Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
An inhibitory subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that interacts with CLASS I MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS and prevents the activation of NK CELLS.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.

IL-12 gene as a DNA vaccine adjuvant in a herpes mouse model: IL-12 enhances Th1-type CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against herpes simplex virus-2 challenge. (1/1290)

IL-12 has been shown to enhance cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Recent reports have suggested that combining DNA vaccine approach with immune stimulatory molecules delivered as genes may significantly enhance Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. In particular, IL-12 molecules could constitute an important addition to a herpes vaccine by amplifying specific immune responses. Here we investigate the utility of IL-12 cDNA as an adjuvant for a herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) DNA vaccine in a mouse challenge model. Direct i.m. injection of IL-12 cDNA induced activation of resting immune cells in vivo. Furthermore, coinjection with IL-12 cDNA and gD DNA vaccine inhibited both systemic gD-specific Ab and local Ab levels compared with gD plasmid vaccination alone. In contrast, Th cell proliferative responses and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and chemokines (RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha) were significantly increased by IL-12 coinjection. However, the production of cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and chemokine (MCP-1) was inhibited by IL-12 coinjection. IL-12 coinjection with a gD DNA vaccine showed significantly better protection from lethal HSV-2 challenge compared with gD DNA vaccination alone in both inbred and outbred mice. This enhanced protection appears to be mediated by CD4+ T cells, as determined by in vivo CD4+ T cell deletion. Thus, IL-12 cDNA as a DNA vaccine adjuvant drives Ag-specific Th1 type CD4+ T cell responses that result in reduced HSV-2-derived morbidity as well as mortality.  (+info)

Resistance of CD7-deficient mice to lipopolysaccharide-induced shock syndromes. (2/1290)

CD7 is an immunoglobulin superfamily molecule involved in T and natural killer (NK) cell activation and cytokine production. CD7-deficient animals develop normally but have antigen-specific defects in interferon (IFN)-gamma production and CD8(+) CTL generation. To determine the in vivo role of CD7 in systems dependent on IFN-gamma, the response of CD7-deficient mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock syndromes was studied. In the high-dose LPS-induced shock model, 67% of CD7-deficient mice survived LPS injection, whereas 19% of control C57BL/6 mice survived LPS challenge (P < 0.001). CD7-deficient or C57BL/6 control mice were next injected with low-dose LPS (1 microgram plus 8 mg D-galactosamine [D-gal] per mouse) and monitored for survival. All CD7-deficient mice were alive 72 h after injection of LPS compared with 20% of C57BL/6 control mice (P < 0.001). After injection of LPS and D-gal, CD7-deficient mice had decreased serum IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels compared with control C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.001). Steady-state mRNA levels for IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in liver tissue were also significantly decreased in CD7-deficient mice compared with controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD7-deficient animals had normal liver interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18, and interleukin 1 converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA levels, and CD7-deficient splenocytes had normal IFN-gamma responses when stimulated with IL-12 and IL-18 in vitro. NK1.1(+)/ CD3(+) T cells are known to be key effector cells in the pathogenesis of toxic shock. Phenotypic analysis of liver mononuclear cells revealed that CD7-deficient mice had fewer numbers of liver NK1.1(+)/CD3(+) T cells (1.5 +/- 0.3 x 10(5)) versus C57BL/6 control mice (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(5); P < 0.05), whereas numbers of liver NK1.1(+)/CD3(-) NK cells were not different from controls. Thus, targeted disruption of CD7 leads to a selective deficiency of liver NK1.1(+)/ CD3(+) T cells, and is associated with resistance to LPS shock. These data suggest that CD7 is a key molecule in the inflammatory response leading to LPS-induced shock.  (+info)

Cutting edge: LFA-1 is required for liver NK1.1+TCR alpha beta+ cell development: evidence that liver NK1.1+TCR alpha beta+ cells originate from multiple pathways. (3/1290)

Using mice deficient for LFA-1, CD44, and ICAM-1, we examined the role of these adhesion molecules in NK1.1+TCR alpha beta+ (NKT) cell development. Although no defect in NKT cell development was observed in CD44-/- and ICAM-1-/- mice, a dramatic reduction of liver NKT cells was observed in LFA-1-/- mice. Normal numbers of NKT cells were present in other lymphoid organs in LFA-1-/- mice. When LFA-1-/- splenocytes were injected i.v. into wild-type mice, the frequency of NKT cells among donor-derived cells in the recipient liver was normal. In contrast, when LFA-1-/- bone marrow (BM) cells were injected i.v. into irradiated wild-type mice, the frequency of liver NKT cells was significantly lower than that of mice injected with wild-type BM cells. Collectively, these data indicate that LFA-1 is required for the development of liver NKT cells, rather than the migration to and/or subsequent establishment of mature NKT cells in the liver.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide analysis and molecular modeling of soluble forms of glycoproteins belonging to the Ly-6, scavenger receptor, and immunoglobulin superfamilies expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (4/1290)

Most cell surface molecules are glycoproteins consisting of linear arrays of globular domains containing stretches of amino acid sequence with similarities to regions in other proteins. These conserved regions form the basis for the classification of proteins into superfamilies. Recombinant soluble forms of six leukocyte antigens belonging to the Ly-6 (CD59), scavenger receptor (CD5), and immunoglobulin (CD2, CD48, CD4, and Thy-1) superfamilies were expressed in the same Chinese hamster ovary cell line, thus providing an opportunity to examine the extent to which N-linked oligosaccharide processing might vary in a superfamily-, domain-, or protein-dependent manner in a given cell. While we found no evidence for superfamily-specific modifications of the glycans, marked differences were seen in the types of oligosaccharides attached to individual proteins within a given superfamily. The relative importance of local protein surface properties versus the overall tertiary structure of the molecules in directing this protein-specific variation was examined in the context of molecular models. These were constructed using the 3D structures of the proteins, glycan data from this study, and an oligosaccharide structural database. The results indicated that both the overall organization of the domains and the local protein structure can have a large bearing on site-specific glycan modification of cells in stasis. This level of control ensures that the surface of a single cell will display a diverse repertoire of glycans and precludes the presentation of multiple copies of a single oligosaccharide on the cell surface. The glycans invariably shield large regions of the protein surfaces although, for the glycoproteins examined here, these did not hinder the known active sites of the molecules. The models also indicated that sugars are likely to play a role in the packing of the native cell surface glycoproteins and to limit nonspecific protein-protein interactions. In addition, glycans located close to the cell membrane are likely to affect crucially the orientation of the glycoproteins to which they are attached.  (+info)

Structural and phylogenetic characterization of human SLURP-1, the first secreted mammalian member of the Ly-6/uPAR protein superfamily. (5/1290)

Members of the Ly-6/uPAR protein family share one or several repeat units of the Ly-6/uPAR domain that is defined by a distinct disulfide bonding pattern between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. The Ly-6/uPAR protein family can be divided into two subfamilies. One comprises GPI-anchored glycoprotein receptors with 10 cysteine residues. The other subfamily includes the secreted single-domain snake and frog cytotoxins, and differs significantly in that its members generally possess only eight cysteines and no GPI-anchoring signal sequence. We report the purification and structural characterization of human SLURP-1 (secreted mammalian Ly-6/uPAR related protein 1) from blood and urine peptide libraries. SLURP-1 is encoded by the ARS (component B)-81/s locus, and appears to be the first mammalian member of the Ly-6/uPAR family lacking a GPI-anchoring signal sequence. A phylogenetic analysis based on the SLURP-1 primary protein structure revealed a closer relationship to the subfamily of cytotoxins. Since the SLURP-1 gene maps to the same chromosomal region as several members of the Ly-6/uPAR subfamily of glycoprotein receptors, it is suggested that both biologically distinct subfamilies might have co-evolved from local chromosomal duplication events.  (+info)

Splenic NK1.1-negative, TCR alpha beta intermediate CD4+ T cells exist in naive NK1.1 allelic positive and negative mice, with the capacity to rapidly secrete large amounts of IL-4 and IFN-gamma upon primary TCR stimulation. (6/1290)

Splenic NK1.1+CD4+ T cells that express intermediate levels of TCR alpha beta molecules (TCRint) and the DX5 Ag (believed to identify an equivalent population in NK1.1 allelic negative mice) possess the ability to rapidly produce high quantities of immunomodulatory cytokines, notably IL-4 and IFN-gamma, upon primary TCR activation in vivo. Indeed, only T cells expressing the NK1.1 Ag appear to be capable of this function. In this study, we demonstrate that splenic NK1.1-negative TCRintCD4+ T cells, identified on the basis of Fc gamma R expression, exist in naive NK1.1 allelic positive (C57BL/6) and negative (C3H/HeN) mice with the capacity to produce large amounts of IL-4 and IFN-gamma after only 8 h of primary CD3 stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, a comparison of the amounts of early cytokines produced by Fc gamma R+CD4+TCRint T cells with NK1. 1+CD4+ or DX5+CD4+TCRint T cells, simultaneously isolated from C57BL/6 or C3H/HeN mice, revealed strain and population differences. Thus, Fc gamma R defines another subpopulation of splenic CD4+TCRint cells that can rapidly produce large concentrations of immunomodulatory cytokines, suggesting that CD4+TCRint T cells themselves may represent a unique family of immunoregulatory CD4+ T cells whose members include Fc gamma R+CD4+ and NK1.1/DX5+CD4+ T cells.  (+info)

Unopposed production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by tumors inhibits CD8+ T cell responses by dysregulating antigen-presenting cell maturation. (7/1290)

Tumor cells gene-modified to produce GM-CSF potently stimulate antitumor immune responses, in part, by causing the growth and differentiation of dendritic cells (DC). However, GM-CSF-modified tumor cells must be gamma-irradiated or they will grow progressively, killing the host. We observed that 23 of 75 (31%) human tumor lines and two commonly used mouse tumor lines spontaneously produced GM-CSF. In mice, chronic GM-CSF production by tumors suppressed Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Interestingly, an inhibitory population of adherent CD11b(Mac-1)/Gr-1 double-positive cells caused the observed impairment of CD8+ T cell function upon direct cell-to-cell contact. The inhibitory cells were positive for some markers associated with Ag presenting cells, like F4/80, but were negative for markers associated with fully mature DC like DEC205, B7. 2, and MHC class II. We have previously reported that a similar or identical population of inhibitory "immature" APC was elicited after immunization with powerful recombinant immunogens. We show here that these inhibitory cells can be elicited by the administration of recombinant GM-CSF alone, and, furthermore, that they can be differentiated ex vivo into "mature" APC by the addition of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Thus, tumors may be able to escape from immune detection by producing "unopposed" GM-CSF, thereby disrupting the balance of cytokines needed for the maturation of fully functional DC. Further, CD11b/Gr-1 double-positive cells may function as "inhibitory" APC under the influence of GM-CSF alone.  (+info)

Mouse NKR-P1B, a novel NK1.1 antigen with inhibitory function. (8/1290)

The mouse NK1.1 Ag originally defined as NK cell receptor (NKR)-P1C (CD161) mediates NK cell activation. Here, we show that another member of the mouse CD161 family, NKR-P1B, represents a novel NK1.1 Ag. In contrast to NKR-P1C, which functions as an activating receptor, NKR-P1B inhibits NK cell activation. Association of NKR-P1B with Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 provides a molecular mechanism for this inhibition. The existence of these two NK1.1 Ags with opposite functions suggests a potential role for NKR-P1 molecules, such as those of the Ly-49 gene family, in regulating NK cell function.  (+info)

The Anti-Ly-6G MicroBead Kit was developed for positive selection or depletion of mouse neutrophils from single-cell suspensions of lymphoid tissues. This product is replaced by the new Anti-Ly-6G MicroBeads UltraPure, mouse (# 130-120-337) that combine the advantages of REAfinity™ Recombinant Antibody technology with UltraPure MicroBeads for a faster isolation of Ly-6G+ cells. - USA
Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) antibody [D7] (lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A) for FACS, IHC-Fr, IP, WB. Anti-Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) mAb (GTX30898) is tested in Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Clone REA1022 recognizes the type II transmembrane protein Ly-49G, which is a MHC class I receptor also known as Kira-7. It is expressed on NK, NKT, and T cells. It is reported that the binding of Ly-49G with its ligand leads to inhibition of NK cells, T cells cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferation. The antibody reacts with Ly49G receptor of A/J, BALB/c, C3H, CBA,129, FVB, and SJL mice, but not C57BL/6 mice. Additional information: Clone REA1022 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Lëtzebuerg
Brilliant Violet 421™ anti-mouse Ly-6G Antibody - Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G (Ly-6G), a 21-25 kD GPI-anchored protein, is expressed on the majority of myeloid cells in bone marrow and peripheral granulocytes..
I then expose these cells to fluorescent antibodies. In the diagram below, the antibodies are illustrated as forked purple objects, attached to a fluorescent probe. After staining the cells with these antibodies which are specific to muscle stem cell antigens such as Sca-1 (aptly named stem cell antigen-1), the cells are placed into a FACS sorter. Using high pressure and an extraordinarily narrow nozzle, the machine is able to probe individual cells at a time with a laser, determining whether they are labeled or not. Using an electric field, labeled cells are given a negative charge while unlabeled ones are given a positive charge, allowing the cells to be separated. Thus, they are sorted by fluorescence-activation ...
Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP ...
Anti-Ly49C+F+H+I antibody conjugated to FITC [14B11] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to the details of the immunogen for…
Anti-LY75 antibody conjugated to FITC [NLDC-145] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen corresponding to tissue…
Monoklonale und polyklonale LY9 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für LY9 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
ラット・モノクローナル抗体 ab25377 交差種: Ms 適用: IP,IHC-P,IHC-Fr,FuncS,Flow Cyt,Depletion…Ly6g抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
LY2140023 是一种口服有效的 LY404039 的前药。LY404039 是一种选择性的代谢型谷氨酸 2/3 受体激动剂。LY2140023 有用于精神分裂症的潜力。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
PE/Cy7 ®偶联Sca1 / Ly6A/E抗体[D7](ab93537)可与小鼠样本反应并经Flow Cyt实验严格验证,实验条件参看说明书。Abcam对所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
LY-293,284 je istraživačka hemikalija. On deluje kao potentan i selektivan pun agonist 5-HT1A receptora. On je izveden putem nekoliko strukturnih simplifikacija na ergolinu baziranih halucinogena, LSD[1] On je selektivan za 5-HT1A sa preko 1000x selektivnošću u odnosu na druge tipove serotoninskog receptora i druge ciljeve.[2] On pokazuje anksiogene efekte u životinjskim studijama.[3]. ...
銀河系包含的恆星數量在2,000億至4,000億顆之間[57][58],還有至少1,000億顆的行星[59]。確切的數值取決於質量非常低的恆星,這些恆星很難檢測得到,特別是距離太陽超過300 ly(90 ...
Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.. PubMed. Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.. 2002-06-01. Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccards similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. ...
It is well established that Ly6Chi monocytes develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) and reside in the bone marrow (BM) until they are mobilized into the circulation. In our study, we found that BM Ly6Chi monocytes are not a homogenous population, as current data would suggest. Using computational analysis approaches to interpret multidimensional datasets, we demonstrate that BM Ly6Chi monocytes consist of two distinct subpopulations (CXCR4hi and CXCR4lo subpopulations) in both mice and humans. Transcriptome studies and in vivo assays revealed functional differences between the two subpopulations. Notably, the CXCR4hi subset proliferates and is immobilized in the BM for the replenishment of functionally mature CXCR4lo monocytes. We propose that the CXCR4hi subset represents a transitional premonocyte population, and that this sequential step of maturation from cMoPs serves to maintain a stable pool of BM monocytes. Additionally, reduced CXCR4 expression on monocytes, upon their exit into the
TY - JOUR. T1 - SCA-1 labels a subset of estrogen-responsive bipotential repopulating cells within the CD24+ CD49fhi mammary stem cell-enriched compartment. AU - Dall, Genevieve V.. AU - Vieusseux, Jessica L.. AU - Korach, Kenneth S.. AU - Arao, Yukitomo. AU - Hewitt, Sylvia C.. AU - Hamilton, Katherine J.. AU - Dzierzak, Elaine. AU - Boon, Wah Chin. AU - Simpson, Evan R.. AU - Ramsay, Robert G.. AU - Stein, Torsten. AU - Morris, Joanne S.. AU - Anderson, Robin L.. AU - Risbridger, Gail P.. AU - Britt, Kara L.. PY - 2017/2/14. Y1 - 2017/2/14. N2 - Estrogen stimulates breast development during puberty and mammary tumors in adulthood through estrogen receptor-α (ERα). These effects are proposed to occur via ERα+ luminal cells and not the mammary stem cells (MaSCs) that are ERαneg. Since ERα+ luminal cells express stem cell antigen-1 (SCA-1), we sought to determine if SCA-1 could define an ERα+ subset of EpCAM+/CD24+/CD49fhi MaSCs. We show that the MaSC population has a distinct SCA-1+ ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-Ly-6G6C Antibody (NIMP-R14) cited in 23 publications. Validated: Flow, Func, IA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse.
Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) Rat anti-Mouse, Clone: D7, eBioscience™ 500μg; Unlabeled Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) Rat anti-Mouse, Clone: D7, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies L
Ly-6A/E (Sca-1), PE-Cyanine5, clone: D7, eBioscience™ 100μg; PE-Cyanine5 Ly-6A/E (Sca-1), PE-Cyanine5, clone: D7, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies L
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Primary Objective: - To determine a recommended Phase 2 dose of LY2275796 that may be safely administered to patients with advanced cance
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Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 23rd Feburary 2018. Apply now!. ...
Secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLURP1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ly6/uPAR family but lacks a GPI-anchoring signal sequence. It is thought that this secreted protein contains antitumor activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Mal de Meleda, a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder. This gene maps to the same chromosomal region as several members of the Ly6/uPAR family of glycoprotein receptors. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000126233 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022596 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Fischer J, Bouadjar B, Heilig R, Huber M, Lefèvre C, Jobard F, Macari F, Bakija-Konsuo A, Ait-Belkacem F, Weissenbach J, Lathrop M, Hohl D, Prudhomme JF (April 2001). Mutations in the gene encoding SLURP-1 in Mal de Meleda. Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (8): 875-80. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.8.875. PMID 11285253. Adermann K, ...
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The growth factor, IL-2, was administered to mice to evaluate the in vivo responsiveness of NK cells to this factor. The immediate effects of this factor on NK cells were determined by examining cytotoxic activity at 18-24 h after a single treatment with rIL-2. Although moderate doses of rIL-2 (3 x 10(4) U) could be shown to activate existing cytotoxic cells on a per cell basis, higher doses (10(6) U) were required to elicit blast size killer cells. The elicited killer cells were characterized as NK cells by the following criteria: (a) they were readily induced in athymic mice; (b) they mediated killing of NK-sensitive YAC-1 target cells but not NK-resistant P815 target cells; and (c) they expressed the NK cell determinants asialo ganglio-n-tetraosylceramide and NK1.1, but not the T cell determinants CD3, L3T4, or Lyt-2. High-dose IL-2 treatment induced not only the appearance of blast size NK cells, but also the expansion of this population. After treatments, the number of large granular ...
Here we report, for what we believe is the first time, the immunosuppressive functions of Ly6Clo monocytes and identify them as an important driver of resistance during anti-VEGFR2 treatment in CRCs. To date, studies have divided Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) into 2 different subpopulations, monocytic and granulocytic (also known as polymorphonuclear) MDSCs (25-27, 42, 62). However, Gr1 is not a single surface marker, but rather a complex of proteins Ly6C and Ly6G. Due to the complexity of Gr1, previous studies that utilized Gr1 staining were not able to provide a clear separation of the subpopulations (62). Recent reports that adopted Ly6C and Ly6G for subpopulation separation focused only on Gr1hi myeloid cells, which include Gr1+ (Ly6Chi) monocytes and granulocytes (39). Moreover, the definition of the myeloid cell subpopulations using surface markers has been ambiguous among research groups (35-38, 42, 43). Unlike Gr1+ monocytes and granulocytic cells (6, 23, 24), Ly6Clo ...
DNAM-1 is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and T cells and plays an important role in cytotoxicity of these cells against target cells. Although the role of DNAM-1 in the function of T cells and NK cells has been well studied, the expression and function of DNAM-1 on myeloid cells have been incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated expression of DNAM-1 on monocyte subsets in mouse peripheral blood and found that only inflammatory monocytes (iMos), but not patrolling monocytes (pMos), expressed high levels of DNAM-1. In addition, we found that DNAM-1 was highly expressed on iMos, rather than pMos, also in human. Furthermore, we found that DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes was involved in cell adhesion to CD155-expressing cells. Therefore, we propose that expression of DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes are evolutionally conserved and act as an adhesion molecule on blood inflammatory monocytes.. ...
anti-Ly6A/E antibody [D7] is a Rat Monoclonal antibody [D7] recognizes Ly6A/E, which can be used for Flow cytometry,IHC-Frozen sections,IHC-Formalin-fixed para
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Purified Anti-Mouse Ly-6G/Ly-6C antibody for use in flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, depletion, and CMCD assays.
Participants will start receiving LY2439821 30 mg once every week for the first 3 doses and then once every 2 weeks until week 44. Investigators or its designees will increase the LY2439821 dose to 160 mg at any visit once the safety of LY2439821 180 mg is confirmed by the Data Review Meeting in Study I1F-JE-RHAL (NCT01253265 ...
LY 294002 - CAS 154447-36-6 - Calbiochem LY294002, CAS 154447-36-6, is a cell-permeable, potent, reversible, and specific inhibitor of PI 3-kinase ((IC₅₀ = 1.4 µM). Acts on the ATP-binding site. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
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A page for describing IThoughtItMeant: A to C. Visit entries from: Main Page || You are here || D to F || G to I || J to L || M to N || O to R || S to T || U …
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In the context of kidney transplantation, little is known about the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells in the immune reaction leading to either rejection or immunological tolerance under immunosuppression. Therefore, the peripheral NK cell repertoire of patients after kidney transplantation was investigated in order to identify NK cell subsets that may be associated with the individual immune status at the time of their protocol biopsies for histopathological evaluation of the graft. Alterations in the peripheral NK cell repertoire could be correlated to the type of immunosuppression, i.e., calcineurin-inhibitors like Cyclosporin A vs. Tacrolimus with or without addition of mTOR inhibitors. Here, we could demonstrate that the NK cell repertoire in peripheral blood of kidney transplant patients differs significantly from healthy individuals. The presence of donor-specific antibodies was associated with reduced numbers of CD56dim NK cells. Moreover, in patients, down-modulation of CD16 and CD6 on
Cardiac progenitor/stem cells in adult hearts represent an attractive therapeutic target for heart regeneration, though (inter)-relationships among reported cells remain obscure. Using single-cell qRT-PCR and clonal analyses, here we define four subpopulations of cardiac progenitor/stem cells in adult mouse myocardium all sharing stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1), based on side population (SP) phenotype, PECAM-1 (CD31) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) expression. SP status predicts clonogenicity and cardiogenic gene expression (Gata4/6, Hand2 and Tbx5/20), properties segregating more specifically to PDGFRα(+) cells. Clonal progeny of single Sca1(+) SP cells show cardiomyocyte, endothelial and smooth muscle lineage potential after cardiac grafting, augmenting cardiac function although durable engraftment is rare. PDGFRα(-) cells are characterized by Kdr/Flk1, Cdh5, CD31 and lack of clonogenicity. PDGFRα(+)/CD31(-) cells derive from cells formerly expressing Mesp1, Nkx2-5, Isl1, Gata5
We report the first demonstration of Thy-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4- MHC-specific CTL clones derived from the Lyt-2-, L3T4- subset of lymph node cells of C3H-gld/gld mice. These clones express alpha/beta heterodimeric TCRs on the cell surface and specifically recognize class I molecules on target cells. Lyt-2 and L3T4 molecules are therefore not essential for the induction, recognition, and killing of antigen-specific CTL. In addition, these studies suggest that antigen specificity development for class I structures may occur before Lyt-2 gene activation in the differentiation of T cells. ...
MD-2 antibody LS-C144483 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to MD-2 (LY96 / MD2) from human. It is reactive with human and mouse. Validated for ELISA, IF, IHC and WB. ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ...
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LY-404,187 (LY404187) je ampakinski lek (potencijator AMPA receptora) koji je razvila kompanija Eli Lili.[1] On je član biarilpropilsulfonamidne klase ampakina.[2] LY-404,187 poboljšava kognitivne funkcije u životinjskim studijama, a isto tako ispoljava efekte koji sugerišu antidepresantno dejstvo. On potencijalno može da nađe primenu u tretiranju šizofrenije, Parkinsonove bolesti i ADHD-a. Njegovo dejstvo je posredovano višestrukim mehanizmima akcije pored potencijacije AMPA receptor. Prominentni efekat zapažen u istraživanjima je povišeni novo BDNF-a u mozgu.[3][4][5] ... - We - can assist - - - you purchase - bitcoins, pick […]. 1 total views, 1 today. ...
The purpose of this study is to test the safety and tolerability of LY3832479 when it is given by injection just under the skin to healthy participants. Blood tests will be done to check how much LY3832479 is in the bloodstream and how long the body takes to eliminate it. Participation could last up to 16 weeks and may include up to six visits to the study center, with a one-week overnight stay ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. LY-518674 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Kit Component:- KN309573G1, Ly6e gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN309573G2, Ly6e gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN309573D, donor vector…
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. LY 165,163 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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قیمت فرش ماشینی اتاق خواب دکوراسیون اتاق خواب از ویژگی های بسیار مهمی برخوردار است که رعایت کردن به آن می تواند در زیباسازی آن فضا بسیار کمک کننده باشد. فرش ترک اتاق خواب یکی از فرش های مدرن و فانتزی شکل است که توانسته به خوبی نظرات مشتریان را ...
Functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. II. Cooperation between subclasses of Ly+ cells in the ... Functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. I. The generation of functionally distinct T-cell ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ...
McKenzie IF, Gardiner J, Cherry M, Snell GD (March 1977). "Lymphocyte antigens: Ly-4, Ly-6, and Ly-7". Transplantation ... Ly6 also known as lymphocyte antigen 6 or urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is family of proteins that share ... Upadhyay G (2019). "Emerging Role of Lymphocyte Antigen-6 Family of Genes in Cancer and Immune Cells". Frontiers in Immunology ... Kong HK, Park JH (November 2012). "Characterization and function of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules". BMB Reports. 45 (11): 595-603. ...
Vaughan HA, Thompson CH, Sparrow RL, McKenzie IF (October 1983). "Hu Ly-M3--a human leukocyte antigen". Transplantation. 36 (4 ... CD48 antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
Smith SS, Patterson T, Pauza ME (2005). "Transgenic Ly-49A inhibits antigen-driven T cell activation and delays diabetes". J. ... 2003). "Initiation and limitation of Ly-49A NK cell receptor acquisition by T cell factor-1". J. Immunol. 171 (2): 769-75. doi: ... following antigen encounter in vitro and in vivo". J. Immunol. 176 (3): 1439-46. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.176.3.1439. PMID 16424171 ...
Bajenoff M, Egen JG, Koo LY, et al. Stromal cell networks regulate lymphocyte entry, migration, and territoriality in lymph ... Antigen-specific memory B cell development. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:487-513.. ... Two-photon imaging of lymphocyte motility and antigen response in intact lymph node. Science. 2002;296(5574):1869-1873. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... Kudo J, Chao LY, Narni F, Saunders GF (December 1985). "Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class ... The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide which plays a critical role in antigen presentation. It is involved in ... The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. Without CLIP, MHC class II aggregates ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... Kingsmore SF, Souryal CA, Watson ML, Patel DD, Seldin MF (Aug 1995). "Physical and genetic linkage of the genes encoding Ly-9 ...
Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR. A rapid dot- ... Current methods of detecting specific antigens associated with A. cantonensis are also unreliable. ... motion Toxic byproducts such as nitrogenous waste Antigens released by dead and living parasites Although the clinical disease ...
Ly-49+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e. ... Barten R, Trowsdale J (July 1999). "The human Ly-49L gene". Immunogenetics. 49 (7-8): 731-4. doi:10.1007/s002510050675. PMID ...
1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... 1992). "Structure of the CD59-encoding gene: further evidence of a relationship to murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6 protein". ... the human homologue of murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6C". Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (16): 6728. doi:10.1093/nar/17.16.6728. PMC ... CD59+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ...
First coined TL (for "thymus-leukemia" antigen in mice) then later as the Ly series (originally named Ly-A and Ly-B and later ... Old discovered the LY-B antigen, later renamed CD8 in humans. CD8 cells, often referred to as "killer" T cells, are one of the ... Ly-A and Ly-B: Two systems of lymphocyte isoantigens in the mouse. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1968 Jun 11; 170(19): 175-93. ... called Ly-1, Ly-2, and Ly-3), this discovery led directly to the wide use of cell surface markers to distinguish and classify ...
Monte M, Simonatto M, Peche LY, et al. (2006). "MAGE-A tumor antigens target p53 transactivation function through histone ... Melanoma-associated antigen 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MAGEA2 gene. This gene is a member of the MAGEA ... Rogner UC, Wilke K, Steck E, Korn B, Poustka A (Mar 1996). "The melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family is clustered in the ... "Entrez Gene: MAGEA2 melanoma antigen family A, 2". Brasseur F, Rimoldi D, Liénard D, et al. (1995). "Expression of MAGE genes ...
The LU domain (Ly-6 antigen/uPAR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein domain of the three-finger protein superfamily. This ... Other LU domain proteins are small globular proteins such as CD59 antigen, LYNX1, SLURP1, and SLURP2. Urokinase plasminogen ... for example the Ly-6 family, CD59, and Sgp-2. A variety of GPI-linked cell-surface glycoproteins are composed of one or more ... such as the CD59 antigen, have well-studied functions in regulation of the immune system. PDB: 2J8B​; Leath KJ, Johnson S, ...
These tumor antigens are either TSA (Tumor-specific antigen) or TAA (Tumor-associated antigen). Tumor-specific antigens (TSA) ... Hsieh MY, Lu SN, Wang LY, Liu TY, Su WP, Lin ZY, Chuang WL, Chen SC, Chang WY (November 1992). "Alpha-fetoprotein in patients ... Oncofetal antigens are tumor-associated antigens expressed by embryonic cells and by tumors. Examples of oncofetal antigens are ... role of antigen load, antigen-presenting cells, and cytokines". Journal of Immunology. 163 (1): 130-6. PMID 10384108. Scheffer ...
RhoGDI2 (ARHGDIB) is part of a family of three members: RhoGDI1, RhoGDI2 (also known as RhoGDIB, D4-GDI or Ly-GDI) and RhoGDI3 ... function cooperatively as signal transducers in T cell antigen receptor-induced pathways". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (51): 50121-30. ... Scherle P, Behrens T, Staudt LM (September 1993). "Ly-GDI, a GDP-dissociation inhibitor of the RhoA GTP-binding protein, is ... Groysman M, Hornstein I, Alcover A, Katzav S (2003). "Vav1 and Ly-GDI two regulators of Rho GTPases, ...
... a member of the LY-6 family of cell surface antigens, in bladder, esophagus, and stomach tumors". Biochemical and Biophysical ... Prostate stem cell antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSCA gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: PSCA prostate stem cell antigen". Gu Z, Thomas G, Yamashiro J, Shintaku IP, Dorey F, Raitano A, et al. (March 2000 ... Tran CP, Lin C, Yamashiro J, Reiter RE (December 2002). "Prostate stem cell antigen is a marker of late intermediate prostate ...
Phan D, Cheng CJ, Galfione M, Vakar-Lopez F, Tunstead J, Thompson NE, Burgess RR, Najjar SM, Yu-Lee LY, Lin SH (2004). " ... "Identification of Sp2 as a transcriptional repressor of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in ...
"Characterization of the human Ly-6 antigens, the newly annotated member Ly-6K included, as molecular markers for head-and-neck ... Ding L, Shevach EM (2001). "Inhibition of the function of the FcγRIIB by a monoclonal antibody to thymic shared antigen-1, a Ly ... "Essential Role for the Lymphostromal Plasma Membrane Ly-6 Superfamily Molecule Thymic Shared Antigen 1 in Development of the ... "Physical and functional association between thymic shared antigen-1/stem cell antigen-2 and the T cell receptor complex". J. ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6E (pseudogene) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY6G6E gene. LY6G6E belongs ... Mallya M, Campbell RD, Aguado B (October 2006). "Characterization of the five novel Ly-6 superfamily members encoded in the MHC ... "Entrez Gene: Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6E pseudogene)". Mallya M, Campbell RD, Aguado B (July 2002). " ... Ribas G, Neville M, Wixon JL, Cheng J, Campbell RD (July 1999). "Genes encoding three new members of the leukocyte antigen 6 ...
"Entrez Gene: STUB1 STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1". Ballinger CA, Connell P, Wu Y, Hu Z, Thompson LJ, Yin LY, ... "Identification of tumor-associated antigens in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by SEREX". Blood. 100 (6): 2123-31. doi:10.1182/ ... Ballinger CA, Connell P, Wu Y, Hu Z, Thompson LJ, Yin LY, Patterson C (Jun 1999). "Identification of CHIP, a novel ... "Characterization of human colon cancer antigens recognized by autologous antibodies". International Journal of Cancer. 76 (5): ...
The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J Epidemiol 1977;105(2):94-98 Beasley RP, Hwang LY, ... Beasley then showed that the "E" antigen is a good predictor for vertical transmission from mother-to-infant. This observation ... Lancet 1981;2(8243):388-393 Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Chien CS. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. A ... The Abbott Laboratories then developed a more sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay technique to detect the surface antigen ...
This gene encodes a member of the Ly-6/neurotoxin gene family, a group of lymphocyte antigens that attach to the cell surface ...
Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR.[51] A rapid ... Current methods of detecting specific antigens associated with A. cantonensis are also unreliable. ... cantonensis infection has a theoretic risk of precipitating a neurologic crisis by releasing an overwhelming load of antigens ...
An antigen assay has been developed to detect a key virulence factor Mp1p that has been shown to have a high specificity for ... Thu, Nguyen T. M.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Ly, Vo Trieu; Ngo, Hoa T.; Hien, Ha T. A.; Lan, Nguyen P. H.; Chau, Nguyen V. V.; Cai, ... January 1999). "Diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei infection by quantitation of urinary antigen by using an enzyme immunoassay ... Jian-Piao; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Day, Jeremy N.; van Doorn, Rogier (2020-06-21). "Superiority of a novel Mp1p antigen detection ...
Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TINAGL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... Jiang LQ, Wen SJ, Wang HY, Chen LY (2003). "Screening the proteins that interact with calpain in a human heart cDNA library ... "Entrez Gene: TINAGL1 tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like 1". Brömme NC, Wex T, Wex H, et al. (2000). "Cloning, ...
Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001). "Cell surface receptors Ly-9 and CD84 ... Kingsmore SF, Souryal CA, Watson ML, Patel DD, Seldin MF (1995). "Physical and genetic linkage of the genes encoding Ly-9 and ...
Yousef GM, Obiezu CV, Luo LY, et al. (1999). "Prostase/KLK-L1 is a new member of the human kallikrein gene family, is expressed ... Takayama TK, Carter CA, Deng T (2001). "Activation of prostate-specific antigen precursor (pro-PSA) by prostin, a novel human ... 2005). "Kallikrein 4 (hK4) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are associated with the loss of E-cadherin and an epithelial- ... Stephenson SA, Verity K, Ashworth LK, Clements JA (August 1999). "Localization of a new prostate-specific antigen-related ...
Diamandis EP, Yousef GM, Luo LY, Magklara A, Obiezu CV (March 2000). "The new human kallikrein gene family: implications in ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, also known as kallikrein III, seminin, semenogelase, γ-seminoprotein and P-30 antigen) is a 34- ... It is now clear that the term prostate-specific antigen is a misnomer: it is an antigen but is not specific to the prostate. ... Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3 (KLK3), P-30 antigen, is a glycoprotein ...
DR12 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR5 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR11 antigens. The ... Ju LY, Paolozzi L, Delecoeuillerie G, et al. (1994). "A possible linkage of HLA-DRB haplotypes with Tiopronin intolerance in ... 2007). "Human Leukocyte Antigens in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis". Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism. 37 (3): 198-201 ... Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 90-7. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1992.tb01965.x. PMID 1357780. Bidwell J, Soong T, Raymond P, Doherty D, ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... Crosnier C, Bustamante LY, Bartholdson SJ, Bei AK, Theron M, Uchikawa M, Mboup S, Ndir O, Kwiatkowski DP, Duraisingh MT, Rayner ... There are three known antigens in the Ok system; the most common being Oka (also called OK1), OK2 and OK3. Basigin has been ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the ...
Marmorstein LY, Ouchi T, Aaronson SA (Nov 1998). "The BRCA2 gene product functionally interacts with p53 and RAD51". ...
Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Zhang PY, Wu GY, Shen YC (July 2004). "Changes in serum interleukin-2, -6, and -8 levels before and ... Primarna funkcija IL-8 citokina je da regrutuje neutrofile da fagocitoziraju antigen koji je pobudio antigenski obrazac toll- ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Song WY, Wang GL, Chen LL, Kim HS, Pi LY, Holsten T, et al. (December 1995). "A receptor kinase-like protein encoded by the ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ... rid the body of neutralised antigen-antibody complexes.. There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, ...
Upregulated in eosinophils post antigen exposure.[21] Cystic fibrosis Possible correlation with severity of the lung ... Esnault S, Kelly EA, Schwantes EA, Liu LY, DeLain LP, Hauer JA, Bochkov YA, Denlinger LC, Malter JS, Mathur SK, Jarjour NN ( ...
Li SC, Chan WC, Ho MR, Tsai KW, Hu LY, Lai CH, Hsu CN, Hwang PP, Lin WC (December 2010). "Discovery and characterization of ... The increased expression of miR-181a in mature T cells increases susceptibility to peptide antigens, while inhibiting the ... suggesting that miR-181a acts as an antigen intrinsic sensitivity "rheostat" during the development of T cells. It has been ...
Diaz F, Bourguignon LY (2000). «Selective down-regulation of IP(3)receptor subtypes by caspases and calpain during TNF alpha - ... 2007). «Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are autoantibody target antigens in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and other ...
Ly, Trang T (2015). "Technology and type 1 diabetes: Closed-loop therapies". Current Pediatrics Reports. 3 (2): 170-176. doi: ... that suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens.[26 ...
He, CQ; Xie, ZX; Han, GZ; Dong, JB; Wang, D; Liu, JB; Ma, LY; Tang, XF; Liu, XP; Pang, YS; Li, GR (2009). "Homologous ... Hemagglutinin is the major antigen of the virus against which neutralizing antibodies are produced, and influenza virus ...
L La Lb Lc Ld Le Lf Lg Lh Li Lj Lk Ll Lm Ln Lo Lp Lq Lr Ls Lt Lu Lv Lw Lx Ly Lz • M Ma Mb Mc Md Me Mf Mg Mh Mi Mj Mk Ml Mm Mn ... Antigen leucocitar uman. *Antonio Meucci. *AnyLogic. *Apărarea Reichului. *Apocalipsa din 21 decembrie 2012 ...
Fu LY, Acuna-Goycolea C, van den Pol AN (October 2004). "Neuropeptide Y inhibits hypocretin/orexin neurons by multiple ... In humans, narcolepsy is associated with a specific variant of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex.[21] Furthermore, ...
Tseng YM, Chen SY, Chen CH, Jin YR, Tsai SM, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Chiu CC, Tsai LY. Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, ... C3H/HeJ and BALB/cJ mice has been investigated by measuring the response to the T cell-independent antigen, TNP-Ficoll. To ... Tseng YM, Tsai SM, Lin WS, Huang ZR, Lin CC, Yeh WH, Wu YR, Tsai LY. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung ... Tseng YM, Lin SK, Hsiao JK, Chen IJ, Lee JH, Wu SH, Tsai LY. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung ...
It is the first detectable viral antigen to appear during infection. However, early in an infection, this antigen may not be ... Schillie S, Murphy TV, Sawyer M, Ly K, Hughes E, Jiles R, de Perio MA, Reilly M, Byrd K, Ward JW (20 December 2013). "CDC ... Shortly after the appearance of the HBsAg, another antigen called hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) will appear. Traditionally, the ... but those with only antibodies to the core antigen are also at risk. The presence of antibodies to the surface antigen, which ...
Romanova LY, Willers H, Blagosklonny MV, Powell SN (2004). „The interaction of p53 with replication protein A mediates ... Riva F, Zuco V, Vink AA, Supino R, Prosperi E (2001). „UV-induced DNA incision and proliferating cell nuclear antigen ... Interaction of DNA polymerase alpha-primase with cellular replication protein A and SV40 T antigen.". EMBO J. 11 (2): 769-76. ...
Khil LY, Kim JY, Yoon JB, et al. (December 1997). "Insulin has a limited effect on the cell cycle progression in 3T3 L1 ... "Class I-restricted cross-presentation of exogenous self-antigens leads to deletion of autoreactive CD8(+) T cells". The ...
Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Chien CS (November 1981). "Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. A prospective study of ... 1987: Hepatitis C virus, or HCV, discovered by panning a cDNA library made from diseased tissues for foreign antigens ... Because foreign virus antigens are expressed in these tumors, persons who are immunosuppressed such as AIDS or transplant ... the large T antigen (LT) is an analogue; LT also binds to several other cellular proteins, such as p107 and p130, on the same ...
Wortsman, J; Matsuoka, LY; Chen, TC; Lu, Z; Holick, MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. The American Journal ... The common Scandinavian human leucocyte antigen ancestral haplotype 62.1 as prognostic factor in patients with advanced ...
Kun LY (2006). Microbial Biotechnology: Principles And Applications. World Scientific Publishing Company. ISBN 981-256-677-5.. ... Use of F(ab')2 or Fab fragments ensures that the antibodies are binding to the antigen and not Fc receptors. These fragments ... F(ab')2, and to a greater extent Fab, fragments allow more exact localization of the target antigen, i.e., in staining tissue ... In some assays, it is preferable to use only the antigen-binding (Fab) portion of the antibody. For these applications, ...
Burton, MJ; Glasziou, PP; Chong, LY; Venekamp, RP (19 November 2014). "Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical ... also called rapid antigen detection testing or RADT) may also be used. While the rapid strep test is quicker, it has a lower ... The diagnosis is made based on the results of a rapid antigen detection test or throat culture in those who have symptoms.[8] ...
Crosnier C, Bustamante LY, Bartholdson SJ, Bei AK, Theron M, Uchikawa M, Mboup S, Ndir O, Kwiatkowski DP, Duraisingh MT, Rayner ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... complete conservation of a segment in and around transmembrane domains of human and mouse basigin and chicken HT7 antigen". J. ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... Bourguignon LY, Zhu H, Shao L, Chen YW (Mar 2001). "CD44 interaction with c-Src kinase promotes cortactin-mediated cytoskeleton ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Wang SJ, Wong G, de Heer AM, Xia W, Bourguignon LY (Aug 2009). "CD44 variant isoforms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ...
Yu P, Santiago LY, Katagiri Y, Geller HM (March 2012). "Myosin II activity regulates neurite outgrowth and guidance in response ... "Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells". Nature Communications ...
Song WY, Wang GL, Chen LL, Kim HS, Pi LY, Holsten T, Gardner J, Wang B, Zhai WX, Zhu LH, Fauquet C, Ronald P (December 1995). " ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ... Pi LY, Zhang S, Zhang Z, Fauquet C, Gaut BS, Whalen MC, Ronald PC (May 1998). "Xa21D encodes a receptor-like molecule with a ...
Antigen receptors on CTL can bind to a 9-10 amino acid chain that is presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as ... Yamaguchi H, Calado RT, Ly H, Kajigaya S, Baerlocher GM, Chanock SJ, Lansdorp PM, Young NS (April 2005). "Mutations in TERT, ... Humans have two major antigen identifying lymphocytes: CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and CD4+ helper T-lymphocytes that ... Patel KP, Vonderheide RH (June 2004). "Telomerase as a tumor-associated antigen for cancer immunotherapy". Cytotechnology. 45 ( ...
Qi, Xiaoxuan; Lan, Shuiyun; Wang, Wenjian; Schelde, Lisa McLay; Dong, Haohao; Wallat, Gregor D.; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying; Dong ... Nucleoproteins are often the major antigens for viruses because they have strain-specific and group-specific antigenic ...
Carreno, BM; Magrini, V; Becker-Hapak, M; Kaabinejadian, S; Hundal, J; Petti, AA; Ly, A; Lie, WR; Hildebrand, WH; Mardis, ER; ... CD4+ T cells can interact with antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells to recruit other immune cells or stimulate ... and antigen-loaded dendritic cells. In 2015, a first step towards individualized neoantigen vaccination was achieved by ... that were predicted to bind to human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The neoantigen-loaded dendritic cells were cultured in vitro for ...
Henry L.-Y. Chan,. *Department of Medicine and Therapeutics and Institute of Digestive Disease, Chinese University of Hong Kong ... Association Between Serum Level of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen at End of Entecavir Therapy and Risk of Relapse in E Antigen- ... Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss ... Next article in issue: Synergism of tapasin and human leukocyte antigens in resolving hepatitis C virus infection Next article ...
Recombinant Mouse T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding ... T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9; Cell surface molecule Ly-9; Lymphocyte antigen 9; SLAM family member 3; SLAMF3; Signaling ... Recombinant Mouse T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding ... Recombinant Mouse T-lymphocyte Surface Antigen Ly-9/SLAMF3/CD229 (C-6His). ...
All blood samples positive for hepatitis B surface antigen were also tested for hepatitis B e antigen and its antibody (Abbott ... Of the 705 women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, 118 (16.7%) were positive for the e antigen. The rate of positive ... PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN. The rate of positive results for hepatitis B surface antigen was 0.7% in our ... having been positive for the antigen, and three women became positive for hepatitis B e antigen in their next pregnancy. ...
Gao LY, *Zack JA. (1997) Preparation and maintenance of SCID-hu mice for HIV research. Methods 12:343-347. ... 2011) Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells in chronic lymphoid leukemia. N Engl J Med 365:725-733. ... 1A) (33, 34). F5 MART-1 is an improved MART-1-specific TCR displaying enhanced affinity to the antigen and was provided by the ... Antigen-specific human T cells have been developed in vitro using OP9 stromal cells expressing the human Notch ligand Delta- ...
The 14B11 antibody reacts with a common epitope of Ly-49C/F/I/H family members also known as Ly-49 inhibitory receptors C, F, ... PE anti-mouse Ly-49C/F/I/H Antibody - ... Antigen Details Structure Ly-49 family, 110 kD Distribution NK ... Ly-49C, Ly-49F, and Ly-49I contain an ITIM motif in their cytoplasmic tails, while Ly-49H lacks ITIM. Ly-49H is encoded by the ... and blocking2 of the binding of H-2d lymphoblasts to transfectants expressing Ly-49C, Ly-49F, and Ly-49I.. This product may be ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G (Ly-6G), a 21-25 kD GPI-anchored protein, is expressed on the majority of myeloid cells ... While 1A8 recognizes only Ly-6G, clone RB6-8C5 recognizes both Ly-6G and Ly-6C. Clone RB6-8C5 binds with high affinity to mouse ... Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G (Ly-6G), a 21-25 kD GPI-anchored protein, is expressed on the majority of myeloid cells ... Ly-6G molecules and to a lower extent to Ly-6C15. Clone RB6-8C5 impairs the binding of anti-mouse Ly-6G clone 1A815. However, ...
... it is alerting clinical laboratory staff and healthcare providers that false positive results can occur with COVID-19 antigen ...]. The U.S. agency said false positive results may occur when users do not follow the instructions for the use of ... Antigen tests detect proteins on the surface of the virus. They require an uncomfortable nasal or throat swab, and can produce ... In September, Becton Dickinson, which is supplying 750,000 of its SARS-CoV-2 antigen test to the U.S. government, said it is ...
Ly-41 antigen. *M6S1. *membrane component chromosome 6 surface marker 1. *membrane component, chromosome 6, surface marker 1 ...
... tumor-specific antigen (TSA) synonyms, tumor-specific antigen (TSA) pronunciation, tumor-specific antigen (TSA) translation, ... A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an ... English dictionary definition of tumor-specific antigen (TSA). also an·ti·gene n. ... an′ti·gen′i·cal·ly adv.. an′ti·ge·nic′i·ty (-jə-nĭs′ĭ-tē) n. ...
In general, target cell major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen expression correlates with resistance to NK cell ... The Ly-49 cell surface molecular mechanisms of NK cell recognition. The Ly-49 cell surface molecule is expressed by 20% of CD3 ... MHC class I alloantigen specificity of Ly-49+ IL-2-activated natural killer cells Nature. 1992 Jul 2;358(6381):66-70. doi: ... Inasmuch as Ly-49+ effector cells cannot be stimulated to lyse H-2Dd targets, our results indicate that NK cells may possess ...
Ly-6). GPIHBP1 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein in the lymphocyte antigen 6 (Ly-6) family members that ... and then an Ly-6 domain name made up of 10 cysteines. After the Ly-6 motif, there is a hydrophobic carboxyl-terminal motif that ... GPIHBP1 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein in the lymphocyte antigen 6 ( ... particularly because other GPI-anchored proteins made up of Ly-6 motifs, for example the urokinase-type plasminogen activator ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Ly-6A/E Rat anti-Mouse, BB700, Clone: D7, BD Optibuild 50μg; BB700 50μg ... Ly-6A/E, Lymphocyte antigen 6A-2/6E-1, Ly-6A.2/Ly-6E.1, Sca-1, TAP. ... The D7 monoclonal antibody recognizes Ly-6A.2 and Ly-6E.1, which are allelic members of the Ly-6 multigene family. Sca-1 (Ly6A/ ... Strains with the Ly-6.1 haplotype (e.g., A, BALB/c, CBA, C3H/He, DBA/1, NZB) have few Ly-6A/E+ resting peripheral lymphocytes; ...
... ly) (i.p.); intravenous(ly) (i.v.); phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH); heat shock protein 70 (HSP70); heme oxygenase-1 ( ... Nonstandard abbreviations used: edema factor (EF); lethal factor (LF); protective antigen (PA); lethal toxin (LT); CPt.C-Tnfsf6 ... Internalization of a Bacillus anthracis protective antigen-c-Myc fusion protein mediated by cell surface anti-c-Myc antibodies ... Effects of anthrax toxin (protective antigen and lethal factor) on human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In Vitro ...
Oh, LY, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9/gelatinase B is required for process outgrowth by oligodendrocytes. J. Neurosci. 1999 ... hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg); hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); hepatitis B virus (HBV); intrahepatic leukocyte (IHL); ... including the 2.1-kb RNA that encodes the target antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen; HBsAg) of the transferred CTLs, was ... Gr-1 is an antigen highly expressed by neutrophils), which, secondarily, abolishes the intrahepatic recruitment of all antigen- ...
Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lee GC, et al. Prevention of perinatally transmitted hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B immune ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Among Pregnant Women and Care of Infants of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive Mothers ... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Among Pregnant Women and Care of Infants of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-Positive Mothers ... The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen ...
Antigens, Ly / genetics * Antigens, Ly / immunology * B7-H1 Antigen / genetics * B7-H1 Antigen / immunology ... In addition, CLL-associated skewing of T cells toward antigen-experienced phenotypes was repaired. The presented data suggest ...
Lymphocyte antigen 86. Short name: Ly-86. Alternative name(s):. Protein MD-1 ... Lymphocyte antigen 86Add BLAST. 142. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... sp,O95711,LY86_HUMAN Lymphocyte antigen 86 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=LY86 PE=1 SV=1 ...
"Characterization of two novel Ly-6 genes. Protein sequence and potential structural similarity to alpha-bungarotoxin and other ... sp,P35461,LY6G_MOUSE Lymphocyte antigen 6G OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Ly6g PE=2 SV=2 ... Lymphocyte antigen 6GAdd BLAST. 79. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href=""> ...
For antigen presentation assays, DCs were preincubated with antigen (OVA or native LDL) then with antigen-specific T cells. T ... Finally, the outcome of antigen presentation by pDCs might depend on the nature of the presented antigen and the local ... suggesting an enhanced ability to present this type of antigen compared with the model antigen OVA (Figure 2C). The results ... cholesterol-derived antigens. The subtype of antigen-presenting cells responsible for activation of LDL-specific proatherogenic ...
lymphocyte antigen 6-like secreted. *MDM. *secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein 1 ...
Antigen Expression MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. ... MAC-1 (CD11b) +; MAC-2 +; Fc receptor (FcR) +; Ly-5 +; Thy-1 -; Lyt-1 - ...
Ly-6G (Gr-1), and Ly-76 (Ter-119) and positive for CD117 (c-kit), and Ly-6A (Sca-1), which are greatly enriched for capacity to ... series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. In addition to an update on mouse ... including members of the Ly-6 and Ly-49 families, have not yet been definitively identified. When a mouse Ly Ag is identified ... Selective expression of Ly-6G on myeloid lineage cells in mouse bone marrow. RB6-8C5 mAb to granulocyte-differentiation antigen ...
Beasley RP, Hwang LY. Postnatal infectivity of hepatitis B surface antigen-carrier mothers. J Infect Dis 1983;147:185--90. * ... HBsAg is the antigen used for hepatitis B vaccination (79,80). Vaccine antigen can be purified from the plasma of persons with ... Beasley RP, Trepo C, Stevens CE, Szmuness W. The e antigen and vertical transmission of hepatitis B surface antigen. Am J ... B core antigen (HBcAg) and antibody to HBcAg (anti-HBc), and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and antibody to HBeAg (anti-HBe). At ...
Lymphocyte antigen 76; Ly76; Ly-76; TER-119; Ter119. Format. Affinity Purified. ... The TER-119 antigen is expressed on erythroid cells from pro-erythroblast through mature erythrocyte stages, but not on cells ...
beta 2 microglobulin; beta2-m; Ly-m11; lymphocyte antigen m11; Ly-m11; IMD43. ...
CD5.1; Ly-1.1. Gene Symbol and Name. Cd5, CD5 antigen. Gene Synonym(s). ...
... the Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX ... To learn more about the program or to register, please visit ... 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86. 1.2 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Segment by ... 1.4 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market by Region (2012-2022). 1.4.1 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 ...
Kuan LY, *et al.. Sipuleucel-T immune parameters correlate with survival: an analysis of the randomized phase 3 clinical trials ... antigen spread to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may be indicative of tumor cell killing, antigen release, and subsequent ... antigen spread after an antigen-directed immunotherapy (such as sipuleucel-T) may be limited to the antigens overexpressed or ... 52), and PA2024 and PAP, the primary antigens in sipuleucel-T.. To consider IgG response to a candidate antigen as confirmed by ...
Compared with soluble antigen delivery, particulate antigen delivery platforms targeting antigen-presenting cells have a ... Ly S, *Liu F-T, and *Liu G-Y. (2018) Periodic arrangement of lipopolysaccharides nanostructures accelerates and enhances the ... In other words, the supply of antigen and/or adjuvant (in this case the polymer) may have been limiting in terms of dose and/or ... Single Dose of a Polyanhydride Particle-Based Vaccine Generates Potent Antigen-Specific Antitumor Immune Responses. Emad I. ...
Ly et al., 2013). In this study, we have generated MR1-Ag-loaded tetramers and demonstrate the power of tetramer technology for ... Vβ2 natural killer T cell antigen receptor-mediated recognition of CD1d-glycolipid antigen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 108: ... antigen. CBA. cytometric bead array. DN. double negative. IEL. intraepithelial lymphocyte. MAIT cell. mucosal-associated ... Evidence for MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells. J. Biol. Chem. 280:21183-21193. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
  • The 14B11 antibody reacts with a common epitope of Ly-49C/F/I/H family members also known as Ly-49 inhibitory receptors C, F, and I and activating receptor H. It does not react with other Ly-49 members (i.e. (
  • 17 ) transduced autologous T cells ex vivo with a vector expressing a natural T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for the melanoma-associated antigen recognized by T-cells 1 [MART-1(26-35)] epitope and reintroduced them into patients, resulting in tumor regression in two of the 15 subjects ( 17 ). (
  • A molecule that is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell, especially one that induces an immune response. (
  • The proposition that GPIHBP1 could be glycosylated seemed plausible, particularly because other GPI-anchored proteins made up of Ly-6 motifs, for example the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (UPAR), are known to be N-glycosylated (5, 6). (
  • Studies with the D7 antibody have demonstrated that Ly-6A/E may be involved in the regulation of B and T lymphocyte responses, and appears to be required for T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. (
  • This receptor has essential roles in the regulation of IgE production and in the differentiation of B-cells (it is a B-cell-specific antigen). (
  • Protein tyrosine-protein phosphatase required for T-cell activation through the antigen receptor. (
  • The 1A8 antibody reacts with Ly-6G, a 21 - 25 kDa GPI-anchored protein, which together with the structurally related Ly-6C protein comprises the granulocyte receptor-1 antigen (Gr-1). (
  • The distinct V H repertoire that is found in B-1 cells has led to the hypothesis that the specificity of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) 1 may in fact determine the differentiation of B cells into this subset ( 5 )( 6 ). (
  • Although activation of natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity is generally inhibited by target major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression, subtle features of NK allorecognition suggest that NK cells possess receptors that are activated by target MHC I. The mouse Ly-49D receptor has been shown to activate NK cytotoxicity, although recognition of MHC class I has not been demonstrated previously. (
  • To define Ly-49D-ligand interactions, we transfected the mouse Ly-49D receptor into the rat NK line, RNK-16 (RNK.mLy-49D). (
  • As expected, anti- Ly-49D monoclonal antibody 12A8 specifically stimulated redirected lysis of the Fc receptor- bearing rat target YB2/0 by RNK.mLy-49D transfectants. (
  • These experiments show that the activating receptor Ly-49D specifically interacts with the MHC I antigen, H-2Dd, demonstrating the existence of alloactivating receptors on murine NK cells. (
  • To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. (
  • The estrogen receptor-binding fragment-associated antigen 9 ( EBAG9 ) has been identified as a primary estrogen-responsive gene in human breast cancer MCF7 cells. (
  • Clone REA453 recognizes the mouse Ly-49F antigen (killer cell lectin-like receptor 6), a type II transmembrane natural killer (NK) cell receptor belonging to the Ly-49 family. (
  • Members of the Ly-49 family are homodimeric C-type lectin receptors, recognizing MHC class I molecules as ligands and include activating and inhibitory receptor molecules. (
  • The inhibitory receptor Ly-49F is expressed on subsets of NK cells, NK-T cells, and on a subpopulation of memory T cells in C57BL/6 mice, but not AKR/J, BALB/c, C3H/HeN, DBA/1, or SJL mice. (
  • As a leading technology provider, Creative Biolabs has established CellRapeutics™ Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Technology platform. (
  • Ly6 also known as lymphocyte antigen 6 or urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is family of proteins that share a common structure but differ in their tissue expression patterns and function. (
  • Interaction between CD2 and its counter receptor LFA3 (CD58) on opposing cells optimizes immune system recognition, thereby facilitating communication between helper T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells, as well as between cytolytic effectors and target cells. (
  • BALB/c mice are reported to lack the Ly-49H and Ly-49I receptors. (
  • Recent clinical studies have used chimeric antigen receptors to modify T cells genetically to target and deplete leukemia cells ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Inasmuch as Ly-49+ effector cells cannot be stimulated to lyse H-2Dd targets, our results indicate that NK cells may possess inhibitory receptors that specifically recognize MHC class I antigens. (
  • They are phagocytic, non-specific esterase positive and they express macrophage Mac-1 antigens and Fc receptors. (
  • GA733 tumor-associated antigen gene family may function as growth factor receptors. (
  • To determine the developmental potential of B cells bearing two distinct B cell antigen receptors (BCRs), one favoring B-1 and the other favoring B-2 cell development, we crossed V H 12 insertion mice with mice bearing either V H B1-8 or V H glD42. (
  • As a leading provider of Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) products, Creative Biolabs provides unparalleled CellRapeutics? (
  • Antitumor activity of cancer immunotherapies may elicit immune responses to nontargeted (secondary) tumor antigens, or antigen spread. (
  • Serum samples from patients with mCRPC enrolled in the placebo-controlled phase III IMPACT study (evaluable n = 142) were used to assess humoral antigen spread after treatment with sipuleucel-T. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to self-antigens (including tumor antigens) were surveyed using protein microarrays and confirmed using Luminex xMAP. (
  • The development of immune responses to secondary tumor antigens not directly targeted by a therapy, or antigen spread, may indicate tumor cell destruction and provide biomarkers of clinical benefit. (
  • We show here that serum antibody (IgG) responses to secondary tumor antigens (humoral antigen spread) can be detected within weeks after treatment with sipuleucel-T, an immunotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, and such responses can be associated with improved overall survival. (
  • A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. (
  • T cell defined tumor antigens. (
  • The transfected resistance is abrogated by monoclonal antibodies directed against Ly-49 or the alpha 1/alpha 2 domains of H-2Dd, suggesting that Ly-49 specifically interacts with the peptide-binding domains of the MHC class I alloantigen, H-2Dd. (
  • Anti-Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) mAb may be used in combination with a Mouse Lineage Panel of antibodies to identify HSC. (
  • Mouse and pig serum antibodies significantly inhibited adherence of seven colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins (CFA/I and CS1 to CS6) and effectively neutralized both toxins. (
  • These results indicated that tagless CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broadly protective antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies and demonstrate that this adhesin-toxoid MEFA is a potential antigen for developing broadly protective ETEC vaccines. (
  • On are 15 CD24a Antigen (CD24A) ELISA Kits from 5 different suppliers available. (
  • Additionally we are shipping CD24a Antigen Antibodies (22) and CD24a Antigen Proteins (2) and many more products for this protein. (
  • In this study, we aimed to use the combined detection of multiple antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens to develop a model for screening and diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). (
  • The PSCA gene is located on chromosome 8q24.2, encoding a 123-amino acid glycoprotein, a cell surface antigen [ 8 ]. (
  • CD44 cell surface antigen is a 100 kDa type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed on human leucocytes, white matter of the brain and by some epithelial cells of the intestine and breast. (
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody HLy9.25 (also known as HLy9.1.25) recognizes Lymphocyte Antigen 9, a 100-120 kDa cell surface glycoprotein expressed on T and B cells. (
  • Antigen stimulation of lymphocytes induces CD229 clustering to sites of T cell-B cell contact. (
  • activation of lymphocytes from mice of both Ly-6 haplotypes leads to strong expression of the Sca-1 antigen. (
  • We also showed that the severity of CTL-induced liver disease is ameliorated by the depletion of Gr-1 + cells (Gr-1 is an antigen highly expressed by neutrophils), which, secondarily, abolishes the intrahepatic recruitment of all antigen-nonspecific Gr-1 - mononuclear cells (NK and NKT cells, T and B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells) despite the strong induction of chemokine gene expression. (
  • It has been reported that the 1A8 antibody detects Ly-6G-expressing granulocytes in peripheral blood, whereas the RB6-8C5 antibody also binds to Ly-6C-expressing lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. (
  • Functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. (
  • Ly-49A, B, D, and G). Ly-49 is a type-II transmembrane, disulfide-linked homodimer with C-type lectin extracellular domains that binds to MHC class I. Ly-49C/F/I/H is expressed on a subset of NK cells, NK-T cells and some CD8 + cells. (
  • Ly-49C/F/I, like other members of this family, inhibits NK cell activation through the recognition and interaction of certain MHC class I haplotypes on potential target cells. (
  • C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells were stained with Ly-6G (clone 1A8) Brilliant Violet 711™ (filled histogram) or rat IgG2a, κ Brilliant Violet 711™ isotype control (open histogram). (
  • Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G (Ly-6G), a 21-25 kD GPI-anchored protein, is expressed on the majority of myeloid cells in bone marrow and peripheral granulocytes. (
  • These autologous T cells have been generated either by ex vivo manipulation of antigen-specific T cells with cytokines or by genetically engineering T cells to exhibit strong antitumor responses ( 5 - 16 ). (
  • Some of these limitations could be circumvented by the use of genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) to generate mature and functional antigen-specific T cells. (
  • Antigen-specific human T cells have been developed in vitro using OP9 stromal cells expressing the human Notch ligand Delta-like 1 ( 25 , 26 ). (
  • The Ly-49 cell surface molecule is expressed by 20% of CD3- NK cells in C57BL/6 mice (H-2b). (
  • Here we show that C57BL/6-derived, interleukin-2-activated NK cells expressing Ly-49 do not lyse target cells displaying H-2d or H-2k despite efficient spontaneous lysis by Ly-49- effector cells. (
  • Transfection and expression of H-2Dd, but not H-2Kd or H-2Ld, renders a susceptible target (H-2b) resistant to Ly-49+ effector cells. (
  • Sca-1 (Ly6A/E), a phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of about 18 kDa, is expressed on the multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the bone marrow of mice with both Ly-6 haplotypes. (
  • We recently showed that antigen-nonspecific inflammatory cells are recruited into the liver when hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CTLs are injected into HBV transgenic mice, and that this process amplifies the severity of liver disease. (
  • The inhibition of MMP activity reduced the intrahepatic recruitment of antigen-nonspecific mononuclear cells and much of the attending liver disease without affecting the migration or antiviral potential of antigen-specific CTLs. (
  • In addition, CLL-associated skewing of T cells toward antigen-experienced phenotypes was repaired. (
  • The TER-119 antigen is expressed on erythroid cells from pro-erythroblast through mature erythrocyte stages, but not on cells with BFU-E or CFU-E activities. (
  • The antigen is found on some monocyte/macrophage populations, endothelial cells, thymocytes, NK-cells, T-cell subsets and 40% of bone marrow cells from all mouse strains tested. (
  • Ly-6C is a 14-17 kD GPI-linked surface protein expressed on mouse monocyte/macrophage cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils, and some T cell subsets. (
  • Ly-6C is reported to be an indicator of memory CD8+ T cells. (
  • Most hematopoietic cells express one or more members of Ly-6 family. (
  • CV787 replicates in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) + cells as well as wild-type adenovirus, but in PSA − cells, CV787 replicates 10 4 -10 5 times less efficiently. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis of C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow cells labeled with Anti-Mouse Ly-6G Antibody, Clone 1A8, FITC (filled histogram) or a rat IgG2a, kappa FITC isotype control antibody (solid line histogram). (
  • It was reported recently that HuNoVs can infect B cells in vitro with the help of enteric bacteria expressing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) ( 15 ). (
  • OX40 is upregulated on antigen activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with costimulation by CD40-CD40 Ligand and CD28-B7. (
  • OX40 interactions with OX40 Ligand on antigen presenting cells enhances T cell survival, proliferation, and cytokine production. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. (
  • panels E and F). Assays were performed after preincubation of effector cells with media alone (□), anti-Ly-49D mAb (12A8) (♦), or control mAb (2C7) (○) before addition of targets. (
  • From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. (
  • Bone marrow myeloid cells and memory T cells highly express this antigen and peripheral B and T cells can upregulate the expression of CD44. (
  • Findings indicate that CD24(+) antigen (show CD24 ELISA Kits ) cells play a role in tumor migration and metastasis and support Janus kinase 2 (show JAK2 ELISA Kits ) protein ( JAK2 (show JAK2 ELISA Kits )) as a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. (
  • IL-21 selectively down-regulates Ly-49F on mature NK cells. (
  • Tumoral and immunologic response after vaccination of melanoma patients with an ALVAC virus encoding MAGE antigens recognized by T cells. (
  • Under this view, the genetic modifications affecting tumor cells may lead to the generation of structurally altered or abundantly synthesized proteins that may be seen by the immune system as new antigens or "non-self" products against which the system has not learned to be tolerant during ontogenesis ( 3 ). (
  • However, the cells from the 5 strains differed in their media requirements for optimal growth, rates of propagation, and presence of the surface epitopes CD34, stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). (
  • Viral vaccines target factors that elicit malignant transformation, whereas vaccines against endogenous antigens target the malignant cells and also may target normal cells bearing the antigen of interest. (
  • After EBV invasion of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, different EBV antigens are expressed at different stages of infection. (
  • nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor cells show a distinct gene-expression pattern ( 3 ) and are accompanied by aberrant antibody responses to various EBV proteins and antigen complexes ( 4 ). (
  • While 1A8 recognizes only Ly-6G, clone RB6-8C5 recognizes both Ly-6G and Ly-6C. (
  • The D7 monoclonal antibody recognizes Ly-6A.2 and Ly-6E.1, which are allelic members of the Ly-6 multigene family. (
  • Rat Anti-Mouse Ly-6C (Clone HK1.4) recognizes an epitope on Mouse Ly-6C. (
  • Mouse Ly-49D recognizes H-2Dd and activates natural killer cell cytotoxicity. (
  • Clone REA273 recognizes both mouse CD229 antigen alleles, Ly9.1 and Ly9.2. (
  • Differential excision patterns of the En-transposable element at the A2 locus in maize relate to the insertion site. (
  • Recombinant Mouse T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is produced by our Mammalian expression system and the target gene encoding Lys48-Phe454 is expressed with a 6His tag at the C-terminus. (
  • Ly-49H is encoded by the Cmv1r gene, which promotes resistance to infection by mouse cytomegalovirus (CMV). (
  • for example, the F4/80 Ag, whose gene has recently been cloned, was given the designation Ly-71. (
  • If the mouse molecule was encoded by a gene that is assigned a Ly number, that gene name is withdrawn and reassigned a Cd number, unless another gene name was agreed on by the human and mouse nomenclature groups. (
  • As one example, the Ly-5 molecule of the mouse, encoded by Ly5 , was assigned CD45 in the human nomenclature for Ags and the gene name CD45 . (
  • In a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in the Korean and Japanese populations, the prostate stem cell antigen ( PSCA ) gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer [ 7 ]. (
  • LY6D (Lymphocyte Antigen 6 Family Member D) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • LY96 (Lymphocyte Antigen 96) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Expression of the MAGE gene family in primary and metastatic human breast cancer: implications for tumor antigen-specific immunotherapy. (
  • CD48 antigen ( C luster of D ifferentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic activation molecule 2 (SLAMF2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD48 gene . (
  • Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several solid tumours, either due to changes in protein expression, or through association with the rs2294008 polymorphism in the PSCA gene. (
  • CD2/CD58 binding can enhance antigen-specific T cell activation. (
  • Vaccination against the MUC1 antigen using a 100-mer MUC1 glycopeptide in combination with E6020, an adjuvant used to enhance antigen-specific immune responses, delayed the inflammation associated with the onset of IBD and prevented progression to CACC. (
  • Antigen tests detect proteins on the surface of the virus. (
  • Ly-6A/E, also known as Sca-1, is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family of type V glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface proteins. (
  • To develop a low cost, high compliance screening programme for identification of carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen in the obstetric population of the Netherlands. (
  • A seven year open, descriptive study of screening for hepatitis B surface antigen as part of routine prenatal laboratory testing at 14 weeks of gestation. (
  • prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in large cities and rural area. (
  • Pregnant women who are positive for hepatitis B surface antigen should be identified before delivery to prevent hepatitis B infection in their neonates by passive or active immunisation, or both. (
  • 1 2 3 Therefore, a multicentre study was designed in 1982 to determine whether efficient organisation of screening for hepatitis B could be set up in and outside hospital by adding tests for hepatitis B surface antigen to the already accepted and widely used protocol for routine antenatal screening at 14 weeks of gestation. (
  • In general, target cell major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen expression correlates with resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis, possibly because NK cell-surface molecules engage MHC class I antigens and consequently deliver inhibitory signals. (
  • The Ly-49 cell surface molecular mechanisms of NK cell recognition. (
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in each pregnancy and that infants of HBsAg-positive women receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) within 12 hours of birth to reduce the risk for perinatal HBV transmission. (
  • Other components include routine screening of all pregnant women for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and postexposure immunoprophylaxis of infants born to HBsAg-positive women, vaccination of children and adolescents who were not previously vaccinated, and vaccination of unvaccinated adults at increased risk for infection. (
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)‐positive patients have a 70‐fold increased risk of developing HCC than their HBsAg‐negative counterparts. (
  • Longitudinally, participants with higher adiponectin were less likely to achieve surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) seroclearance and more likely to have persistently higher HBV DNA. (
  • These include lymphokines, cell surface molecules involved in the recognition of antigen, and cell surface glycoproteins expressed during activation. (
  • Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. (
  • Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. (
  • Testing to identify pregnant women who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and providing their infants with immunoprophylaxis effec- tively prevents HBV transmission during the perinatal period (4,5). (
  • Clone RB6-8C5 binds with high affinity to mouse Ly-6G molecules and to a lower extent to Ly-6C 15 . (
  • The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD) from CD1 to CD166 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. (
  • To target and appropriately skew the anti- Leishmania response, vaccines require both pathogen-specific antigens and immune-stimulating molecules to be rendered effective. (
  • Clone RB6-8C5 impairs the binding of anti-mouse Ly-6G clone 1A8 15 . (
  • Description: The RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse Ly-6G, a 21-25 kDa protein also known as the myeloid differentiation antigen Gr-1. (
  • In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that the loss of histo-blood antigens expression is an event in the carcinogenesis of bronchial mucosa and it is usually associated with high-grade lesions and hyperproliferative activity. (
  • The aim of the present study was to explore the significance of the expression of histo-blood antigens in squamous metaplasia and its association to other prognostic factors, such as oncoprotein p53 expression and cellular proliferation index (Ki67) according to immunohistochemical techniques. (
  • Histo-blood group antigens are a group of glycoproteins and glycolipids whose antigenic specificity is determined by a variation in their constituent carbohydrate chains 6 . (
  • Ly phenotypes predict both function and specificity for major histocompatibility complex products. (
  • In this study, we produced a tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) protein, enhanced anti-STa immunogenicity by including a third copy of STa toxoid STa N12S , and examined antigen immunogenicity in a murine model. (
  • These two antigens were the most immunogenic and protective antigens in a murine VL model, indicating a relationship between T cell recall responses of humans cured from VL and protective efficacy in an experimental model. (
  • We examined the effectiveness of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade, alone or in combination with a granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-expressing tumor cell vaccine, on rejection of the highly tumorigenic, poorly immunogenic murine melanoma B16-BL6. (
  • Lysis of all H-2d blasts by RNK.mLy-49D effectors was inhibited by anti-Ly-49D mAb 12A8, but not by isotype-matched control mAb 2C7 (panels A and B). (
  • IgG responses were subsequently validated in ProACT ( n = 33), an independent phase II study of sipuleucel-T. Association of IgG responses with overall survival (OS) was assessed using multivariate Cox models adjusted for baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and lactate dehydrogenase levels. (
  • In this review, we will focus on various bioassay strategies for glycoprofiling of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with emphasis to modern and prospective techniques suitable for analysis of PSA glycan motifs as biosensors, biochips and mass spectrometry methods. (
  • CD48 was the first B-cell-specific cellular differentiation antigen identified in transformed B lymphoblasts . (
  • When a mouse Ly Ag is identified as a human CD homologue, the Ly number for the molecule is withdrawn and reassigned the appropriate CD number. (
  • Clone REAL453 is an antibody fragment derived from the full Ly-49F antibody molecule. (
  • In mice expressing the Ly-6.2 haplotype (e.g. (
  • Over the years, the Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice has continued to assign new Ly and CD names to novel genes and Ags. (
  • Sca1 is expressed by mice with either the Ly-6.1 or Ly-6.2 allotypes but the pattern of expression differs in the circulating cell population according to the allotype. (
  • 1 ) describe a vaccination strategy targeting the MUC1 antigen in MUC1 + /IL10 −/− mice. (
  • Ly-6G transfected EL-4J cell line. (
  • This preferential resistance correlates with expression of target cell MHC class I antigens. (
  • The E13-161.7 antibody reacts with Sca1 (Stem Cell Antigen-1 or Ly-6A/E), an 18 kDa GPI-linked protein belonging to the lymphocyte activation protein-6 (Ly-6) family. (
  • Mouse hematopoietic stem-cell antigen Sca-1 is a member of the Ly-6 antigen family. (
  • CD48 and CD2 molecular coupling together with other interaction pairs of CD28 and CD80, TCR and peptide-MHC and LFA-1 and ICAM-1 contribute to the formation of an immunological synapse between a T cell and an antigen presenting cell . (
  • In this report, the Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (
  • The purified E13-161.7 mAb (anti-Ly-6A/E) can block binding of FITC-conjugated D7 antibody to mouse splenocytes, but purified mAb D7 is unable to block binding of FITC-conjugated E13-161.7 antibody. (
  • The 1A8 antibody binds specifically to Ly-6G, whereas another commonly used antibody, clone RB6-8C5, binds to both Ly-6G and Ly-6C. (
  • Purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 binds to CD2 and mediates T lymphocyte adhesion. (
  • Stress may also increase vulnerability to antigens through direct effects on the endocrine system, autonomic control of airways, and immune function ( 28 , 29 ). (
  • Vaccines prime the immune system, establishing an antigen-specific memory that mitigates infection when exposure occurs and precludes disease occurrence. (
  • Most efforts to develop cancer vaccines have focused on the treatment of established cancers, targeting cancer antigens to elicit antigen-directed immune responses. (
  • A distinct challenge of developing cancer vaccines to either prevent or treat cancer is selecting an appropriate antigen that invokes a specific antitumor immune response. (
  • While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates against various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. (
  • With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some of the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines. (
  • It is clear that the vaccine platform of choice can have a significant impact upon the level of protection induced by particular antigens, and we provide and highlight some examples for which the vaccine system used has impacted the protective efficacy imparted. (
  • We evaluated cytokine responses against 6 defined candidate vaccine antigens in 15 cured VL subjects and 5 healthy endemic controls with no evidence of previous exposure to Leishmania parasites. (
  • Among candidate vaccine antigens tested, the largest number of cured subjects recognized cysteine proteinase B, leading to heightened IFN-γ responses, followed by sterol 24-c-methyltransferase. (
  • Further studies may help prioritize antigens for clinical development of a subunit vaccine against VL. (
  • Synergistic malaria vaccine combinations identified by systematic antigen screening. (
  • Vaccine Prevention of Cancer: Can Endogenous Antigens Be Targeted? (
  • In particular, patients with serum HBV DNA levels ≥ 3.3 log IU/mL (2000 IU/mL) at baseline have an increased likelihood of developing hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)‐negative hepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC during long‐term follow‐up. (
  • The risk of perinatal HBV infection among infants born to HBV-infected mothers ranges from 10% to 85%, depending on each mother's hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status (3,7,8). (
  • Combination immunotherapy of B16 melanoma using anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing vaccines induces rejection of subcutaneous and metastatic tumors accompanied by autoimmune depigmentation. (
  • Cancer/testis antigens: an expanding family of targets for cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Cancer testis antigens - their importance in immunotherapy and in the early detection of cancer. (
  • These antigens are involved in various biological processes, such as cellular differentiation, maturation, proliferation, malignant transformation and intercellular signalling 7 . (
  • The expression of Ly-6 varies with development stage and activation. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of blood group antigens in squamous bronchial metaplasia in order to determine whether this factor could identify patients at risk of lung cancer. (
  • The prognostic significance of a loss of or a modified histo-blood group antigen (ABH) expression has been suggested in carcinomas of various sites, including the urinary bladder 8 , the gastrointestinal tract 9 and the lungs 10 - 12 . (
  • High expression of the cancer-testis antigen CT7, also referred to as MAGE-C1, has been recently described in a variety of malignant tumors, including breast carcinoma. (
  • However, clone RB6-8C5 is able to stain in the presence of anti-mouse Ly-6C clone HK1.4 16 . (
  • The human homologues of a number of mouse Ags or genes, including members of the Ly-6 and Ly-49 families, have not yet been definitively identified. (
  • We have developed a novel egg yolk antibody (IgY)-coated magnetic beads antigen-capture immunoassay for detection of a circulating antigen of Schistosoma japonicum in serum samples of patients in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of China. (
  • FACS analysis of C57Bl/6 mouse peripheral granulocytes using GTX42959 Ly-6B.2 antibody [7/4] (PE). (
  • Protection from, and clearance of, Leishmania infection is strongly associated with the generation of antigen-specific Th1 responses, knowledge that provides a clear goal for immunization. (