Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A familial coagulation disorder characterized by a prolonged bleeding time, unusually large platelets, and impaired prothrombin consumption.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmunity: a tale of shadows and suspects. (1/157)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The key pathogenic feature of TTP is the formation of platelet aggregates within the microcirculation; however, the etiology of such aggregates has been elusive for years. A large amount of evidence points to an abnormal interaction between damaged vascular endothelium and platelets, although the cause of the primary microvascular endothelial cell injury is seldom clear. The autoimmune hypothesis often recurs, and this is based on a number of observations: the claimed superiority of plasma-exchange over plasma infusion, the anecdotal report of the presence of immunocomplexes and autoantibodies in TTP patients, the efficacy of the administration of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant agents, and the concomitant occurrence of TTP in association with autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review will focus on the complex relationships between TTP and humoral autoimmunity; in particular, similarities and differences between TTP, SLE and antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies syndrome, as well as the putative role of several other antibodies directed towards endothelial cells and/or platelets, including the recently discovered anti-CD36 antibodies and antivWF-cleaving metalloprotease, will be discussed. DESIGN AND METHODS: The authors have been involved in the study and treatment of TTP and autoimmune diseases for years; furthermore, the PubMed data base of the National Library of Congress has been extensively searched using the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: Although over the years evidence has increased in favor of the autoimmune hypothesis for TTP etiopathogenesis, TTP should not yet be considered an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies should be regarded as only one of the many different insults which can trigger microvascular thrombosis even though the autoimmune theory of the pathogenesis of TTP is gaining more and more strength. As far as concerns the relationship between TTP, SLE and aPL antibodies-related disorders, these diseases should be distinguished on the basis of both different clinical presentations and accurate antibody screening, although this approach should definitely not delay the prompt start of treatment.  (+info)

Increased platelet aggregability associated with platelet GPIIIa PlA2 polymorphism: the Framingham Offspring Study. (2/157)

The platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) plays a pivotal role in platelet aggregation. Recent data suggest that the PlA2 polymorphism of GPIIIa may be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown if there is any association between this polymorphism and platelet reactivity. We determined GP IIIa genotype and platelet reactivity phenotype data in 1422 subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Platelet aggregability was evaluated by the Born method. The threshold concentrations of epinephrine and ADP were determined. Allele frequencies of PlA1 and PlA2 were 0.84 and 0.16, respectively. The presence of 1 or 2 PlA2 alleles was associated with increased platelet aggregability as indicated by incrementally lower threshold concentrations for epinephrine and ADP. For epinephrine, the mean concentrations were 0.9 micromol/L (0.9 to 1.0) for homozygous PlA1, 0.7 mmol/L (0.7 to 0.9) for the heterozygous PlA1/PlA2, and 0.6 micromol/L (0.4 to 1.0) for homozygous PlA2 individuals, P=0.009. The increase in aggregability induced by epinephrine remained highly significant (P=0.007) after adjustment for covariates. For ADP-induced aggregation, the respective mean concentrations were 3.1 micromol/L (3.0 to 3.2), 3.0 micromol/L (2.9 to 3.2), and 2.8 micromol/L (2.4 to 3.3); P=0.19 after adjustment for covariates. Our findings indicate that molecular variants of the gene encoding GP IIIa play a role in platelet reactivity in vitro. Our observations are compatible with and provide an explanation for the reported association of the PlA2 allotype with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Construction of a human platelet alloantigen-1a epitope(s) within murine glycoprotein IIIa: identification of residues critical to the conformation of the antibody binding site(s). (3/157)

The human platelet alloantigen 1 system (HPA-1) is determined by a polymorphism at position 33 in the N-terminus of human glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa). This naturally occurring substitution creates a conformation in the HPA-1a allelic form that can be antigenic when presented to an individual expressing the HPA-1b form. Anti-HPA-1a antibodies generated by this immune response can lead to the destruction of platelets, as seen in the clinical disorders, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) and posttransfusion purpura (PTP). To understand better the structural requirements for recognition by these pathogenic antibodies, we investigated the N-terminal 66 amino acids from the HPA-1a form of human GPIIIa and the analogous amino acids from the nonimmunogenic murine homolog. Our objectives were to define further the boundaries of the HPA-1a epitope(s) in the N-terminus of human GPIIIa, to isolate the murine 5' nucleotide sequence and compare the deduced murine N-terminal sequence to that of human, and to mutate the murine sequence systematically to include an HPA-1a epitope(s). Murine amino acids that differed from human were changed by site-directed mutagenesis to the analogous residues in the HPA-1a form of human GPIIIa, starting and radiating from murine position 33 (site of human polymorphism). This systematic approach allowed us to pinpoint amino acids critical to a conformation recognized by anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Our results show that an HPA-1a epitope can be created within the N-terminus of murine GPIIIa and raise the possibility that murine models of HPA-1a sensitization can be developed.  (+info)

Perinatal management of fetal hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-5b incompatibility. (4/157)

We report out experience in the perinatal management of a complex case of fetal hemolytic disease primarily due to Rhesus incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The lowest fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels were 2.6 g/dl and 13,000/microliter, respectively. Intrauterine treatment consisted of six transfusions of packed red cells into the umbilical vein and one transfusion of platelets. The neonate required four transfusions of packed red cells to correct her hyporegenerative erythropoiesis. Postnatal management also included one platelet transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulins and erythropoietin. Although some degree of fetal thrombocytopenia may invariably be found in fetal red cell incompatibility, other rare causes need to be excluded.  (+info)

Association of the platelet glycoprotein IIb HPA-3 polymorphism with survival after acute ischemic stroke. (5/157)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of polymorphisms of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor in the development of cardiovascular disease has been the subject of intensive research. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the HPA-3 polymorphism of platelet GPIIb with ischemic stroke and subsequent survival and to identify possible interactions of HPA-3 with classic risk factors. METHODS: HPA-3 genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 515 patients with ischemic stroke and 423 healthy, age-matched control subjects. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution of patients and controls, nor was there any difference when patients were subclassified into small- and large-vessel disease. The genotype distribution of the 231 patients subsequently dying during 2.8 years of follow-up (aa=45.0%, ab=46.8%, bb=8.2%) was significantly different from that of those still alive (aa=37.0%, ab=48.2%, bb=14. 8%) (P=0.03). In a Cox regression model, the relative risks for poststroke mortality in patients of aa and ab genotype compared with those of bb genotype were 2.42 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.71) and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.09 to 4.17), respectively, after we accounted for confounding factors. In addition, significant interactions of HPA-3 with the Pl(A) polymorphism of GPIIIa (P=0.002) and with fibrinogen (P=0.01) were identified in relation to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: HPA-3 is related to poststroke mortality, and the significant interaction of HPA-3 with Pl(A) and fibrinogen suggests that it may in some way influence the interaction of GPIIb/IIIa with fibrinogen, particularly in the presence of high fibrinogen.  (+info)

A point mutation Thr(799)Met on the alpha(2) integrin leads to the formation of new human platelet alloantigen Sit(a) and affects collagen-induced aggregation. (6/157)

A new platelet-specific alloantigen, termed Sit(a), was identified in a severe case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The Sit(a) alloantigen is of low frequency (1/400) in the German population. Immunochemical studies demonstrated that the Sit(a) epitopes reside on platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ia. Nucleotide sequence analysis of GPIa cDNA derived from Sit(a)-positive platelets showed C(2531)-->T(2531) point mutation, resulting in Thr(799)Met dimorphism. Analysis of genomic DNA from 22 Sit(a)-negative normal individuals showed that the Thr(799) is encoded by ACG(2532) (90.9%) or ACA(2532) (9.1%). To establish a DNA typing technique, we elucidated the organization of the GPIa gene adjacent to the polymorphic bases. The introns (421 bp and 1.2 kb) encompass a 142-bp exon with the 2 polymorphic bases 2531 and 2532. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on DNA derived from 100 donors using the restriction enzyme Mae III showed that the Met(799) form of GPIa is restricted to Sit(a) (+) phenotype. Analysis of stable Chinese hamster ovary transfectants expressing allele-specific recombinant forms of GPIa showed that anti-Sit(a) exclusively reacted with the Glu(505)Met(799), but not with the Glu(505)Thr(799) and the Lys(505)Thr(799) isoforms. In contrast, anti-Br(a) (HPA-5b) only recognized the Lys(505)Thr(799) form, whereas anti-Br(b) (HPA-5a) reacted with both Glu(505)Thr(799) and Glu(505)Met(799) isoforms. These results demonstrated that the Met(799) is responsible for formation of the Sit(a) alloantigenic determinants, whereas amino acid 505 (Lys or Glu) specifically controls the expression of Br(a) and Br(b) epitopes, respectively. Platelet aggregation responses of Sit(a) (+) individuals were diminished in response to collagen, indicating that the Thr(799)Met mutation affects the function of the GPIa/IIa complex.  (+info)

Threonine-145/methionine-145 variants of baculovirus produced recombinant ligand binding domain of GPIbalpha express HPA-2 epitopes and show equal binding of von Willebrand factor. (7/157)

Glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha is the functionally dominant subunit of the platelet GPIb-IX-V receptor complex, with the von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding site residing on the amino-terminus. A threonine for methionine-145 replacement of GPIbalpha is associated with the human platelet antigen (HPA)-2 system. To study the structural and functional consequences of this mutation, both forms of GPIbalpha were expressed as calmodulin fusion proteins in insect cells. Both recombinant proteins were recognized by their respective alloantibodies, independent of glycosylation or intactness of disulfide bonds, and gave similar results to platelet-derived GPIbalpha in antibody detection assays. Resonant mirror studies showed that vWF binding was not affected by the HPA-2 mutation; however, vWF binding was partially inhibited by IgG HPA-2 antibodies. Our data are compatible with an involvement of the leucine-rich repeat domain of GPIbalpha in vWF binding and indicate that recombinant GPIbalpha may be used to detect HPA-2 antibodies. (Blood. 2000;95:205-211)  (+info)

Requirement of leucine-rich repeats of glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha for shear-dependent and static binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet membrane GP Ib-IX-V complex. (8/157)

The platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex mediates adhesion to von Willebrand factor (vWf) in (patho)physiologic thrombus formation. The vWf-binding site on GP Ib-IX-V is within the N-terminal 282 residues of GP Ibalpha, which consist of an N-terminal flanking sequence (His-1-Ile-35), 7 leucine-rich repeats (Leu-36-Ala-200), a C-terminal flank (Phe-201-Gly-268), and a sulfated tyrosine sequence (Asp-269-Glu-282). We have used mammalian cell expression of canine-human chimeras of GP Ibalpha, corresponding to precise structural boundaries, to demonstrate the first specific requirement for individual leucine-rich repeats for binding of vWf either induced by a modulator, ristocetin, or under hydrodynamic flow. Implicit in this approach was that the GP Ibalpha chimeras retained a functional conformation, a supposition confirmed by analyzing restoration of function to reversed human-canine chimeras and demonstrating that all chimeras bound vWf activated by botrocetin, a modulator that is indiscriminate between species. Leucine-rich repeats 2, 3, and 4 of GP Ibalpha were identified as being critical for vWf adhesion to GP Ib-IX-V.  (+info)

Background. Maternal alloantibodies against HPA-1a can cross placenta, opsonize foetal platelets, and induce neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). In a study of 100, 448 pregnant women in Norway during 1995-2004, 10.6% of HPA-1a negative women had detectable anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Design and Methods. A possible correlation between the maternal ABO blood group phenotype, or underlying genotype, and severe thrombocytopenia in the newborn was investigated. Results. We observed that immunized women with blood group O had a lower risk of having a child with severe NAIT than women with group A; 20% with blood group O gave birth to children with severe NAIT, compared to 47% among the blood group A mothers (relative risk 0.43; 95% CI 0.25-0.75). Conclusion. The risk of severe neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-1a antibodies is correlated to maternal ABO types, and this study indicates that the observation is due to genetic properties on the maternal side ...
Today we will be discussing fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, also referred to as NAIT, which affects about 1 in 1,000 births. NAIT is caused by maternal alloantibodies to specific platelet antigens, usually human platelet antigen 1a also referred to as HPA-1a. These antigens may be inherited from the father but are absent in the mother. Only 2% of women are HPA-1a negative and at risk to produce these alloantibodies which can lead to fetal thrombocytopenia.. Dr. Bussel, who wrote an Editorial on the subject, discusses the morbidity and mortality associated with NAIT.. If the platelets are low enough, there is a serious risk of bleeding. When the fetal platelet get low enough, then the fetus may bleed in the brain and most of the bleeding in the brain that happens in fetuses and neonates affected by NAIT, occurs in utero, not after birth.. Currently, there are no screening guidelines to identify mothers and fetuses that are at risk for NAIT. Therefore, it is usually diagnosed ...
Platelets are the cellular components of the blood coagulation system. Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet plasma membrane, GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These antigens result from a leukine-proline polymorphism at position 33 of the GPIIb-IIIa integrin. About 2% of Caucasian women are homozygous (HPA-1b/1b) and risk forming antibodies against the integrin of the fetus. Such antibodies may destroy fetal platelets and lead to neonatal/fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT).1 Anti-platelet alloimmunization has an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000 pregnancies and may cause in utero cerebral bleeds or ventriculomegaly.2-4 Thus, screening and identification of maternal alloantibodies are critical in early detection of such alloimmunization.5. Up to now, all methods for detecting auto- or alloantibodies directed at platelets, such as monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay ...
Objective To investigate the characteristics of distribution of HPA-1 ~ 5,15 gene polymorphism of Guizhou Han population,and to provide reference data for the prevention and control of HPA autoimmune disease,and the establishment of the genotyping library in Guiyang. Methods By adopting the method of PCR-SSP to 700 unrelatedhealthy blood donors for HPA-1 ~ 5,15 systems genotyping. The gene frequency and genotype were calculated,and the polymorphism distribution was summed up,and the difference with other populations were compared,in order to clarify the region characteristics.Results All systems were polymorphism distribution. HPA-1 and-4 close to aa single genotype distribution; HPA-2 and-5have a small amount of hybrid,ab heterozygote followed by 64 and 30 cases,there are 4 cases-2 bb; HPA-3 and 15 highly heterozygous,aa genotype respectively 242 and 210,ab in order for 347 and 350,and there are more bb genotype,turn for 111and 140 cases. The differences between other regions and countries increased
The current system of human platelet antigen (HPA) nomenclature, adopted in 1990, is overseen by the Platelet Nomenclature Committee of the ISBT and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. As with blood groups, there are platelet antigen systems and specific antigens within those systems. The HPA nomenclature pertains to
The current system of human platelet antigen (HPA) nomenclature, adopted in 1990, is overseen by the Platelet Nomenclature Committee of the ISBT and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. As with blood groups, there are platelet antigen systems and specific antigens within those systems. The HPA nomenclature pertains to
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests.. *In the US, BioArray HPA, RhCE, and RhD assays currently are available as Research Use Only ...
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests.. *In the US, BioArray HPA and Rh assays currently are available as Research Use Only ...
NORCROSS, Ga, February 17, 2017 - Immucor, Inc., a global leader in transfusion and transplantation diagnostics, today announced the launch of Pak Lx™, a qualitative Luminex®-based immunoassay that brings high-definition to platelet antibody testing. While the assay is CE marked and has previously been available in international markets, Pak Lx is now available as a research use only (RUO) kit in the United States.. Platelets express a variety of polymorphic proteins that may become targets for antibodies as a result of pregnancy or transfusion. The presence of antibodies that bind to platelet glycoproteins is associated with life-threatening bleeding disorders, such as refractoriness to platelet transfusions, post-transfusion purpura (PTP), and fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The Pak Lx assay may be used to detect and differentiate IgG antibodies to Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5), Glycoprotein (GPIV), and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Class ...
CD109 (Cluster of Differentiation 109) is a human gene. CD109 is a GPI-linked cell surface antigen expressed by CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia cell lines, T-cell lines, activated T lymphoblasts, endothelial cells, and activated platelets (Lin et al., 2002). In addition, the platelet-specific Gov antigen system, implicated in refractoriness to platelet transfusion, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura, is carried by CD109 (Kelton et al., 1990; Lin et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156535 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046186 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: CD109 CD109 molecule. Lucas GF, Metcalfe P (2000). Platelet and granulocyte glycoprotein polymorphisms. Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 10 (3): 157-74. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3148.2000.00250.x. PMID 10972910. Sutherland DR, Yeo E, Ryan A, et al. (1991). ...
Abrams CS. Thrombocytopenia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 163.. Arnold DM, Zeller MP, Smith JW, Nazy I. Diseases of platelet number: immune thrombocytopenia, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 131.. Warkentin TE. Thrombocytopenia caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 132. ...
Glycoprotein Ibalpha (GP Ibα; CD 42b; hereafter GPIBA) is a component of the cell surface receptor for the von Willebrand factor (vWf) on platelets. Immunizations against various platelet surface antigens play a major role in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and in post-transfusion purpura. Only one antigenic polymorphism in GPIBA has thus far been established: the HPA-2 (Ko) alloantigen system. To screen other polymorphisms in GPIBA systematically, we analyzed the whole coding sequence of theGPIBA gene in 50 Finnish blood donors using the single-strand conformation polymorphism method. In addition to the known polymorphisms, we detected three others. Sequencing of the gene segments carrying the new polymorphisms revealed that none of them changed the predicted amino acid sequence. Polymorphism designatedRS was located five base pairs upstream from the initiation codon at position 3064 and had the gene frequency of 16% forR and 84% forS, respectively, in the Finnish population, and it was
BACKGROUND - The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs5918 in the ITGB3 gene defines the human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) system encoding a Leu (HPA-1a) or Pro (HPA-1b) at position 33. HPA-1 antibodies are clinically the most relevant in the Caucasoid population, but detection currently requires alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin from the platelets of HPA-genotyped donors.. OBJECTIVES - We set out to define the beta3 integrin domains required for HPA-1a antibody binding and produce recombinant soluble beta3 peptides for HPA-1 antibody detection.. METHODS - We designed two sets (1a and 1b) of four soluble beta3 domain-deletion peptides (deltaSDL, deltabetaA, PSIHybrid, PSI), informed by crystallography studies and computer modeling. The footprints of three human HPA-1a-specific phage antibodies were defined by analyzing binding patterns to the beta3 peptides and canine platelets, and models of antibody-antigen interfaces were derived. Specificity and sensitivity for HPA-1a detection were assessed using ...
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article{CIS-467518, Author = {Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J. and Cooke, Glen E. and Doss, Hani and Burr, Deborah}, Title = {A meta-analysis of studies on the association of the platelet PlA polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa and risk of coronary heart disease}, Journal = {Statistics in Medicine}, Volume = {22}, Number = {10}, Year = {2003}, Pages = {1741--1760}, Keywords ...
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Please cite this paper as: Madani K, Kamphuis M, Lopriore E, Porcelijn L, Oepkes D. Delayed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. BJOG 2012;119:1612-1616.. Objective To evaluate the rate and consequences of a late or missed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT).. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of a national cohort.. Setting National referral centre for fetal therapy in the Netherlands.. Population Twenty-six women with pregnancies complicated by FNAIT and at least one previous pregnancy with a thrombocytopenic child.. Methods Retrospective analysis of data from our electronic FNAIT database. In a consecutive cohort managed between July 2008 and July 2010, timing of first diagnosis of FNAIT was correlated to severity and outcome in the subsequent pregnancies.. Main outcome measures Occurrence of delayed diagnosis of FNAIT, and possibly associated intracranial ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serological evaluation of maternal sera for platelet antibodies in suspected fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAITP) discloses in only approximately 30% of individuals a platelet-specific antibody. Transfusion-induced alloimmunization against human platelet antigen-15 (HPA-15) has been reported to be about as common as against HPA-5, the second most common platelet antibody. Thus, anti-HPA-15 may also contribute significantly to yet-unclear cases of FNAITP.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we provide data on maternal platelet antibodies from 309 mothers who delivered an offspring with suspected FNAITP.. RESULTS: Genotyping maternal and paternal samples (together n = 573) revealed a gene frequency of 0.496 for HPA-15a and a gene frequency of 0.504 for HPA-15b. HPA-15 antibodies were detected in 2% of all samples. Anti-HPA-15a and -15b were detected in two and three samples, respectively. One serum reacted equally with HPA-15a and -15b ...
Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT) outcomes from maternal alloimmunisation against foetal platelet antigens inherited from the father and different from those present in the mother, and usually presents like a severe isolated thrombocytopaenia in otherwise healthy newborns. platelets devoid of this antigen, and should not be delayed by biological confirmation of the analysis (once the analysis is definitely suspected), especially Ki16425 in case of severe thrombocytopaenia. Quick analysis and treatment are essential to reduce the chances of death and disability due to haemorrhage. Due to the high rate of recurrence and improved severity of the foetal thrombocytopaenia in successive pregnancies, antenatal therapy should be offered. However, management of high-risk pregnancies is still a matter of conversation. Disease name/synonyms Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FAIT/NAIT) [1] or foeto-maternal alloimmunisation thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) [2]. Definition/diagnostic ...
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BACKGROUND: Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia occurs when the mother produces antibodies against a platelet alloantigen that the fetus has inherited from the father. A consequence of this can be a reduced number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) in the fetus, which can result in bleeding whilst in the womb or shortly after birth. In severe cases this bleeding may lead to long-lasting disability or death. Antenatal management of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia centres on preventing severe thrombocytopenia in the fetus. Available management options include administration of intravenous immunoglobulins or corticosteroids to the mother or intrauterine transfusion of antigen compatible platelets to the fetus. All options are costly and need to be assessed in terms of potential risk and benefit to both the mother and an individual fetus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal antenatal treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia to prevent fetal and neonatal haemorrhage and death. SEARCH
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia is caused when the mothers and babys platelets become incompatible, a condition known as platelet alloimmunization. To understand platelet alloimmunization, you must first understand about different platelet types. Platelet types are defined by antigens, substances or factors that exist on the surface of the cell. The most common of these is the HPA-1 antigen, which is present in 98% of people. These patients are referred to as HPA-1 positive. When their blood is tested, the test will return as HPA-1a/1a or HPA-1a/1b. About 2% of the population is HPA-1 negative; these patients are called HPA-1 negative. A blood test on one of these patients will return as HPA-1b/1b.. There are other platelet antigen systems found in humans that are associated with Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, including HPA-3, HPA-4 (present in people of Asian descent), HPA-5, HPA-9 and HPA-15. If an antigen is present, the person is called positive for the antigen; if it is ...
Principal Investigator:SHIBATA Yoichi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Laboratory medicine
There have been considerable advances in the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of alloimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT), and its postnatal and antenatal management. The antenatal management of AIT has been particularly problematic, because severe haemorrhage occurs as early as 16 weeks gestation and there is no non-invasive investigation that reliably predicts the severity of AIT in utero. The strategies for antenatal treatment have included the use of serial platelet transfusions that, while effective, are invasive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Maternal therapy involving the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and/or steroids is also effective and associated with fewer risks to the fetus. Significant recent progress has involved refinement of maternal treatment, stratifying it according to the likely severity of AIT based on the history in previous pregnancies. However, the ideal antenatal treatment, which is effective without causing significant side-effects to the
After investigations post birth, we found that Raife only had platelets of 8! This meant our beautiful little man was whisked away to intensive care needing special care and transfusions. An MRI scan determined a parents worst nightmare- he had lost the majority of his right temporal lobe due to a significant bleed to the brain as a result of his lack of platelets. Even worse, we then found out that the bleed was due to a rare disorder that we as parents have called NAIT (neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia) whilst in utero, my body was attacking his platelets a very rare and dangerous blood disorder ...
Cases of CD36 deficiency are not rare in Asian populations, foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) caused by anti-CD36 isoantibodies appears more frequent than other HPA...
I am in my late 30s and live in NYC. I lost my first child at 24 weeks 5 days on Christmas Day, 2007. He was perfectly healthy and the cause of his death may have been a cord accident, a blood clot in the placenta or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. I found out that I was pregnant again on the day my precious Dashiell was due. This is my chronicle of happiness, anxiety, fear and love throughout my subsequent pregnancy. It will also be a record of my experience as a mother to an earth baby and an angel ...
On 26 November 2019 (10:00) Dian Winkelhorst will defend her PhD thesis Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia evidence based screening at Leiden University.
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Diabetes Care. 36(3):e36, MARCH 2013. DOI: 10.2337/dc12-1849 , PMID: 23431098. Issn Print: 0149-5992. Publication Date: March 2013. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trombocitopenia neonatal e hipertensión inducida por el embarazo. AU - Bhat, Y. Ramesh. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - Thrombocytopenia in neonates occurs due to various causes, and pregnancy induced hypertension has been implicated as one of the maternal etiologies. The frequency and severity of thrombocytopenia vary. Severity of thrombocytopenia may influence the morbidity, warrant intervention and rarely may lead to life threatening hemorrhages. A better understanding of thrombocytopenia due to this etiology helps optimize the care. In the present review the author discusses the frequency, mechanisms, severity, characteristics and natural course, and management options for neonatal thrombocytopenia due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.. AB - Thrombocytopenia in neonates occurs due to various causes, and pregnancy induced hypertension has been implicated as one of the maternal etiologies. The frequency and severity of thrombocytopenia vary. Severity of ...
The detection of an antigen is the in front and chief Antigens fitting for in the function of activation of immunological responses buy glipizide cheap online blood glucose kits, predominantly as a replacement for induction of cellular release glipizide 10mg with mastercard diabetes mellitus jenis 1. Immunogenicity is the aptitude to annoy an immune stall membranes of all majority cells except red cells cheap 10 mg glipizide fast delivery. The proteins in the cells are continuously defied down to their peptide fragments. When a peptide remnant of a self protein is picked up virus, flagella of bacteria or the chamber wall of the organism. They are important as histocompatibility antigens in gens, whereas B cells sympathize with to proteins and non-protein organ transplantation. In transfusion remedy, they are liable in behalf of auto- Explicit morsel of an antigen that triggers the immuno- immunization against platelet antigens and refractori- logical revenge is called antigenic determinant or ...
The A2 allele of the platelet specific alloantigen system is encoded by rs5918(C), and it has been implicated as increasing the risk of myocardial infarction, heart disease, and resistance to blood-thinning benefits of aspirin. On its own, the A2 allele is implicated especially in early onset heart disease [PMID 8598867]; in combination with the 4G allele of the PAI1 gene, rs1799889, the increased risk of myocardial infarction in a Finnish study population was 4 fold higher (odds ratio = 4.5, p=0.001), particularly in males (odds ratio = 6.4, p=0.0005) [PMID 9700201]. Olympic skater Sergei Grinkov, who had this risk factor, died of a heart attack at age 28. [1] A2 allele carriers also appear to be relatively resistant to the anti-thrombotic (i.e. anti-clotting) actions normally associated with aspirin use.[PMID 11723016] A protective effect of rs5918 has also been observed for the development of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, both for the SNP (which is also known as L59P) and for its gene, ITGB3. The ...
Riya lektînê a sîstema temamker dişibe rêya çalakbûna klasîkî, lê ji bo destpêkirina çalakbûnê gava yekem ne girêdana dijeten - dijepeydaker e. Li ser rûyê hokarên nexweşiyê de hin molekulên taybet hene ev molekulan wekî nexşên molekulên têkildarên hokarên nexweşiyê (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)) tê nasîn. Li ser rûyê piraniya xirokên spî jî proteînên bi navê wergirên nasîna nexşê (Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)) heye. Xaneyên bergiriyê bi van wergiran hokarên nexweşiyê dinase. Wergirên nasîna nexşê ne tenê li ser rûyê xirokên spî de ne, hinek ji wan jî wekî molekulên serbest di nav xwînê de tevdigerin. Gava ev wergirên serbest rastê hokara nexweşiyê tên, xwe bi nexşên molekulên tekîldarên hokarên nexweşiye ve girê didin. Lektîna bi mannozê ve tê girêdan (bi îngilîzî: Mannose-biding lectin(MBL))[4] jî yêk ji van wergirên serbest e ku bi rûyê hokara nexweşiyê de xwe girê dide. Bi ...
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Dalam CD ini dipecahkan kepada 3 bahagian iaitu bahagian document, bahagian image dan bahagian video. CD ini memuatkan cara-cara menternak kambing dari peringkat pengenalan kambing,jenis-jenis kambing, cara penjagaan kambing baka,induk dan anak,pembinaan kandang,gambar- gambar kandang, kawalan persekitaran, kawalan dan jenis penyakit,penjagaan anak dan induk, 6 strategi pemasaran, SALT, laman-laman web ternakan kambing,pemakanan, analisa swot, gambar-gambar ternakan dan video pendek ternakan. Juga dimasukkan penggunaan Mikrob baik untuk ladang ternakan serta penyediaan kertas kerja. Memang berbaloi hanya RM25.00 shj. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal platelet counts correlate with the severity of the anemia in red-cell alloimmunization. AU - Saade, George. AU - Moise, K. J.. AU - Copel, J. A.. AU - Belfort, M. A.. AU - Carpenter, R. J.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Objective: To determine whether fetal anemia secondary to maternal red-cell alloimmunization is associated with thrombocytopenia. Methods: The records of 78 patients undergoing intrauterine transfusion for red-cell alloimmunization were reviewed. Pre-transfusion fetal platelet counts were compared between hydropic and nonhydropic fetuses. A regression analysis was performed between the fetal platelet counts and the fetal bilirubin levels, hematocrits, and reticulocyte counts taken at the initial transfusion. The hematocrits, reticulocyte counts, and bilirubin levels were adjusted for gestational age by calculating the number of standard deviations (SDs) from the mean for that age or the multiples of the mean (MOM). Student t test, Pearson coefficient, and ...
The Blood Services Platelet Laboratory has been functioning as the national reference laboratory since 1970. We examine platelet dysfunctions and the immunological and hereditary causes of thrombocytopenia. Our laboratory staff is highly trained and specialized in the special features of platelet disorder testing in particular. The methods require profound special expertise and, as a rule, they are not made in other laboratories in Finland. Our range of testing includes fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT/FMAIT), platelet function testing, membrane glycoprotein assays, auto- and alloimmune thrombocytopenia tests and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia tests. The available tests are described in the laboratory manual ...
In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. The annual mean concentrations were from 0.02 microg/L at sites located in the middle reaches to 0.11 microg/L at the river mouth. At each scale, there were consistent themes that emerged as determinative in infection outcome. The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. Small intestinal submucosa gel as a potential scaffolding material for cardiac tissue engineering. To investigate the relationship among 3 polymorphisms of GP IIb and the function of GP IIb T13959 G in the platelet transfusion refractoriness(PTR).. A mixed methods approach with an online survey and qualitative key informant interviews was conducted with all partnership members at baseline and follow-up, 18 months later. A considerable suppression of hypophyseal and thyroid function coinciding with the maximum values of ...
Contents: Preface; Part I. Cellular Changes: 1. Normal hematological changes during pregnancy and the puerperium Margaret Ramsay; 2. Hematinic deficiencies Jane Strong; 3. Inherited red cell disorders Emma Welch and Josh Wright; 4. Maternal autoimmune cytopenias Hamish Lyall and Bethan Myers; Part II. Fetomaternal Alloimmune Syndromes: 5. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia Michael F. Murphy; 6. Red cell alloimmunisation Alec McEwan; Part III. Thromboembolism and Anticoagulation: 7. Venous thromboembolism Ian A. Greer; 8. Thromboprophylaxis Catherine Nelson-Piercy and Sarah Germain; 9. Prosthetic heart valves Claire McLintock; 10. Management of anticoagulants at delivery Christina Oppenheimer and Paul Sharpe; Part IV. Thrombophilia and Fetal Loss: 11. Antiphospholipid syndrome Sue Pavord and Bethan Myers; 12. Thrombophilia and pregnancy loss Isobel D. Walker; Part V. Haemorrhagic Disorders: 13a. Management of obstetric hemorrhage: obstetric management Susan Bewley and Annette Briley; 13b. ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a paradoxical thrombotic state resulting from an immune response to heparin. Epidemiology Occurs in 1:5000 patients who have received heparin, most commonly unfractionated heparin. Pathology HIT is ...
Fetal and neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is considered as a rare disease due to the incidence (1/1000-1/2000 births). The major complication of severe thrombocytopenia is bleeding and particularly intra-cranial hemorrhage and neurologic sequelae following. Serology and molecular biology developments have reconfigured the platelet immunology diagnosis. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunisation is responsible for more than 80% FNAIT cases with a high recurrence rate of severe bleeding complications. Therapeutic management has changed over the coming years from an invasive concept associating fetal blood sampling and in utero platelet transfusion to a non invasive treatment by intravenous immunoglobulins injection (IVIg ...
A course which is generally 6 weeks and longer in duration and requires a medium to high level of involvement from NAIT staff namely: Credit Work Experience, which applies only to the Applied Degree setting, Clinical Placement and Field Placement, both of which occur in the Certificate and Diploma program settings ...
Implications thérapeutiques du titrage sérique des anticorps anti-PLA2R dans la glomérulonéphrite extra-membraneuse idiopathique : à propos dun cas clinique
Pòtásíọ̀mù je elimenti kemika kan to ni ami-idamo K (latinu ede Latini Tuntun fun kalium) ati nomba atomu 19. Potasiomu je metali alkali alawo fadaka-funfun didelowo to undi oksidi kiakia ninu afefe to si yirapo mo omi gigdigidi, eyi unfa igbona jade to sana si haidrojin to unbujade ninu iyirapo na, o si unjo bi awo lilaki. Nitoripe potasiomu ati sodiomu jora ni isese kemika won, awon iyọ̀ won ko se e ya sira won nibere. O di odun 1702 ko to di pe won fun ra pe opo elimenti wa ninu awon iyo won,[3] eyi je mimufidaju ni odun 1807 nigba ti potasiomu ati sodiomu je yiya sotooto latinu awon iyọ̀ otooto pelu elektrolisisi. Potasiomu inu adaye wa ninu awon iyọ̀ oniioni nikan. Nitori eyi, o wa ninu omi okun (to je 0.04% potasiomu pelu iwuwo[4][5]), o si je apa opo awon alumoni. ...
Wekî ku desthilatdar e, ew li ser tedawiya hormone ye. Lêbelê, jin dikare dikare bi rewşa xwarinê çêtir bikin ku armanceke pêvajoya pêvajoyê ya hormone çalak bike. Di demeke dirêj de tê zanîn ku testosterone , epinephrine, noradrenaline bi şewitandina fat, û insulin û estrogensê bandora nerazîbûnê heye. Di nav navê xwarinê hormonal de tê gotin ku sê bingehên sereke cuda ye: ...
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Dalam CD ini dipecahkan kepada 3 bahagian iaitu bahagian document, bahagian image dan bahagian video. CD ini memuatkan cara-cara menternak kambing dari peringkat pengenalan kambing,jenis-jenis kambing, cara penjagaan kambing baka,induk dan anak,pembinaan kandang,gambar- gambar kandang, kawalan persekitaran, kawalan dan jenis penyakit,penjagaan anak dan induk, 6 strategi pemasaran, SALT, laman-laman web ternakan kambing,pemakanan, analisa swot, gambar-gambar ternakan dan video pendek ternakan. Juga dimasukkan penggunaan Mikrob baik untuk ladang ternakan serta penyediaan kertas kerja. Memang berbaloi hanya RM25.00 shj. ...
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Human-to-human transmission of EBOV through the air has not been reported to occur during EVD outbreaks,[3] and airborne ... Blood products such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma may also be used.[135] Other regulators of ... "First Antigen Rapid Test for Ebola through Emergency Assessment and Eligible for Procurement". World Health Organization (WHO ... human consumption of bushmeat has been linked to animal-to-human transmission of diseases, including Ebola.[80] ...
... for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching (see PGD for HLA matching) in order to donate to an ill sibling requiring HSCT. ... platelet and hemoglobin levels dip post-procedure, not returning to normal until after one month.[45] ... the donor should preferably have the same human leukocyte antigens (HLA) as the recipient. About 25 to 30 percent of allogeneic ... The first physician to perform a successful human bone marrow transplant on a disease other than cancer was Robert A. Good at ...
Imported cases have not manifested in larger epidemics outside of Africa due to a lack of human to human transmission in ... However, immunofluorescence essays provide less definitive proof of Lassa infection.[7] An ELISA test for antigen and ... low platelets), and elevated aspartate transaminase levels in the blood. Lassa fever virus can also be found in cerebrospinal ... tends to colonize human settlements increasing the risk of rodent-human contact, and is found throughout the west, central and ...
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... platelets - PML - Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii or PCP) - POL - polymerase - Polymerase chain ... human growth hormone (HGH) - human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - ... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Maton D, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD, Kulkarni DV (1997). Human Biology and Health. ... In addition to the irregularly shaped leukocytes, both red blood cells and many small disc-shaped platelets are visible. ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ...
A low platelet count and positivity for antibodies against β2-glycoprotein 1 or phosphatidylserine may also be observed in a ... "Human Reproduction Update. 21 (1): 97-118. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu049. PMID 25228006.. ... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ... Often, this disease is treated by giving aspirin to inhibit platelet activation, and/or warfarin as an anticoagulant. The goal ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood ... cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil, and many small disc-shaped platelets. ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ...
মানব কঙ্কাল (Human skeleton). *অস্থি (Bone). *তরুণাস্থি (Cartilege). *অস্থিসন্ধি (Joint) *তন্তুময় অস্থিসন্ধি (Fibrous joint) ... প্রতিজন বা প্রত্যুৎপাদক (Antigen). *শ্লেষ্মা ঝিল্লি (Mucus membrane). *শ্লেষ্মা (Mucus). *কেরাটিন বা শৃঙ্গপদার্থ (Keratin) ...
Primarna funkcija IL-8 citokina je da regrutuje neutrofile da fagocitoziraju antigen koji je pobudio antigenski obrazac toll- ... resides in a gene cluster along with several other members of the platelet factor 4 gene superfamily". Hum. Genet. 84 (2): 185- ... "Endothelial cell "memory" of inflammatory stimulation: human venular endothelial cells store interleukin 8 in Weibel-Palade ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... For example, beta-lysine, a protein produced by platelets during coagulation, can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune response. • epidermis development. • actin polymerization or ... and small-sized platelets) in these patients the protein is usually significantly reduced or absent. Other, less inactivating ... "Human PubMed Reference:".. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw- ... of WASP depend on its activity as a scaffold protein for assembly of effective signalling complexes downstream of antigen ...
... of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in normal human ... platelets, and monocytes. T cell activation is accompanied by a strong up-regulation of PrP, though it is not requisite. The ... thought to be due to human ingestion of diseased individuals, and vCJD, thought to be due to human ingestion of BSE-tainted ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ...
Phosphoproteome of resting human platelets Identified S305 phosphorylation by PKA/PKG in the unstructured region containing SH2 ... Upregulated in eosinophils post antigen exposure.[21] Cystic fibrosis Possible correlation with severity of the lung ... "Phosphoproteome of resting human platelets". Journal of Proteome Research. 7 (2): 526-34. doi:10.1021/pr0704130. PMID 18088087. ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ...
... and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on ... Fc receptors are also found on eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages and platelets in humans. There are two types of Fcε ... "Factors affecting human IgE and IgG responses to allergen-like Schistosoma mansoni antigens: Molecular structure and patterns ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
The P-selectin then promotes platelet aggregation through platelet-fibrin and platelet-platelet binding. ... In human, P-selectin has nine repeats while E-selectin contains six and L-selectin has only two. P-selectin is anchored in ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... platelet alpha granule membrane. • platelet dense granule membrane. • external side of plasma membrane. • extracellular space. ...
... human studies have found that degalactosylation of IgA1 occurs in patients with IgA nephropathy in response only to gut antigen ... Cyclophosphamide ( traded as endoxan & cytoxan )and Isotretinoin have commonly been used, often with anti-platelet/ ... Exogenous antigens for IgA have not been identified in the kidney, but it is possible that this antigen has been cleared before ... Associations described include those with C4 null allele, factor B Bf alleles, MHC antigens and IgA isotypes. ACE gene ...
Denomme GA (July 2004). "The structure and function of the molecules that carry human red blood cell and platelet antigens". ... Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among ... Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens *^ a b Pierigè F, Serafini S, Rossi L, Magnani M (January 2008). "Cell-based drug delivery ... "An estimation of the number of cells in the human body". Annals of Human Biology. 40 (6): 463-471. doi:10.3109/03014460.2013. ...
Granule contents of basophils are abundant with histamine, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, peroxidase, platelet-activating factor ... The intracellular granules of the human neutrophil have long been recognized for their protein-destroying and bactericidal ... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... One litre of human blood contains about five billion (5x109) neutrophils,[5] which are about 12-15 micrometers in diameter.[6] ...
Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... "Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising immunotherapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain ...
Diagram of an adult human testicle: A.) Blood vessels; B.) Head of epididymis; C.) Efferent ductules; D.) Seminiferous tubules ... প্রতিজন বা প্রত্যুৎপাদক (Antigen). *শ্লৈষ্মিক ঝিল্লি (Mucus membrane). *শ্লেষ্মা (Mucus). *কেরাটিন বা শৃঙ্গপদার্থ (Keratin) ...
Increased CCL11 levels in blood plasma are associated with aging (and reduced neurogenesis) in mice and humans.[10] ... Platelet factor-4 superfamily or intercrines. Some chemokines are considered pro-inflammatory and can be induced during an ... such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen- ... Using these ligands is possible routing antigen-presenting cells (APC) to lymph nodes during the adaptive immune response. ...
"A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland". Human Genetics. 121 (5 ... Antibodies towards the specific pathogens or antigens that were used in the immunization are present in higher levels than in ... platelet-derived growth factor,[31] vascular endothelial growth factor,[32] and colony-stimulating factor-1.[33] ... Notably in humans a lack of colostrum production is linked to a mutation in the ABCC11 gene that occurs in most people of East ...
Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ... Patients in the early stage of disease showed a decrease in coagulation factors (e.g. platelets, prothrombin, and globulin) and ... which measured Variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and antigen were also developed to assist in the diagnosis of infection.[ ... Hays, J.N. (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 151-52. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9. .. ...
Extremely low platelet counts may be temporarily boosted through platelet transfusions and new drugs to increase platelet ... The antibody will be targeted at a preferentially expressed protein in the tumour cells (known as a tumor antigen) or on cells ... Morgan S, Anderson RA, Gourley C, Wallace WH, Spears N (2012). "How do chemotherapeutic agents damage the ovary?". Human ... Medications that kill rapidly dividing cells or blood cells can reduce the number of platelets in the blood, which can result ...
However, platelet transfusion is suggested for platelet counts below (10 × 109/L) without any risk of bleeding, or (20 × 109/L ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ... the authors noted that as of the date of their article over 150 clinical trials of sepsis had been conducted in humans, almost ... platelet count , 80,000/mm3 or 50% drop from maximum in chronically thrombocytopenic, or ...
Typically, the platelet count falls to 80% of normal, and thrombocytopenia may be associated with neutropenia and anemia.[29] ... 2005). "Anti-ulcer drugs promote IgE formation toward dietary antigens in adult patients". FASEB J. 19 (6): 656-658. doi: ... US: B (No risk in non-human studies) *. Routes of. administration. By mouth, IV. ...
... mobilized human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells following a reduced-intensity ... The median recovery times of neutrophils and platelets were 11 days and 14.5 days, respectively, in the G-PBSC group and 16 ...
A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood showing red blood cells, several types of white blood ... cells including lymphocytes, a monocyte, a neutrophil and many small disc-shaped platelets. ... Human leukocyte antigen. *Innate lymphoid cell. *Lymphoproliferative disorders. *Reactive lymphocyte. *Secretion assay ...
Gaudet R, Wiley DC (Sep 2001). "Structure of the ABC ATPase domain of human TAP1, the transporter associated with antigen ... possibly related to the outward transport of the lipid platelet activating factor (PAF). It has also been reported that ABCB1 ... ABC genes are essential for many processes in the cell, and mutations in human genes cause or contribute to several human ... Some of these exporters in humans are involved in tumor resistance, cystic fibrosis and a range of other inherited human ...
Some symptoms caused by this toxin are a decrease in platelet count in the blood or thrombocytopenia, an increase in white ... Beutin, L; Miko, A; Krause, G; Pries, K; Haby, S; Steege, K; Albrecht, N (2007). "Identification of human-pathogenic strains of ... and Th17 Responses to Vaccine Antigens". Infection and Immunity. 80 (7): 2426-2435. doi:10.1128/IAI.00181-12. PMC 3416479 . ... The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such ...
2005) Quantification of human platelet antigen-1a antibodies with the monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens ... GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These ... Therefore, since the Camtran human monoclonal antibody was raised against the human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) found on GPIIb ... Establishment of a cell line panel as an alternative source of platelet antigens for a screening assay of anti-human platelet ...
Analysis of gene polymorphism of human platelet antigen 1-17 system in platelet donors of Kunming[J];Medicine and Pharmacy of ... The analysis of the polymorphism of human platelet antigen genes in Han population,Guizhou,China. ... Polymorphism of the Human Platelet Antigens 1-6 in Shenzhen Han Population of Chinese[J];Journal of Medern Laboratory Medicine; ... Polymorphism of human platelet antigens 1 to 16 in Zhejiang Han population[J];Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion;2007-06. ...
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended ... platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post- ... transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests. ...
... on platelets. Immunizations against various platelet surface antigens play a major role in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ... on platelets. Immunizations against various platelet surface antigens play a major role in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ... Structure of the human blood platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib alpha gene. (1988) R H Wenger et al. Biochemical and Biophysical ... The 5 flanking region and chromosomal localization of the gene encoding human platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib alpha. (1989) ...
NAIT is caused by maternal alloantibodies to specific platelet antigens, usually human platelet antigen 1a also referred to as ... Filed Under: Platelet Transfusion, Special Transfusion Situations, Videos. Related Posts. * Anti-Human Platelet Antigen (HPA)- ... "If the platelets are low enough, there is a serious risk of bleeding. When the fetal platelet get low enough, then the fetus ... These antigens may be inherited from the father but are absent in the mother. Only 2% of women are HPA-1a negative and at risk ...
The Pak Lx assay may be used to detect and differentiate IgG antibodies to Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4 ... and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Class I). Once validated for use, Pak Lx may be used to support the selection of antigen ... Platelets express a variety of polymorphic proteins that may become targets for antibodies as a result of pregnancy or ... "Pak Lx is an important addition to our platelet compatibility portfolio and provides another tool to enable laboratories to ...
BACKGROUND - The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs5918 in the ITGB3 gene defines the human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) ... human HPA-1a-specific phage antibodies were defined by analyzing binding patterns to the beta3 peptides and canine platelets, ... and models of antibody-antigen interfaces were derived. Specificity and sensitivity for HPA-1a detection were assessed using ... beta3 integrin from the platelets of HPA-genotyped donors. ...
Human platelet antigens (HPA) are polymorphisms in platelet antigens. These can stimulate production of alloantibodies (that is ... Human+Platelet+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v ... "Nomenclature of human platelet antigens". Vox Sang. 85 (3): 240-5. doi:10.1046/j.1423-0410.2003.00331.x. PMID 14516468. ... antibodies against other peoples antigens) in recipients of transfused platelets from donors with different HPAs. These ...
Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors Determined by Sequence-Specific Primer Polymerase Chain Reaction. ... Shun-Chung Pai, Thierry Burnouf, Jen-Wei Chen, and Liang-In Lin, "Human Platelet Antigen Alleles in 998 Taiwanese Blood Donors ... 4Human Protein Process Sciences (HPPS), 59000 Lille, France. 5Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University ...
Human Platelet" by people in Profiles.. * Eyada TK, Amin DG, Samih I, Khedr SM. Human platelet antigen 1, 2 and 5 gene ... Human Platelet" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Human Platelet" was a major or minor topic of these ... Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific ... "Antigens, Human Platelet" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
... or control recall antigens in the presence of autologous sera and T cell proliferation was measured by (3)H-thymidine ... had no activity towards any peptide despite responding to control antigens. Administration of IVIG during pregnancy appeared to ... The human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a) is the most common alloantigenic target in fetal and neonatal alloimmune ... Antigens, Human Platelet, Cell Division, Epitopes, Female, Humans, Infant, Newborn, Isoantibodies, Leukocytes, Mononuclear, ...
Human Platelet" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Human Platelet" was a major or minor topic of these ... Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific ... "Antigens, Human Platelet" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, Human Platelet" by people in Profiles. ...
Human platelet antigen (HPA) 1-5 and 15 typing in an Egyptian population using sequence specific primer PCR and TaqMan ...
Bray, PF, Jin, Y, Kickler, TS, Blakemore, K & Kwon, OH 1995, Gene frequencies of the five major human platelet antigens in ... Gene frequencies of the five major human platelet antigens in African American, white, and Korean populations. / Bray, P. F.; ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Gene frequencies of the five major human platelet antigens in African American, ... Gene frequencies of the five major human platelet antigens in African American, white, and Korean populations. Transfusion. ...
Human platelet antigen (HPA) typing plays a critical role in the diagnosis of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and ... Genotyping of Human Platelet Antigens by BeadChip Microarray Technology.. Bertrand G1, Conti F. ... the prevention of posttransfusion purpura and refractoriness to platelet transfusions. The recent development of high- ...
Megakaryocytes synthesize HMGB1 and transfer both protein and mRNA into platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles. ... Megakaryocytes synthesize HMGB1 and transfer both protein and mRNA into platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles. ... Platelets are the major source of HMGB1, a protein that is involved in sterile inflammation of blood vessels and thrombosis. ... Platelets are the major source of HMGB1, a protein that is involved in sterile inflammation of blood vessels and thrombosis. ...
Human platelet antigens are derived from polymorphisms of these glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to investigate human ... Rozman P. Platelet antigens. The role of human platelet alloantigens (HPA) in blood transfusion and transplantation. Transpl ... Molecular typing of human platelet antigens in immune thrombocytopenia patients in northern Brazil Julia Cavalcante do Carmo 1 ... Human platelet antigens and primary immune thrombocytopenia. Castro V. Castro V. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 2017 Apr-Jun;39(2): ...
Adult , Humans , Male , Antigens, Human Platelet/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1 , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis ... The absence of the human platelet antigen polymorphism effect on fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1/ ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: HIV Infections / HIV-1 / Antigens, Human Platelet / Hepacivirus / ... Human platelet antigen polymorphisms are associated with the rapid development of fibrosis in HCV-monoinfected patients. This ...
Platelet count , 20,000/mm3. *No HLA-identical family member or closely matched (8 of 8 HLA-locus match) unrelated marrow donor ... Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients With Aplastic Anemia. This ...
Platelet count ,=75 * 10^9/L (without prior platelet transfusion within 7 days before the laboratory test) in subjects in whom ... Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ,=1 * 10^9 per liter (L) (without recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G- ... JNJ-68284528 is an autologous chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy that targets B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), a ... A Phase 3 Randomized Study Comparing JNJ-68284528, a Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell (CAR-T) Therapy Directed Against BCMA, ...
Antigens, Human Platelet. *Aspirin. *Bernard-Soulier Syndrome. *beta-Thromboglobulin. *Blood Coagulation Disorders ... including platelet aggregation, the integrin-mediated interaction of one platelet with another to form a platelet hemostatic ... which is present in high concentrations in platelets and plays a role in the activation in platelets, ... Kindlin supports platelet integrin αIIbβ3 activation by interacting with paxillin.. (Gao J, Huang M, Lai J, Mao K, Sun P, Cao Z ...
... platelet transfusion purpura (PTP), and refractoriness to platelet transfusion.The frequency of platelet antigens varies among ... The estimated mismatch probability regarding platelet antigens HPA-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 in Moroccan blood donors, after random ... and estimate the mismatch probability of different platelet alloantigens, after random transfusions of platelet concentrates. ... The frequencies of these antigens, their risk of alloimmunization, and their clinical implications and complications within ...
Knowing the human platelet antigens (HPA) and genes frequency in different populations is important not only for population ... ackground: Knowing the human platelet antigens (HPA) and genes frequency in different populations is important not only for ... Frequency of Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-2/3/5) Polymorphism in Iranians Evaluated by RFLP-PCR ... Keywords: Blood donor, Human platelet antigens (HPA), Polymerase chain reaction, Restricted fragment length polymorphism ...
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Platelets , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Antigens, Human Platelet , Molecular Typing ... Human platelet antigens are derived from polymorphisms of these glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to investigate human ... Antigens, Human Platelet / Molecular Typing / Genotyping Techniques Clinical aspect: Diagnosis Limits: Female / Humans / Male ... Human platelet antigen typing was performed by BeadChip technology to determine allelic variants of 11 systems (HPA-1 to HPA-9 ...
Methods: One hundred and ninety-nine apheresis platelet donors, including Europeans (n = 154) and North Africans (n = 29), were ... of post-transfusion purpura or platelet transfusion refractoriness secondary to antibodies to HPAs for recipients of platelet ... As a consequence of global migration flows the risk of HPA alloimmunization may be increased for recipients of platelets from ... Human platelet antigen genotypes in Turkish and Caucasian blood donors in Germany. Tissue Antigens 2012 Sep;80(3):214-8. [ ...
Human platelet antigen (PLA-1). Complete list of genetic diseases that can be tested at the Genesis Genetic Institute. ...
... we analyzed receptor adhesive properties using Chinese hamster ovary and human kidney embryonal 293 cells overexpressing the Pl ... Antigens, Human Platelet / chemistry * Antigens, Human Platelet / genetics* * Antigens, Human Platelet / metabolism ... we analyzed receptor adhesive properties using Chinese hamster ovary and human kidney embryonal 293 cells overexpressing the Pl ...
... procoagulant platelets and platelets exposing signals to mediate their clearance. Thereby, we emphasize the impact of platelet ... procoagulant platelets and platelets exposing signals to mediate their clearance. Thereby we emphasize the impact of platelet ... we address the association between platelet size and platelet function and summarize the current knowledge on platelet ... we address the association between platelet size and platelet function and summarize the current knowledge on platelet ...
Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor). Concordant genotypings were ... The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are ... Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia results from the maternal immune response against fetal-specific antigens inherited from ... Human Platelet Antigen (HPA); genotyping; buccal swab; DNA extraction neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT); Human ...
... such as the human platelet antigens.41 It is probable that, by an approach of inverted immunology, novel clinically relevant ... The neutrophil-specific antigen CD177 is a counter-receptor for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31). J Biol ... A REIC gene shows down-regulation in human immortalized cells and human tumor-derived cell lines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun ... human or mouse) of DE genes. For the 7 cell types with data in both human and mouse, the extent of conservation of differential ...
Nomenclature of human platelet antigens. Vox Sang. 2003 Oct;85(3):240-245.14516468 ... antigens, and to polymorphic epitopes on the platelet GPs IIb/IIIa, Ib/IX, and Ia/IIa.4 Platelet glycoprotein (GP) IV antigen ... the patients own platelet antigens) or alloimmune (directed against antigens on exogenous platelets encountered through ... 4. Hayashi T, Hirayama F. Advances in alloimmune thrombocytopenia: perspectives on current concepts of human platelet antigens ...
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) pulsed with antigen in the presence of PDGF or EGF are able to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell ... Both growth factors increase the expression of MHC Class II antigens on antigen-presenting cells. ... Physiological concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) are able to partially ... Neither growth factor is mitogenic for T cells in the absence of antigen, and neither is able to act synergistically with T- ...
The role of alloantibodies against human platelet antigen-15 in multiply platelet transfused patients. Mika Matsuhashi, Nelson ... of individuals a platelet-specific antibody. Transfusion-induced alloimmunization against human platelet antigen-15 (HPA-15) ... The first case of alloantibody against human platelet antigen-15b in Japan: possible alloimmunization by a hydatidiform mole. ... with emphasis on human platelet antigen-15 alloimmunization. M Mandelbaum, D Koren, B Eichelberger, L Auerbach, S Panzer ...
Fetal thrombocytopenia is most often caused by maternal alloantibodies against fetal platelets crossing the placenta and ... resulting in platelet destruction. This condition, known as fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, is usually detected ... Antigens, Human Platelet / genetics * Autoantibodies / blood * Blood Platelets / immunology * Delivery, Obstetric * Female ... Fetal thrombocytopenia is most often caused by maternal alloantibodies against fetal platelets crossing the placenta and ...
deoxyuridine; PCNA: proliferating cell nuclear antigen; MSC: human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell; PDRN: ... R. Castricini, U. G. Longo, M. de Benedetto et al., "Platelet-rich plasma augmentation for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a ... and human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR, 0.18%). They also expressed pluripotent markers including octamer-binding ... K. M. Jang, H. C. Lim, W. Y. Jung, S. W. Moon, and J. H. Wang, "Efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord blood-derived ...
  • The Pak Lx assay may be used to detect and differentiate IgG antibodies to Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5), Glycoprotein (GPIV), and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Class I). Once validated for use, Pak Lx may be used to support the selection of antigen negative or HLA-matched platelets for transfusion, providing a better matched unit to improve patient care. (
  • NORCROSS, Ga, February 17, 2017 - Immucor, Inc., a global leader in transfusion and transplantation diagnostics, today announced the launch of Pak Lx™, a qualitative Luminex®-based immunoassay that brings high-definition to platelet antibody testing. (
  • Immucor's total solution extends beyond platelet compatibility testing and includes a full line of automated immunohematology instruments including the NEO® and Echo® analyzers, PreciseType® (the only FDA licensed molecular immunohematology solution), and a broad portfolio of transplant solutions, including LIFECODES® for HLA typing and antibody screening, MIA FORA® for NGS HLA typing, and kSORT™ for post-transplant surveillance. (
  • The availability of Pak Lx further supports Immucor's portfolio for red cell and platelet compatibility testing. (
  • Pak Lx is an important addition to our platelet compatibility portfolio and provides another tool to enable laboratories to select antigen negative or HLA-matched platelets for transfusion. (
  • 1,5,17 In this condition, which can be considered to be the platelet equivalent of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), maternal antibodies cross the placenta and destroy fetal platelets. (
  • Frequency of HPA-15a and HPA-15b (Gov a/b) human platelet alloantigens in the Croatian population. (
  • To reach our aims, we establish and monitor nomenclature for human platelet alloantigens (HPA) and support scientific co-operation between our members. (
  • Platelets perform these functions through ligand-receptor interactions involving the many glycoproteins (GP) expressed on their cell surface membranes. (
  • Because integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) plays a crucial role in thrombus formation, we analyzed receptor adhesive properties using Chinese hamster ovary and human kidney embryonal 293 cells overexpressing the Pl(A1) or Pl(A2) polymorphic forms of alpha(IIb)beta(3). (
  • Pk antigen is a receptor for Shiga toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae and some strains of Escherichia coli, which may cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (
  • The GPIb-V-IX complex functions as the vWF receptor and mediates vWF-dependent platelet adhesion to blood vessels. (
  • W.R. Figures, L.M. Scearce, R.F. Colman, and R.W. Colman , Interaction of Nucleotide Affinity Analog 5'p-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine with Platelet ADP Receptor: Aggregin. (
  • P.B. Tracy, M.E. Nesheim, and K.G. Mann , Platelet Factor Xa Receptor. (
  • D. Sinha and P.N. Walsh , Binding of Coagulation Factor XIa to a Receptor on Human Platelets. (
  • A.S. Hajek and J.H. Joist , Platelet Insulin Receptor. (
  • En algunas combinaciones de cerdo y primate el rechazo del injerto es iniciado por el reconocimiento de anticuerpos del receptor a los ant genos presentes en los vasos sangu neos del donador. (
  • Platelets express functional Toll-like receptor-4. (
  • Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling mechanisms and angiogenesis have been evaluated as independent targets for therapy of human pancreatic carcinoma, but a link between the two processes has been identified only recently. (
  • The membrane protein is a calcium-dependent receptor that binds to sialylated forms of Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigens on neutrophils and monocytes. (
  • Antigen standard for integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor) (ITGA2) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a TrueORF gene-carrying pCMV plasmid and then lysed in RIPA Buffer. (
  • The PDGFRB gene provides instructions for making a protein called platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which is part of a family of proteins called receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • However, the receptor that recognizes Stx in human neutrophils, which do not express Gb3Cer, has not been identified. (
  • In this study, by competition and functional experiments with appropriate agonists and antagonists (LPS, anti-TLR4 Abs, respectively), we have identified TLR4 as the receptor that specifically recognizes Stx1 and Stx2 in human neutrophils. (
  • Alpha chain 2b undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 3 to form a fibronectin receptor expressed in platelets that plays a crucial role in coagulation. (
  • Platelets (PLTs) are involved in hemostasis, thrombosis, and immunity. (
  • Beyond hemostasis, platelets also act as mediators in immunity and inflammation ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • Epidemiological studies found an association between an increased platelet size and thrombotic outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease ( 12 ) resulting in a revival of the "old" hypothesis of an association between a larger platelet size and enhanced platelet function in hemostasis. (
  • Human blood platelets are essential to maintaining normal hemostasis, and platelet dysfunction often causes bleeding or thrombosis. (
  • Platelets are circulating peripheral blood cells that emerge from the human bone marrow to function as critical components in basic physiological processes such as hemostasis, wound healing, inflammation, angiogenesis and the pathophysiology of tumor metastases. (
  • The adhesion of platelets to injured vascular surfaces in the arterial circulation is a critical initiating event in hemostasis. (
  • This position near the vessel wall allows platelets to rapidly respond to vascular injuries and contribute to hemostasis, the physiological process that stops bleeding. (
  • Activated platelets also play important roles in secondary hemostasis by binding coagulation factors and enhancing cell‐based thrombin generation at sites of vessel injury. (
  • Beyond hemostasis, platelets have been demonstrated by recent studies to play critical roles in a range of biological processes including inflammation, immune regulation, atherosclerosis, lymphatic vessel development, angiogenesis, liver regeneration, and tumor metastasis. (
  • Platelets are anucleate cell fragments with limited biosynthetic function that are critical for normal hemostasis and blood coagulation [ 1,2 ]. (
  • Platelet disorders lead to defects in primary hemostasis and produce signs and symptoms different from coagulation factor deficiencies (disorders of secondary hemostasis). (
  • The initial hemostatic plug, composed primarily of platelets, is stabilized further by a fibrin mesh generated in secondary hemostasis. (
  • Platelets are small cellular fragments with the primary physiological role of maintaining hemostasis. (
  • What has become clear over the last 50 years is that, in addition to their primary role in hemostasis, platelets are multifunctional and are key players in many other physiological and pathological processes (e.g., wound repair, inflammatory processes, and the immune response) ( 2 - 8 ). (
  • The interaction of the GPIb-IX-V complex to VWF initiates initial platelet adhesion to vascular subendothelium after vascular injury, platelet activation, thrombosis, and hemostasis. (
  • As was expected, the invariance of the antigen specificity was evidenced by the fact that the TCR gene rearrangement patterns in the redifferentiated T lineage cells were identical to those in the original T cell. (
  • ABSTRACT: Given the enormous advances in the prevention of perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is clear that early identification and treatment of all pregnant women with HIV is the best way to prevent neonatal infection and also improve women's health. (
  • The 1-year pilot program set a target of testing 250,000 adults for HBV and HCV infection and treating all patients who have active infection, including those who had a positive test result for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and those who had a positive test result for HCV core antigen. (
  • During 2017, the president of Uzbekistan have active infection, including those who had a positive test issued a decree calling for the elimination of HBV and HCV result for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and those who infections to meet WHO's 2030 hepatitis elimination targets had a positive test result for HCV core antigen. (
  • Chemiluminescence's Immunoassay is the method used for the detection of the presence of antibodies directed against the antigens of HIV-1, HIV -2 viruses, Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatitis B surface antigen. (
  • These antigens result from a leukine-proline polymorphism at position 33 of the GPIIb-IIIa integrin. (
  • Analysis of gene polymorphism human platelet antigen 1~17 system in Li ethnic group in Hainan. (
  • Reactivity of T cells from women with antibodies to the human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a to peptides encompassing the HPA-1 polymorphism. (
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with peptides encompassing the Leu33Pro polymorphism (residues 20-39 and 24-45 in both Leu33 (HPA-1a) and Pro33 (HPA-1b) forms) or control recall antigens in the presence of autologous sera and T cell proliferation was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. (
  • The greater stimulation of hepatic stellate cells by the human immunodeficiency virus and, consequently, the increased expression of transforming growth factor beta can offset the effect of human platelet antigen polymorphism on the progression of fibrosis in patients coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus -1 and the hepatitis C virus . (
  • Materials and Methods: DNA from 120 Iranians (99 Iranian blood donors and 21 patients with platelet refractoriness) was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes and tested by restricted fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). (
  • Platelets are small (~1-2 μM) anucleate discoid cells that are abundantly (150 000-450 000/ μl) present in blood during normal health. (
  • and thousands of novel un-annotated long and short intronic transcripts, an intriguing finding considering the anucleate nature of platelets. (
  • But because platelets are anucleate, they can be irradiated before transfusion to eliminate residual hiPSCs or other differentiated nucleated cells that could form teratomas or malignant tumors ( van der Meer and Pietersz, 2005 ). (
  • Platelets are small anucleate blood cells that that are produced by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, and also likely in the lungs. (
  • The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood as disc-shaped anucleate particles for 7-10 days. (
  • Circulating human platelets are anucleate and have a diameter ∼2-4 μm and a lifespan of 8-10 d before they are primarily destroyed by macrophages within the spleen. (
  • Further specialization into various blood cell types occurred by the vertebrate stage, and this eventually evolved into mammalian anucleate platelets, with both hemostatic and inflammatory properties ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Enrichment of distinct platelet subpopulations in platelet concentrates (PCs) during production may modulate the biological effects of PCs. (
  • Using an in vitro culture system yielding a hematopoietic niche that concentrates hematopoietic progenitors, we show that the pattern of c-MYC reactivation after reprogramming influences platelet generation from hiPSCs. (
  • To establish a supply of identical platelet concentrates without loss of responsiveness as a result of immunorejection, particularly for patients with a rare HLA, human (h) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a potentially abundant source. (
  • Thus, platelet concentrates derived from hiPSCs could be a useful source of HLA-identical platelets, which eliminates the need for scarce donor blood. (
  • Platelet concentrates are kept at 22'C which is conducive for bacterial growth. (
  • Illustrated blood group boxes provide you with the ISBT symbol, number, and the clinical significance of the antibodies at a glance throughout Chapter 7, Other Red Cell Blood Group Systems, Human Leukocyte Antigens, and Platelet Antigens . (
  • Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet plasma membrane, GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. (
  • S. Rosenberg-Schaier , Purification and Characterization of Platelet Actin, Actin-Binding Proteins, and ~ga-Actin. (
  • Also, toxins such as Shiga toxin, superantigens, gingipains and M proteins can activate platelets. (
  • Hyperproduction of alpha-toxin by Staphylococcus aureus results in paradoxically reduced virulence in experimental endocarditis: a host defense role for platelet microbicidal proteins. (
  • Following vessel injury, plasma and possibly platelet proteins are deposited onto the exposed extracellular matrix. (
  • Upon activation at sites of vascular injury, platelets release secretory granule proteins to initiate the formation of a platelet aggregate that aids in wound healing. (
  • Platelet activation allows binding of these proteins, which bridges adjacent platelets. (
  • The involvement of platelet membrane proteins in platelet physiologic functions has been illustrated by study of the effect of MAbs against these membrane proteins on platelets. (
  • Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a glycoproteomic approach. (
  • Adaptor signalling proteins Grb2 and Grb7 are recruited by human G6f, a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily encoded in the MHC. (
  • ABH antigens on human platelets: expression on the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein CD109. (
  • Platelets (PLTs) are the major source of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a protein that is involved in sterile inflammation of blood vessels and thrombosis. (
  • Of the known protein-coding loci, ~9,500 are present in human platelets. (
  • This is particularly true of platelets where an accurate understanding of the transcriptome has both biological (improved understanding of platelet protein translation and the mechanisms of megakaryocyte/platelet gene expression) and clinical (novel biomarkers of disease) relevance. (
  • Platelet factor-4 is a 70-amino acid protein that is released from the alpha-granules of activated platelets and binds with high affinity to heparin. (
  • Some of these molecules such as VWF and the granule membrane protein, P-selectin, which is also found in association with dense granules, are synthesized primarily by the platelet precursor cell, the megakaryocyte. (
  • This gene encodes a 140 kDa protein that is stored in the alpha-granules of platelets and Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells. (
  • This protein redistributes to the plasma membrane during platelet activation and degranulation and mediates the interaction of activated endothelial cells or platelets with leukocytes. (
  • The PDGFRβ protein is found in the cell membrane of certain cell types, where a protein called platelet-derived growth factor attaches (binds) to it. (
  • Clone REA389 recognizes the human CD62P antigen, a 140 kDa single-pass type I membrane protein also known as P-selectin or platelet activation dependent granule-external membrane protein (PADGEM). (
  • The protein is stored preformed in the Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells and in the α-granules of platelets. (
  • Human blood contains hemoglobin, which is a complex protein molecule in red blood cells. (
  • Another antigen is a protein called the Rhesus (Rh) factor. (
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A reverse dot blot technique employing polymerase chain reaction‐ amplified genomic DNA was applied in genotyping the five major human platelet antigens in the following populations: 100 African American and 100 white women admitted to the obstetric unit at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD) and 100 inpatients at Yonsei University (Seoul, Korea). (
  • Genotyping of Human Platelet Antigens by BeadChip Microarray Technology. (
  • Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) genotyping was performed using the BeadChip assay (BioArray, Immucor). (
  • To further understand hematopoiesis, we have compared gene expression profiles of human erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, B cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, natural killer cells, granulocytes, and monocytes using whole genome microarrays. (
  • Using whole-genome expression arrays, we have compared the gene expression profiles of the precursors of erythrocytes and platelets (erythroblasts [EBs], megakaryocytes [MKs]) and of B cells, cytotoxic T cells (Tc), helper T cells (Th), natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes, and monocytes. (
  • When the serum content of tissue culture medium is reduced from 10% to 1%, the capacity of T cells to proliferate in response to antigen within that medium is dramatically reduced. (
  • Neither growth factor is mitogenic for T cells in the absence of antigen, and neither is able to act synergistically with T-cell growth factor (TCGF) or IL-2) in the absence of antigen. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APC) pulsed with antigen in the presence of PDGF or EGF are able to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell proliferation to a greater extent than antigen-presenting cells pulsed in the absence of exogenous PDGF or EGF. (
  • Both growth factors increase the expression of MHC Class II antigens on antigen-presenting cells. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate regenerative effects of ultrasound- (US-) guided injection with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and/or polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) injection in a chronic traumatic full-thickness rotator cuff tendon tear (FTRCTT) in a rabbit model. (
  • Human (h) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potentially abundant source of blood cells, but how best to select iPSC clones suitable for this purpose from among the many clones that can be simultaneously established from an identical source is not clear. (
  • We therefore sought to determine the hallmark of such cells as well as the best way to select iPSC clones in vitro for generation of functional platelets in vivo. (
  • In addition, we discuss various methods for megakaryocyte (MK) production from human pluripotent stem cells and subsequent platelet production from the MKs. (
  • In addition, platelets retain their functionality after irradiation, reducing the likelihood of nucleated stem or progenitor cells surviving in the platelet unit. (
  • We have identified two synthetic oligonucleotides (aptamers) that bind to prostate cancer cells,with low nanomolar affinity, via the extracellular portion of the prostate-specificmembrane antigen (PSMA). (
  • One aptamer was truncated from 23.4 kDa to 18.5 kDa and specifically binds LNCaP human prostate cancer cells expressing PSMA but not PSMA-devoid PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. (
  • Human xenoreactive natural antibodies-avidity and targets on porcine endothelial cells. (
  • In vitro treatment of human pancreatic carcinoma L3.6pl cells with C225 inhibited EGF-R autophosphorylation, producing a maximum of 20% cytostasis. (
  • As early as 11 days after C225 treatment, the median percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells was substantially reduced compared with gemcitabine treatment alone (26% versus 73%, respectively) versus controls (92%), correlating with in vivo blockade of EGF-R activation. (
  • Due to their small size relative to other circulating blood cells, platelets are displaced from the center of vessels and circulate close to the vessel wall. (
  • Whole blood platelets also do not require any additional donor recruitment, as they can be made from blood donations that are also used for packed red blood cells and plasma components. (
  • Megakaryon will use these funds mainly to conduct clinical studies in Japan and the United States on platelet preparations derived from human iPS cells 1 and develop mass-production facilities for commercial use. (
  • Through this investment, Sysmex aims to reinforce its framework for collaboration with Megakaryon and establish quality control testing and other testing methods for platelet preparations derived from human iPS cells. (
  • The practical realization of platelet preparations derived from human iPS cells is expected to help address these problems. (
  • Megakaryon possesses fundamental technology to produce platelet stably and in large quantities, by using immortalized megakaryocyte cell lines 4 derived from human iPS cells. (
  • Utilizing the platelet analysis technology it has cultivated through long experience in the hematology field, Sysmex aims to work with Megakaryon to establish analysis technology for platelets derived from human iPS cells. (
  • By further reinforcing its collaboration with Megakaryon in this way and establishing quality control-related testing and other testing methods, Sysmex aims to contribute to the commercialization of platelet preparations derived from human iPS cells. (
  • iPS cells produced from human skin or other cells by the transfection of several factors are capable of differentiation into many types of cells, related to tissues or organs. (
  • It is believed that theoretically these cells can be differentiated into cells that make up any human organ or body part. (
  • Distributed throughout almost all of cells and body fluids, HLA is known to act as a histocompatibility antigen (an important molecule related to the human immune system in recognizing its own and others). (
  • Produced from human iPS cells using three genes, this type of megakaryocyte cell line can stably self-replicate outside the body and be frozen for storage. (
  • CD31/ PECAM-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily found on platelets, most leukocytes, and endothelial cells. (
  • MAb AAP2 was produced from a hybridoma derived from BALB/c mice spleen cells after immunization with thrombin-activated human platelets and fusion with Sp2/0 Ag14 myeloma cells. (
  • It is expressed on activated platelets, megakaryocytes, and endothelial cells. (
  • CD62P is primarily stored in secretory α-granules in platelets and Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells, and is rapidly relocated to the plasma membrane upon activation. (
  • These components include plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets. (
  • Furthermore, platelets contain RNA that can be nascently translated under different environmental stresses, and they are able to release membrane microparticles that can transport inflammatory cargo to inflammatory cells. (
  • This includes platelet activation, adhesion of platelets to endothelium, and the platelet's ability to secrete inflammatory molecules that can alter the chemoattractive, adhesive, and proteolytic properties of endothelial cells. (
  • It consists of a fluid component, plasma, in which are suspended red cells, white cells, and platelets (see figure). (
  • This procedure introduces a multitude of foreign antigens and living cells into the recipient that persist for a variable time. (
  • CD141 is expressed at high levels on a minor subpopulation of human myeloid dendritic cells that show monocytoid morphology. (
  • however, the effectiveness of this therapy declines due to exhaustion of the antigen-specific T cells. (
  • CD44 is expressed on leucocytes, erythrocytes, epithelial cells and weakly on platelets. (
  • In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks. (
  • [4] Approximately a quarter of the cells in the human body are red blood cells. (
  • Almost all vertebrates, including all mammals and humans, have red blood cells. (
  • Many of these substances play critical roles in the human body in cell structure, cell communication, and the exchange of substances in and out of cells. (
  • CD62P is expressed by vascular endothelial cells and platelets. (
  • MPCs are normally present in human bone marrow and have been shown to increase the development of blood vessels and new heart muscle cells in the heart. (
  • CD41 is expressed by platelets, megakaryocytes and by a small subset of CD34+ cells suggesting that CD41/CD61 is the earliest marker of the megakaryocytic lineage. (
  • The two most common antigens are A and B. For example, people with the blood type A have an A-antigen on their red blood cells, and people with type B blood have a B-antigen. (
  • People with O blood type do not have either A or B antigens on the red blood cells. (
  • No significant differences were found in the gene frequencies of the human platelet antigens in whites in this series and those in published European studies. (
  • P1PK (formerly: P) is a human blood group system (International Society of Blood Transfusion system 003) based upon the A4GALT gene on chromosome 22. (
  • Platelets are one of the few cell types which have no nucleus, which makes them one of the most ideal cell types for transfusion after gene editing. (
  • Platelets could be one of the safest first-in-human stem cell-derived products for transfusion and provide us with an avenue to safely use gene editing methodology for the advent of new cellular products and medicines. (
  • In humans, Factor XI is encoded by the F11 gene . (
  • Screen for the presence of circulating antibodies to platelets (not bound to the platelet surface), that may be associated with the destruction of platelets. (
  • Platelet antibodies may be directed to a number of antigenic "targets" carried on platelet cytoplasmic membranes. (
  • N. Crawford, K.S. Authi, and N. Hack , Isolation and Characterization of Platelet Membranes Prepared by Free Flow Electrophoresis. (
  • J.T. Harmon, N.J. Greco, and G.A. Jamieson , Isolation of Human Platelet Plasma Membranes by Glycerol Lysis. (
  • F.H. Valone , Quantitation of Binding of Platelet Activating Factor 1-0-Alkyl-2-acetyl-2-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine to Intact Platelets and Platelet Membranes. (
  • Platelets also have a series of invaginated folded membranes that form the inner canalicular system, and this allows the platelet to significantly increase surface area upon activation. (
  • The diagnosis is ascertained only when the maternal alloantibody and the offending antigen present in the newborn are identified. (
  • Platelets that exhibit functional extremes convey a commensurate increased risk for bleeding or thrombosis. (
  • Platelets play important roles in haemostasis and thrombosis. (
  • As we highlight in this platelet-centric review, these glycomic modifications may affect platelet function in arterial thrombosis. (
  • It is well known, however, that repeated transfusion induces antibodies in recipients against allogenic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on the transfused platelets ( Schiffer, 2001 ). (
  • M.H. Fukami , Isolation of Dense Granules from Human Platelets. (
  • Three types of secretory organelles are present in platelets: α-granules, dense granules and lysosomes. (
  • Platelets contain two unique types of granules: alpha granules and dense granules. (
  • During differentiation, reduction of c-MYC expression after initial reactivation of c-MYC expression in selected hiPSC clones was associated with more efficient in vitro generation of CD41a + CD42b + platelets. (
  • Effect of staphylococcal and other bacterial toxins on platelets in vitro . (
  • Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: immunohistochemical staining of acetone-fixed frozen tissue sections 4 and in vitro blocking of adhesion of platelets 1 . (
  • Understanding of the features that characterize platelet subpopulations is very relevant for the methods of platelet concentrate production, which may enrich or deplete particular platelet subpopulations. (
  • What are the two methods of platelet product preparation? (
  • ackground: Knowing the human platelet antigens (HPA) and genes frequency in different populations is important not only for population studies but also for clinical transfusion practice. (
  • Genome wide association studies in healthy subjects identified several genes associated with platelet size ( 13 - 18 ). (