Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Antigens, Human Platelet: Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Platelet Transfusion: The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Receptors, Thrombin: A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Arachidonic AcidsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Platelet Factor 3: A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2: A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Thrombopoiesis: The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency: Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Receptor, PAR-1: A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.Platelet-Rich Plasma: A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.Thrombopoietin: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HydrazinesOligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.DiglyceridesHepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hirudins: Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Dihydroergotoxine: A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Bernard-Soulier Syndrome: A familial coagulation disorder characterized by a prolonged bleeding time, unusually large platelets, and impaired prothrombin consumption.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.PhosphoproteinsPhospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmunity: a tale of shadows and suspects. (1/157)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The key pathogenic feature of TTP is the formation of platelet aggregates within the microcirculation; however, the etiology of such aggregates has been elusive for years. A large amount of evidence points to an abnormal interaction between damaged vascular endothelium and platelets, although the cause of the primary microvascular endothelial cell injury is seldom clear. The autoimmune hypothesis often recurs, and this is based on a number of observations: the claimed superiority of plasma-exchange over plasma infusion, the anecdotal report of the presence of immunocomplexes and autoantibodies in TTP patients, the efficacy of the administration of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant agents, and the concomitant occurrence of TTP in association with autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review will focus on the complex relationships between TTP and humoral autoimmunity; in particular, similarities and differences between TTP, SLE and antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies syndrome, as well as the putative role of several other antibodies directed towards endothelial cells and/or platelets, including the recently discovered anti-CD36 antibodies and antivWF-cleaving metalloprotease, will be discussed. DESIGN AND METHODS: The authors have been involved in the study and treatment of TTP and autoimmune diseases for years; furthermore, the PubMed data base of the National Library of Congress has been extensively searched using the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: Although over the years evidence has increased in favor of the autoimmune hypothesis for TTP etiopathogenesis, TTP should not yet be considered an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies should be regarded as only one of the many different insults which can trigger microvascular thrombosis even though the autoimmune theory of the pathogenesis of TTP is gaining more and more strength. As far as concerns the relationship between TTP, SLE and aPL antibodies-related disorders, these diseases should be distinguished on the basis of both different clinical presentations and accurate antibody screening, although this approach should definitely not delay the prompt start of treatment.  (+info)

Increased platelet aggregability associated with platelet GPIIIa PlA2 polymorphism: the Framingham Offspring Study. (2/157)

The platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) plays a pivotal role in platelet aggregation. Recent data suggest that the PlA2 polymorphism of GPIIIa may be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown if there is any association between this polymorphism and platelet reactivity. We determined GP IIIa genotype and platelet reactivity phenotype data in 1422 subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Platelet aggregability was evaluated by the Born method. The threshold concentrations of epinephrine and ADP were determined. Allele frequencies of PlA1 and PlA2 were 0.84 and 0.16, respectively. The presence of 1 or 2 PlA2 alleles was associated with increased platelet aggregability as indicated by incrementally lower threshold concentrations for epinephrine and ADP. For epinephrine, the mean concentrations were 0.9 micromol/L (0.9 to 1.0) for homozygous PlA1, 0.7 mmol/L (0.7 to 0.9) for the heterozygous PlA1/PlA2, and 0.6 micromol/L (0.4 to 1.0) for homozygous PlA2 individuals, P=0.009. The increase in aggregability induced by epinephrine remained highly significant (P=0.007) after adjustment for covariates. For ADP-induced aggregation, the respective mean concentrations were 3.1 micromol/L (3.0 to 3.2), 3.0 micromol/L (2.9 to 3.2), and 2.8 micromol/L (2.4 to 3.3); P=0.19 after adjustment for covariates. Our findings indicate that molecular variants of the gene encoding GP IIIa play a role in platelet reactivity in vitro. Our observations are compatible with and provide an explanation for the reported association of the PlA2 allotype with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Construction of a human platelet alloantigen-1a epitope(s) within murine glycoprotein IIIa: identification of residues critical to the conformation of the antibody binding site(s). (3/157)

The human platelet alloantigen 1 system (HPA-1) is determined by a polymorphism at position 33 in the N-terminus of human glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa). This naturally occurring substitution creates a conformation in the HPA-1a allelic form that can be antigenic when presented to an individual expressing the HPA-1b form. Anti-HPA-1a antibodies generated by this immune response can lead to the destruction of platelets, as seen in the clinical disorders, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) and posttransfusion purpura (PTP). To understand better the structural requirements for recognition by these pathogenic antibodies, we investigated the N-terminal 66 amino acids from the HPA-1a form of human GPIIIa and the analogous amino acids from the nonimmunogenic murine homolog. Our objectives were to define further the boundaries of the HPA-1a epitope(s) in the N-terminus of human GPIIIa, to isolate the murine 5' nucleotide sequence and compare the deduced murine N-terminal sequence to that of human, and to mutate the murine sequence systematically to include an HPA-1a epitope(s). Murine amino acids that differed from human were changed by site-directed mutagenesis to the analogous residues in the HPA-1a form of human GPIIIa, starting and radiating from murine position 33 (site of human polymorphism). This systematic approach allowed us to pinpoint amino acids critical to a conformation recognized by anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Our results show that an HPA-1a epitope can be created within the N-terminus of murine GPIIIa and raise the possibility that murine models of HPA-1a sensitization can be developed.  (+info)

Perinatal management of fetal hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-5b incompatibility. (4/157)

We report out experience in the perinatal management of a complex case of fetal hemolytic disease primarily due to Rhesus incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The lowest fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels were 2.6 g/dl and 13,000/microliter, respectively. Intrauterine treatment consisted of six transfusions of packed red cells into the umbilical vein and one transfusion of platelets. The neonate required four transfusions of packed red cells to correct her hyporegenerative erythropoiesis. Postnatal management also included one platelet transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulins and erythropoietin. Although some degree of fetal thrombocytopenia may invariably be found in fetal red cell incompatibility, other rare causes need to be excluded.  (+info)

Association of the platelet glycoprotein IIb HPA-3 polymorphism with survival after acute ischemic stroke. (5/157)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of polymorphisms of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor in the development of cardiovascular disease has been the subject of intensive research. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the HPA-3 polymorphism of platelet GPIIb with ischemic stroke and subsequent survival and to identify possible interactions of HPA-3 with classic risk factors. METHODS: HPA-3 genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 515 patients with ischemic stroke and 423 healthy, age-matched control subjects. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution of patients and controls, nor was there any difference when patients were subclassified into small- and large-vessel disease. The genotype distribution of the 231 patients subsequently dying during 2.8 years of follow-up (aa=45.0%, ab=46.8%, bb=8.2%) was significantly different from that of those still alive (aa=37.0%, ab=48.2%, bb=14. 8%) (P=0.03). In a Cox regression model, the relative risks for poststroke mortality in patients of aa and ab genotype compared with those of bb genotype were 2.42 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.71) and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.09 to 4.17), respectively, after we accounted for confounding factors. In addition, significant interactions of HPA-3 with the Pl(A) polymorphism of GPIIIa (P=0.002) and with fibrinogen (P=0.01) were identified in relation to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: HPA-3 is related to poststroke mortality, and the significant interaction of HPA-3 with Pl(A) and fibrinogen suggests that it may in some way influence the interaction of GPIIb/IIIa with fibrinogen, particularly in the presence of high fibrinogen.  (+info)

A point mutation Thr(799)Met on the alpha(2) integrin leads to the formation of new human platelet alloantigen Sit(a) and affects collagen-induced aggregation. (6/157)

A new platelet-specific alloantigen, termed Sit(a), was identified in a severe case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The Sit(a) alloantigen is of low frequency (1/400) in the German population. Immunochemical studies demonstrated that the Sit(a) epitopes reside on platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ia. Nucleotide sequence analysis of GPIa cDNA derived from Sit(a)-positive platelets showed C(2531)-->T(2531) point mutation, resulting in Thr(799)Met dimorphism. Analysis of genomic DNA from 22 Sit(a)-negative normal individuals showed that the Thr(799) is encoded by ACG(2532) (90.9%) or ACA(2532) (9.1%). To establish a DNA typing technique, we elucidated the organization of the GPIa gene adjacent to the polymorphic bases. The introns (421 bp and 1.2 kb) encompass a 142-bp exon with the 2 polymorphic bases 2531 and 2532. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on DNA derived from 100 donors using the restriction enzyme Mae III showed that the Met(799) form of GPIa is restricted to Sit(a) (+) phenotype. Analysis of stable Chinese hamster ovary transfectants expressing allele-specific recombinant forms of GPIa showed that anti-Sit(a) exclusively reacted with the Glu(505)Met(799), but not with the Glu(505)Thr(799) and the Lys(505)Thr(799) isoforms. In contrast, anti-Br(a) (HPA-5b) only recognized the Lys(505)Thr(799) form, whereas anti-Br(b) (HPA-5a) reacted with both Glu(505)Thr(799) and Glu(505)Met(799) isoforms. These results demonstrated that the Met(799) is responsible for formation of the Sit(a) alloantigenic determinants, whereas amino acid 505 (Lys or Glu) specifically controls the expression of Br(a) and Br(b) epitopes, respectively. Platelet aggregation responses of Sit(a) (+) individuals were diminished in response to collagen, indicating that the Thr(799)Met mutation affects the function of the GPIa/IIa complex.  (+info)

Threonine-145/methionine-145 variants of baculovirus produced recombinant ligand binding domain of GPIbalpha express HPA-2 epitopes and show equal binding of von Willebrand factor. (7/157)

Glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha is the functionally dominant subunit of the platelet GPIb-IX-V receptor complex, with the von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding site residing on the amino-terminus. A threonine for methionine-145 replacement of GPIbalpha is associated with the human platelet antigen (HPA)-2 system. To study the structural and functional consequences of this mutation, both forms of GPIbalpha were expressed as calmodulin fusion proteins in insect cells. Both recombinant proteins were recognized by their respective alloantibodies, independent of glycosylation or intactness of disulfide bonds, and gave similar results to platelet-derived GPIbalpha in antibody detection assays. Resonant mirror studies showed that vWF binding was not affected by the HPA-2 mutation; however, vWF binding was partially inhibited by IgG HPA-2 antibodies. Our data are compatible with an involvement of the leucine-rich repeat domain of GPIbalpha in vWF binding and indicate that recombinant GPIbalpha may be used to detect HPA-2 antibodies. (Blood. 2000;95:205-211)  (+info)

Requirement of leucine-rich repeats of glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha for shear-dependent and static binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet membrane GP Ib-IX-V complex. (8/157)

The platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex mediates adhesion to von Willebrand factor (vWf) in (patho)physiologic thrombus formation. The vWf-binding site on GP Ib-IX-V is within the N-terminal 282 residues of GP Ibalpha, which consist of an N-terminal flanking sequence (His-1-Ile-35), 7 leucine-rich repeats (Leu-36-Ala-200), a C-terminal flank (Phe-201-Gly-268), and a sulfated tyrosine sequence (Asp-269-Glu-282). We have used mammalian cell expression of canine-human chimeras of GP Ibalpha, corresponding to precise structural boundaries, to demonstrate the first specific requirement for individual leucine-rich repeats for binding of vWf either induced by a modulator, ristocetin, or under hydrodynamic flow. Implicit in this approach was that the GP Ibalpha chimeras retained a functional conformation, a supposition confirmed by analyzing restoration of function to reversed human-canine chimeras and demonstrating that all chimeras bound vWf activated by botrocetin, a modulator that is indiscriminate between species. Leucine-rich repeats 2, 3, and 4 of GP Ibalpha were identified as being critical for vWf adhesion to GP Ib-IX-V.  (+info)

*Human platelet antigen

Human platelet antigens (HPA) are polymorphisms in platelet antigens. These can stimulate production of alloantibodies, ( ... Human Platelet Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "Nomenclature of human platelet antigens". Vox Sang. 85 (3): 240-5. doi:10.1046/j.1423-0410.2003.00331.x. PMID 14516468. http:// ... antibodies against other people's antigens) in recipients of transfused platelets from donors with different HPAs. These ...

*CD9

"Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen of human platelets". FEBS Lett. 264 (2): 270-274. doi:10.1016/0014- ... CD9 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Human CD9 genome location and CD9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Horejsí V, Vlcek C (1991). "Novel structurally ... Ninomiya H, Sims PJ (1992). "The human complement regulatory protein CD59 binds to the alpha-chain of C8 and to the "b"domain ...

*Factor XI

Tuszynski GP, Bevacqua SJ, Schmaier AH, Colman RW, Walsh PN (Jun 1982). "Factor XI antigen and activity in human platelets". ... Kato A, Asakai R, Davie EW, Aoki N (1989). "Factor XI gene (F11) is located on the distal end of the long arm of human ... McMullen BA, Fujikawa K, Davie EW (Feb 1991). "Location of the disulfide bonds in human coagulation factor XI: the presence of ... Fujikawa K, Chung DW, Hendrickson LE, Davie EW (May 1986). "Amino acid sequence of human factor XI, a blood coagulation factor ...

*HPA

... in anthropology Human platelet antigen, in clinical medicine Human Protein Atlas, a biological database Hydrogen pinch analysis ... an area on computer data storage Human-powered aircraft High-pressure air, gas propulsion in paintball guns Hawaii Preparatory ... builders of the HPA Toucan human-powered aircraft Hans Peter Anvin (born 1972), often abbreviated hpa, Swedish computer ... a unit of pressure Heteropoly acid Human physical appearance, ...

*Blood transfusion

... human platelet antigen). Recipients who lack this protein develop sensitization to this protein from prior transfusions or ... Human Neutrophil Antigen (HNA) has been associated with this type of transfusion reaction. Donor's antibodies would interact ... Fast, LD; Dileone, G; Marschner, S (2011). "Inactivation of human white blood cells in platelet products after pathogen ... Although transfusions of platelets are far less numerous (relative to RBC), platelet storage lesion and resulting efficacy loss ...

*P antigen system

Shiga Toxin Binds Human Platelets Via Globotriaoslyceramide (Pk antigen) and a Novel Platelet Glycosphingolipid. Infect Immun ... P antigen system is a human blood group system based upon the A4GALT and B3GALNT1 genes on chromosome 22. The P antigens are ... Pk antigen is a receptor for shiga toxins and Escherichia coli-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). It is also a ... Rare p phenotype (absence of P antigens): anti-P1 (-), anti-P (-), anti-PP1Pk (-), and anti-Pk (-). These individuals have a ...

*Plateletpheresis

Collecting the platelets from a single donor also simplifies human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, which improves the chance ... platelet increment at one hr x BSA (m2) / # platelets infused x 1011 Expected platelet increase (per μL) = platelets infused x ... Platelet count increase as well as platelet survival after transfusion is related to the dose of platelets infused and to the ... Not all platelet transfusions use platelets collected by automated apheresis. The platelets can also be separated from ...

*Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia

NAIT, hence, is caused by transplacental passage of maternal platelet-specific alloantibody and rarely human leukocyte antigen ... Platelet antigens are inherited from both mother and father. NAIT is caused by antibodies specific for platelet antigens ... HLA) allo-antibodies (which are expressed by platelets) to fetuses whose platelets express the corresponding antigens. NAIT ... About 80% of cases of NAIT are caused by antibodies against platelet antigen HPA-1a, 15% by anti-HPA-5b, and 5% by other ...

*Geoffrey Tovey

Human Lymphocyte Antigens or HLAs), and the transfusion of platelets and later stem cells in the treatment of leukaemia. He ... He performed early work on the typing of red cells and their antigens, white blood cells ( ...

*ITGA2B

"Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ITGA2B integrin, alpha 2b (platelet glycoprotein IIb of IIb/ ... CD41 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Bennett JS (2001). "Platelet-fibrinogen interactions". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 936: 340-54. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03521. ... Naik UP, Parise LV (1997). "Structure and function of platelet alpha IIb beta 3". Curr. Opin. Hematol. 4 (5): 317-22. PMID ...

*Induced stem cells

Generated platelets demonstrated an 85% reduction in class I HLA antigens. These platelets appeared to have normal function in ... DC-like antigen-presenting cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as a source for vaccination ... Thus, the ability to generate platelet products ex vivo and platelet products lacking HLA antigens in serum-free media would ... Another method combines iPSC and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technologies to generate human T cells targeted to CD19, an ...

*Platelet factor 4

The gene for human PF4 is located on human chromosome 4. Platelet factor-4 is a 70-amino acid protein that is released from the ... The heparin:PF4 complex is the antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, an idiosyncratic autoimmune reaction to the ... Han ZC, Bellucci S, Tenza D, Caen JP (1990). "Negative regulation of human megakaryocytopoiesis by human platelet factor 4 and ... 1987). "Human platelet factor 4 gene is mapped to 4q12----q21". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 45 (2): 67-69. doi:10.1159/000132431. ...

*CD61

"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)". May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; Kennedy, ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Sosnoski DM, Emanuel BS, Hawkins AL, van Tuinen P, Ledbetter DH, Nussbaum ... CD61 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB3 Info with links in the Cell ... Bennett JS (2001). "Platelet-fibrinogen interactions". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 936: 340-54. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03521. ...

*CD109

... and activated platelets (Lin et al., 2002). In addition, the platelet-specific Gov antigen system, implicated in refractoriness ... CD109 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD109 genome location and CD109 gene ... CD109 (Cluster of Differentiation 109) is a human gene. CD109 is a GPI-linked cell surface antigen expressed by CD34+ acute ... Lewandrowski U, Moebius J, Walter U, Sickmann A (2006). "Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a ...

*Succinic acid

SUCNR1 is one of the highest expressed G protein-coupled receptors on human platelets, present at levels similar to P2Y12, ... Succinate may enhance adaptive immunity by triggering the activity of antigen-presenting cells that, in turn, activate T-cells ... Today, succinic acid is generated for human use synthetically or converted from biomass via fermentation. Common industrial ... This pathway is exploited in metabolic engineering to net generate succinate for human use. Additionally, succinic acid ...

*CD36

"A new platelet-specific antigen, Naka, involved in the refractoriness of HLA-matched platelet transfusion". Vox Sanguinis. 57 ( ... and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... CD36 is also known as glycoprotein IV (gpIV) or glycoprotein IIIb (gpIIIb) in platelets and gives rise to the Naka antigen. The ... Subsequent studies have shown that CD36 found on the surface of platelets. This antigen is recognized by the monoclonal ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, human platelet MeSH D23.050.705.230 --- blood group antigens MeSH D23.050.705.230.031 --- abo blood-group system MeSH ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ... hla-b35 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.390 --- hla-c antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400 --- hla-d antigens MeSH D23.050. ...

*Human blood group systems

... the antigens expressed on blood cell membrane surfaces include 346 red blood cell antigens and 33 platelet antigens, as defined ... The term human blood group systems is defined by International Society of Blood Transfusion as systems in the human species ... ISBT Table of blood group antigens within systems, updated August 2008. BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at ... antigen systems, as well as many others; thirty-five major human systems are identified as of November 2014. In addition to the ...

*Duffy antigen system

"Fya/Fyb antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria". Proc Natl ... "Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum". Science. 338 (6112): 1348-51. ... "Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum". Science. 338 (6112): 1348-51. ... DARC protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Duffy at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen ...

*CD31

Human CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Mouse CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Human PECAM1 genome location and PECAM1 gene details ... Almendro N, Bellón T, Rius C, Lastres P, Langa C, Corbí A, Bernabéu C (1997). "Cloning of the human platelet endothelial cell ... Kirschbaum NE, Gumina RJ, Newman PJ (1995). "Organization of the gene for human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule". Newman PJ, ...

*CD84

... protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD84 genome location and CD84 ... "Platelet aggregation induces platelet aggregate stability via SLAM family receptor signaling". Blood. 106 (9): 3028-34. doi: ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Tangye SG, van de Weerdt BC, Avery DT, Hodgkin PD (Jun 2002). "CD84 is up-regulated on a major population of human memory B ...

*Protein C inhibitor

"Complex formation between protein C inhibitor and prostate-specific antigen in vitro and in human semen". European Journal of ... "Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of platelet protease nexin-1". Blood. 115 (1): 97-106. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-04- ... The human Protein C inhibitor have 19 amino acid signal peptide. The study of genomic DNA by restriction mapping, polymerase ... Yasuda T, Nadano D, Iida R, Tanaka Y, Nakanaga M, Kishi K (May 1992). "Discovery of a genetic polymorphism of human plasma ...

*ITGAV

CD51 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAV Info with links in the Cell Migration ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Sosnoski DM, Emanuel BS, Hawkins AL, van Tuinen P, Ledbetter DH, Nussbaum ... "Chromosomal localization of the genes for the vitronectin and fibronectin receptors alpha subunits and for platelet ... "Entrez Gene: ITGAV integrin, alpha V (vitronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide, antigen CD51)". Hermann P, Armant M, Brown E, ...

*CD16

CD antigens". Immunobiology (5 ed.). New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3642-X. Yeap, Wei Hseun; Wong, Kok Loon; Shimasaki, Noriko ... Vidranski, V; Laskaj, R; Sikiric, D; Skerk, V (2015). "Platelet satellitism in infectious disease?". Biochem Med (Zagreb). 25: ... CD16 is required for ADCC processes carried out by human monocytes. In humans, monocytes expressing CD16 have a variety of ADCC ... CD16 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...

*PTPRJ

"Expression of the membrane protein tyrosine phosphatase CD148 in human tissues". Tissue Antigens. 54 (5): 485-98. doi:10.1034/j ... "Site-selective dephosphorylation of the platelet-derived growth factor beta-receptor by the receptor-like protein-tyrosine ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Ostman A, Yang Q, Tonks NK (Nov 1994). "Expression of DEP-1, a receptor- ... "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...

*Rocky Mountain spotted fever

Some zoonotic diseases require a vector (e.g., a mosquito, tick, or flea) to be transmitted from the animal host to the human ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... Abnormal laboratory findings seen in patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever may include a low platelet count, low blood ... Rickettsia rickettsii can be transmitted to human hosts through the bite of an infected tick. As with other bacterium ...
Today we will be discussing fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, also referred to as NAIT, which affects about 1 in 1,000 births. NAIT is caused by maternal alloantibodies to specific platelet antigens, usually human platelet antigen 1a also referred to as HPA-1a. These antigens may be inherited from the father but are absent in the mother. Only 2% of women are HPA-1a negative and at risk to produce these alloantibodies which can lead to fetal thrombocytopenia.. Dr. Bussel, who wrote an Editorial on the subject, discusses the morbidity and mortality associated with NAIT.. "If the platelets are low enough, there is a serious risk of bleeding. When the fetal platelet get low enough, then the fetus may bleed in the brain and most of the bleeding in the brain that happens in fetuses and neonates affected by NAIT, occurs in utero, not after birth.". Currently, there are no screening guidelines to identify mothers and fetuses that are at risk for NAIT. Therefore, it is usually diagnosed ...
Platelets are the cellular components of the blood coagulation system. Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet plasma membrane, GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These antigens result from a leukine-proline polymorphism at position 33 of the GPIIb-IIIa integrin. About 2% of Caucasian women are homozygous (HPA-1b/1b) and risk forming antibodies against the integrin of the fetus. Such antibodies may destroy fetal platelets and lead to neonatal/fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT).1 Anti-platelet alloimmunization has an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000 pregnancies and may cause in utero cerebral bleeds or ventriculomegaly.2-4 Thus, screening and identification of maternal alloantibodies are critical in early detection of such alloimmunization.5. Up to now, all methods for detecting auto- or alloantibodies directed at platelets, such as monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay ...
Objective To investigate the characteristics of distribution of HPA-1 ~ 5,15 gene polymorphism of Guizhou Han population,and to provide reference data for the prevention and control of HPA autoimmune disease,and the establishment of the genotyping library in Guiyang. Methods By adopting the method of PCR-SSP to 700 unrelatedhealthy blood donors for HPA-1 ~ 5,15 systems genotyping. The gene frequency and genotype were calculated,and the polymorphism distribution was summed up,and the difference with other populations were compared,in order to clarify the region characteristics.Results All systems were polymorphism distribution. HPA-1 and-4 close to aa single genotype distribution; HPA-2 and-5have a small amount of hybrid,ab heterozygote followed by 64 and 30 cases,there are 4 cases-2 bb; HPA-3 and 15 highly heterozygous,aa genotype respectively 242 and 210,ab in order for 347 and 350,and there are more bb genotype,turn for 111and 140 cases. The differences between other regions and countries increased
The current system of human platelet antigen (HPA) nomenclature, adopted in 1990, is overseen by the Platelet Nomenclature Committee of the ISBT and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. As with blood groups, there are platelet antigen systems and specific antigens within those systems. The HPA nomenclature pertains to
The current system of human platelet antigen (HPA) nomenclature, adopted in 1990, is overseen by the Platelet Nomenclature Committee of the ISBT and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. As with blood groups, there are platelet antigen systems and specific antigens within those systems. The HPA nomenclature pertains to
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests.. *In the US, BioArray HPA and Rh assays currently are available as Research Use Only ...
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests.. *In the US, BioArray HPA, RhCE, and RhD assays currently are available as Research Use Only ...
CD109 (Cluster of Differentiation 109) is a human gene. CD109 is a GPI-linked cell surface antigen expressed by CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia cell lines, T-cell lines, activated T lymphoblasts, endothelial cells, and activated platelets (Lin et al., 2002). In addition, the platelet-specific Gov antigen system, implicated in refractoriness to platelet transfusion, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura, is carried by CD109 (Kelton et al., 1990; Lin et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156535 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046186 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CD109 CD109 molecule". Lucas GF, Metcalfe P (2000). "Platelet and granulocyte glycoprotein polymorphisms". Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 10 (3): 157-74. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3148.2000.00250.x. PMID 10972910. Sutherland DR, Yeo E, Ryan A, et al. (1991). ...
Glycoprotein Ibalpha (GP Ibα; CD 42b; hereafter GPIBA) is a component of the cell surface receptor for the von Willebrand factor (vWf) on platelets. Immunizations against various platelet surface antigens play a major role in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and in post-transfusion purpura. Only one antigenic polymorphism in GPIBA has thus far been established: the HPA-2 (Ko) alloantigen system. To screen other polymorphisms in GPIBA systematically, we analyzed the whole coding sequence of theGPIBA gene in 50 Finnish blood donors using the single-strand conformation polymorphism method. In addition to the known polymorphisms, we detected three others. Sequencing of the gene segments carrying the new polymorphisms revealed that none of them changed the predicted amino acid sequence. Polymorphism designatedRS was located five base pairs upstream from the initiation codon at position 3064 and had the gene frequency of 16% forR and 84% forS, respectively, in the Finnish population, and it was
article{CIS-467518, Author = {Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J. and Cooke, Glen E. and Doss, Hani and Burr, Deborah}, Title = {A meta-analysis of studies on the association of the platelet PlA polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa and risk of coronary heart disease}, Journal = {Statistics in Medicine}, Volume = {22}, Number = {10}, Year = {2003}, Pages = {1741--1760}, Keywords ...
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Please cite this paper as: Madani K, Kamphuis M, Lopriore E, Porcelijn L, Oepkes D. Delayed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. BJOG 2012;119:1612-1616.. Objective To evaluate the rate and consequences of a late or missed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT).. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of a national cohort.. Setting National referral centre for fetal therapy in the Netherlands.. Population Twenty-six women with pregnancies complicated by FNAIT and at least one previous pregnancy with a thrombocytopenic child.. Methods Retrospective analysis of data from our electronic FNAIT database. In a consecutive cohort managed between July 2008 and July 2010, timing of first diagnosis of FNAIT was correlated to severity and outcome in the subsequent pregnancies.. Main outcome measures Occurrence of delayed diagnosis of FNAIT, and possibly associated intracranial ...
Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: Treatment Of Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
Tips to help with your thrombocytopenia: How Common Is Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia. My thrombocytopenia, Online resources for thrombocytopenia.
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia is caused when the mothers and babys platelets become incompatible, a condition known as platelet alloimmunization. To understand platelet alloimmunization, you must first understand about different platelet types. Platelet types are defined by antigens, substances or "factors" that exist on the surface of the cell. The most common of these is the HPA-1 antigen, which is present in 98% of people. These patients are referred to as HPA-1 positive. When their blood is tested, the test will return as HPA-1a/1a or HPA-1a/1b. About 2% of the population is HPA-1 negative; these patients are called HPA-1 negative. A blood test on one of these patients will return as HPA-1b/1b.. There are other platelet antigen systems found in humans that are associated with Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, including HPA-3, HPA-4 (present in people of Asian descent), HPA-5, HPA-9 and HPA-15. If an antigen is present, the person is called positive for the antigen; if it is ...
Principal Investigator:SHIBATA Yoichi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Laboratory medicine
There have been considerable advances in the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of alloimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT), and its postnatal and antenatal management. The antenatal management of AIT has been particularly problematic, because severe haemorrhage occurs as early as 16 weeks gestation and there is no non-invasive investigation that reliably predicts the severity of AIT in utero. The strategies for antenatal treatment have included the use of serial platelet transfusions that, while effective, are invasive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Maternal therapy involving the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and/or steroids is also effective and associated with fewer risks to the fetus. Significant recent progress has involved refinement of maternal treatment, stratifying it according to the likely severity of AIT based on the history in previous pregnancies. However, the ideal antenatal treatment, which is effective without causing significant side-effects to the
After investigations post birth, we found that Raife only had platelets of 8! This meant our beautiful little man was whisked away to intensive care needing special care and transfusions. An MRI scan determined a parents worst nightmare- he had lost the majority of his right temporal lobe due to a significant bleed to the brain as a result of his lack of platelets. Even worse, we then found out that the bleed was due to a rare disorder that we as parents have called NAIT (neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia) whilst in utero, my body was attacking his platelets a very rare and dangerous blood disorder ...
Cases of CD36 deficiency are not rare in Asian populations, foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) caused by anti-CD36 isoantibodies appears more frequent than other HPA...
I am in my late 30s and live in NYC. I lost my first child at 24 weeks 5 days on Christmas Day, 2007. He was perfectly healthy and the cause of his death may have been a cord accident, a blood clot in the placenta or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. I found out that I was pregnant again on the day my precious Dashiell was due. This is my chronicle of happiness, anxiety, fear and love throughout my subsequent pregnancy. It will also be a record of my experience as a mother to an earth baby and an angel ...
On 26 November 2019 (10:00) Dian Winkelhorst will defend her PhD thesis Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia evidence based screening at Leiden University.
Diabetes Care. 36(3):e36, MARCH 2013. DOI: 10.2337/dc12-1849 , PMID: 23431098. Issn Print: 0149-5992. Publication Date: March 2013. ...
The detection of an antigen is the in front and chief Antigens fitting for in the function of activation of immunological responses buy glipizide cheap online blood glucose kits, predominantly as a replacement for induction of cellular release glipizide 10mg with mastercard diabetes mellitus jenis 1. Immunogenicity is the aptitude to annoy an immune stall membranes of all majority cells except red cells cheap 10 mg glipizide fast delivery. The proteins in the cells are continuously defied down to their peptide fragments. When a peptide remnant of a self protein is picked up virus, flagella of bacteria or the chamber wall of the organism. They are important as histocompatibility antigens in gens, whereas B cells sympathize with to proteins and non-protein organ transplantation. In transfusion remedy, they are liable in behalf of auto- Explicit morsel of an antigen that triggers the immuno- immunization against platelet antigens and refractori- logical revenge is called antigenic determinant or ...
The A2 allele of the platelet specific alloantigen system is encoded by rs5918(C), and it has been implicated as increasing the risk of myocardial infarction, heart disease, and resistance to blood-thinning benefits of aspirin. On its own, the A2 allele is implicated especially in early onset heart disease [PMID 8598867]; in combination with the 4G allele of the PAI1 gene, rs1799889, the increased risk of myocardial infarction in a Finnish study population was 4 fold higher (odds ratio = 4.5, p=0.001), particularly in males (odds ratio = 6.4, p=0.0005) [PMID 9700201]. Olympic skater Sergei Grinkov, who had this risk factor, died of a heart attack at age 28. [1] A2 allele carriers also appear to be relatively resistant to the anti-thrombotic (i.e. anti-clotting) actions normally associated with aspirin use.[PMID 11723016] A protective effect of rs5918 has also been observed for the development of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, both for the SNP (which is also known as L59P) and for its gene, ITGB3. The ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-HPa2 Antibody (DHIC2-2B4) [DyLight 550]. Alpha Cell Marker. Validated: WB, Flow, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal platelet counts correlate with the severity of the anemia in red-cell alloimmunization. AU - Saade, George. AU - Moise, K. J.. AU - Copel, J. A.. AU - Belfort, M. A.. AU - Carpenter, R. J.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Objective: To determine whether fetal anemia secondary to maternal red-cell alloimmunization is associated with thrombocytopenia. Methods: The records of 78 patients undergoing intrauterine transfusion for red-cell alloimmunization were reviewed. Pre-transfusion fetal platelet counts were compared between hydropic and nonhydropic fetuses. A regression analysis was performed between the fetal platelet counts and the fetal bilirubin levels, hematocrits, and reticulocyte counts taken at the initial transfusion. The hematocrits, reticulocyte counts, and bilirubin levels were adjusted for gestational age by calculating the number of standard deviations (SDs) from the mean for that age or the multiples of the mean (MOM). Student t test, Pearson coefficient, and ...
The Blood Services Platelet Laboratory has been functioning as the national reference laboratory since 1970. We examine platelet dysfunctions and the immunological and hereditary causes of thrombocytopenia. Our laboratory staff is highly trained and specialized in the special features of platelet disorder testing in particular. The methods require profound special expertise and, as a rule, they are not made in other laboratories in Finland. Our range of testing includes fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT/FMAIT), platelet function testing, membrane glycoprotein assays, auto- and alloimmune thrombocytopenia tests and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia tests. The available tests are described in the laboratory manual ...
In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. The annual mean concentrations were from 0.02 microg/L at sites located in the middle reaches to 0.11 microg/L at the river mouth. At each scale, there were consistent themes that emerged as determinative in infection outcome. The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. Small intestinal submucosa gel as a potential scaffolding material for cardiac tissue engineering. To investigate the relationship among 3 polymorphisms of GP IIb and the function of GP IIb T13959 G in the platelet transfusion refractoriness(PTR).. A mixed methods approach with an online survey and qualitative key informant interviews was conducted with all partnership members at baseline and follow-up, 18 months later. A considerable suppression of hypophyseal and thyroid function coinciding with the maximum values of ...
Contents: Preface; Part I. Cellular Changes: 1. Normal hematological changes during pregnancy and the puerperium Margaret Ramsay; 2. Hematinic deficiencies Jane Strong; 3. Inherited red cell disorders Emma Welch and Josh Wright; 4. Maternal autoimmune cytopenias Hamish Lyall and Bethan Myers; Part II. Fetomaternal Alloimmune Syndromes: 5. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia Michael F. Murphy; 6. Red cell alloimmunisation Alec McEwan; Part III. Thromboembolism and Anticoagulation: 7. Venous thromboembolism Ian A. Greer; 8. Thromboprophylaxis Catherine Nelson-Piercy and Sarah Germain; 9. Prosthetic heart valves Claire McLintock; 10. Management of anticoagulants at delivery Christina Oppenheimer and Paul Sharpe; Part IV. Thrombophilia and Fetal Loss: 11. Antiphospholipid syndrome Sue Pavord and Bethan Myers; 12. Thrombophilia and pregnancy loss Isobel D. Walker; Part V. Haemorrhagic Disorders: 13a. Management of obstetric hemorrhage: obstetric management Susan Bewley and Annette Briley; 13b. ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a paradoxical thrombotic state resulting from an immune response to heparin. Epidemiology Occurs in 1:5000 patients who have received heparin, most commonly unfractionated heparin. Pathology HIT is ...
Fetal and neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is considered as a rare disease due to the incidence (1/1000-1/2000 births). The major complication of severe thrombocytopenia is bleeding and particularly intra-cranial hemorrhage and neurologic sequelae following. Serology and molecular biology developments have reconfigured the platelet immunology diagnosis. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunisation is responsible for more than 80% FNAIT cases with a high recurrence rate of severe bleeding complications. Therapeutic management has changed over the coming years from an invasive concept associating fetal blood sampling and in utero platelet transfusion to a non invasive treatment by intravenous immunoglobulins injection (IVIg ...
A course which is generally 6 weeks and longer in duration and requires a medium to high level of involvement from NAIT staff namely: Credit Work Experience, which applies only to the Applied Degree setting, Clinical Placement and Field Placement, both of which occur in the Certificate and Diploma program settings ...
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Looking for online definition of posttransfusion hepatitis in the Medical Dictionary? posttransfusion hepatitis explanation free. What is posttransfusion hepatitis? Meaning of posttransfusion hepatitis medical term. What does posttransfusion hepatitis mean?
HCMV is released into the blood during active infection, allowing HCMV-platelet interactions. Here, for the first time, we show that HCMV predominately bound to a TLR2-positive platelet subpopulation, leading to the induction of platelet activation through a TLR2-dependent pathway. Platelet activation by HCMV could be completely abolished on blocking TLR2 receptor or inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling, which is a key mediator in TLR2-induced platelet activation.19 Platelets have been reported previously to express TLR2 on the surface of 4% to 16% platelets.14-16 However, in our study, these levels were lower with 1.3% to 3% TLR2-positive platelets, which strongly correlated with the percentage of HCMV-bound platelets. Despite the low percentage of TLR2-positive platelets, ≈20% of platelets became P-selectin positive in response to HCMV, indicating that activation of the TLR2-positive subpopulation triggered further platelet activation in a TLR2-independent fashion. This ...
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Ooks 3 Kings 0 PENHOLD - Consistency on offence has been the biggest problem for the RDC Kings this season.. That proved t0 be costly once again as the Kings dropped a 3-0 decision to the NAIT Ooks in Alberta Colleges Mens Hockey League play at the Penhold Regional Multiplex Saturday.. "We had a number of quality chances, the same as last night (a 4-1 loss at NAIT), but didnt convert," said Kings head coach Trevor Keeper. "We were even in every statistic in shots, shots from home plate and possession but they have a couple of high end snipers we dont have.". One of thsoe is Tanner Dunkle, who notched his league-leading 15 goal of the season 48 seconds into the third period to break the scoreless tie.. The Kings had all kinds of opportunities of their own, but either couldnt corral a bouncing puck or beat Ooks netminder Brendan Jensen.. "Hes the No. 1 goaltender in the league and has played every game for them," said Keeper. "We had our chances, but just couldnt put it past him.". The Kings ...
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Hello,Im new in this world. Well I bought my set a year ago (in the beginning it sounded like heaven than you notice haven is far an expensive :doh: ). So Im looking for an upgrade.My dealer says its better to start with the amp its cheaper. Upgrading my 683s would be way more expensive....(803s)Also he says my problem would come from the amp.
T0-MOBBOW*. Did he bu^fcnow what lies beyond bulk Btfl-I *fa we tread This Btfflbge, mysterious pal How often would our *oul ■ despond, Our eyes the tear el ■ on o* sled! Bui. God. who knows whats boss io do- Wlio seen us from 1, ■■ slurry throne ; Has wisely hidden if inn our view That which bad besi rejnalD ao-tnowo. We wulk to day in conscious pride, And hang Lhe flag id hope on high, But ah ! to m .1 row Irom oar side Soin" Irieod m iy turn s« iy to die! ,So:ji" fiiiV r Hi if- ■■. on oar mooting piais"*, Some al lat where w : build our trust- May Iade ere dies, the evening rays - May trampled be aud laid Lo du.-:t. Youth dreams of many beaming things As on he hies oer Pleasures Hack ( Each day some new-born promise brings, Be turns DO eye of sorrow b tote ; The flowery flelde ore all before, His cjir (in some deal .tar are Set, Life la to bim a soooy Bbore, Hell learn it has Us shadows yet. To-morrow ! io thy - ■ci".;. shade I little know what lies for me ; I may be ...
OMG! Im not a fan of Kim,Maja or Gerald, just an FP reader way back, but i just cant help noticing parang nainvade na ng fantards to. And these fans are close minded. Ive read that Kim and Geralds relationships been over for 3 years, so whats the fuss? Also that Maja gave Kim a heads up about whats happening, Its not like they kept it a secret to her (not referring to you fans). So anong problema? Parang kayong mga fans ang gumagawa ng gulo. In reality, may ganyan talagang nangyayari (same scenario happened to me, o baka awayin ako ng fantards ni Kim, I was in Kims shoes by the way) and ive accepted it and was genuinely happy for them, because Ive moved on. Up till now were still friends and see each other even though theyve broken up. But hey, Im not Kim or Maja, who knows if theyre patching things up while their fans bash each other ...
OMG! Im not a fan of Kim,Maja or Gerald, just an FP reader way back, but i just cant help noticing parang nainvade na ng fantards to. And these fans are close minded. Ive read that Kim and Geralds relationships been over for 3 years, so whats the fuss? Also that Maja gave Kim a heads up about whats happening, Its not like they kept it a secret to her (not referring to you fans). So anong problema? Parang kayong mga fans ang gumagawa ng gulo. In reality, may ganyan talagang nangyayari (same scenario happened to me, o baka awayin ako ng fantards ni Kim, I was in Kims shoes by the way) and ive accepted it and was genuinely happy for them, because Ive moved on. Up till now were still friends and see each other even though theyve broken up. But hey, Im not Kim or Maja, who knows if theyre patching things up while their fans bash each other ...
Tsídii éí tʼáá ałtso bijáád naakigo hólǫ́, áádóó éí bitʼaʼ dahólǫ́; łaʼ tsídii éí doo ndaatʼáa da ndi, tʼóó niʼgóó naakai łeh (tsídiitsoh da).. Tsídiitsoh éí yéego ntsaa (náhástʼéigo da adéesʼeez[?] éí áníłtso), dahiitį́hii łaʼ éí tʼáá díkwíí inch tʼéiyá ádaníłnééz. Tsídii éí tʼáá ałtso bidaaʼ ntłʼiz (dóó nineez łeh); áádóó éí biwooʼ ádaadin. Nááná éí bitsʼin biiʼ haltsʼaaʼ łeh.. ...
Post-transfusion purpura (PTP) is an adverse reaction to a blood transfusion or platelet transfusion that occurs when the body produces alloantibodies to the introduced platelets antigens. These alloantibodies destroy the patients platelets leading to thrombocytopenia, a rapid decline in platelet count. PTP usually presents 5-12 days after transfusion, and is a potentially fatal condition. PTP is rare, but usually occurs in women who have had multiple pregnancies or in people who have undergone previous transfusions. The precise mechanism leading to PTP is unknown, but it most commonly occurs in individuals whose platelets lack the HPA-1a antigen (old name: PLA1). The patient develops antibodies to the HPA-1a antigen leading to platelet destruction. In some cases, HPA-5b has also been implicated. It is unclear why alloantibodies attack the patients own, as well as the introduced platelets. Probable explanation for this is that the recipients platelet acquire the phenotype of donors platelet ...
Sir,I am concerned about some of the case presentations which have appeared in your self-assessment section recently, as they seem to me to exemplify a very old-fashioned attitude to differential diagnosis and one which, frankly, we should have abandoned many years ago. I refer specifically to the papers by Balcombe1 and by Usalan and Özarslan.2 In the first paper we are asked: "What is the cause of thrombocytopaenia?". The answer given on the next page begins by providing a box with a long list of potential causes of a low platelet count, most of which are irrelevant to the case in question. Surely the question that should be asked and discussed is: "What are the most likely causes of thrombocytopaenia in this patient?".. In the second case the differential diagnosis places adrenal crisis as the third potential cause of the patients illness; given the clinical features described it should surely have been placed first, or at least second. The authors then report that they performed a rapid ...
Between 2007 and 2010, Gaston Mane was the lone Baka in the lone government secondary school in Ngoyla, in the east of Cameroon. He got to secondary school at the age of 20, far above his classmates average age of 12. Despite this gap, Gaston made it to form three but could not continue because
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Men who die early from heart disease are more likely to have a specific variant of a blood clotting gene. Researchers in Finland carried out tests
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Lyrics to Batangas Coffee by Parokya Ni Edgar: Bumangon ka na diyan at baka ikay kapuyin / Ipunin na ang tubal at itoy ating usungin
Spanakos, G., Snounou, G., Pervanidou, D., Alifrangis, M., Rosanas-Urgell, A., Baka, A., Tseroni, M., Vakali, A., Vassalou, E., Patsoula, E., Zeller, H., Van Bortel, W., Hadjichristodoulou, C.. ...
Spanakos, G., Snounou, G., Pervanidou, D., Alifrangis, M., Rosanas-Urgell, A., Baka, A., Tseroni, M., Vakali, A., Vassalou, E., Patsoula, E., Zeller, H., Van Bortel, W., Hadjichristodoulou, C.. ...
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Post-transfusion purpura is a rare transfusion-related complication that often goes undiagnosed. It is due to alloimmunization against platelet antigens which leads to acute profound thrombocytopenia following the transfusion of any platelet-containing product (red blood cells or platelets). It is commonly seen in multiparous women. Here, we report a case of post-transfusion purpura in a 56-year-old multiparous woman who developed acute thrombocytopenia seven days following a packed red blood cell transfusion. We will discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis, workup and treatment of this rare disease. It is important to recognize this entity separately and to include it in the differential diagnosis of acute thrombocytopenia after a recent blood transfusion. Treatment for this condition consists of intravenous immunoglobulins, corticosteroids or plasmapheresis.
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SB497115 is an oral agent which activates the thrombopoietin receptor and increases platelet counts in healthy volunteers. This study is examining several different doses of SB497115 as a treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C-related thrombocytopenia who are potential candidates for antiviral treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The study will be conducted in two phases, Parts 1 and 2. In Part 1, study subjects will be randomized to 4 weeks of SB-497115-GR or placebo administered daily without antiviral therapy. Subjects who successfully complete Part 1 (platelet count 70,000/µL for Pegasys and platelet count 100,000/µL for PEG-Intron) will then proceed to Part 2. In Part 2, subjects will receive an additional 8 weeks of SB-497115-GR or placebo administered daily with antiviral therapy ...
To examine the mechanisms by which platelet aggregability was altered by treatment with fluvastatin, we measured PDNO and oxidative stress. Only fluvastatin but not colestimide increased PDNO and decreased oxidative stress (increased GSH, increased GSH/GSSG, and decreased nitrotyrosine). Again, these antioxidative stress effects were not related to cholesterol levels, indicating pleiotropic effects of fluvastatin. In support of the present findings, we recently reported in rats that statin upregulated eNOS mRNA, augmented PDNO release, and attenuated platelet activation.29 Taken together, the present findings indicate that fluvastatin improves the imbalance of intracellular redox state, resulting in improvements of bioactivity of PDNO, and that this improvement in PDNO bioactivity may be responsible for the decreased platelet aggregation observed following fluvastatin treatment.. Interestingly, treatment with fluvastatin altered platelet function to a level better than in normocholesterolemic ...
List of 5 disease causes of Increased platelet destruction, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Increased platelet destruction.
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Cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathyas a cause of acute kidney injury in dogsin the UK L. P. Holm, I. Hawkins, C. Robin, R. J. Newton, R. Jepson, G. Stanzani, L. A. McMahon,P. Pesavento, T. Carr, T. Cogan, C. G. Couto, R. Cianciolo, D. J. Walker To describe the signalment, clinicopathological findings and outcome in dogs presenting withacute kidney injury (AKI) and skin lesions between November 2012 and March 2014, in whomcutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (CRGV) was suspected and renal thromboticmicroangiopathy (TMA) was histopathologically confirmed. The medical records of dogs withskin lesions and AKI, with histopathologically confirmed renal TMA, were retrospectivelyreviewed. Thirty dogs from across the UK were identified with clinicopathological findingscompatible with CRGV. These findings included the following: skin lesions, predominantlyaffecting the distal extremities; AKI; and variably, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia andhyperbilirubinaemia. Known causes of AKI were ...
Chiba Lotte Marines. ...Shunsuke Watanabe announced prior to his start on Tuesday that he will donate 10,000yen for every inning he tossing this season to the World Food Programme. Thats 1,350,000yen for 135 innings of work so far this year.. ...The Marines will invite current Ham Fighters Ni-gun battery coach Kiyoshi Yamanaka to be there Ichi-gun battery coach next season. The Fighters current Ichi-gun battery coach, Hidetoshi Hakamada will likely be made a general Ni-gun coach.. Hanshin Tigers. ...Tomoyuki Kubota has tossed 12 innings in 10 games and given up just 1 earned run at Ni-gun since moving into the bullpen at the end of August. He hasnt given up a run in his last 8 appearances.. ...Tomoaki Kanemoto recorded his 9,204th plate appearance during Tuesdays game against the Yokohama Bay Stars and took over sole possession of 14th place on the all-time list, above Shigeo Nagashimas 9,201. He also tied Katsuya Nomuras career 1,252 walks with his walk in the 1st inning.. Nippon Ham ...
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mu im " m VOLUME XLIII. COLUMBUS, OHIO, TUESDAY, AUGUST 23, 1853. NUMBER 52. sic Ump, HO, have label- kli.h aierB IlKl. Lia, i y. I anrl mtrr- iKn-Kn, nt ty.or Bitty, int.. Mlow trire, C R. worth nun" ; .onli 1, IN Sale. II. u mhip, Ind on iy th Itoad . 11 in pt inlma ola .with mli ii a, illy t iltiro, 1 mnn- ke. "K all wltiri a, and rtnfir (innl, of. "t the n eon mmI i Man-tint (it r o. iot (all hanti, Mann 1 1 land CO. ire thn d, nd ml mat Inrt--tpn r or thn idaran rurlnK .nftlKJ MtreU in ar iat thn apper. ill 6V c Ce. OF Ifl VPW turday doling I Ton I-i fia leneril Iteitet iy and re)ula-rinrnt,l ot Ihn phi a. IIMH. I actnre 1 unilfr 1 b have 1 :amwd i found orealn . .IMH. I Soil. mfi Km II.IK..I0 I I. tfl. I I ll I N. r. i I I. HP I I ibf I lllcclxtti 1)10 State Journal UBM8HKD AT COLUMIlUB EVERY TUB! DAT MORNING, T SCOTT BA8C0M, movmu. ionj)iKOB, mas hid ruu. stsssts ratMifoi or nai. TEfiM nwimW in arfrane . Tn OoInrnbuB, (3 00 ft tn ; py mitlL,l 50; clubs of four sad upwards, tl.io; ...
Description of disease Thrombocytopenia. Treatment Thrombocytopenia. Symptoms and causes Thrombocytopenia Prophylaxis Thrombocytopenia
Wala na talaga akong sexual urge. Ang tagal nang panahon na kamiy walang sexual contact. Baka hindi lang ten years. Pag kinukulit ako ng asawa ko, akoy nagagalit, inaaway ako. First time naglagay ako [ng VSense], parang something nice naman. Good ang pakiramdam ko. Second time around, parang may naramdaman na ako. Sabi ko, "Aba, parang nagkakaroon ako ng sexual urge." Tapos yung third time, may nararamdaman na talaga ako. Kinalabit ko na yung asawa ko.". - Violy, 53 ...
Translations: Beefs Nieres, Jautiena yra inkstų, Carne de vită de rinichi, Govedinas bubrega, Thịt bò của thận, Wołowiny na nerki, Beefs nier, बीफ है गुर्दे, Rim da carne bovina, Говядина в почках, Νεφρό του βοείου κρέατος, لحوم الأبقار الكلى, 쇠고기의 신장, Hovězí na ledviny, Говедине у бубрегу, Sakit ng karne ng baka, 牛肉的肾, Carn de ronyó, Govejega mesa na ledvice, Hovädzie na obličky, Manzo rene, בשר של כליה, Beefs Ginjal, 牛肉の腎臓, Boeuf du rein, Beefs Nieren, Beefs Nyre, Beefs Nyre, Carne de riñón, Яловичина в нирках, Naudanliha on Munuaiset, Говеждо на ...
Maternal immunization holds the promise of further reducing morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and infants, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where there is the greatest burden of vaccine-preventable disease. This report, developed with input from a large, multidisciplinary group of experts, summarizes existing programs in pharmacovigilance and maternal, newborn, and child health surveillance in LMICs; identifies gaps and needs; and outlines a roadmap for program development and implementation for monitoring the safety of maternal immunizations in LMICs.. Author: Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS). Published: 2017 ...
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to Mia , MUT, and Mur are among the most frequently identified alloantibodies in Southeast Asia. Understanding the characteristics of these antibodies in terms of induction and evanescence would aid in optimizing methods for their detection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Antibody testing results between the years 2013 and 2015 with relevant patient demographic data and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion history were retrieved. Cumulative alloimmunization incidence and evanescence to MUT and Mur were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis in relation to the number of RBC units transfused and time. RESULTS: Of 70,543 selected patients, 6186 nonalloimmunized subjects with available antibody testing results posttransfusion were identified. Cumulative alloimmunization incidence for MUT increased from 0.12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.21) to 0.63% (95% CI, 0.25-1.01), while for Mur it increased from 0.04% (95% CI, 0-0.09) to 0.42% (95% CI, 0.05-0.79) when a patient was ...
McKenzie, I F.; Snell, G D.; and Cherry, M, " Ly-4:2-alloantigenic specificity of murine B lymphocytes." (1975). Faculty Research 1970 - 1979. 620 ...
Find all books from Andrew Hadley - Alloimmune Disorders of Pregnancy: Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia and Neutropenia in the Fetus and Newborn. At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 0521018048
A blog about ecosexuality, resources of love, Gaia theory, the arts of loving, amorous inclusiveness, sexual fluidity, polyamory, bisexuality.
While the stature of pygmies is well-suited to tropical rainforests, the mechanisms underlying their growth remain poorly understood. In order to decipher these mechanisms, a team of scientists from the CNRS (Laboratoire Dynamique de lEvolution Humaine), IRD (Laboratoire Patrimoines Locaux et Gouvernance) and UPMC1 (Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine) studied a group of Baka pygmies in Cameroon. Their findings revealed that the Baka pygmy growth rate differed completely from that of another pygmy cluster, despite a similar adult height, which implies that small stature appeared independently in the two clusters. This work was published online on July 28, 2015 in an open-accerss article in Nature Communications. The article is titled "Growth Pattern from Birth to Adulthood in African Pygmies of Known Age." The stature of pygmies has intrigued Westerners since their first encounter with them in 1865. This population is, in fact, made up of several ethnic groups, which belong to two main clusters. ...
Katsuhiro Nagakawa complained of pain in his right hand during Saturdays game against the Yomiuri Giants. He was examined at a hospital today and diagnosed with inflammation in his right middle finger. He will likely need four to five days of rest before he can pitch again.. Source: Sports Hochi 3/31/2013, Nikkan Sports 3/31/2013. ...
Heparanase-1 (HPA-1) can promote angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumors and plays an important role in the genesis and development of tumors. This study was to explore the effects of specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HPA-1 com
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List of causes of Fever and Severe thrombocytopenia and Spleen symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
The C-type lectin-like receptor, CLEC-2, is constitutively expressed on platelets, with reported expression on a number of leukocyte subsets in adult mice. Constitutive or platelet-specific deletion of CLEC-2 in mice induces cerebral haemorrhaging by midgestation. In this thesis, I investigated the basis of this defect, hypothesising that it is mediated by the loss of CLEC-2 activation by its endogenous ligand, podoplanin, expressed on the developing neural tube. Podoplaninfl/fl mice were crossed to mice expressing PGK-Cre to induce deletion of podoplanin at the two-cell stage. Developing blood vessels were visualized by 3-dimensional microscopy and found to be aberrantly patterned in CLEC-2- and podoplanin-deficient mice, culminating in widespread cerebral haemorrhaging by mid-gestation. Haemorrhages were also observed following Nestin-Cre driven deletion of podoplanin on neural progenitors and following deletion of the platelet integrin, αIIbβ3. Together these studies support that neuro-epithelial
TPO-RAs could be theoretically useful in IT patients in two clinical contexts. Short-term treatment courses could be used to transiently increase platelet count in preparation for elective surgery or invasive procedures. Moreover, patients at high risk of spontaneous bleeding may benefit from long-term administration. Results obtained so far are promising in that they indicate that TPO-RAs may be effective, but experience in this field is still limited.. In a small clinical trial, 12 consecutive patients with MYH9-RD and platelet counts lower than 50 × 109/L were treated with eltrombopag for 3-6 weeks. Eleven patients responded, and 8 of them achieved major responses (platelet count higher than 100 × 109/L or three times the baseline value). Treatment was well tolerated and bleeding diathesis disappeared in 8 of 10 patients with spontaneous bleeding at baseline [10]. Based on these results, one patient with MYH9-RD and ,20 × 109 platelets/L received eltrombopag for preparation to a major ...
Integrin beta 3 (phospho Tyr773) antibody (integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Integrin beta 3 (phospho Tyr773) pAb (GTX50134) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Definition of refractoriness in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is refractoriness? Meaning of refractoriness as a legal term. What does refractoriness mean in law?
Mouse polyclonal PLA2G4C antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to full length protein
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Charmaine has since been admitted to the hospital over the past few days. Her counts are not sustaining @ the optimal level for discharge. Her last transfusion of plalets by random donor sent her into a serious hives state, and Cynthia has been avoiding that option. Currently, she can only receive CSP, which to my knowledge, means, a single donor donating platelets, and not those cultivated from the donated blood. (which by the time this is posted, she has also subjected to hives from the CSP pack ...
semalam aku n hubby pegi melawat PIL..masa dah setel makan mlm kitaorg berborak2...bercerita mcm2..yelah,aku dah 2 minggu xblk umah dia....aku cerita psl checkup aku semlm dgn dia,aku mmg xde masalah besar utk pregnant..then mak ckp mungkin belum masanya lagi,takpa muda lagi...katanya lg...lega skit bila mak ckp mcm tue...tetiba mak kata ntah2 nnt kuar kembar...baka belah mak mmg ada yg kembar....insyaallah mak,hrp kata2 mak tue termakbul nnt..kata2 mak pun suatu DOA ...
Ternakan guinea pig ini dimulakan pada tahun 2009 dengan membela kambing dan arnab terlebih dahulu.Peliharaan sekadar suka-suka dan hobi dimasa lapang menjadi ruang 4time keje untuk perniagaan kecil-kecilan sehingga sekarang.Diusahakan bersama suami tercinta iaitu dengan panggilan Sahril Banting.Pada mulanya tidaklah banyak yang ada setakat 10pasang sahaja.Disimpan dan dijaga dengan baik,maka adalah yang bunting dan melahirkan anak.Anak yang ada dijadikan baka buat kelahiran seterusnya ...
Thrombocytopenia disease is a condition where relatively platelet counts low in the blood. Normal human platelet count ranges 150000 to 450000 micro litre.
We have two distinct assay platforms for thrombocytopenia that assess whether compounds have an effect on the production or the destruction of platelets.
I would ask the clinician for clarification of which code would be more appropriate. As if he is referring to 287.31 Ideopathic Thrombo-coytopenia Pur
Looking for online definition of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain explanation free. What is platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain? Meaning of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain medical term. What does platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain mean?

A novel assay for the detection of anti-human platelet antigen antibodies (HPA-1a) based on peptide aptamer technology |...A novel assay for the detection of anti-human platelet antigen antibodies (HPA-1a) based on peptide aptamer technology |...

2005) Quantification of human platelet antigen-1a antibodies with the monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens ... GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These ... Therefore, since the Camtran human monoclonal antibody was raised against the human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) found on GPIIb ... Establishment of a cell line panel as an alternative source of platelet antigens for a screening assay of anti-human platelet ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/97/5/696

The analysis of the polymorphism of human platelet antigen genes in Han population,Guizhou,China--《Chinese Journal of Blood...The analysis of the polymorphism of human platelet antigen genes in Han population,Guizhou,China--《Chinese Journal of Blood...

Analysis of gene polymorphism of human platelet antigen 1-17 system in platelet donors of Kunming[J];Medicine and Pharmacy of ... The analysis of the polymorphism of human platelet antigen genes in Han population,Guizhou,China. ... Polymorphism of the Human Platelet Antigens 1-6 in Shenzhen Han Population of Chinese[J];Journal of Medern Laboratory Medicine; ... Polymorphism of human platelet antigens 1 to 16 in Zhejiang Han population[J];Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion;2007-06. ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-BLOO201406014.htm

Platelet GenotypingPlatelet Genotyping

Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended ... platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post- ... transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests. ...
more infohttp://www.immucor.com/en-in/Products/Pages/Platelet-Genotyping.aspx

VIDEO: Risk Factors for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia - Transfusion NewsVIDEO: Risk Factors for Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia - Transfusion News

NAIT is caused by maternal alloantibodies to specific platelet antigens, usually human platelet antigen 1a also referred to as ... Filed Under: Platelet Transfusion, Special Transfusion Situations, Videos. Related Posts. * Anti-Human Platelet Antigen (HPA)- ... "If the platelets are low enough, there is a serious risk of bleeding. When the fetal platelet get low enough, then the fetus ... These antigens may be inherited from the father but are absent in the mother. Only 2% of women are HPA-1a negative and at risk ...
more infohttp://transfusionnews.com/2016/01/15/video-risk-factors-for-fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia/

Human platelet antigen - WikipediaHuman platelet antigen - Wikipedia

Human platelet antigens (HPA) are polymorphisms in platelet antigens. These can stimulate production of alloantibodies, ( ... Human Platelet Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "Nomenclature of human platelet antigens". Vox Sang. 85 (3): 240-5. doi:10.1046/j.1423-0410.2003.00331.x. PMID 14516468. http:// ... antibodies against other peoples antigens) in recipients of transfused platelets from donors with different HPAs. These ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_platelet_antigen

Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain ReactionHuman Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction

... ... Shun-Chung Pai, Thierry Burnouf, Jen-Wei Chen, and Liang-In Lin, "Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors ... 4Human Protein Process Sciences (HPPS), 59000 Lille, France. 5Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/973789/cta/

Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigens, human platelet antigens, and cytokine genes in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome...Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigens, human platelet antigens, and cytokine genes in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome...

Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigens, human platelet antigens, and cytokine genes in hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome ... Polymorphisms in the TGF-β, IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ genes, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), and human platelet alloantigens (HPA ... cytokines and platelet antigen genotypes were evaluated in both groups and compared to a control group. The data demonstrated ... Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe human disease associated with hantavirus infection. The clinical course of ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=92843

Genotyping of Human Platelet Antigens by BeadChip Microarray Technology.  - PubMed - NCBIGenotyping of Human Platelet Antigens by BeadChip Microarray Technology. - PubMed - NCBI

Human platelet antigen (HPA) typing plays a critical role in the diagnosis of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and ... Genotyping of Human Platelet Antigens by BeadChip Microarray Technology.. Bertrand G1, Conti F. ... the prevention of posttransfusion purpura and refractoriness to platelet transfusions. The recent development of high- ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=109056

Reactivity of T cells from women with antibodies to the human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a to peptides encompassing the HPA-1...Reactivity of T cells from women with antibodies to the human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a to peptides encompassing the HPA-1...

... or control recall antigens in the presence of autologous sera and T cell proliferation was measured by (3)H-thymidine ... had no activity towards any peptide despite responding to control antigens. Administration of IVIG during pregnancy appeared to ... The human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) is the most common alloantigenic target in fetal and neonatal alloimmune ... The human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) is the most common alloantigenic target in fetal and neonatal alloimmune ...
more infohttps://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/102572

Munin: Human platelet antigen (HPA) 1-5 and 15 typing in an Egyptian population using sequence specific primer PCR and TaqMan...Munin: Human platelet antigen (HPA) 1-5 and 15 typing in an Egyptian population using sequence specific primer PCR and TaqMan...

Human platelet antigen (HPA) 1-5 and 15 typing in an Egyptian population using sequence specific primer PCR and TaqMan ...
more infohttps://munin.uit.no/handle/10037/864

FULL TEXT - Frequencies of human platelet antigens (HPA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5) among the Moroccan blood donorsFULL TEXT - Frequencies of human platelet antigens (HPA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5) among the Moroccan blood donors

... platelet transfusion purpura (PTP), and refractoriness to platelet transfusion.The frequency of platelet antigens varies among ... The estimated mismatch probability regarding platelet antigens HPA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 in Moroccan blood donors, after random ... and estimate the mismatch probability of different platelet alloantigens, after random transfusions of platelet concentrates. ... The frequencies of these antigens, their risk of alloimmunization, and their clinical implications and complications within ...
more infohttp://www.ijbti.com/archive/2018-articles/2018100038Z02ZO-ouabdelmoumene/100038Z02ZO-full-text-pf.php

Frequency of Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-2/3/5) Polymorphism in Iranians Evaluated by RFLP-PCR -  Iranian Journal of Blood and...Frequency of Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-2/3/5) Polymorphism in Iranians Evaluated by RFLP-PCR - Iranian Journal of Blood and...

Knowing the human platelet antigens (HPA) and genes frequency in different populations is important not only for population ... ackground: Knowing the human platelet antigens (HPA) and genes frequency in different populations is important not only for ... Frequency of Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-2/3/5) Polymorphism in Iranians Evaluated by RFLP-PCR ... Keywords: Blood donor, Human platelet antigens (HPA), Polymerase chain reaction, Restricted fragment length polymorphism ...
more infohttp://ijbc.ir/article-1-288-en.html

FULL TEXT -Extensive human platelet specific antigens typing of blood donors of different geographical origin to manage...FULL TEXT -Extensive human platelet specific antigens typing of blood donors of different geographical origin to manage...

Methods: One hundred and ninety-nine apheresis platelet donors, including Europeans (n = 154) and North Africans (n = 29), were ... of post-transfusion purpura or platelet transfusion refractoriness secondary to antibodies to HPAs for recipients of platelet ... As a consequence of global migration flows the risk of HPA alloimmunization may be increased for recipients of platelets from ... Human platelet antigen genotypes in Turkish and Caucasian blood donors in Germany. Tissue Antigens 2012 Sep;80(3):214-8. [ ...
more infohttp://www.ijbti.com/archive/2018-archive/2018-articles-archive/100036IJBTIDL2018-londero/100036IJBTIDL2018-londero-full-text-pf.php

EXAM #2: BLOOD COMPONENT THERAPY  Flashcards by Jonathan  Kallevang | BrainscapeEXAM #2: BLOOD COMPONENT THERAPY Flashcards by Jonathan Kallevang | Brainscape

Patients that recieve platelets may make antibodies to the transfused platelets b/c: - Anti HLA (human luekocyte antigen) - ... Find compatible platelets by: 1) Give random platelet units 2) Crossmatch 3) Find platelets without the antigen that causes the ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/exam-2-blood-component-therapy-4127965/packs/6104988

IJNS | Free Full-Text | A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping...IJNS | Free Full-Text | A Non-Invasive Strategy for Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia Diagnosis: Newborn Platelet Genotyping...

Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor). Concordant genotypings were ... The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from ... Human Platelet Antigen (HPA); genotyping; buccal swab; DNA extraction neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT); Human ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2409-515X/2/3/3

A HaemAtlas: characterizing gene expression in differentiated human blood cells | Blood JournalA HaemAtlas: characterizing gene expression in differentiated human blood cells | Blood Journal

... such as the human platelet antigens.41 It is probable that, by an approach of inverted immunology, novel clinically relevant ... The neutrophil-specific antigen CD177 is a counter-receptor for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31). J Biol ... A REIC gene shows down-regulation in human immortalized cells and human tumor-derived cell lines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ... human or mouse) of DE genes. For the 7 cell types with data in both human and mouse, the extent of conservation of differential ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/113/19/e1?ijkey=5491901052f0241af41d97030780ad1e2a887fd8&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

CiNii Articles - 榎本 隆行CiNii Articles - 榎本 隆行

PREGNANCY-INDUCED ALLOIMMUNIZATION AGAINST PLATELET ANTIGENS : HLA AND HUMAN PLATELET ANTIGENS (HPA) (2000) ... Pregnancy-induced Alloimmunization against Platelet Antigens. HLA and Human Platelet Antigens (HPA). (2000) ... CROSS-MATCH TEST FOR PLATELETS USING THE M-MPHA METHOD-A STUDY BASED ON RANDOM PLATELET TRANSFUSIONS.:-A STUDY BASED ON RANDOM ... CROSS-MATCH TEST FOR PLATELETS USING THE M-MPHA METHOD : A STUDY BASED ON RANDOM PLATELET TRANSFUSIONS (2007) ...
more infohttps://ci.nii.ac.jp/author?q=%E6%A6%8E%E6%9C%AC+%E9%9A%86%E8%A1%8C

Overview and methods for determination of antiplatelet antibodies and thrombocyte antigens]. | CureHunterOverview and methods for determination of antiplatelet antibodies and thrombocyte antigens]. | CureHunter

Overview and methods for determination of antiplatelet antibodies and thrombocyte antigens]. - Maja Tomicić, Zeljka Hundrić- ... Antigens, Human Platelet (analysis) *Autoantibodies (analysis) *Blood Platelets (immunology) *Humans. *Isoantibodies (analysis ... Development of the methods of molecular biology has allowed for a more accurate determination of platelet antigens and ... Overview and methods for determination of antiplatelet antibodies and thrombocyte antigens].. Abstract. The last twenty years ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed12619442.do

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Antigens, Human Platelet Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Antigens,+Human+Platelet&parentid=14464&catid=30814

Effects of platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor on antigen-induced proliferation of human T-cell lines. -...Effects of platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor on antigen-induced proliferation of human T-cell lines. -...

Antigen-presenting cells (APC) pulsed with antigen in the presence of PDGF or EGF are able to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell ... Both growth factors increase the expression of MHC Class II antigens on antigen-presenting cells. ... Physiological concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) are able to partially ... Neither growth factor is mitogenic for T cells in the absence of antigen, and neither is able to act synergistically with T- ...
more infohttps://www.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/publications/482444

Blood Flow and Oxygen Transport sub-cluster 59Blood Flow and Oxygen Transport sub-cluster 59

Microfluidic approach to genotyping human platelet antigens. Lim C - - 2012 Centralised laboratories routinely determine blood ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/74/Blood-Flow-and-Oxygen-Transport/sub-59-p5.html

ISBT: Platelet ImmunobiologyISBT: Platelet Immunobiology

Human Platelet Antigens. Follow this link to visit ISB Education and watch the webcast of John Sample on Platelet Immunology. ... To reach our aims, we establish and monitor nomenclature for human platelet alloantigens (HPA) and support scientific co- ... Platelet Immunobiology studies the pathogenic immune mechanisms responsible for platelet disorders related to alloantibodies or ... Platelet disorders caused by antibodies against platelets include immune thrombocytopenia, fetal/neonatal alloimmune ...
more infohttp://isbtweb.org/working-parties/platelet-immunobiology/

LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF TRANSFUSION REACTION CASESLABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF TRANSFUSION REACTION CASES

This antibody is directed against human platelet antigen system.  Symptoms:  Thrombocytopenia (platelet counts ,10 x 109/L in ... Cause:  Occur when human leucocyte antigen (HLA) or human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies found in the donors plasma are ... Causes:  The immune specificity is against a platelet-specific antigen yet both autologous and allogeneic platelets are ... LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) typing Skin biopsy   Acute GVHD of the skin is characterized by ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/SaddAlias/laboratory-investigation-of-transfusion-reaction-cases

Anti-Human Platelets Antibody | Human Platelets AntibodyAnti-Human Platelets Antibody | Human Platelets Antibody

Antigen: Human platelets. *Specificity: Does not cross-react with gp1b and gp2b-3a antigens ... Anti-Human Platelets (KOR-P77) Mouse IgG MoAb. This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human ... The antibody was raised in mouse and can be used for detection of platelets in megakaryocytic leukemia. ... Anti-Human Platelets (KOR-P77) Mouse IgG MoAb 100 ug $125.00 10098B Anti-Human Platelets (KOR-P77) Mouse IgG MoAb 500 ug $ ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Miscellaneous/Primary_Antibodies_L-Z/Platelets?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=4bbO2ECcjwOwyBC98aocsO7vjY&PEBCL1_pses=ZG501B2711613FBD111243A12AB1888AFFEC7FDB08480CEA9FF1F0589DCB7E261800B123956752085D9B119E5EA47FE7C1914A1BDB6212CC79

Anti-Human Platelets Antibody | Human Platelets AntibodyAnti-Human Platelets Antibody | Human Platelets Antibody

Antigen: Human platelets. *Specificity: Does not cross-react with gp1b and gp2b-3a antigens ... Anti-Human Platelets (KOR-P77) Mouse IgG MoAb. This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human ... The antibody was raised in mouse and can be used for detection of platelets in megakaryocytic leukemia. ... Anti-Human Platelets (KOR-P77) Mouse IgG MoAb 100 ug $125.00 10098B Anti-Human Platelets (KOR-P77) Mouse IgG MoAb 500 ug $ ...
more infohttp://www.clontech.com/US/Products/Cell_Biology_and_Epigenetics/Miscellaneous/Primary_Antibodies_L-Z/Platelets?sitex=10020:22372:US&PEBCL1=hXpbKM4ykWbvbk6kQbJlgzgjQZ&PEBCL1_pses=ZG6CCD2B12F7FEEB42B3CCCED9CD237C9E20EB14B10895DBFB68D28E46EB12F2C492C40AE4F172B4B71F4FEAE413F2CEB1A3BD66F3BF3D5DB7
  • Rapid and precise diagnosis using reliable platelet serology testing is mandatory to avoid severe clinical consequences for patients. (isbtweb.org)
  • Membership is open to all ISBT members actively working in a (diagnostic) laboratory, research, or clinical setting of the field of Platelet Immunobiology. (isbtweb.org)
  • Platelets are small (~1-2 μM) anucleate discoid cells that are abundantly (150 000-450 000/ μl) present in blood during normal health. (ijbti.com)
  • To further understand hematopoiesis, we have compared gene expression profiles of human erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, B cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, and monocytes using whole genome microarrays. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using whole-genome expression arrays, we have compared the gene expression profiles of the precursors of erythrocytes and platelets (erythroblasts [EBs], megakaryocytes [MKs]) and of B cells, cytotoxic T cells (Tc), helper T cells (Th), natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • When the serum content of tissue culture medium is reduced from 10% to 1%, the capacity of T cells to proliferate in response to antigen within that medium is dramatically reduced. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Neither growth factor is mitogenic for T cells in the absence of antigen, and neither is able to act synergistically with T-cell growth factor (TCGF) or IL-2) in the absence of antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APC) pulsed with antigen in the presence of PDGF or EGF are able to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell proliferation to a greater extent than antigen-presenting cells pulsed in the absence of exogenous PDGF or EGF. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both growth factors increase the expression of MHC Class II antigens on antigen-presenting cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe human disease associated with hantavirus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • We provide access to like-minded colleagues active in (diagnostic) laboratory, research and/or clinical settings in all aspects of platelet immunobiology. (isbtweb.org)