Robin L.. AU - Risbridger, Gail P.. AU - Britt, Kara L.. PY - 2017/2/14. Y1 - 2017/2/14. N2 - Estrogen stimulates breast development during puberty and mammary tumors in adulthood through estrogen receptor-α (ERα). These effects are proposed to occur via ERα+ luminal cells and not the mammary stem cells (MaSCs) that are ERαneg. Since ERα+ luminal cells express stem cell antigen-1 (SCA-1), we sought to determine if SCA-1 could define an ERα+ subset of EpCAM+/CD24+/CD49fhi MaSCs. We show that the MaSC population has a distinct SCA-1+ ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-Ly-6G6C Antibody (NIMP-R14) cited in 23 publications. Validated: Flow, Func, IA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse.
Ly-6A/E (Sca-1), PE-Cyanine5, clone: D7, eBioscience™ 100μg; PE-Cyanine5 Ly-6A/E (Sca-1), PE-Cyanine5, clone: D7, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies L
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Primary Objective: - To determine a recommended Phase 2 dose of LY2275796 that may be safely administered to patients with advanced cance
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Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLURP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ly6/uPAR family but lacks a GPI-anchoring signal sequence. It is thought that this secreted protein contains antitumor activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Mal de Meleda, a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder. This gene maps to the same chromosomal region as several members of the Ly6/uPAR family of glycoprotein receptors. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000126233 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022596 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Fischer J, Bouadjar B, Heilig R, Huber M, Lefèvre C, Jobard F, Macari F, Bakija-Konsuo A, Ait-Belkacem F, Weissenbach J, Lathrop M, Hohl D, Prudhomme JF (April 2001). "Mutations in the gene encoding SLURP-1 in Mal de Meleda". Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (8): 875-80. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.8.875. PMID 11285253. Adermann K, ...
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The growth factor, IL-2, was administered to mice to evaluate the in vivo responsiveness of NK cells to this factor. The immediate effects of this factor on NK cells were determined by examining cytotoxic activity at 18-24 h after a single treatment with rIL-2. Although moderate doses of rIL-2 (3 x 10(4) U) could be shown to activate existing cytotoxic cells on a per cell basis, higher doses (10(6) U) were required to elicit blast size killer cells. The elicited killer cells were characterized as NK cells by the following criteria: (a) they were readily induced in athymic mice; (b) they mediated killing of NK-sensitive YAC-1 target cells but not NK-resistant P815 target cells; and (c) they expressed the NK cell determinants asialo ganglio-n-tetraosylceramide and NK1.1, but not the T cell determinants CD3, L3T4, or Lyt-2. High-dose IL-2 treatment induced not only the appearance of blast size NK cells, but also the expansion of this population. After treatments, the number of large granular ...
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Participants will start receiving LY2439821 30 mg once every week for the first 3 doses and then once every 2 weeks until week 44. Investigators or its designees will increase the LY2439821 dose to 160 mg at any visit once the safety of LY2439821 180 mg is confirmed by the Data Review Meeting in Study I1F-JE-RHAL (NCT01253265 ...
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We report the first demonstration of Thy-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4- MHC-specific CTL clones derived from the Lyt-2-, L3T4- subset of lymph node cells of C3H-gld/gld mice. These clones express alpha/beta heterodimeric TCRs on the cell surface and specifically recognize class I molecules on target cells. Lyt-2 and L3T4 molecules are therefore not essential for the induction, recognition, and killing of antigen-specific CTL. In addition, these studies suggest that antigen specificity development for class I structures may occur before Lyt-2 gene activation in the differentiation of T cells. ...
MD-2 antibody LS-C144483 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to MD-2 (LY96 / MD2) from human. It is reactive with human and mouse. Validated for ELISA, IF, IHC and WB.
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LY-404,187 (LY404187) je ampakinski lek (potencijator AMPA receptora) koji je razvila kompanija Eli Lili.[1] On je član biarilpropilsulfonamidne klase ampakina.[2] LY-404,187 poboljšava kognitivne funkcije u životinjskim studijama, a isto tako ispoljava efekte koji sugerišu antidepresantno dejstvo. On potencijalno može da nađe primenu u tretiranju šizofrenije, Parkinsonove bolesti i ADHD-a. Njegovo dejstvo je posredovano višestrukim mehanizmima akcije pored potencijacije AMPA receptor. Prominentni efekat zapažen u istraživanjima je povišeni novo BDNF-a u mozgu.[3][4][5] ...
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. LY-518674 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Kit Component:- KN309573G1, Ly6e gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN309573G2, Ly6e gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN309573D, donor vector…
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. LY 165,163 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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LY 294002 | PI3K inhibitor | LY294002 | CAS [154447-36-6] | Axon 1366 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
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The responsiveness of natural killer (NK) cells is controlled by balancing signals from activating and inhibitory receptors. The most important ligands of inhibitory NK cell receptors are the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which allow NK cells to screen the cellular health of target cells. Although these inhibitory receptor-ligand interactions have been well characterized, the ligands for most activating receptors are still unknown. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) represents a helpful model to study NK cell driven immune responses. Many studies have demonstrated that CMV infection can be controlled by NK cells via their activating receptors, but the exact contribution of the different signaling potential (i.e. activating vs. inhibiting) remains puzzling. In this study, we have developed a probabilistic model which predicts the optimal specificity of inhibitory and activating NK cell receptors needed to offer the best protection against a CMV-like virus. We
T cells cultured at limit dilution for 8 days in a concanavalin A-stimulated, filler-cell and growth factor-supported system produced cytolytic clones with high efficiency. These clones were not specific, lysing a wide range of targets, syngeneic and allogeneic, of tumor and normal cell origin. Lysis was a cell-mediated phenomenon but was not blocked by anti-Ly-2. One H-2-negative target was lysed, but one was resistant. Xenogeneic (human) tumor cells were not lysed. The cells in the clones were large, vacuolated, granular lymphocytes. They originated from single Ly-2+ responder cells and not from irradiated filler cells. Therefore, activated lymphocyte killers and other natural killer-like cells may be differentiated elements of the Ly-2+ T-cell lineage.
We found that this phenomenon was associated with the different susceptibility of human and mouse NK cells to autologous tumour cell-induced NK cell abnormalities (NKCA). The latter includes CD16 down-regulation and NK cell depletion. Induction of NKCA by leukaemia and solid tumour cells was influenced neither by IL2 treatment nor by HLA class I antigen expression, but was abrogated by a 10 day culture. Following a 10 day of PBMCs culture, NK cells became resistant to leukaemia and solid tumor cell induced NKCA but maintained their cytotoxic activity. Actinomycin D restored the susceptibility of long term NK (LTNK) cells to NKCA suggesting that the generation of resistance to NKCA required RNA transcription. TAPI-0, a functional analogue of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 3 inhibited cancer cell induced NKCA underlying a role for a restricted number of metalloproteinases in the generation of this phenomenon. Finally, we found an association of TIMP3 gene and protein ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes. Atherosclerotic plaques transplanted into WT or Ccr5-/- recipients showed reduced macrophage content and increased M2 markers consistent with plaque regression, whereas plaques transplanted into Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/- recipients lacked this regression signature. The requirement of recipient Ly6Chi ...
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes. Atherosclerotic plaques transplanted into WT or Ccr5-/- recipients showed reduced macrophage content and increased M2 markers consistent with plaque regression, whereas plaques transplanted into Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/- recipients lacked this regression signature. The requirement of recipient Ly6Chi ...
Ly-6 is a multigene family of murine polymorphic cell membrane proteins that are glycosydlphosphatidylinositol anchored, widely expressed on lymphoid tissue, and homologous to the recently described human CD59. An unexpected feature of Ly-6 is its high level of expression in the kidney. This renal expression and its interferon (IFN)-gamma inducibility in murine strains expressing different Ly-6 haplotypes were studied with monoclonal antibodies and cDNA probes that recognize Ly-6A/E and Ly-6C. Ly-6 expression was much more extensive in the kidney than in other parenchymal organs. Ly-6A.1/E.2 was extensively expressed on vascular endothelium and on tubular epithelium, particularly in the distal nephron. Pattern of expression differed between strains expressing A and E alleles. Ly-6C was not detected by monoclonal antibodies but was detected by oligonucleotide-specific probes. Treatment with recombinant IFN-gamma or IFN-inducing agents increased Ly-6 expression markedly, particularly on the luminal aspect
Shaw, J; Pilarski, L M.; Adra, A R.; Leigh, J B.; Wilkins, O; Hogarth, P M.; Mckenzie, I F.; and Paetkau, V, "Effect of a monoclonal anti-lyt-1.1 On the functional activity of precursor, effector, and regulatory cells specific for murine allo- antigens." (1981). Subject Strain Bibliography 1981. 221 ...
Complete information for LY96 gene (Protein Coding), Lymphocyte Antigen 96, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
GzmbCre;Rosa26ACTB-tdTomato, -EGFP/+ mice have a low frequency of GFP+ mature NK cells.(A) Representative FACS histograms showing the gating strategy for mNK ce
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The molecular mechanisms by which heterogeneity, a major characteristic of stem cells, is achieved are yet unclear. We here study the expression of the membrane stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) in mouse bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) clones. We show that subpopulations with varying Sca-1 expression profiles regenerate the Sca-1 profile of the mother population within a few days. However, after extensive replication in vitro the expression profiles shift to lower values and the regeneration time increases. Study of the promoter of Ly6a unravels that the expression level of Sca-1 is related to the promoter occupancy by the activating histone mark H3K4me3. We demonstrate that these findings can be consistently explained by a computational model that considers positive feedback between promoter H3K4me3 modification and gene transcription. This feedback implicates bistable epigenetic states which the cells occupy with an age-dependent frequency due to persistent histone (de-)modification. Our ...
The commensal flora can promote both immunity to pathogens and mucosal inflammation. How commensal-driven inflammation is regulated in the context of infection remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during acute mucosal infection of mice with Toxoplasma gondii, inflammatory monocytes acquire a tissue-specific regulatory phenotype associated with production of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Notably, in response to commensals, inflammatory monocytes can directly inhibit neutrophil activation in a PGE2-dependent manner. Further, in the absence of inflammatory monocytes, mice develop severe neutrophil-mediated pathology in response to pathogen challenge that can be controlled by PGE2 analog treatment. Complementing these findings, inhibition of PGE2 led to enhanced neutrophil activation and host mortality after infection. These data demonstrate a previously unappreciated dual action of inflammatory monocytes in controlling pathogen expansion while limiting commensal-mediated ...
This study will be comprised of 2 parts, Part A and Part B, both in healthy male participants.. Part A of the study will investigate the safety of intravenous (IV) ketamine administration after single oral doses of LY2979165 (capsules) or LY2140023 (tablets). Part A will be completed before starting Part B.. Part B of this study will investigate whether different dose levels of LY2979165 or LY2140023, when administered before ketamine, result in changes to the images on a brain scan seen with ketamine alone. Brain imaging is currently used for a number of reasons including understanding where in the brain medicines have their effects. Ketamine is an anesthetic used in this study to activate particular regions of the brain.. The single oral doses of LY2979165 to be used in both parts of the study are 20 and 60 mg with matching dummy drug (placebo) for each dose.. The doses for LY2140023 are 10, 40, and 160 mg with matching placebo for each dose.. Screening is required within 28 days prior to the ...
LY 2584702 tosylate | S6K1 inhibitor | LY 2779964 | LY2584702 | LY2779964 | CAS [1082949-68-5] - [1082949-67-4] | Axon 2464 | Axon Ligand™ with >98% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your research
Movie of neutrophil and platelets in the inflamed cremasteric venules of a WT mouse, 3h after local injection of TNFa. Cells are labeled by injection of low amounts of antibodies anti-Ly6G conjugated to DyLight649, anti-CD41 conjugated to PE and anti-CD62P conjugated to FITC. The movie shows the dynamic capture and release of platelets (red) by a crawling neutrophil (white), some of which are activated as indicated by the expression of CD62P (green).. ...
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Ralimetinib (LY2228820) is a novel and potent inhibitor of p38 MAPK with IC50 of 7 nM in a cell-free assay, does not alter p38 MAPK activation. Phase 1/2.
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Background: Surgical bypass techniques and percutaneous catheter-based interventions may be used to successfully revascularize the limbs of patients with claudication. In many patients, however, the anatomic extent and distribution of arterial occlusion is too severe to permit relief of pain. Limited medical therapy is available for these pts.. Methods: A phase IIa randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of autologous CD34+ stem cell (CD34) therapy was performed in pts with Rutherford class 3 at 3 centers in US. 3 treatment groups: placebo, low (1x10^5 CD34/kg body wt) and high dose (1x10^6 CD34/kg). All pts underwent mobilization with GCSF 5 mcg/kg/day SC for 5 d, followed by apheresis on d5 followed by selection for CD34 with Isolex 300i device. CD34 were injected IM at 8 locations in the ischemic limb. Placebo injections consisted of identical volumes of the diluent only.. Results: A total of 17 pts have been randomized, completed the injection procedure and completed the ...
Cell surface markers of mouse thymic dendritic cells have been studied by flow cytometry after isolation by collagenase digestion, separation of the low-density cell fraction and differential adherence. The dendritic cell preparation had a purity of , 90%, the contaminating population being essentially composed of thymocytes, macrophages constituting ,1%. Dendritic cells displayed high forward and low-intermediate side angle scatter, and expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules, the heat-stable antigen (HSA), the adhesion molecules Pgp-1 (CD44), LFA-1, ICAM-1 and low levels of Mac-1 and the leukocyte common antigen CD45. Thymic dendritic cells are negative for the stem cell antigen-2 (Sca-2), the B cell-specific form of CD45 (B220), the mouse macrophage markers Fc receptor and F4/80, and the granulocyte marker Gr-1. However, although they do not express the T cell markers Thy-1, CD2, CD3, CD4 and CD5, 20%-30% of dendritic cells are positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tissue-resident natural killer (NK) cells are cell lineages distinct from thymic and conventional splenic NK cells. AU - Sojka, Dorothy K.. AU - Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice. AU - Yang, Liping. AU - Pak-Wittel, Melissa A.. AU - Artyomov, Maxim N.. AU - Ivanova, Yulia. AU - Zhong, Chao. AU - Chase, Julie M.. AU - Rothman, Paul B.. AU - Yu, Jenny. AU - Riley, Joan K.. AU - Zhu, Jinfang. AU - Tian, Zhigang. AU - Yokoyama, Wayne M.. PY - 2014/4/8. Y1 - 2014/4/8. N2 - Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system; they can control virus infections and developing tumors by cytotoxicity and producing inflammatory cytokines. Most studies of mouse NK cells, however, have focused on conventional NK (cNK) cells in the spleen. Recently, we described two populations of liver NK cells, tissue-resident NK (trNK) cells and those resembling splenic cNK cells. However, their lineage relationship was unclear; trNK cells could be developing cNK cells, related to thymic NK cells, or a ...
NK cells react to cells that lack self-MHC class I. Yet, since many NK cells cannot recognize self-MHC, mechanisms such as NK cell licensing protect against autoreactivity. To become licensed, i.e. functionally competent to be triggered through its activation receptors, an NK cell must engage host MHC class I via at least one of its MHC class I-specific inhibitory receptors, such as the Ly49 family of receptors in the mouse. However, the general determinants of this process remain largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the licensing impact of the b, d, f, k, q, r, and s H2 haplotypes on Ly49A+ NK cells in MHC-congenic mice. Ex vivo PK136 (anti-NK1.1) stimulation assays indicated that licensing may not be a binary phenomenon as some Ly49A-MHC class I haplotype combinations produced an intermediate licensing phenotype. Ly49A surface accessibility, a measure of cis binding with MHC class I, and Ly49A tetramer binding displayed a similar variability among the MHC haplotypes. Taken together, the ...
In the present study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which CD8+ T cells contribute to atherogenesis through modulation of medullar monopoiesis and circulating Ly6Chi monocyte levels, thereby indirectly controlling macrophage accumulation within lesions.. Previous studies addressing the role of CD8+ T cells in atherogenesis have mostly used genetically engineered mouse models of CD8+ T-cell deficiency with contradictory results,17,18 which may be because of compensatory mechanisms in these mice. We circumvented this hurdle by treating Ldlr−/− mice with an anti-CD8α monoclonal antibody, which efficiently depleted CD8+ T cells while not altering DCs levels, including CD8α+ DCs, and functionality of splenic CD11c+ DCs, as well as leaving CD4+ T cell numbers, activation and polarization untouched, thus confirming the specificity of our depletion strategy.. CD8+ T-cell depletion with the anti-CD8α antibody entailed a significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic ...
In this study, we have shown identical phenotypes when either Dicer or Dgcr8 gene was inactivated in NK cells. These results strongly suggest that these two molecules function in the same biological pathway in miRNA biogenesis, and demonstrate that the deficiency in miRNAs is the primary cause underlying the observed phenotypes. Although it is possible that Dicer-deficient cells also exhibit other more subtle phenotypes, such as the derepression of retrotransposons (24, 25), it appears that it is miRNAs, rather than other Dgcr8-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs, that are critical for NK cells.. Ablation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, through deletion of Dicer or Dgcr8, led to increased apoptosis of peripheral NK cells. Similarly, Dicer deletion in developing B cells (17), thymocytes (15, 16), or iNKT cells (19) resulted in increased cell death. These results suggest that the miRNA pathway plays an important role in controlling cell survival. Potential mechanisms include mitotic defects ...
N a t i o n a l S t r a t e g y f o r p a n d e m i c i n f l u e n z a implementation plan ONE YEAR SUMMARY h o m e l a n d s e c u r i t y c o u n c i l J U L Y NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR PANDEMIC
bin/bash # -*- coding: UTF8 -*- case "$1" in ac) sudo pm-powersave ac for i in 0 1 2 3; do sudo cpupower -c $i -g ondemand; done ;; battery) sudo pm-powersave battery sudo cpupower -c 0 frequency-set -g ondemand for i in 1 2 3; do sudo cpupower -c $i frequency-set -f 800Mhz; done ;; aggressive) sudo pm-powersave battery for i in 0 1 2 3; do sudo cpupower -c $i frequency-set -f 800Mhz; done ;; info) echo "#########################" echo "# acpi" acpi echo "#########################" echo "# cpupower frequency-info" for i in 0 1 2 3; do cpupower -c $i frequency-info; done echo "#########################" echo "Available energy governators" cat /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu0/cpufreq/scaling_available_governors ;; powertop) sudo powertop ;; suspend) sudo pm-suspend ;; load) sudo modprobe cpufreq_powersave sudo modprobe cpufreq_conservative sudo modprobe cpufreq_userspace echo "#########################" echo "Available energy governators" cat ...
See the Chinese word for dish (course), its pinyin cài, meaning, example sentences for 菜, its character decomposition, idioms, stroke order and more
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Complete information for LY6D gene (Protein Coding), Lymphocyte Antigen 6 Family Member D, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
... _Laboratory Shaking Table | Lab Jerking Table GTEK Laboratory Shaking Tables are suitable for The effect of LY shaking table is almost same as Specification of Laboratory Shaking Table Model m
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... : Distribution of degree of connectivity (k) of the haplotype network of Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV). The degree of connectivity k of a particular node is the number of arcs incident to the node.P (k) is the probability that a randomly chosen node has degree k ...
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LY2784544;1229236-86-5;[3-(4-Chloro-2-fluoro-benzyl)-2-methyl-8-morpholin-4-ylmethyl-imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl]-(5-methyl-2h-pyrazol-3-yl)-amine;ABP000830.Active Biopharma Corp
Defects in NK and NKT cell activities have been implicated in the etiology of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes in NOD mice on the basis of experiments performed using surrogate phenotypes for the identification of these lymphocyte subsets. Here, we have generated a congenic line of NOD mice (NOD.b-Nkrp1(b)) which express the allelic NK1.1 marker, enabling the direct study of NK and NKT cells in NOD mice. Major deficiencies in both populations were identified when NOD.b-Nkrp1(b) mice were compared with C57BL/6 and BALB.B6-Cmv1(r) mice by flow cytometry. The decrease in numbers of peripheral NK cells was associated with an increase in their numbers in the bone marrow, suggesting that a defect in NK cell export may be involved. In contrast, the most severe deficiency of NKT cells found was in the thymus, indicating that defects in thymic production were probably responsible. The deficiencies in NK cell activity in NOD mice could only partly be accounted for by the reduced numbers of NK cells, and fewer ...
RefSeq Summary (NR_024541): LY6G6E belongs to a cluster of leukocyte antigen-6 (LY6) genes located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Members of the LY6 superfamily typically contain 70 to 80 amino acids, including 8 to 10 cysteines. Most LY6 proteins are attached to the cell surface by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that is directly involved in signal transduction (Mallya et al., 2002 [PubMed 12079290]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
IPHONE CẦN THƠ | Địa chỉ: M6,Đinh Công Tráng , P.Xuân Khánh,Q.Ninh Kiều , TP.Cân Thơ | Điện thoại: 0983.834926 - Email: [email protected]
IPHONE CẦN THƠ | Địa chỉ: M6,Đinh Công Tráng , P.Xuân Khánh,Q.Ninh Kiều , TP.Cân Thơ | Điện thoại: 0983.834926 - Email: [email protected]
Human LY86 partial ORF ( AAH38846, 26 a.a. - 125 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00009450-Q01) - Products - Abnova
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Functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. II. Cooperation between subclasses of Ly+ cells in the ... Functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ...
Vaughan HA, Thompson CH, Sparrow RL, McKenzie IF (October 1983). "Hu Ly-M3--a human leukocyte antigen". Transplantation. 36 (4 ... CD48 antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
Smith SS, Patterson T, Pauza ME (2005). "Transgenic Ly-49A inhibits antigen-driven T cell activation and delays diabetes". J. ... 2003). "Initiation and limitation of Ly-49A NK cell receptor acquisition by T cell factor-1". J. Immunol. 171 (2): 769-75. doi: ... following antigen encounter in vitro and in vivo". J. Immunol. 176 (3): 1439-46. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.176.3.1439. PMID 16424171 ...
Bajenoff M, Egen JG, Koo LY, et al. Stromal cell networks regulate lymphocyte entry, migration, and territoriality in lymph ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513.. ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...
Ly-49 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Ly-49 receptors or killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily A (KLRA), are a class of natural killer cell receptor. Ly-49 ... Upon binding ligands, most Ly-49 receptors will deliver an inhibitory signal, preventing killing of the target cell. In the ... Barten R, Trowsdale J (July 1999). "The human Ly-49L gene". Immunogenetics. 49 (7-8): 731-4. doi:10.1007/s002510050675. PMID ...
Lucas, A.; Liu, L.-y.; Macen, J.; Nash, P.; Dai, E.; Stewart, M.; Graham, K.; Etches, W.; et al. (1996). "Virus-Encoded Serine ... Maksymowych, WP; Nation, N; Nash, P; Macen, J; Lucas, A; McFadden, G; Russell, AS (1996). "Amelioration of antigen induced ... Dai, E.; Viswanathan, K; Sun, YM; Li, X; Liu, LY; Togonu-Bickersteth, B; Richardson, J; MacAulay, C; et al. (2006). " ... 2007). "Ubiquitinylation of Ig beta dictates the endocytic fate of the B cell antigen receptor". Journal of Immunology. 179 (7 ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... Kudo J, Chao LY, Narni F, Saunders GF (December 1985). "Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class ... 1992). "HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell line are associated with invariant chain peptides". Nature. 360 ... Machamer CE, Cresswell P (1983). "Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens". J. ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... Kingsmore SF, Souryal CA, Watson ML, Patel DD, Seldin MF (Aug 1995). "Physical and genetic linkage of the genes encoding Ly-9 ...
Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR.[51] A rapid ... Current methods of detecting specific antigens associated with A. cantonensis are also unreliable. ... cantonensis infection has a theoretic risk of precipitating a neurologic crisis by releasing an overwhelming load of antigens ...
1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... 1992). "Structure of the CD59-encoding gene: further evidence of a relationship to murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6 protein". ... the human homologue of murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6C". Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (16): 6728-6728. doi:10.1093/nar/17.16.6728. PMC ... CD59 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ...
First coined TL (for "thymus-leukemia" antigen in mice) then later as the Ly series (originally named Ly-A and Ly-B and later ... Old discovered the LY-B antigen, later renamed CD8 in humans. CD8 cells, often referred to as "killer" T cells, are one of the ... Ly-A and Ly-B: Two systems of lymphocyte isoantigens in the mouse. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1968 Jun 11; 170(19): 175-93. ... called Ly-1, Ly-2, and Ly-3), this discovery led directly to the wide use of cell surface markers to distinguish and classify ...
Monte M, Simonatto M, Peche LY, et al. (2006). "MAGE-A tumor antigens target p53 transactivation function through histone ... Melanoma-associated antigen 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAGEA2 gene. This gene is a member of the MAGEA ... Rogner UC, Wilke K, Steck E, Korn B, Poustka A (Mar 1996). "The melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family is clustered in the ... "Entrez Gene: MAGEA2 melanoma antigen family A, 2". Brasseur F, Rimoldi D, Liénard D, et al. (1995). "Expression of MAGE genes ...
RhoGDI2 (ARHGDIB) is part of a family of three members: RhoGDI1, RhoGDI2 (also known as RhoGDIB, D4-GDI or Ly-GDI) and RhoGDI3 ... function cooperatively as signal transducers in T cell antigen receptor-induced pathways". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (51): 50121-30. ... Scherle P, Behrens T, Staudt LM (September 1993). "Ly-GDI, a GDP-dissociation inhibitor of the RhoA GTP-binding protein, is ... Groysman M, Hornstein I, Alcover A, Katzav S (2003). "Vav1 and Ly-GDI two regulators of Rho GTPases, ...
... a member of the LY-6 family of cell surface antigens, in bladder, esophagus, and stomach tumors". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... "Entrez Gene: PSCA prostate stem cell antigen". Gu Z, Thomas G, Yamashiro J, et al. (2000). "Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) ... Prostate stem cell antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSCA gene. This gene encodes a ... Tran CP, Lin C, Yamashiro J, Reiter RE (2003). "Prostate stem cell antigen is a marker of late intermediate prostate epithelial ...
Phan D, Cheng CJ, Galfione M, Vakar-Lopez F, Tunstead J, Thompson NE, Burgess RR, Najjar SM, Yu-Lee LY, Lin SH (2004). " ... "Identification of Sp2 as a transcriptional repressor of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in ...
"Characterization of the human Ly-6 antigens, the newly annotated member Ly-6K included, as molecular markers for head-and-neck ... Ding L, Shevach EM (2001). "Inhibition of the function of the FcγRIIB by a monoclonal antibody to thymic shared antigen-1, a Ly ... "Essential Role for the Lymphostromal Plasma Membrane Ly-6 Superfamily Molecule Thymic Shared Antigen 1 in Development of the ... "Physical and functional association between thymic shared antigen-1/stem cell antigen-2 and the T cell receptor complex". J. ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6E (pseudogene) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY6G6E gene. LY6G6E belongs ... Mallya M, Campbell RD, Aguado B (October 2006). "Characterization of the five novel Ly-6 superfamily members encoded in the MHC ... Ribas G, Neville M, Wixon JL, Cheng J, Campbell RD (July 1999). "Genes encoding three new members of the leukocyte antigen 6 ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6E pseudogene)". Mallya M, Campbell RD, Aguado B ( ...
Ballinger CA, Connell P, Wu Y, Hu Z, Thompson LJ, Yin LY, Patterson C (Jun 1999). "Identification of CHIP, a novel ... "Identification of tumor-associated antigens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by SEREX". Blood. 100 (6): 2123-31. doi:10.1182/ ... Yin LY, Patterson C (Jun 1999). "Identification of CHIP, a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts ... "Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies". International Journal of Cancer. 76 (5): ...
Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... Kingsmore SF, Souryal CA, Watson ML, Patel DD, Seldin MF (1995). "Physical and genetic linkage of the genes encoding Ly-9 and ...
The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Epidemiol 1977;105(2):94-98 Beasley RP, Hwang LY, ... Beasley then showed that the "E" antigen is a good predictor for vertical transmission from mother-to-infant. This observation ... Lancet 1981;2(8243):388-393 Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Chien CS. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. A ... The Abbott Laboratories then developed a more sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay technique to detect the surface antigen ...
This gene encodes a member of the Ly-6/neurotoxin gene family, a group of lymphocyte antigens that attach to the cell surface ...
Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TINAGL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Jiang LQ, Wen SJ, Wang HY, Chen LY (2003). "Screening the proteins that interact with calpain in a human heart cDNA library ... "Entrez Gene: TINAGL1 tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1". Brömme NC, Wex T, Wex H, et al. (2000). "Cloning, ...
Yousef GM, Obiezu CV, Luo LY, et al. (1999). "Prostase/KLK-L1 is a new member of the human kallikrein gene family, is expressed ... Takayama TK, Carter CA, Deng T (2001). "Activation of prostate-specific antigen precursor (pro-PSA) by prostin, a novel human ... 2005). "Kallikrein 4 (hK4) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are associated with the loss of E-cadherin and an epithelial- ... Stephenson SA, Verity K, Ashworth LK, Clements JA (August 1999). "Localization of a new prostate-specific antigen-related ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... Crosnier C, Bustamante LY, Bartholdson SJ, Bei AK, Theron M, Uchikawa M, Mboup S, Ndir O, Kwiatkowski DP, Duraisingh MT, Rayner ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH. ...
IPR003631 Cell-surface glycoprotein Ly-6/CD59 InterPro: IPR003632 ARS[disambiguation needed]; CD177; CD59; LY6D; LY6E; LY6H; ... CD molecules are leucocyte antigens on cell surfaces. CD antigens nomenclature is updated at Protein Reviews On The Web (http ... CD59 antigen (also called 1F-5Ag, H19, HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, P-18 or protectin) inhibits formation of membrane attack complex ( ...
Marmorstein LY, Ouchi T, Aaronson SA (Nov 1998). "The BRCA2 gene product functionally interacts with p53 and RAD51". ...
Henry L.-Y. Chan,. *Department of Medicine and Therapeutics and Institute of Digestive Disease, Chinese University of Hong Kong ... Association Between Serum Level of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen at End of Entecavir Therapy and Risk of Relapse in E Antigen- ... Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss ... Next article in issue: Synergism of tapasin and human leukocyte antigens in resolving hepatitis C virus infection Next article ...
All blood samples positive for hepatitis B surface antigen were also tested for hepatitis B e antigen and its antibody (Abbott ... Of the 705 women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 118 (16.7%) were positive for the e antigen. The rate of positive ... PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN. The rate of positive results for hepatitis B surface antigen was 0.7% in our ... having been positive for the antigen, and three women became positive for hepatitis B e antigen in their next pregnancy. ...
Gao LY, *Zack JA. (1997) Preparation and maintenance of SCID-hu mice for HIV research. Methods 12:343-347. ... 2011) Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia. N Engl J Med 365:725-733. ... 1A) (33, 34). F5 MART-1 is an improved MART-1-specific TCR displaying enhanced affinity to the antigen and was provided by the ... Antigen-specific human T cells have been developed in vitro using OP9 stromal cells expressing the human Notch ligand Delta- ...
... tumor-specific antigen (TSA) synonyms, tumor-specific antigen (TSA) pronunciation, tumor-specific antigen (TSA) translation, ... A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an ... English dictionary definition of tumor-specific antigen (TSA). also an·ti·gene n. ... an′ti·gen′i·cal·ly adv.. an′ti·ge·nic′i·ty (-jə-nĭs′ĭ-tē) n. ...
T antigen synonyms, T antigen pronunciation, T antigen translation, English dictionary definition of T antigen. also an·ti·gene ... n. A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an ... an′ti·gen′i·cal·ly adv.. an′ti·ge·nic′i·ty (-jə-nĭs′ĭ-tē) n. ... antigen. (redirected from T antigen). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. an·ti·gen. (ăn′tĭ-jən) also an·ti·gene ...
Oh, LY, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9/gelatinase B is required for process outgrowth by oligodendrocytes. J. Neurosci. 1999 ... hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg); hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); hepatitis B virus (HBV); intrahepatic leukocyte (IHL); ... including the 2.1-kb RNA that encodes the target antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen; HBsAg) of the transferred CTLs, was ... Gr-1 is an antigen highly expressed by neutrophils), which, secondarily, abolishes the intrahepatic recruitment of all antigen- ...
Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lee GC, et al. Prevention of perinatally transmitted hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B immune ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Among Pregnant Women and Care of Infants of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive Mothers ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Among Pregnant Women and Care of Infants of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive Mothers ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen ...
For antigen presentation assays, DCs were preincubated with antigen (OVA or native LDL) then with antigen-specific T cells. T ... Finally, the outcome of antigen presentation by pDCs might depend on the nature of the presented antigen and the local ... suggesting an enhanced ability to present this type of antigen compared with the model antigen OVA (Figure 2C). The results ... cholesterol-derived antigens. The subtype of antigen-presenting cells responsible for activation of LDL-specific proatherogenic ...
Ly-6G (Gr-1), and Ly-76 (Ter-119) and positive for CD117 (c-kit), and Ly-6A (Sca-1), which are greatly enriched for capacity to ... series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. In addition to an update on mouse ... including members of the Ly-6 and Ly-49 families, have not yet been definitively identified. When a mouse Ly Ag is identified ... Selective expression of Ly-6G on myeloid lineage cells in mouse bone marrow. RB6-8C5 mAb to granulocyte-differentiation antigen ...
The 14B11 antibody reacts with a common epitope of Ly-49C/F/I/H family members also known as Ly-49 inhibitory receptors C, F, ... PE anti-mouse Ly-49C/F/I/H Antibody - ... Antigen Details Structure Ly-49 family, 110 kD Distribution NK ... Ly-49C, Ly-49F, and Ly-49I contain an ITIM motif in their cytoplasmic tails, while Ly-49H lacks ITIM. Ly-49H is encoded by the ... and blocking2 of the binding of H-2d lymphoblasts to transfectants expressing Ly-49C, Ly-49F, and Ly-49I.. This product may be ...
Servant-Delmas A, Mercier-Darty M, Ly TD, et al. Variable capacity of 13 hepatitis B virus surface antigen assays for the ... Notes from the Field: False-Negative Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Test Results in a Hemodialysis Patient - Nebraska, 2017. ... This case highlights a unique challenge associated with detecting HBV infections when a surface antigen mutation is present. In ... A public health investigation subsequently determined that the false-negative results were caused by a surface antigen mutation ...
... the Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX ... To learn more about the program or to register, please visit http://bit.ly/2IHCu5F ... 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86. 1.2 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Segment by ... 1.4 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market by Region (2012-2022). 1.4.1 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 ...
Kuan LY, *et al.. Sipuleucel-T immune parameters correlate with survival: an analysis of the randomized phase 3 clinical trials ... antigen spread to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may be indicative of tumor cell killing, antigen release, and subsequent ... antigen spread after an antigen-directed immunotherapy (such as sipuleucel-T) may be limited to the antigens overexpressed or ... 52), and PA2024 and PAP, the primary antigens in sipuleucel-T.. To consider IgG response to a candidate antigen as confirmed by ...
Compared with soluble antigen delivery, particulate antigen delivery platforms targeting antigen-presenting cells have a ... Ly S, *Liu F-T, and *Liu G-Y. (2018) Periodic arrangement of lipopolysaccharides nanostructures accelerates and enhances the ... In other words, the supply of antigen and/or adjuvant (in this case the polymer) may have been limiting in terms of dose and/or ... Single Dose of a Polyanhydride Particle-Based Vaccine Generates Potent Antigen-Specific Antitumor Immune Responses. Emad I. ...
Ly et al., 2013). In this study, we have generated MR1-Ag-loaded tetramers and demonstrate the power of tetramer technology for ... Vβ2 natural killer T cell antigen receptor-mediated recognition of CD1d-glycolipid antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 108: ... antigen. CBA. cytometric bead array. DN. double negative. IEL. intraepithelial lymphocyte. MAIT cell. mucosal-associated ... Evidence for MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells. J. Biol. Chem. 280:21183-21193. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Ly 9, an alloantigenic marker of lymphocyte differentiation. J. Immunol. 1980. 125:2127-2136. View this article via: PubMed ... Keratinocytes synthesize IA antigen in acute cutaneous graft-versus-host disease. J. Immunol. 1983. 131:2741-2745. View this ... represented by either MHC antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens (miHAs). In an MHC-matched donor/recipient combination ... Mouse cell surface antigens: nomenclature and immunophenotyping. J. Immunol. 1998. 160:3861-3868. View this article via: PubMed ...
... ly) (i.p.); intravenous(ly) (i.v.); phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH); heat shock protein 70 (HSP70); heme oxygenase-1 ( ... Nonstandard abbreviations used: edema factor (EF); lethal factor (LF); protective antigen (PA); lethal toxin (LT); CPt.C-Tnfsf6 ... Internalization of a Bacillus anthracis protective antigen-c-Myc fusion protein mediated by cell surface anti-c-Myc antibodies ... Effects of anthrax toxin (protective antigen and lethal factor) on human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In Vitro ...
Antigen-specific T-cell phenotype was determined by stimulating PBMCs for 6 hours with antigen pepmixes in the presence of ... using non-antigen-specific immune checkpoint inhibitors with immunogenic vaccination against tumor antigens. ... The self-antigen actin was used as a negative control for spontaneous IFNγ release. In addition, we included pepmixes for ... Endogenous presentation of CD8+ T cell epitopes from Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1. J Exp Med 2004;199:1421-31. ...
Human leukocyte antigen class I antigen expression is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2007; ... 3B and Supplementary Table S6). We further examined whether molecular defects of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen ... This study has profound significance in clarifying the downregulation of human leukocyte antigen class I antigen presentation ... Epigenetic enhancement of antigen processing and presentation promotes immune recognition of tumors. Cancer Res 2008;68:9601-7 ...
Antigen Expression MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ...
0 (AQP5 protein, human); 0 (Antigens, Ly); 0 (Aquaporin 5); 0 (Cystatin A); 0 (KRT1 protein, human); 0 (KRT9 protein, human); 0 ... Ant genos Ly/gen tica. Aquaporina 5/gen tica. Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asi tico. Crian a. Pr -Escolar. China. ...
0 (Antigens, Ly); 0 (CD11c Antigen); 0 (CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1); 0 (Chemokines); 0 (Cx3cr1 protein, mouse); 0 (Cytokines); 0 ... 0 (CD11c Antigen); 0 (Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell); EC 2.7.11.24 (p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases). ... 0 (B7-2 Antigen); 0 (CD11c Antigen); 0 (Cd86 protein, mouse); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Proanthocyanidins); 37341-29-0 (Immunoglobulin ... Ant genos Ly/imunologia. Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C. Movimento Celular. Quimiocinas/imunologia. T cnicas de Cocultura. ...
Antigen-specific tachycardia and hypotension in rodents.. Lei HY, Chen HI, Chan SH, Leir SS, Lin SB, Wing LY. ...
Beasley RP, Hwang LY. Postnatal infectivity of hepatitis B surface antigen-carrier mothers. J Infect Dis 1983;147:185--90. * ... HBsAg is the antigen used for hepatitis B vaccination (79,80). Vaccine antigen can be purified from the plasma of persons with ... Beasley RP, Trepo C, Stevens CE, Szmuness W. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J ... B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe). At ...
beta 2 microglobulin; beta2-m; Ly-m11; lymphocyte antigen m11; Ly-m11; IMD43. ...
  • Recent clinical studies have used chimeric antigen receptors to modify T cells genetically to target and deplete leukemia cells ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The 14B11 antibody reacts with a common epitope of Ly-49C/F/I/H family members also known as Ly-49 inhibitory receptors C, F, and I and activating receptor H. It does not react with other Ly-49 members (i.e. (biolegend.com)
  • BALB/c mice are reported to lack the Ly-49H and Ly-49I receptors. (biolegend.com)
  • They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. (atcc.org)
  • According to a modern interpretation of the clonal selection hypothesis, multiple clones of immunocompetent cells displaying unique antigen-specific receptors exist prior to interaction with antigens and in the case of T cells get selected on the basis of interaction with self-peptides bound to MHC molecules in the thymus. (jci.org)
  • The majority of thymocytes bearing high-affinity receptors for self-antigens are eliminated centrally during thymic differentiation by an apoptotic mechanism termed negative selection. (jci.org)
  • GA733 tumor-associated antigen gene family may function as growth factor receptors. (mcponline.org)
  • To determine the developmental potential of B cells bearing two distinct B cell antigen receptors (BCRs), one favoring B-1 and the other favoring B-2 cell development, we crossed V H 12 insertion mice with mice bearing either V H B1-8 or V H glD42. (rupress.org)
  • As a leading provider of Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) products, Creative Biolabs provides unparalleled CellRapeutics? (list.ly)
  • Although activation of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity is generally inhibited by target major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression, subtle features of NK allorecognition suggest that NK cells possess receptors that are activated by target MHC I. The mouse Ly-49D receptor has been shown to activate NK cytotoxicity, although recognition of MHC class I has not been demonstrated previously. (nih.gov)
  • These experiments show that the activating receptor Ly-49D specifically interacts with the MHC I antigen, H-2Dd, demonstrating the existence of alloactivating receptors on murine NK cells. (nih.gov)
  • Ly-49 receptors or killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily A (KLRA), are a class of natural killer cell receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon binding ligands, most Ly-49 receptors will deliver an inhibitory signal, preventing killing of the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • B1 cells express IgM in greater quantities than IgG and its receptors show polyspecificity, meaning that they have low affinities for many different antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antitumor activity of cancer immunotherapies may elicit immune responses to nontargeted (secondary) tumor antigens, or antigen spread. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Serum samples from patients with mCRPC enrolled in the placebo-controlled phase III IMPACT study (evaluable n = 142) were used to assess humoral antigen spread after treatment with sipuleucel-T. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to self-antigens (including tumor antigens) were surveyed using protein microarrays and confirmed using Luminex xMAP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The development of immune responses to secondary tumor antigens not directly targeted by a therapy, or antigen spread, may indicate tumor cell destruction and provide biomarkers of clinical benefit. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show here that serum antibody (IgG) responses to secondary tumor antigens (humoral antigen spread) can be detected within weeks after treatment with sipuleucel-T, an immunotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, and such responses can be associated with improved overall survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The monoclonal antibody NIMP-R14 is highly specific for murine Ly-6G and Ly-6C. (abcam.com)
  • These two antigens were the most immunogenic and protective antigens in a murine VL model, indicating a relationship between T cell recall responses of humans cured from VL and protective efficacy in an experimental model. (ajtmh.org)
  • We examined the effectiveness of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade, alone or in combination with a granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing tumor cell vaccine, on rejection of the highly tumorigenic, poorly immunogenic murine melanoma B16-BL6. (nih.gov)
  • In several instances, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and myocarditis, the autoimmune disease can be induced experimentally by administering self-antigen in the presence of adjuvant (col- lagen, myelin basic protein, and cardiac myosin, respec- tively) (3). (cdc.gov)
  • TNFRSF25 stimulation is therefore highly specific to T cell mediated immunity, which can be used to enhance or dampen inflammation depending on the temporal context and quality of foreign vs self antigen availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune response has been shown to be antigen specific, but not H-2 restricted. (rupress.org)
  • Nov;115(11) :1403-8 (1985) The effect of 20 g/100 g diet of lactalbumin (L), casein (C), soy (S) and wheat (W) protein on the immune responsiveness of C3H/HeN mice has been investigated by measuring the humoral immune response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the years, the Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice has continued to assign new Ly and CD names to novel genes and Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • The human homologues of a number of mouse Ags or genes, including members of the Ly-6 and Ly-49 families, have not yet been definitively identified. (jimmunol.org)
  • Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice). (wikipedia.org)
  • When a mouse Ly Ag is identified as a human CD homologue, the Ly number for the molecule is withdrawn and reassigned the appropriate CD number. (jimmunol.org)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigens with expression restricted to the recipient hematopoietic compartment represent prospective immunological targets for graft-versus-leukemia therapy. (jci.org)
  • It remains unclear, however, whether donor T cell recognition of these hematopoietically derived minor histocompatibility antigens will induce significant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, the importance of minor histocompatibility antigens derived from nonhematopoietic tissues was demonstrated by the finding that [C57BL/6→BALB.B] chimeric mice succumbed to C57BL/6 CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. (jci.org)
  • IgG responses were subsequently validated in ProACT ( n = 33), an independent phase II study of sipuleucel-T. Association of IgG responses with overall survival (OS) was assessed using multivariate Cox models adjusted for baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and lactate dehydrogenase levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By binding to IgG it initiates cellular responses against pathogens and soluble antigens. (abcam.com)
  • Protection from, and clearance of, Leishmania infection is strongly associated with the generation of antigen-specific Th1 responses, knowledge that provides a clear goal for immunization. (asm.org)
  • The 53-6.7 antibody reportedly blocks antigen presentation via MHC class I and inhibits IL-2-dependent T cell responses. (stemcell.com)
  • We evaluated cytokine responses against 6 defined candidate vaccine antigens in 15 cured VL subjects and 5 healthy endemic controls with no evidence of previous exposure to Leishmania parasites. (ajtmh.org)
  • Among candidate vaccine antigens tested, the largest number of cured subjects recognized cysteine proteinase B, leading to heightened IFN-γ responses, followed by sterol 24-c-methyltransferase. (ajtmh.org)
  • Recent advances have been made in understanding the role of monocytes and their derivatives in presenting antigen to drive immune responses, and we review this topic herein. (nih.gov)
  • Purified from goat serum by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by antigen affinity chromatography using the immunizing peptide. (abcam.com)
  • These data suggest that severe acute CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD across this minor histocompatibility antigen barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloantigens for maximal target-tissue infiltration and injury. (jci.org)
  • Tissue Antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential excision patterns of the En-transposable element at the A2 locus in maize relate to the insertion site. (nih.gov)
  • Once mobilized to the bloodstream, some CCR2 hi monocytes convert to a subset of monocytes that expresses CD16 and CD11c and has low levels of CCR2 and Ly-6C. (nih.gov)