Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.
A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.
A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.
A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A thrombin receptor subtype that couples to HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS resulting in the activation of a variety of signaling mechanisms including decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP, increased TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES and increased PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.
Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.
An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.
A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Single-chain polypeptides of about 65 amino acids (7 kDa) from LEECHES that have a neutral hydrophobic N terminus, an acidic hydrophilic C terminus, and a compact, hydrophobic core region. Recombinant hirudins lack tyr-63 sulfation and are referred to as 'desulfato-hirudins'. They form a stable non-covalent complex with ALPHA-THROMBIN, thereby abolishing its ability to cleave FIBRINOGEN.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A familial coagulation disorder characterized by a prolonged bleeding time, unusually large platelets, and impaired prothrombin consumption.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmunity: a tale of shadows and suspects. (1/157)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The key pathogenic feature of TTP is the formation of platelet aggregates within the microcirculation; however, the etiology of such aggregates has been elusive for years. A large amount of evidence points to an abnormal interaction between damaged vascular endothelium and platelets, although the cause of the primary microvascular endothelial cell injury is seldom clear. The autoimmune hypothesis often recurs, and this is based on a number of observations: the claimed superiority of plasma-exchange over plasma infusion, the anecdotal report of the presence of immunocomplexes and autoantibodies in TTP patients, the efficacy of the administration of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressant agents, and the concomitant occurrence of TTP in association with autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This review will focus on the complex relationships between TTP and humoral autoimmunity; in particular, similarities and differences between TTP, SLE and antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies syndrome, as well as the putative role of several other antibodies directed towards endothelial cells and/or platelets, including the recently discovered anti-CD36 antibodies and antivWF-cleaving metalloprotease, will be discussed. DESIGN AND METHODS: The authors have been involved in the study and treatment of TTP and autoimmune diseases for years; furthermore, the PubMed data base of the National Library of Congress has been extensively searched using the Internet. CONCLUSIONS: Although over the years evidence has increased in favor of the autoimmune hypothesis for TTP etiopathogenesis, TTP should not yet be considered an autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies should be regarded as only one of the many different insults which can trigger microvascular thrombosis even though the autoimmune theory of the pathogenesis of TTP is gaining more and more strength. As far as concerns the relationship between TTP, SLE and aPL antibodies-related disorders, these diseases should be distinguished on the basis of both different clinical presentations and accurate antibody screening, although this approach should definitely not delay the prompt start of treatment.  (+info)

Increased platelet aggregability associated with platelet GPIIIa PlA2 polymorphism: the Framingham Offspring Study. (2/157)

The platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) plays a pivotal role in platelet aggregation. Recent data suggest that the PlA2 polymorphism of GPIIIa may be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown if there is any association between this polymorphism and platelet reactivity. We determined GP IIIa genotype and platelet reactivity phenotype data in 1422 subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study. Genotyping was performed using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Platelet aggregability was evaluated by the Born method. The threshold concentrations of epinephrine and ADP were determined. Allele frequencies of PlA1 and PlA2 were 0.84 and 0.16, respectively. The presence of 1 or 2 PlA2 alleles was associated with increased platelet aggregability as indicated by incrementally lower threshold concentrations for epinephrine and ADP. For epinephrine, the mean concentrations were 0.9 micromol/L (0.9 to 1.0) for homozygous PlA1, 0.7 mmol/L (0.7 to 0.9) for the heterozygous PlA1/PlA2, and 0.6 micromol/L (0.4 to 1.0) for homozygous PlA2 individuals, P=0.009. The increase in aggregability induced by epinephrine remained highly significant (P=0.007) after adjustment for covariates. For ADP-induced aggregation, the respective mean concentrations were 3.1 micromol/L (3.0 to 3.2), 3.0 micromol/L (2.9 to 3.2), and 2.8 micromol/L (2.4 to 3.3); P=0.19 after adjustment for covariates. Our findings indicate that molecular variants of the gene encoding GP IIIa play a role in platelet reactivity in vitro. Our observations are compatible with and provide an explanation for the reported association of the PlA2 allotype with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Construction of a human platelet alloantigen-1a epitope(s) within murine glycoprotein IIIa: identification of residues critical to the conformation of the antibody binding site(s). (3/157)

The human platelet alloantigen 1 system (HPA-1) is determined by a polymorphism at position 33 in the N-terminus of human glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa). This naturally occurring substitution creates a conformation in the HPA-1a allelic form that can be antigenic when presented to an individual expressing the HPA-1b form. Anti-HPA-1a antibodies generated by this immune response can lead to the destruction of platelets, as seen in the clinical disorders, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) and posttransfusion purpura (PTP). To understand better the structural requirements for recognition by these pathogenic antibodies, we investigated the N-terminal 66 amino acids from the HPA-1a form of human GPIIIa and the analogous amino acids from the nonimmunogenic murine homolog. Our objectives were to define further the boundaries of the HPA-1a epitope(s) in the N-terminus of human GPIIIa, to isolate the murine 5' nucleotide sequence and compare the deduced murine N-terminal sequence to that of human, and to mutate the murine sequence systematically to include an HPA-1a epitope(s). Murine amino acids that differed from human were changed by site-directed mutagenesis to the analogous residues in the HPA-1a form of human GPIIIa, starting and radiating from murine position 33 (site of human polymorphism). This systematic approach allowed us to pinpoint amino acids critical to a conformation recognized by anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Our results show that an HPA-1a epitope can be created within the N-terminus of murine GPIIIa and raise the possibility that murine models of HPA-1a sensitization can be developed.  (+info)

Perinatal management of fetal hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-5b incompatibility. (4/157)

We report out experience in the perinatal management of a complex case of fetal hemolytic disease primarily due to Rhesus incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The lowest fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels were 2.6 g/dl and 13,000/microliter, respectively. Intrauterine treatment consisted of six transfusions of packed red cells into the umbilical vein and one transfusion of platelets. The neonate required four transfusions of packed red cells to correct her hyporegenerative erythropoiesis. Postnatal management also included one platelet transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulins and erythropoietin. Although some degree of fetal thrombocytopenia may invariably be found in fetal red cell incompatibility, other rare causes need to be excluded.  (+info)

Association of the platelet glycoprotein IIb HPA-3 polymorphism with survival after acute ischemic stroke. (5/157)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of polymorphisms of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor in the development of cardiovascular disease has been the subject of intensive research. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the HPA-3 polymorphism of platelet GPIIb with ischemic stroke and subsequent survival and to identify possible interactions of HPA-3 with classic risk factors. METHODS: HPA-3 genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 515 patients with ischemic stroke and 423 healthy, age-matched control subjects. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the genotype distribution of patients and controls, nor was there any difference when patients were subclassified into small- and large-vessel disease. The genotype distribution of the 231 patients subsequently dying during 2.8 years of follow-up (aa=45.0%, ab=46.8%, bb=8.2%) was significantly different from that of those still alive (aa=37.0%, ab=48.2%, bb=14. 8%) (P=0.03). In a Cox regression model, the relative risks for poststroke mortality in patients of aa and ab genotype compared with those of bb genotype were 2.42 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.71) and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.09 to 4.17), respectively, after we accounted for confounding factors. In addition, significant interactions of HPA-3 with the Pl(A) polymorphism of GPIIIa (P=0.002) and with fibrinogen (P=0.01) were identified in relation to mortality. CONCLUSIONS: HPA-3 is related to poststroke mortality, and the significant interaction of HPA-3 with Pl(A) and fibrinogen suggests that it may in some way influence the interaction of GPIIb/IIIa with fibrinogen, particularly in the presence of high fibrinogen.  (+info)

A point mutation Thr(799)Met on the alpha(2) integrin leads to the formation of new human platelet alloantigen Sit(a) and affects collagen-induced aggregation. (6/157)

A new platelet-specific alloantigen, termed Sit(a), was identified in a severe case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The Sit(a) alloantigen is of low frequency (1/400) in the German population. Immunochemical studies demonstrated that the Sit(a) epitopes reside on platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ia. Nucleotide sequence analysis of GPIa cDNA derived from Sit(a)-positive platelets showed C(2531)-->T(2531) point mutation, resulting in Thr(799)Met dimorphism. Analysis of genomic DNA from 22 Sit(a)-negative normal individuals showed that the Thr(799) is encoded by ACG(2532) (90.9%) or ACA(2532) (9.1%). To establish a DNA typing technique, we elucidated the organization of the GPIa gene adjacent to the polymorphic bases. The introns (421 bp and 1.2 kb) encompass a 142-bp exon with the 2 polymorphic bases 2531 and 2532. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on DNA derived from 100 donors using the restriction enzyme Mae III showed that the Met(799) form of GPIa is restricted to Sit(a) (+) phenotype. Analysis of stable Chinese hamster ovary transfectants expressing allele-specific recombinant forms of GPIa showed that anti-Sit(a) exclusively reacted with the Glu(505)Met(799), but not with the Glu(505)Thr(799) and the Lys(505)Thr(799) isoforms. In contrast, anti-Br(a) (HPA-5b) only recognized the Lys(505)Thr(799) form, whereas anti-Br(b) (HPA-5a) reacted with both Glu(505)Thr(799) and Glu(505)Met(799) isoforms. These results demonstrated that the Met(799) is responsible for formation of the Sit(a) alloantigenic determinants, whereas amino acid 505 (Lys or Glu) specifically controls the expression of Br(a) and Br(b) epitopes, respectively. Platelet aggregation responses of Sit(a) (+) individuals were diminished in response to collagen, indicating that the Thr(799)Met mutation affects the function of the GPIa/IIa complex.  (+info)

Threonine-145/methionine-145 variants of baculovirus produced recombinant ligand binding domain of GPIbalpha express HPA-2 epitopes and show equal binding of von Willebrand factor. (7/157)

Glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha is the functionally dominant subunit of the platelet GPIb-IX-V receptor complex, with the von Willebrand factor (vWF) binding site residing on the amino-terminus. A threonine for methionine-145 replacement of GPIbalpha is associated with the human platelet antigen (HPA)-2 system. To study the structural and functional consequences of this mutation, both forms of GPIbalpha were expressed as calmodulin fusion proteins in insect cells. Both recombinant proteins were recognized by their respective alloantibodies, independent of glycosylation or intactness of disulfide bonds, and gave similar results to platelet-derived GPIbalpha in antibody detection assays. Resonant mirror studies showed that vWF binding was not affected by the HPA-2 mutation; however, vWF binding was partially inhibited by IgG HPA-2 antibodies. Our data are compatible with an involvement of the leucine-rich repeat domain of GPIbalpha in vWF binding and indicate that recombinant GPIbalpha may be used to detect HPA-2 antibodies. (Blood. 2000;95:205-211)  (+info)

Requirement of leucine-rich repeats of glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha for shear-dependent and static binding of von Willebrand factor to the platelet membrane GP Ib-IX-V complex. (8/157)

The platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex mediates adhesion to von Willebrand factor (vWf) in (patho)physiologic thrombus formation. The vWf-binding site on GP Ib-IX-V is within the N-terminal 282 residues of GP Ibalpha, which consist of an N-terminal flanking sequence (His-1-Ile-35), 7 leucine-rich repeats (Leu-36-Ala-200), a C-terminal flank (Phe-201-Gly-268), and a sulfated tyrosine sequence (Asp-269-Glu-282). We have used mammalian cell expression of canine-human chimeras of GP Ibalpha, corresponding to precise structural boundaries, to demonstrate the first specific requirement for individual leucine-rich repeats for binding of vWf either induced by a modulator, ristocetin, or under hydrodynamic flow. Implicit in this approach was that the GP Ibalpha chimeras retained a functional conformation, a supposition confirmed by analyzing restoration of function to reversed human-canine chimeras and demonstrating that all chimeras bound vWf activated by botrocetin, a modulator that is indiscriminate between species. Leucine-rich repeats 2, 3, and 4 of GP Ibalpha were identified as being critical for vWf adhesion to GP Ib-IX-V.  (+info)

Background. Maternal alloantibodies against HPA-1a can cross placenta, opsonize foetal platelets, and induce neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). In a study of 100, 448 pregnant women in Norway during 1995-2004, 10.6% of HPA-1a negative women had detectable anti-HPA-1a antibodies. Design and Methods. A possible correlation between the maternal ABO blood group phenotype, or underlying genotype, and severe thrombocytopenia in the newborn was investigated. Results. We observed that immunized women with blood group O had a lower risk of having a child with severe NAIT than women with group A; 20% with blood group O gave birth to children with severe NAIT, compared to 47% among the blood group A mothers (relative risk 0.43; 95% CI 0.25-0.75). Conclusion. The risk of severe neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-1a antibodies is correlated to maternal ABO types, and this study indicates that the observation is due to genetic properties on the maternal side ...
Today we will be discussing fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, also referred to as NAIT, which affects about 1 in 1,000 births. NAIT is caused by maternal alloantibodies to specific platelet antigens, usually human platelet antigen 1a also referred to as HPA-1a. These antigens may be inherited from the father but are absent in the mother. Only 2% of women are HPA-1a negative and at risk to produce these alloantibodies which can lead to fetal thrombocytopenia.. Dr. Bussel, who wrote an Editorial on the subject, discusses the morbidity and mortality associated with NAIT.. If the platelets are low enough, there is a serious risk of bleeding. When the fetal platelet get low enough, then the fetus may bleed in the brain and most of the bleeding in the brain that happens in fetuses and neonates affected by NAIT, occurs in utero, not after birth.. Currently, there are no screening guidelines to identify mothers and fetuses that are at risk for NAIT. Therefore, it is usually diagnosed ...
Platelets are the cellular components of the blood coagulation system. Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet plasma membrane, GPIIb-IIIa integrin harbors the human platelet antigens HPA-1a/b, the most clinically important platelet antigens. These antigens result from a leukine-proline polymorphism at position 33 of the GPIIb-IIIa integrin. About 2% of Caucasian women are homozygous (HPA-1b/1b) and risk forming antibodies against the integrin of the fetus. Such antibodies may destroy fetal platelets and lead to neonatal/fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT).1 Anti-platelet alloimmunization has an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000 pregnancies and may cause in utero cerebral bleeds or ventriculomegaly.2-4 Thus, screening and identification of maternal alloantibodies are critical in early detection of such alloimmunization.5. Up to now, all methods for detecting auto- or alloantibodies directed at platelets, such as monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen assay ...
Objective To investigate the characteristics of distribution of HPA-1 ~ 5,15 gene polymorphism of Guizhou Han population,and to provide reference data for the prevention and control of HPA autoimmune disease,and the establishment of the genotyping library in Guiyang. Methods By adopting the method of PCR-SSP to 700 unrelatedhealthy blood donors for HPA-1 ~ 5,15 systems genotyping. The gene frequency and genotype were calculated,and the polymorphism distribution was summed up,and the difference with other populations were compared,in order to clarify the region characteristics.Results All systems were polymorphism distribution. HPA-1 and-4 close to aa single genotype distribution; HPA-2 and-5have a small amount of hybrid,ab heterozygote followed by 64 and 30 cases,there are 4 cases-2 bb; HPA-3 and 15 highly heterozygous,aa genotype respectively 242 and 210,ab in order for 347 and 350,and there are more bb genotype,turn for 111and 140 cases. The differences between other regions and countries increased
The current system of human platelet antigen (HPA) nomenclature, adopted in 1990, is overseen by the Platelet Nomenclature Committee of the ISBT and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. As with blood groups, there are platelet antigen systems and specific antigens within those systems. The HPA nomenclature pertains to
The current system of human platelet antigen (HPA) nomenclature, adopted in 1990, is overseen by the Platelet Nomenclature Committee of the ISBT and the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. As with blood groups, there are platelet antigen systems and specific antigens within those systems. The HPA nomenclature pertains to
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests.. *In the US, BioArray HPA and Rh assays currently are available as Research Use Only ...
Human Platelet Antigen by DNA Analysis: The BioArray HPA BeadChip detects 22 platelet antigens in a single test. Extended platelet antigen typing information can aid in the diagnosis and management of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, post-transfusion purpura and platelet refractoriness. The HPA BeadChip is available in a 12x8 or 1x96 format for 96 tests.. *In the US, BioArray HPA, RhCE, and RhD assays currently are available as Research Use Only ...
NORCROSS, Ga, February 17, 2017 - Immucor, Inc., a global leader in transfusion and transplantation diagnostics, today announced the launch of Pak Lx™, a qualitative Luminex®-based immunoassay that brings high-definition to platelet antibody testing. While the assay is CE marked and has previously been available in international markets, Pak Lx is now available as a research use only (RUO) kit in the United States.. Platelets express a variety of polymorphic proteins that may become targets for antibodies as a result of pregnancy or transfusion. The presence of antibodies that bind to platelet glycoproteins is associated with life-threatening bleeding disorders, such as refractoriness to platelet transfusions, post-transfusion purpura (PTP), and fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The Pak Lx assay may be used to detect and differentiate IgG antibodies to Human Platelet Antigens (HPA-1, HPA-2, HPA-3, HPA-4, HPA-5), Glycoprotein (GPIV), and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Class ...
CD109 (Cluster of Differentiation 109) is a human gene. CD109 is a GPI-linked cell surface antigen expressed by CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia cell lines, T-cell lines, activated T lymphoblasts, endothelial cells, and activated platelets (Lin et al., 2002). In addition, the platelet-specific Gov antigen system, implicated in refractoriness to platelet transfusion, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura, is carried by CD109 (Kelton et al., 1990; Lin et al., 2002).[supplied by OMIM] Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156535 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000046186 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Entrez Gene: CD109 CD109 molecule. Lucas GF, Metcalfe P (2000). Platelet and granulocyte glycoprotein polymorphisms. Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 10 (3): 157-74. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3148.2000.00250.x. PMID 10972910. Sutherland DR, Yeo E, Ryan A, et al. (1991). ...
Abrams CS. Thrombocytopenia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 163.. Arnold DM, Zeller MP, Smith JW, Nazy I. Diseases of platelet number: immune thrombocytopenia, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and posttransfusion purpura. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 131.. Warkentin TE. Thrombocytopenia caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 132. ...
Glycoprotein Ibalpha (GP Ibα; CD 42b; hereafter GPIBA) is a component of the cell surface receptor for the von Willebrand factor (vWf) on platelets. Immunizations against various platelet surface antigens play a major role in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and in post-transfusion purpura. Only one antigenic polymorphism in GPIBA has thus far been established: the HPA-2 (Ko) alloantigen system. To screen other polymorphisms in GPIBA systematically, we analyzed the whole coding sequence of theGPIBA gene in 50 Finnish blood donors using the single-strand conformation polymorphism method. In addition to the known polymorphisms, we detected three others. Sequencing of the gene segments carrying the new polymorphisms revealed that none of them changed the predicted amino acid sequence. Polymorphism designatedRS was located five base pairs upstream from the initiation codon at position 3064 and had the gene frequency of 16% forR and 84% forS, respectively, in the Finnish population, and it was
Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy. . ...
BACKGROUND - The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs5918 in the ITGB3 gene defines the human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) system encoding a Leu (HPA-1a) or Pro (HPA-1b) at position 33. HPA-1 antibodies are clinically the most relevant in the Caucasoid population, but detection currently requires alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin from the platelets of HPA-genotyped donors.. OBJECTIVES - We set out to define the beta3 integrin domains required for HPA-1a antibody binding and produce recombinant soluble beta3 peptides for HPA-1 antibody detection.. METHODS - We designed two sets (1a and 1b) of four soluble beta3 domain-deletion peptides (deltaSDL, deltabetaA, PSIHybrid, PSI), informed by crystallography studies and computer modeling. The footprints of three human HPA-1a-specific phage antibodies were defined by analyzing binding patterns to the beta3 peptides and canine platelets, and models of antibody-antigen interfaces were derived. Specificity and sensitivity for HPA-1a detection were assessed using ...
Flere humane blodplateantigener (HPA) spiller viktige roller ved ulike immunbetingede trombocytopenier. Antistoffer rettet mot HPA 1a forårsaker de fleste og de mest alvorlige tilfellene av NAIT (1). HPA 1 sitter på integrin β3 (GPIIIa), som sammen med integrin αIIb (GPIIb) danner blodplatenes fibrinogen reseptor. For hvert HPA system er en person enten homozygot for et av allelene (HPA 1aa eller HPA 1bb), eller heterozygot (HPA 1ab). Det mest vanlige allele har fått navnet a, mens det mindre vanlige allele har fått navnet b. Blant kaukasiere uttrykker 98 prosent HPA 1a allelet, og kun 2 prosent er HPA 1a negative (homozygote HPA 1bb). Forskjellen på integrin β3 som uttrykker HPA 1a eller 1b, er kun på én aminosyre.. De to prosentene som ikke uttrykker HPA 1a, kan risikere en immunisering dersom de eksponeres for paternelt HPA 1a uttrykt hos fosteret/barnet. Ti prosent av de gravide som er HPA 1a negative (HPA 1bb), danner antistoff mot barnets blodplater (anti-HPA 1a antistoff) og ...
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article{CIS-467518, Author = {Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J. and Cooke, Glen E. and Doss, Hani and Burr, Deborah}, Title = {A meta-analysis of studies on the association of the platelet PlA polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa and risk of coronary heart disease}, Journal = {Statistics in Medicine}, Volume = {22}, Number = {10}, Year = {2003}, Pages = {1741--1760}, Keywords ...
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Please cite this paper as: Madani K, Kamphuis M, Lopriore E, Porcelijn L, Oepkes D. Delayed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. BJOG 2012;119:1612-1616.. Objective To evaluate the rate and consequences of a late or missed diagnosis of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT).. Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of a national cohort.. Setting National referral centre for fetal therapy in the Netherlands.. Population Twenty-six women with pregnancies complicated by FNAIT and at least one previous pregnancy with a thrombocytopenic child.. Methods Retrospective analysis of data from our electronic FNAIT database. In a consecutive cohort managed between July 2008 and July 2010, timing of first diagnosis of FNAIT was correlated to severity and outcome in the subsequent pregnancies.. Main outcome measures Occurrence of delayed diagnosis of FNAIT, and possibly associated intracranial ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Serological evaluation of maternal sera for platelet antibodies in suspected fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAITP) discloses in only approximately 30% of individuals a platelet-specific antibody. Transfusion-induced alloimmunization against human platelet antigen-15 (HPA-15) has been reported to be about as common as against HPA-5, the second most common platelet antibody. Thus, anti-HPA-15 may also contribute significantly to yet-unclear cases of FNAITP.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, we provide data on maternal platelet antibodies from 309 mothers who delivered an offspring with suspected FNAITP.. RESULTS: Genotyping maternal and paternal samples (together n = 573) revealed a gene frequency of 0.496 for HPA-15a and a gene frequency of 0.504 for HPA-15b. HPA-15 antibodies were detected in 2% of all samples. Anti-HPA-15a and -15b were detected in two and three samples, respectively. One serum reacted equally with HPA-15a and -15b ...
Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopaenia (NAIT) outcomes from maternal alloimmunisation against foetal platelet antigens inherited from the father and different from those present in the mother, and usually presents like a severe isolated thrombocytopaenia in otherwise healthy newborns. platelets devoid of this antigen, and should not be delayed by biological confirmation of the analysis (once the analysis is definitely suspected), especially Ki16425 in case of severe thrombocytopaenia. Quick analysis and treatment are essential to reduce the chances of death and disability due to haemorrhage. Due to the high rate of recurrence and improved severity of the foetal thrombocytopaenia in successive pregnancies, antenatal therapy should be offered. However, management of high-risk pregnancies is still a matter of conversation. Disease name/synonyms Foetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FAIT/NAIT) [1] or foeto-maternal alloimmunisation thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) [2]. Definition/diagnostic ...
Platelets are small blood cells well-recognized as being essential to stop bleeding. To perform their functions, platelets express majority integrin heterodimer αIIbβ3, which synchronize with other receptors on the surface, to form a blood clot. In fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT), paternally-inherited platelet receptors in fetus are identified as foreign antigens by the mothers immune system during pregnancy, generating anti-fetal platelet antigen antibodies that target fetus cells. The life threatening consequences include severe bleeding (e.g. intracranial hemorrhage), and/or impaired development. In our animal model of aΙΙbmediated FNAIT, our lab interestingly observed evidences of antibody depleting fetal αIIb-expressing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and blocking their migration, which disrupts fetal liver and bone marrow development. Poor embryonic development causing death (miscarriage) may explain for why there is a paucity of anti-αIIb mediated FNAIT ...
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BACKGROUND: Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia occurs when the mother produces antibodies against a platelet alloantigen that the fetus has inherited from the father. A consequence of this can be a reduced number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) in the fetus, which can result in bleeding whilst in the womb or shortly after birth. In severe cases this bleeding may lead to long-lasting disability or death. Antenatal management of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia centres on preventing severe thrombocytopenia in the fetus. Available management options include administration of intravenous immunoglobulins or corticosteroids to the mother or intrauterine transfusion of antigen compatible platelets to the fetus. All options are costly and need to be assessed in terms of potential risk and benefit to both the mother and an individual fetus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal antenatal treatment of fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia to prevent fetal and neonatal haemorrhage and death. SEARCH
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia is caused when the mothers and babys platelets become incompatible, a condition known as platelet alloimmunization. To understand platelet alloimmunization, you must first understand about different platelet types. Platelet types are defined by antigens, substances or factors that exist on the surface of the cell. The most common of these is the HPA-1 antigen, which is present in 98% of people. These patients are referred to as HPA-1 positive. When their blood is tested, the test will return as HPA-1a/1a or HPA-1a/1b. About 2% of the population is HPA-1 negative; these patients are called HPA-1 negative. A blood test on one of these patients will return as HPA-1b/1b.. There are other platelet antigen systems found in humans that are associated with Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia, including HPA-3, HPA-4 (present in people of Asian descent), HPA-5, HPA-9 and HPA-15. If an antigen is present, the person is called positive for the antigen; if it is ...
Principal Investigator:SHIBATA Yoichi, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Laboratory medicine
There have been considerable advances in the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of alloimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT), and its postnatal and antenatal management. The antenatal management of AIT has been particularly problematic, because severe haemorrhage occurs as early as 16 weeks gestation and there is no non-invasive investigation that reliably predicts the severity of AIT in utero. The strategies for antenatal treatment have included the use of serial platelet transfusions that, while effective, are invasive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Maternal therapy involving the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and/or steroids is also effective and associated with fewer risks to the fetus. Significant recent progress has involved refinement of maternal treatment, stratifying it according to the likely severity of AIT based on the history in previous pregnancies. However, the ideal antenatal treatment, which is effective without causing significant side-effects to the
After investigations post birth, we found that Raife only had platelets of 8! This meant our beautiful little man was whisked away to intensive care needing special care and transfusions. An MRI scan determined a parents worst nightmare- he had lost the majority of his right temporal lobe due to a significant bleed to the brain as a result of his lack of platelets. Even worse, we then found out that the bleed was due to a rare disorder that we as parents have called NAIT (neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia) whilst in utero, my body was attacking his platelets a very rare and dangerous blood disorder ...
Cases of CD36 deficiency are not rare in Asian populations, foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) caused by anti-CD36 isoantibodies appears more frequent than other HPA...
I am in my late 30s and live in NYC. I lost my first child at 24 weeks 5 days on Christmas Day, 2007. He was perfectly healthy and the cause of his death may have been a cord accident, a blood clot in the placenta or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. I found out that I was pregnant again on the day my precious Dashiell was due. This is my chronicle of happiness, anxiety, fear and love throughout my subsequent pregnancy. It will also be a record of my experience as a mother to an earth baby and an angel ...
On 26 November 2019 (10:00) Dian Winkelhorst will defend her PhD thesis Fetal and Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia evidence based screening at Leiden University.
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Diabetes Care. 36(3):e36, MARCH 2013. DOI: 10.2337/dc12-1849 , PMID: 23431098. Issn Print: 0149-5992. Publication Date: March 2013. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trombocitopenia neonatal e hipertensión inducida por el embarazo. AU - Bhat, Y. Ramesh. PY - 2013/12/1. Y1 - 2013/12/1. N2 - Thrombocytopenia in neonates occurs due to various causes, and pregnancy induced hypertension has been implicated as one of the maternal etiologies. The frequency and severity of thrombocytopenia vary. Severity of thrombocytopenia may influence the morbidity, warrant intervention and rarely may lead to life threatening hemorrhages. A better understanding of thrombocytopenia due to this etiology helps optimize the care. In the present review the author discusses the frequency, mechanisms, severity, characteristics and natural course, and management options for neonatal thrombocytopenia due to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.. AB - Thrombocytopenia in neonates occurs due to various causes, and pregnancy induced hypertension has been implicated as one of the maternal etiologies. The frequency and severity of thrombocytopenia vary. Severity of ...
The latest research from Fore Pharma, Global Thrombocytopaenia Clinical Trial Pipeline Highlights - 2021, provides most up-to-date information on key pipeline…
The detection of an antigen is the in front and chief Antigens fitting for in the function of activation of immunological responses buy glipizide cheap online blood glucose kits, predominantly as a replacement for induction of cellular release glipizide 10mg with mastercard diabetes mellitus jenis 1. Immunogenicity is the aptitude to annoy an immune stall membranes of all majority cells except red cells cheap 10 mg glipizide fast delivery. The proteins in the cells are continuously defied down to their peptide fragments. When a peptide remnant of a self protein is picked up virus, flagella of bacteria or the chamber wall of the organism. They are important as histocompatibility antigens in gens, whereas B cells sympathize with to proteins and non-protein organ transplantation. In transfusion remedy, they are liable in behalf of auto- Explicit morsel of an antigen that triggers the immuno- immunization against platelet antigens and refractori- logical revenge is called antigenic determinant or ...
The A2 allele of the platelet specific alloantigen system is encoded by rs5918(C), and it has been implicated as increasing the risk of myocardial infarction, heart disease, and resistance to blood-thinning benefits of aspirin. On its own, the A2 allele is implicated especially in early onset heart disease [PMID 8598867]; in combination with the 4G allele of the PAI1 gene, rs1799889, the increased risk of myocardial infarction in a Finnish study population was 4 fold higher (odds ratio = 4.5, p=0.001), particularly in males (odds ratio = 6.4, p=0.0005) [PMID 9700201]. Olympic skater Sergei Grinkov, who had this risk factor, died of a heart attack at age 28. [1] A2 allele carriers also appear to be relatively resistant to the anti-thrombotic (i.e. anti-clotting) actions normally associated with aspirin use.[PMID 11723016] A protective effect of rs5918 has also been observed for the development of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, both for the SNP (which is also known as L59P) and for its gene, ITGB3. The ...
Riya lektînê a sîstema temamker dişibe rêya çalakbûna klasîkî, lê ji bo destpêkirina çalakbûnê gava yekem ne girêdana dijeten - dijepeydaker e. Li ser rûyê hokarên nexweşiyê de hin molekulên taybet hene ev molekulan wekî nexşên molekulên têkildarên hokarên nexweşiyê (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)) tê nasîn. Li ser rûyê piraniya xirokên spî jî proteînên bi navê wergirên nasîna nexşê (Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)) heye. Xaneyên bergiriyê bi van wergiran hokarên nexweşiyê dinase. Wergirên nasîna nexşê ne tenê li ser rûyê xirokên spî de ne, hinek ji wan jî wekî molekulên serbest di nav xwînê de tevdigerin. Gava ev wergirên serbest rastê hokara nexweşiyê tên, xwe bi nexşên molekulên tekîldarên hokarên nexweşiye ve girê didin. Lektîna bi mannozê ve tê girêdan (bi îngilîzî: Mannose-biding lectin(MBL))[4] jî yêk ji van wergirên serbest e ku bi rûyê hokara nexweşiyê de xwe girê dide. Bi ...
Decades have passed, but the role of the NAIT 5si is fundamentally the same as its original forebear. So the engineering challenge - to maximise performance whilst maintaining engineering efficiency, quality and reliability - hasnt changed.
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In regards to the Inquisition we described before, our reporter had thoroughly made investigations over the mystery behind it. The tribulation organization Inquisition was started by class 2-F. As for the number of members, it was stated in reality to be more than 60% of all the second year boys. The rapid increase in numbers can be said to be heavily related to the activities involved. Their actions are divided into two stages. The first is to sniff out the heretic, and the next is to deal judgment. The organization will receive the tipoff from their own members or ordinary students and process straight to the judgment phase. As a lot of unnecessary steps are skipped, the organization has achieved an increase in efficiency. Also, a lot of heretics who were judged became single, got jealous of other heretics, and ended up being members of the Inquisition. The members who joined in such a way would then become the main people involved in searching out the other heretics and dealing ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetal platelet counts correlate with the severity of the anemia in red-cell alloimmunization. AU - Saade, George. AU - Moise, K. J.. AU - Copel, J. A.. AU - Belfort, M. A.. AU - Carpenter, R. J.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Objective: To determine whether fetal anemia secondary to maternal red-cell alloimmunization is associated with thrombocytopenia. Methods: The records of 78 patients undergoing intrauterine transfusion for red-cell alloimmunization were reviewed. Pre-transfusion fetal platelet counts were compared between hydropic and nonhydropic fetuses. A regression analysis was performed between the fetal platelet counts and the fetal bilirubin levels, hematocrits, and reticulocyte counts taken at the initial transfusion. The hematocrits, reticulocyte counts, and bilirubin levels were adjusted for gestational age by calculating the number of standard deviations (SDs) from the mean for that age or the multiples of the mean (MOM). Student t test, Pearson coefficient, and ...
The Blood Services Platelet Laboratory has been functioning as the national reference laboratory since 1970. We examine platelet dysfunctions and the immunological and hereditary causes of thrombocytopenia. Our laboratory staff is highly trained and specialized in the special features of platelet disorder testing in particular. The methods require profound special expertise and, as a rule, they are not made in other laboratories in Finland. Our range of testing includes fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT/FMAIT), platelet function testing, membrane glycoprotein assays, auto- and alloimmune thrombocytopenia tests and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia tests. The available tests are described in the laboratory manual ...
In this paper, we propose a hop count based heuristic routing protocol by utilizing the information carried by the peripatetic packets in the network. The annual mean concentrations were from 0.02 microg/L at sites located in the middle reaches to 0.11 microg/L at the river mouth. At each scale, there were consistent themes that emerged as determinative in infection outcome. The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. Small intestinal submucosa gel as a potential scaffolding material for cardiac tissue engineering. To investigate the relationship among 3 polymorphisms of GP IIb and the function of GP IIb T13959 G in the platelet transfusion refractoriness(PTR).. A mixed methods approach with an online survey and qualitative key informant interviews was conducted with all partnership members at baseline and follow-up, 18 months later. A considerable suppression of hypophyseal and thyroid function coinciding with the maximum values of ...
Contents: Preface; Part I. Cellular Changes: 1. Normal hematological changes during pregnancy and the puerperium Margaret Ramsay; 2. Hematinic deficiencies Jane Strong; 3. Inherited red cell disorders Emma Welch and Josh Wright; 4. Maternal autoimmune cytopenias Hamish Lyall and Bethan Myers; Part II. Fetomaternal Alloimmune Syndromes: 5. Fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia Michael F. Murphy; 6. Red cell alloimmunisation Alec McEwan; Part III. Thromboembolism and Anticoagulation: 7. Venous thromboembolism Ian A. Greer; 8. Thromboprophylaxis Catherine Nelson-Piercy and Sarah Germain; 9. Prosthetic heart valves Claire McLintock; 10. Management of anticoagulants at delivery Christina Oppenheimer and Paul Sharpe; Part IV. Thrombophilia and Fetal Loss: 11. Antiphospholipid syndrome Sue Pavord and Bethan Myers; 12. Thrombophilia and pregnancy loss Isobel D. Walker; Part V. Haemorrhagic Disorders: 13a. Management of obstetric hemorrhage: obstetric management Susan Bewley and Annette Briley; 13b. ...
Heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) is a paradoxical thrombotic state resulting from an immune response to heparin. Epidemiology Occurs in 1:5000 patients who have received heparin, most commonly unfractionated heparin. Pathology HIT is ...
Fetal and neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is considered as a rare disease due to the incidence (1/1000-1/2000 births). The major complication of severe thrombocytopenia is bleeding and particularly intra-cranial hemorrhage and neurologic sequelae following. Serology and molecular biology developments have reconfigured the platelet immunology diagnosis. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunisation is responsible for more than 80% FNAIT cases with a high recurrence rate of severe bleeding complications. Therapeutic management has changed over the coming years from an invasive concept associating fetal blood sampling and in utero platelet transfusion to a non invasive treatment by intravenous immunoglobulins injection (IVIg ...
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A course which is generally 6 weeks and longer in duration and requires a medium to high level of involvement from NAIT staff namely: Credit Work Experience, which applies only to the Applied Degree setting, Clinical Placement and Field Placement, both of which occur in the Certificate and Diploma program settings ...
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Implications thérapeutiques du titrage sérique des anticorps anti-PLA2R dans la glomérulonéphrite extra-membraneuse idiopathique : à propos dun cas clinique
Pòtásíọ̀mù je elimenti kemika kan to ni ami-idamo K (latinu ede Latini Tuntun fun kalium) ati nomba atomu 19. Potasiomu je metali alkali alawo fadaka-funfun didelowo to undi oksidi kiakia ninu afefe to si yirapo mo omi gigdigidi, eyi unfa igbona jade to sana si haidrojin to unbujade ninu iyirapo na, o si unjo bi awo lilaki. Nitoripe potasiomu ati sodiomu jora ni isese kemika won, awon iyọ̀ won ko se e ya sira won nibere. O di odun 1702 ko to di pe won fun ra pe opo elimenti wa ninu awon iyo won,[3] eyi je mimufidaju ni odun 1807 nigba ti potasiomu ati sodiomu je yiya sotooto latinu awon iyọ̀ otooto pelu elektrolisisi. Potasiomu inu adaye wa ninu awon iyọ̀ oniioni nikan. Nitori eyi, o wa ninu omi okun (to je 0.04% potasiomu pelu iwuwo[4][5]), o si je apa opo awon alumoni. ...
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a er f lk sem arf a taka st rri kvar anir en g er f r um a gera og g get ekki st rt v . Eina sem g get gert er a reyna a f ra f laginu vir ingu og eitthva til a vera stolft af en a er lj st a a hefur horfi s ustu r og a er mitt verk a n v til baka. Til ess a a s h gt arf hins vegar anna f lk a sinna starfi s nu, sag i Rooney ...
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Human platelet antigens (HPA) are polymorphisms in platelet antigens. These can stimulate production of alloantibodies (that is ... "Nomenclature of human platelet antigens". Vox Sang. 85 (3): 240-5. doi:10.1046/j.1423-0410.2003.00331.x. PMID 14516468. S2CID ... Human+Platelet+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v ... antibodies against other people's antigens) in recipients of transfused platelets from donors with different HPAs. These ...
Tuszynski GP, Bevacqua SJ, Schmaier AH, Colman RW, Walsh PN (Jun 1982). "Factor XI antigen and activity in human platelets". ... In humans, Factor XI is encoded by the F11 gene. Factor XI (FXI) is produced by the liver and circulates as a homo-dimer in its ... Kato A, Asakai R, Davie EW, Aoki N (1989). "Factor XI gene (F11) is located on the distal end of the long arm of human ... Fujikawa K, Chung DW, Hendrickson LE, Davie EW (May 1986). "Amino acid sequence of human factor XI, a blood coagulation factor ...
"Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen of human platelets". FEBS Letters. 264 (2): 270-4. doi:10.1016/0014- ... by use of human specific DNA probes". Human Genetics. 86 (3): 268-72. doi:10.1007/bf00202407. PMID 1997380. S2CID 27178985. ... Ninomiya H, Sims PJ (July 1992). "The human complement regulatory protein CD59 binds to the alpha-chain of C8 and to the "b" ... Benoit P, Gross MS, Frachet P, Frézal J, Uzan G, Boucheix C, Nguyen VC (January 1991). "Assignment of the human CD9 gene to ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)". May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; Kennedy, ... Integrin beta-3 (β3) or CD61 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB3 gene. CD61 is a cluster of differentiation ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGB3 Info with links in the Cell ... Bennett JS (2001). "Platelet-fibrinogen interactions". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 936 (1): 340-54. Bibcode:2001NYASA.936..340B. doi: ...
Generated platelets demonstrated an 85% reduction in class I HLA antigens. These platelets appeared to have normal function in ... DC-like antigen-presenting cells obtained from human induced pluripotent stem cells can serve as a source for vaccination ... Thus, the ability to generate platelet products ex vivo and platelet products lacking HLA antigens in serum-free media would ... The fact that human iPSCs are capable of forming teratomas not only in humans but also in some animal body, in particular mice ...
"The structure and function of the molecules that carry human red blood cell and platelet antigens". Transfusion Medicine ... Approximately 25 of these membrane proteins carry the various blood group antigens, such as the A, B and Rh antigens, among ... there are about 4,000-11,000 white blood cells and about 150,000-400,000 platelets per microliter. Human red blood cells take ... lack of Kx antigen and greatly reduced expression of Kell antigens); RhD/RhCE - defines Rh Blood Group and the associated ...
Davoren A, Curtis BR, Aster RH, McFarland JG (August 2004). "Human platelet antigen-specific alloantibodies implicated in 1162 ... Platelet antigens are inherited from both mother and father. NAIT is caused by antibodies specific for platelet antigens ... NAIT, hence, is caused by transplacental passage of maternal platelet-specific alloantibody and rarely human leukocyte antigen ... "Alloimmunization to platelet antigen HPA-1a (PIA1) is strongly associated with both HLA-DRB3*0101 and HLA-DQB1*0201". Human ...
Collecting the platelets from a single donor also simplifies human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, which improves the chance ... platelet increment at one hr x BSA (m2) / # platelets infused x 1011 Expected platelet increase (per μL) = platelets infused x ... Platelet count increase as well as platelet survival after transfusion is related to the dose of platelets infused and to the ... Not all platelet transfusions use platelets collected by automated apheresis. The platelets can also be separated from ...
Shiga Toxin Binds Human Platelets Via Globotriaoslyceramide (Pk antigen) and a Novel Platelet Glycosphingolipid. Infect Immun ... The GLOB antigen (formerly P) is now the member of the separate GLOB blood group system. The P1PK antigens are carbohydrate ... The P antigen (later renamed P1) was first described by Karl Landsteiner and Philip Levine in 1927. The P1PK blood group system ... Rare p phenotype (absence of P1PK antigens caused by null mutations in A4GALT): anti-P1 (-), anti-P (-), anti-PP1Pk (-), and ...
... and activated platelets (Lin et al., 2002). In addition, the platelet-specific Gov antigen system (HPA15), implicated in ... CD109+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD109 genome location and CD109 gene ... CD109 (Cluster of Differentiation 109) is a human gene. CD109 is a GPI-linked cell surface antigen expressed by CD34+ acute ... Lewandrowski U, Moebius J, Walter U, Sickmann A (2006). "Elucidation of N-glycosylation sites on human platelet proteins: a ...
1989). "A new platelet-specific antigen, Naka, involved in the refractoriness of HLA-matched platelet transfusion". Vox ... Other human scavenger receptors related to CD36 are SCARB1 and SCARB2 proteins. Cluster of differentiation CD36 antigen GRCh38 ... CD36 is also known as glycoprotein IV (gpIV) or glycoprotein IIIb (gpIIIb) in platelets and gives rise to the Naka antigen. The ... Subsequent studies have shown that CD36 found on the surface of platelets. This antigen is recognized by the monoclonal ...
Human CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Mouse CD Antigen Chart (eBioscience) Human PECAM1 genome location and PECAM1 gene details ... Almendro N, Bellón T, Rius C, Lastres P, Langa C, Corbí A, Bernabéu C (December 1996). "Cloning of the human platelet ... Kirschbaum NE, Gumina RJ, Newman PJ (December 1994). "Organization of the gene for human platelet/endothelial cell adhesion ... "Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed by a subpopulation of human trophoblasts: a possible mechanism for ...
"Fya/Fyb antigen polymorphism in human erythrocyte Duffy antigen affects susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria". Proc Natl ... "Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum". Science. 338 (6112): 1348-51. ... "Platelet factor 4 and Duffy antigen required for platelet killing of Plasmodium falciparum". Science. 338 (6112): 1348-51. ... DARC+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Duffy at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen ...
... +protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD84 genome location and CD84 ... "Platelet aggregation induces platelet aggregate stability via SLAM family receptor signaling". Blood. 106 (9): 3028-34. doi: ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Tangye SG, van de Weerdt BC, Avery DT, Hodgkin PD (Jun 2002). "CD84 is up-regulated on a major population of human memory B ...
Antigen determinants that possess type-specific reactivity are found on the envelope. Antigen determinants that possess type- ... in humans and other mammalian species. The genus includes the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS. ... For example, a model of mouse hemophilia is corrected by expressing wild-type platelet-factor VIII, the gene that is mutated in ... Some groups have cross-reactive gag antigens (e.g., the ovine, caprine, and feline lentiviruses). Antibodies to gag antigens in ...
... and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on ... Fc receptors are also found on eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages and platelets in humans. There are two types of Fcε ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic reactions to drugs, bee stings, and antigen ... Rihet P, Demeure CE, Bourgois A, Prata A, Dessein AJ (November 1991). "Evidence for an association between human resistance to ...
... platelet refractoriness Pathogen-reduced platelet component Alloantibodies to platelet antigens Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) ... antibodies Human platelet antigen (HPA) antibodies Immune complexes Other antibodies Drug-related antibodies Platelet ... PI = post-transfusion platelet count - pre-transfusion platelet count However, it is affected by the number of platelets given ... platelet component ABO mismatch between platelet component and recipient Number of platelets within the component if platelet ...
If the recipient has antibodies against human leukocyte antigens (HLA), proteins found on the surface of white blood cells, the ... and reduce the efficacy of platelet transfusions and allogeneic stem cell transplants. In a 1934 experiment, Strumia gave ... Finally, people who receive granulocyte transfusions may develop antibodies against the human leukocyte antigens found on the ... and the development of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens, which can interfere with subsequent transfusions. ...
SUCNR1 is one of the highest expressed G protein-coupled receptors on human platelets, present at levels similar to P2Y12, ... Succinate may enhance adaptive immunity by triggering the activity of antigen-presenting cells that, in turn, activate T-cells ... In humans, three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases regulate the stability of HIFs. Hydroxylation of two prolyl residues in HIF1α ... This pathway is exploited in metabolic engineering to net generate succinate for human use. Additionally, succinic acid ...
Human Lymphocyte Antigens or HLAs), and the transfusion of platelets and later stem cells in the treatment of leukaemia. He ... He performed early work on the typing of red cells and their antigens, white blood cells ( ...
CD49b+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the ... structure information available in the PDB for Human Integrin alpha 2 Moroi M, Jung SM (1997). "Platelet receptors for collagen ... Integrin alpha-2, or CD49b (cluster of differentiation 49b), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD49b gene. The ... They are found on a wide variety of cell types including T cells (the NKT cells), NK cells, fibroblasts and platelets. ...
... a unit of pressure Human platelet antigen Human Protein Atlas Hydrogen pinch analysis Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in ... UK polo governing body HPA Toucan human-powered aircraft built by Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts Hans Peter Anvin (born 1972), ... physiology High-performance addressing, in LCD displays Host protected area of computer data storage Human-powered aircraft ...
... platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX Accessory Molecule-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... CD226+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD226 genome location and ... Ye X, Zhang Z, Jiang Y, Han X, Wang Y, Zhang M, Liu J, Geng W, Dai D, Shi W, Shang H (2006). "Expression of human CD226 on T ... CD226 is a ~65 kDa glycoprotein expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, platelets, monocytes and a subset of T cells ...
... human platelet antigen). Recipients who lack this protein develop sensitization to this protein from prior transfusions or ... Antibodies to human neutrophil antigens (HNA) and human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have been associated with this type of ... Fast, LD; Dileone, G; Marschner, S (2011). "Inactivation of human white blood cells in platelet products after pathogen ... Although transfusions of platelets are far less numerous (relative to RBC), platelet storage lesion and resulting efficacy loss ...
"Complex formation between protein C inhibitor and prostate-specific antigen in vitro and in human semen". European Journal of ... "Anticoagulant and antithrombotic properties of platelet protease nexin-1". Blood. 115 (1): 97-106. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-04- ... The human Protein C inhibitor have 19 amino acid signal peptide. The study of genomic DNA by restriction mapping, polymerase ... Yasuda T, Nadano D, Iida R, Tanaka Y, Nakanaga M, Kishi K (May 1992). "Discovery of a genetic polymorphism of human plasma ...
The human IL-3 gene encodes a protein 152 amino acids long, and the naturally occurring IL-3 is glycosylated. The human IL-3 ... It also has many more specific effects like the regeneration of platelets and potentially aids in early antibody isotype ... IL-3 is produced by T cells only after stimulation with antigens or other specific impulses. However, it was observed that IL-3 ... "Expression cloning of the human IL-3 receptor cDNA reveals a shared beta subunit for the human IL-3 and GM-CSF receptors". Cell ...
Qiu M, Hua S, Agrawal M, Li G, Cai J, Chan E, Zhou H, Luo Y, Liu M (Dec 1998). "Molecular cloning and expression of human grap- ... "Expression of the Grb2-related protein of the lymphoid system in B cell subsets enhances B cell antigen receptor signaling ... Platelets. 13 (8): 459-64. doi:10.1080/0953710021000059431. PMID 12487779. S2CID 26192685. Yankee TM, Solow SA, Draves KD, ... Xia C, Bao Z, Tabassam F, Ma W, Qiu M, Hua S, Liu M (Jul 2000). "GCIP, a novel human grap2 and cyclin D interacting protein, ...
In humans, the HLAs corresponding to MHC class I are HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. Class I MHC molecules bind peptides generated ... Histocompatibility+Antigens+Class+I at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MHC+Class+I+Genes at ... They also occur on platelets, but not on red blood cells. Their function is to display peptide fragments of proteins from ... It is likely that human MHC class Ib loci (HLA-E, -F, and -G) as well as MHC class I pseudogenes arose from MHC class Ia loci ( ...
The gene for human PF4 is located on human chromosome 4. Platelet factor-4 is a 70-amino acid protein that is released from the ... PF4 complex is the antigen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), an idiosyncratic autoimmune reaction to the ... Han ZC, Bellucci S, Tenza D, Caen JP (April 1990). "Negative regulation of human megakaryocytopoiesis by human platelet factor ... The human platelet factor 4 kills malaria parasites within erythrocytes by selectively lysing the parasite's digestive vacuole ...
CD51+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGAV Info with links in the Cell Migration ... Integrin alpha-V is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGAV gene. ITGAV encodes integrin alpha chain V. Integrins are ... "Chromosomal localization of the genes for the vitronectin and fibronectin receptors alpha subunits and for platelet ... "Entrez Gene: ITGAV integrin, alpha V (vitronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide, antigen CD51)". Hermann P, Armant M, Brown E, ...
... including human beings. This tick is the most commonly identified species responsible for transmitting R. rickettsii to humans ... Both rOmpA and rOmpB are members of a family of surface cell antigens (Sca) which are autotransporter proteins; they act as ... Abnormal laboratory findings seen in patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever may include a low platelet count, low blood ... The disease is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, a type of bacterium that is primarily spread to humans by American dog ticks, ...
A vaccine for humans to prevent tick-borne encephalitis was approved by the CDC in 2021 for use in the US. Though, this is not ... Parthasarathi, B. C.; Kumar, Binod; Ghosh, Srikant (July 2021). "Current status and future prospects of multi-antigen tick ... low levels of platelets in the body-an important component of blood clotting-deficiency results in worse bleeding). Ticks can ... Humans are not the preferred natural host, but the adult ticks, containing the bacteria known to cause Lyme disease, can attach ...
Hyde FW, Johnson RC, White TJ, Shelburne CE (January 1989). "Detection of antigens in urine of mice and humans infected with ... or who have abnormally low levels of white or red cells or platelets in the blood, should be investigated for possible ... No human vaccines for Lyme disease are currently available. The only human vaccine to advance to market was LYMErix, which was ... Human expansion has also resulted in a reduction of predators that hunt deer as well as mice, chipmunks and other small rodents ...
Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3". Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. doi: ... Hasegawa H, Utsunomiya Y, Kishimoto K, Yanagisawa K, Fujita S (1996). "SFA-1, a novel cellular gene induced by human T-cell ...
Singaporean patients who needed stem cell transplants were then facing difficulties in obtaining Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) ... white blood cells and platelets. The use of blood stem cells has emerged as a potentially curative option for the treatment of ...
Imported cases have not manifested in larger epidemics outside of Africa due to a lack of human to human transmission in ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... low platelets), and elevated aspartate transaminase levels in the blood. Lassa fever virus can also be found in cerebrospinal ... There is no vaccine for humans as of 2019. Researchers at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious ...
A low white blood cell count, and low platelet count in the blood may be observed. A low level of neutrophils (a specific type ... Bone marrow tumour cells express the following antigen targets CD20 (98.3%), CD22 (88.3%), CD40 (83.3%), CD52 (77.4%), IgM ( ... American Journal of Human Genetics. 79 (4): 695-701. doi:10.1086/507687. PMC 1592553. PMID 16960805. Treon, S. P.; Xu, L.; Yang ... Platelet aggregation studies are optional. Serum protein electrophoresis results indicate evidence of a monoclonal spike but ...
"Tyrosine phosphorylation and relocation of SHIP are integrin-mediated in thrombin-stimulated human blood platelets". The ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... Drayer AL, Pesesse X, De Smedt F, Woscholski R, Parker P, Erneux C (August 1996). "Cloning and expression of a human placenta ... Zhang S, Broxmeyer HE (January 1999). "p85 subunit of PI3 kinase does not bind to human Flt3 receptor, but associates with SHP2 ...
CTLD is a ligand binding motif found in more than 1000 known proteins (more than 100 in humans) and the ligands are often not ... PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... the platelet activation receptor for podoplanin on lymphatic endothelial cells and invading front of some carcinomas, and ... 10 functional members of the TLR family have been described in humans so far. Studies have been conducted on TLR11 as well, and ...
... platelet glycoprotein GPIb-IX complex - platelet membrane glycoprotein - platelet-derived growth factor - platelet-derived ... CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... Human Genome Project - hybridization - hydrocarbon - hydrogen - hydrogen bond - hydrogenation - hydrogen-deuterium exchange - ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ...
Shin J, Lee JO, Choe JY, Bang SM, Lee JS (January 2017). "Human Herpesvirus 8-Unrelated Primary Effusion Lymphoma-Like Lymphoma ... low blood levels of platelets, high serum levels of IL6, and high levels of circulating KSHV/HHV8. PEL develops in patients ... or one of the various tests for hepatitis C antigen. Extracavitary PEL is diagnosed based on findings that their mass lesions ... This weakening is ascribed to KSHV/HHV8 infection that is commonly further promoted by concurrent human immunodeficiency virus ...
Scientists found that p28sis has a nearly identical amino acid sequence as human platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Thus, ... Lymphocytes can enter mitosis when they are activated by mitogens or antigens. B cells specifically can divide when they ... Platelet-derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28sis of simian sarcoma virus. ... Casciani, V; Marinoni, E (2008). "Opposite effect of phorbol ester PMA on PTGS2 and PGDH mRNA expression in human chorion ...
Furthermore, the human body is capable of breaking down naturally occurring formaldehyde as well as the small amount of ... Indeed, a vaccine that provides accessible antigens in the absence of these other proteins may allow us to control the response ... Richardson PD, Mohammed SF, Mason RG, Steiner M, Kane R (2004). "Dynamics of platelet interaction with surfaces in steady flow ... For instance, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine elicits a stronger immune response than infection by the virus itself. One ...
"Platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha forms catch bonds with human WT vWF but not with type 2B von Willebrand disease vWF". Journal of ... These includes bonds between T cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pre-TCR and peptide presented by major histocompatibility ... platelet glycoprotein Ib and von Willebrand factor, and integrin alpha 5 beta 1 and fibronectin. Emphasizing their importance ... "The N-terminal flanking region of the A1 domain regulates the force-dependent binding of von Willebrand factor to platelet ...
Reimers, E.; Eftestøl, S. (2012). "Response Behaviors of Svalbard Reindeer Towards Humans and Humans Disguised as Polar Bears ... Marazziti, D.; Akiskal, H. S.; Rossi, A.; Cassano, G. B. (1999). "Alteration of the platelet serotonin transporter in romantic ... J. Benveniste; P. Jurgens, W. Hsueh and J. Aissa ( 21-26 February 1997). "Transatlantic Transfer of Digitized Antigen Signal by ... Ghirlanda, S.; Jansson, L.; Enquist, M. (2002). "Chickens prefer beautiful humans" (PDF). Human Nature. 13 (3): 383-389. doi: ...
A low platelet count and positivity for antibodies against β2-glycoprotein 1 or phosphatidylserine may also be observed in a ... McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA (1990). "Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen ... de Jong PG, Goddijn M, Middeldorp S (2013). "Antithrombotic therapy for pregnancy loss". Human Reproduction Update. 19 (6): 656 ... Other common findings, although not part of the APS classification criteria, are low platelet count, heart valve disease, and ...
It can store platelets in case of an emergency and also clears old platelets from the circulation. Up to a quarter of ... In humans, up to a cup (240 ml) of red blood cells is held within the spleen and released in cases of hypovolemia and hypoxia. ... Assessment of IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen (a rising titer) is indicated to confirm Epstein-Barr virus or ... In humans, the spleen is purple in color and is in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. The spleen is underneath the left ...
Pathogen - Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the known causative agent in HHV-8-associated MCD, which has very similar symptoms ... platelet counts. Patients may also have elevations of molecules involved in inflammation (cytokines), such as Interleukin 6 (IL ... Staining with latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1), a marker of HHV-8 infection, must be negative to diagnose iMCD. ... Castleman disease describes a group of at least 3 distinct disorders-Unicentric Castleman disease (UCD), human herpesvirus 8 ...
... that are directed against human leukocyte antigens (HLA). These antibodies are most numerous in women who have been pregnant ... Removing multiparous women from this limited donor pool would likely cause too great a shortage of platelets, resulting in more ... Plasma frozen within 24 hours after phlebotomy, commonly called FP24, PF‑24, or similar names, is a frozen human blood plasma ... This does not address the question of risk from plasma in other components, particularly apheresis platelets. ...
Structure and function of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. J Clin Invest 2005; 115:3363-9. "FITC Anti-human CD51 Antibody ... Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-11.[permanent dead link] AbCam antigen poster (All ... "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-15. "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". ... "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". Retrieved 2015-10-15. "hcdm, Human Cell Differentiation Molecules". ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect plants. Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the ... For example, beta-lysine, a protein produced by platelets during coagulation, can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by ... Dendritic cells are very important in the process of antigen presentation, and serve as a link between the innate and adaptive ...
As in other tissues, Langerhans cells in the epithelium take up antigens from the microbes, and present them to the immune ... I. As observed in human biopsy material". Journal of Periodontology. 49 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1902/jop.1978.49.1.1. PMID 340634. ... as it is associated with platelet and coagulation cascade activations, leading to thrombosis and thrombotic complications. ... Centre for Pet Nutrition has established that the bacteria associated with gum disease in dogs are not the same as in humans. ...
For apheresis platelet donation the donor's pre platelet count should be above 150 x 10^9/L. For apheresis plasma donation, the ... Some institutions use human serum albumin, but it is costly and can be difficult to find. Some advocate using fresh frozen ... and cellular antigen[citation needed] Leukoreduction Plasmapheresis Venipuncture Pediatric Apheresis Katherine, Abel (2013). ... The yield is normally the equivalent of between six and ten random platelet concentrates. Quality control demands the platelets ...
Group H streptococci rarely cause human illness unless a human has direct contact with the mouth of a canine. One of the most ... They possess no Lancefield antigens.[citation needed] The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria that ... and platelets), and usually results in beta-hemolysis under the surface of blood agar. Streptolysin S is an oxygen-stable ... It is a particularly common GGS in humans, although it is typically found on animals. S. phocae is a GGS subspecies that has ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Maton D, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD, Kulkarni DV (1997). Human Biology and Health. ... All white blood cells are nucleated, which distinguishes them from the anucleated red blood cells and platelets. Types of ... Falcone FH, Haas H, Gibbs BF (December 2000). "The human basophil: a new appreciation of its role in immune responses". Blood. ...
It is most closely related to the human parasite Plasmodium vivax as well as other Plasmodium species that infect non-human ... Laboratory tests of infected people nearly always show a low platelet count, although this rarely leads to bleeding problems. ... which is involved in displaying different antigens on the parasite surface to evade the immune system, and the Kir (knowlesi ... While Cyril Garnham had suggested in 1957 that P. knowlesi might naturally infect humans, the first documented case of a human ...
Use of a rapid method for genotyping human platelet antigen systems in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ... Use of a rapid method for genotyping human platelet antigen systems in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Haematologica 1997 ... in which serology had provided inconclusive human platelet antigen (HPA) typing data. This method allowed for the ...
Immunofiuorescent detection of factor VIII-related antigen in human platelets and megakaryocytes. / Piovella, Franco; Ascari, E ... Immunofiuorescent detection of factor VIII-related antigen in human platelets and megakaryocytes. In: Pathophysiology of ... Dive into the research topics of Immunofiuorescent detection of factor VIII-related antigen in human platelets and ... Immunofiuorescent detection of factor VIII-related antigen in human platelets and megakaryocytes. Pathophysiology of ...
Antigens, CD44 [‎1]‎. Antigens, CD95 [‎1]‎. Antigens, Human Platelet [‎1]‎. Armed Conflicts [‎3]‎. ...
The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood as disc ... The hemostatic system consists of platelets, coagulation factors, and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. ... Most individuals have leucine at position 33; these antigens are designated as human platelet alloantigen (HPA)-1a or PLA1; ... The platelet GP IIb/IIIa complex mediates platelet-to-platelet interactions (platelet aggregation). On resting platelets, GP ...
Antigens, CD44 [‎1]‎. Antigens, CD95 [‎1]‎. Antigens, Human Platelet [‎2]‎. Antigua and Barbuda [‎27]‎. ...
Categories: Antigens, Human Platelet Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, platelet, and hepatitis C virus core antigen to measure sustained virologic response.. ... MMWR and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report are service marks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.. Use of ... ARCHITECT HCV Antigen Assay, Abbott Laboratories), and for creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and platelet tests. An ... Hepatitis B surface antigen rapid diagnostic test.. § Hepatitis B virus enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative ...
... very early activation antigen (VEA), and MLR3. It is a member of the C-type lectin family, expressed as a disulfide-linked ... Lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet activation, NK cell killing Cell Type B cells, Granulocytes, Langerhans cells, NK cells, ... Platelets, T cells, Thymocytes, Tregs Biology Area Costimulatory Molecules, Immunology Molecular Family CD Molecules Antigen ... Antigen Details Structure C-type lectin, type II glycoprotein, 28/32 kD Distribution Activated T cells, B cells, NK cells, ...
The PDGFRB gene provides instructions for making a protein called platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which ... beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor. *CD140 antigen-like family member B ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National ... The PDGFRβ protein is found in the cell membrane of certain cell types, where a protein called platelet-derived growth factor ...
... from an 8/10 human leukocyte antigen-matched, CMV-positive, unrelated donor. Graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis consisted of ... cyclosporine A (from day −1) and methotrexate (days +1, +3, +6; 10 mg/m2). Leukocyte, granulocyte, and platelet engraftment ... Allander T, Andreasson K, Gupta S, Bjerkner A, Bogdanovic G, Persson MA, Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J Virol ... On day −83, human bocavirus was detected. On day −27, the occurrence of bilateral infiltrates was assessed, and pneumonia was ...
β2 microglobulin plays a role in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. It has no transmembrane region and ... Distribution of antigen. leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, tonsil. RRID. AB_2904635. ... Alternative names of antigen. Beta-2-microglobulin, B2M, β2M, CDABP0092, HDCMA22P. Distribution of antigen. leukocytes, ... MACSima™ Stain Support Kit, human. The MACSima Stain Support Kit, human contains support reagents and mixing vials required for ...
Human platelets utilize cycloxygenase-1 to generate dioxolane A3, a neutrophil activating eicosanoid. Journal of Biological ... Heterogeneous detection of A-antigen on von Willebrand factor derived from platelets, endothelial cells and plasma. Thrombosis ... Human platelets utilize cycloxygenase-1 to generate dioxolane A3, a neutrophil activating eicosanoid. Journal of Biological ... Human platelets generate phospholipid-esterified prostaglandins via cyclooxygenase-1 that are inhibited by low dose aspirin ...
They are also expressed on other human tissues such as vascular endothelium and epithelium, sensory neurons and platelets (4). ... The ABO and Rh blood groups were determined using the antigen-antibody agglutination test. The antisera were obtained from the ... Liumbruno GM, Franchini M. Beyond immunohaematology: the role of the ABO blood group in human diseases. Blood Transfus. 2013 ... Background: Blood groups appear to be markers for various human diseases and their distribution among different communities, ...
Impact of Human Leucocyte Antigen epitope matched platelet transfusions in alloimmunised aplastic anaemia patients. Kallon, D. ... Neutrophil and platelet increases with luspatercept in lower-risk MDS: secondary endpoints from the MEDALIST trial. Garcia- ... An epitope-based approach of HLA-matched platelets for transfusion: A noninferiority crossover randomized trial. Marsh, J. C., ... Functional reconstruction of human AML reveals stem cell origin and vulnerability of treatment resistant MLL-rearranged ...
... and platelets (rPLTs) in fresh human plasma; 3.) immunophenotyping human peripheral whole blood and 4.) rapid detection of HLA- ...
Herein, we report that human Dectin-1 is a ligand for CLEC-2, another CLR expressed on platelets. Biochemical analyses revealed ... Human subjects: Leukapheresis products (non-clinical and de-identified) from donor blood were used as a source of human T cells ... 1994) Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage ... 2008) Platelet-mediated modulation of adaptive immunity: unique delivery of CD154 signal by platelet-derived membrane vesicles ...
CD42b is expressed on platelets and megakaryocytes. CD42b/c heterodimer forms a complex with CD42a and d and acts as the ... Antigen Details Structure Mucin, leucine-rich repeat family, 145 kD Distribution Platelets, megakaryocytes ... Human platelets were stained with anti-human CD42b (clone HIP1) Brilliant Violet 421™ (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ ... Human platelets were stained with anti-human CD42b (clone HIP1) Brilliant Violet 421™ (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ ...
CD41a antigen, a calcium-dependent complex of CD41/CD61 (GPIIb/IIIa) expressed on normal platelets and megakaryocytes. The CD41 ... and thrombospondin and is required for platelet aggregation and clotting. Mutations of either CD41 or CD61 in humans causes ...
... in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system contains a large number of genes involved in immune system function in humans. The ... HLA class I and II antigens are widely distributed on all nucleated cells and carried by platelets. Antibodies specific to HLA ... The presence of antibodies, specifically IgG, can affect the survival of transplant allografts or transfused platelets in ... Various testing methods are used to detect antibodies to HLA antigens. Source: Regenstrief LOINC. ...
Analysis of the expression of platelet antigens CD9 and CD41/61 in transgenic rabbits with the integrated human blood clotting ...
Anti-human platelet antigen-1α immunoglobulin G preparation intended to prevent fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia ... Isoliquiritigenin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Hsu, Y. L., Kuo, P. L., Lin, L. T. ... Antiviral effect of cimicifugin from Cimicifuga foetida against human respiratory syncytial virus. Wang, K. C., Chang, J. S., ... Contribution of human retroviruses to disease development-A focus on the HIV- And HERV-cancer relationships and treatment ...
Compare Anti-stromal antigen 3-like 2 (pseudogene) Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications ... Good CD32 Staining on Human Platelets CD32 is expressed on the platelet surface. CD32 Monoclonal Antibody (6C4 (CD32)) PerCP- ... Anti-stromal antigen 3-like 2 (pseudogene) Antibody Products. Stromal antigen 3-like 2 (pseudogene) is a human gene encoded by ... This antibody of MTHFD2 is good for WB with mouse tissue and human cell. Signal is strong and the ... Read Review ...
Chemiluminescent immunoassay for Antigen Detection.. LMA172Hu. Magnetic Luminex Assay Kit for Platelet Factor 4 (PF4) ,etc.. ... Monoclonal Antibody to Platelet Factor 4 (PF4). WB; IHC; ICC; IP.. SEA172Hu. ELISA Kit for Platelet Factor 4 (PF4). Enzyme- ... Monoclonal Antibody to Platelet Factor 4 (PF4). WB; IHC; ICC; IP.. MAA172Hu23. Monoclonal Antibody to Platelet Factor 4 (PF4). ... Magnetic Luminex Assay for Antigen Detection.. PSA172Hu01. Antibody Pair for Platelet Factor 4 (PF4). ELISA; CLIA; ELISPOT; ...
In humans, histocompatibility antigens are called human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because they were originally discovered in ... Class I MHC antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) are found on all nucleated cells and platelets. Class II antigens (HLA-DR, HLA- ... A complex of genes on chromosome 6 that code for the antigens that determine tissue and blood compatibility. ... There are thousands of combinations of HLA antigens. ... DQ, and HLA-DP) are found on lymphocytes and antigen processing ...
In a healthy person, a large number of platelets are manufactured and stored in the body. ... Platelets are the component of blood that helps with clotting. ... AB red blood cell types but also the Human Leukocyte Antigen ( ... Matching platelet donors and recipients HLA platelet matching Patients who receive multiple platelet transfusions sometimes ... How often can I donate platelets?. You can donate platelets as often as every 14 days. New platelet donors are encouraged to ...
Frequency, reactivity and evolution of human leukocyte antigen and human platelet antigen antibodies in the setting of ...
... tumor antigens, microbial antigens) adsorbed to the platelet surface, or a non-specific binding of IgG to platelets. A direct ... Platelet life span studies in dogs with ITP have not been reported, but studies in humans with ITP showed a reduction of the ... Platelet-surface-bound antibodies could be "true" antiplatelet autoantibodies against an antigen of the platelet membrane, ... Target antigens for autoantibodies in human beings are epitopes within the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa or GP Ib/IX complex. GP ...
The HLA (human leukocyte antigen) laboratory, which makes transfusing platelets, the clotting factor, clotting cell, much ... You have the human genome. Even with the human genome, if you didnt have powerful information technology you couldnt analyze ... and of course having the genome with the Human Genome Project. We look at the area for red cells and platelets on the genome ... But for our platelet collections, most of them are volunteer community donors, so its much easier for them to donate offsite ...
Human Platelet Antigen Human Platelet Antigens Platelet Alloantigen Platelet Alloantigens Platelet Antigens, Human Platelet ... Antigens, Platelet Specific. Antigens, Platelet-Specific. Human Platelet Antigen. Human Platelet Antigens. Platelet Alloantigen ... Platelet Antigens, Human. Platelet Specific Antigens. Platelet-Specific Antigen. Platelet-Specific Antigens. ... Antigens, Human Platelet Entry term(s). Alloantigens, Platelet Antigens, Platelet Specific Antigens, Platelet-Specific ...
  • Platelets, lymphocytes, and megakaryocytes, specifically processed for the intracellular detection of antigens, were studied by indirect immunofluorescence techniques using monospecific antibodies directed against factor VUI-related antigen (F-VIII-RA). (
  • Antibodies specific to HLA class I and II antigens can be acquired through alloimmunization due to pregnancy, transfusion of blood products, or previous transplants. (
  • The presence of antibodies, specifically IgG, can affect the survival of transplant allografts or transfused platelets in sensitized individuals. (
  • Various testing methods are used to detect antibodies to HLA antigens. (
  • Patients who receive multiple platelet transfusions sometimes produce antibodies that fight the donated platelets and prevent them from performing their clotting function. (
  • ITP is a disease in which antibodies (mainly IgG) bound to the surface of platelets result in their premature destruction by macrophages in the spleen and liver. (
  • Antibodies are thought to be directed against normal host platelet-surface antigens (antiplatelet autoantibodies), and the cause of this antibody production is unknown. (
  • AnnexinV+ MP (AnV+MP) from platelet poor plasma were measured using fluorescent monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. (
  • The antibodies used to detect EMP, however, were mainly directed against antigens without EC specificity. (
  • The invention relates to monoclonal antibodies and parts thereof which bind preferentially to active human platelets, to the nucleotide sequence and amino-acid sequence of the heavy and light chain of MAb BW 2128 and to an antigen associated with thrombospondin. (
  • Use of Radiolabelled Monoclonal Anti-CEA Antibodies for the Detection of Human Carcinomas by External Photoscanning and Tomoscintigraphy, Mach et al. (
  • Refractoriness to granulocyte transfusion involves either HLA or granulocyte-specific antibodies and is similar to platelet refractoriness, except that refractoriness to granulocyte transfusion results in the patient failing to respond clinically to the infused granulocytes. (
  • Antibodies perform their function by recognizing antigens on the surface of the microbe which identifies it as a foreign object. (
  • Along with antibodies, there are also many cells, chemicals, and proteins involved in destroying these antigens. (
  • The platelet GP IIb/IIIa complex mediates platelet-to-platelet interactions (platelet aggregation). (
  • Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: immunohistochemical staining of acetone-fixed frozen tissue sections, Westerm blotting, and inhibition of platelet aggregation 2 . (
  • The CD41/CD61 complex is a receptor for fibronectin, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, vitronectin, and thrombospondin and is required for platelet aggregation and clotting. (
  • CD41 antigen acts as a receptor for fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWf), fibrinectin and vitronectin and mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation. (
  • Fibrinogen is an essential blood-clotting factor and is involved in a range of other functions, including platelet aggregation and smooth muscle proliferation. (
  • The section was stained using β2 Microglobulin Antibody, anti-human, PE (green) for 10 min at room temperature (A). β2 Microglobulin Antibody, anti-human, PE staining was released using the REAlease Release Reagent (B). Nuclei were visualized with Hoechst™ (blue). (
  • This antibody of MTHFD2 is good for WB with mouse tissue and human cell. (
  • Western Blot Analysis of human Jurkat cell lysate using CD31 Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (C31.12). (
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody HI30 recognizes an extracellular epitope on all isoforms of human CD45 antigen (Leukocyte Common Antigen), a 180-220 kDa single chain type I transmembrane protein expressed at high level on all cells of hematopoietic origin, except erythrocytes and platelets. (
  • Serology results were negative for EBV IgM and positive for EBV viral capsid antigen antibody IgG and EBV nuclear antigen antibody IgG, suggestive of past infection with a low level of viral reactivation. (
  • Immunohistochemical Localization and Molecular Characteristics of Three Monoclonal Antibody-Defined Epitopes Detectable on Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), Bosslet et al. (
  • This antibody recognizes the human CD31 cell surface antigen, a 130kD glycoprotein expressed by platelets, endothelial cells, granulocytes and some lymphocytes. (
  • 8. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 or -2 antibody positive at screening. (
  • Particle-enhanced assays are based on the reaction between a soluble analyte and the corresponding antigen or antibody bound to polystyrene particles. (
  • CRP present in the test sample will form an antigen-antibody complex with the latex particles. (
  • A serum sample test showed a weak positive result for dengue virus by using IgM and IgG antibody tests, and a strong positive result for dengue virus nonstructural protein-1, or NS1, antigen, demonstrating acute dengue virus infection. (
  • This antibody is recommended for detection of RhoA in human, mouse, rat or other extracts. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (
  • Specific staining was observed in platelets of the peripheral blood from normal individuals and from patients with haemophilia A, and in megakaryocytes and platelets of bone marrow from normal subjects. (
  • The platelets arise from the fragmentation of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and circulate in blood as disc-shaped anucleate particles for 7-10 days. (
  • CD42b is expressed on platelets and megakaryocytes. (
  • CD41a antigen, a calcium-dependent complex of CD41/CD61 (GPIIb/IIIa) expressed on normal platelets and megakaryocytes. (
  • The CD42a antigen is expressed on platelets and megakaryocytes. (
  • Mouse monoclonal to CD41.TBP8 reacts with a calcium-dependent complex of CD41/CD61 ( GPIIb/IIIa), 135/120 kDa, expressed on normal platelets and megakaryocytes. (
  • Granule Proteins in Human Megakaryocytes: Application to Plastic-Embedded Bone Marrow Biopsy Specimens, Beckstead et al. (
  • The 1-year pilot program set a target of testing 250,000 adults for HBV and HCV infection and treating all patients who have active infection, including those who had a positive test result for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and those who had a positive test result for HCV core antigen. (
  • In 1971, hepatitis B surface antigen testing heralded the advent of screening to minimize infection transmission complicating allogeneic transfusion. (
  • 5. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive at screening. (
  • In humans, histocompatibility antigens are called human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because they were originally discovered in large numbers on lymphocytes. (
  • Class II antigens (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP) are found on lymphocytes and antigen processing cells and are important in the specific immune response. (
  • CD8+ T lymphocytes kill target cells when they recognize antigen in associated with self MHC-I [5-8]. (
  • CD45 (LCA, leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated hematopoietic cells, comprising approximately 10% of all surface proteins in lymphocytes. (
  • They reside in tissues to activate both T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes that recognize foreign antigens. (
  • The PDGFRB gene provides instructions for making a protein called platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which is part of a family of proteins called receptor tyrosine kinases. (
  • GP IIb/IIIa (fibrinogen receptor) has been identified as a target antigen in the dog. (
  • FS12 reacts with CD31 (PECAM-1), a 130-140 kDa member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily that is expressed on cells of the vasculature, including platelets, endothelial cells, myeloid cells and certain lymphocyte subsets. (
  • Platelets play a primary role in this process, interacting with subendothelium-bound von Willebrand factor (vWf) via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. (
  • Target antigens for autoantibodies in human beings are epitopes within the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa or GP Ib/IX complex. (
  • The CD42a antigen (GPIX) is a 22 kDa single-chain membrane glycoprotein that forms a noncovalent complex with CD42b, CD42c and CD42d (GP1X, GP1b, GPV). (
  • CD45 glycoprotein is crucial in lymphocyte development and antigen signaling, serving as an important regulator of Src-family kinases. (
  • Identity of TSAs (tumor-specific antigens) in experimentally induced tumors and their existence on human tumors remained elusive until the molecular basis of T lymphocyte cell recognition was understood. (
  • These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy. (
  • A recipient who is immunocompetent may mount an immune response to the donor antigens (i.e., alloimmunization), resulting in various clinical consequences, depending on the blood cells and specific antigens involved. (
  • [ 1 ] This procedure introduces a multitude of foreign antigens and viable cells into the recipient that persist for a variable time. (
  • We applied a polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method developed by other researchers to study 4 families of newborns with neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAITP) in which serology had provided inconclusive human platelet antigen (HPA) typing data. (
  • CD69 is a 27-33 kD type II transmembrane protein also known as activation inducer molecule (AIM), very early activation antigen (VEA), and MLR3. (
  • The PDGFRβ protein is found in the cell membrane of certain cell types, where a protein called platelet-derived growth factor attaches (binds) to it. (
  • The interaction of the released platelet factors and other plasma protein clotting factors results in a stronger patch on the injured site. (
  • Protein Binding: Nedocromil is approximately 89% protein bound in human plasma over a concentration range of 0.5 to 50 µg/mL. (
  • A Thrombin-Sensitive Protein of Human Platelet Membranes, Baenziger et al. (
  • Isolation and Properties of a Thrombin-Sensitive Protein from Human Blood Platelets, Ganguly, J. Biol. (
  • In the morning of the second day after apheresis, the platelet count dropped, procalcitonine level was elevated, C-reactive protein level was elevated, and a slight skin rash developed. (
  • To review the literature on the use and clinical viability of human morphogenetic protein for the jaws reconstruction. (
  • The human bone morphogenet ic protein (rhBMP) developed by genetic engineering, was isolated by Urist, in 1965, and it is considered a substance capable of inducing differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, the cells that are responsible for the synthesis of bone matrix. (
  • The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the use and clinical viability of human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) for grafting bone in Dentistry. (
  • Platelet activation allows binding of these proteins, which bridges adjacent platelets. (
  • The alpha granules contain hemostatic proteins such as fibrinogen, vWf, and growth factors (eg, platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factors). (
  • The proteins encoded by some genes form antigens. (
  • MHC-I molecules are integral membrane proteins found on all nucleated cell and platelets. (
  • Platelets release preformed mediators and generate eicosanoids that regulate acute hemostasis and inflammation, but these anucleate cytoplasts are not thought to synthesize proteins or cytokines, or to influence inflammatory responses over time. (
  • Multimerin: A Series of Large Disulfide-Linked Multimeric Proteins Within Platelets, Hayward et al. (
  • Recombinant small G-proteins and human platelet extract were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to a PVDF membrane according to the method given in this datasheet. (
  • Furthermore, we discovered that children and adults who got KD during years as a child without developing CAA didn't react to the Fc proteins antigens and play a central part in keeping immunological tolerance [1,2]. (
  • It is an absolutely vital component of the selenium-dependent proteins that have several biological functions in human health, including an antioxidant function. (
  • These studies have been undertaken for several reasons: their importance in blood transfusion and organ transplantation, their application in genetic research, forensic pathology and anthropology and studying the ancestral relationships of human (6,7). (
  • The earliest known blood transfusions occurred in 1665, and the first human blood transfusion was performed by Dr. Philip Syng Physick in 1795. (
  • The first transfusion of human blood for the treatment of hemorrhage was performed by Dr. James Blundell in London in 1818. (
  • Technology making the transfusion of allogeneic blood products feasible includes Karl Landsteiner's landmark identification of the human blood groups A, B, and O in 1901. (
  • Fresh whole blood has long been thought of as the criterion standard for transfusion, but the advent of whole blood fractionation techniques subsequent to World War II provided a means of more efficient use of the various components (i.e., packed red blood cells [PRBCs], fresh frozen plasma [FFP], individual factor concentrates, platelet concentrates, cryoprecipitate). (
  • Whole blood stored for more than 6 hours does not provide therapeutic platelet transfusion, nor does it contain therapeutic amounts of labile coagulation factors (factors V and VIII). (
  • Refractoriness to platelet transfusion (an increase in the platelet count after platelet transfusion that is significantly lower than expected [e.g. (
  • Mettre à jour les données sur la prévalence des infections transmissibles par transfusion en contexte de pandémie à coronavirus est très important pour la sécurité transfusionnelle dans notre milieu. (
  • White cells and platelets in blood transfusion : proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Symposium on Blood Transfusion, Groningen 1986, organized by the Red Cross Blood Bank Groningen-Drenthe / edited by C. Th. (
  • Class I MHC antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) are found on all nucleated cells and platelets. (
  • CD69 is involved in early events of lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet activation, and has a functional role in redirected lysis mediated by activated NK cells. (
  • The patient received bone marrow cells (4.2 × 10 6 CD34-positive cells/kg) from an 8/10 human leukocyte antigen-matched, CMV-positive, unrelated donor. (
  • A single platelet treatment would require six to eight whole blood donors instead of just one plateletpheresis donor. (
  • Matching is about finding a donor whose platelets will be accepted readily into the recipient's body. (
  • If you are thinking of making your first platelet donation or want to book an appointment, call your local donor centre. (
  • The immunologic mechanism for alloimmunization to antigens found on transfused cells involves presentation of the donor antigens by donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs), i.e., monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, to recipient T cells. (
  • Depending on the species (human or non-human) of blood, either 1.077 or 1.084 g/ml Ficoll is used, resulting in a perfect layer of mononuclear cells that are separated from plasma, platelets, granulocytes, and erythrocytes. (
  • Under physiological circumstances, the resistance of the endothelial cell lining to interactions with platelets and coagulation factors prevents thrombosis. (
  • Platelet disorders lead to defects in primary hemostasis and produce signs and symptoms different from coagulation factor deficiencies (disorders of secondary hemostasis). (
  • Fibrocytes also produce angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor A, and thus have a potent effect on de novo blood vessel formation, as evidenced by studies in an in vivo Matrigel™ (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) model of angiogenesis. (
  • A New Medium Improves Sampling for Determination of Platelet Factor 4 in Human Plasma, Osei-Bonsu et al. (
  • The interaction between activated platelets and monocytes with endothelial cells and the subsequent formation of AnV+MP and PMA during ACS would be compatible with a direct pathogenic link between inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways in the pathogenesis of ACS and myocardial necrosis. (
  • CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY General: Nedocromil sodium has been shown to inhibit the in vitro activation of, and mediator release from, a variety of inflammatory cell types associated with asthma, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets. (
  • Introduction Inflammation and platelet activation play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (
  • Recently, a highly specific serum reactivity to CNS microvessels, subpia and Virchow-Robin spaces was described in patients with NMO [called NMO-IgG (NMO-immunoglobulin G)]. Subsequently, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the most abundant water channel in the CNS, was identified as its target antigen. (
  • The hemostatic system consists of platelets, coagulation factors, and the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. (
  • CD69 is constitutively expressed by a subset of medullary mature thymocytes, platelets, mantle B cells, and certain CD4 + T cells in germinal centers of normal lymph nodes. (
  • CD40L is transferred to antigen presenting cells in vitro ( Gardell and Parker, 2017 ). (
  • HLA class I and II antigens are widely distributed on all nucleated cells and carried by platelets. (
  • Platelets are about a quarter of the size of red blood cells and are not whole cells but rather fragile cell fragments. (
  • In vitro studies on cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from antigen-sensitized macaque monkeys show that nedocromil sodium inhibits the release of mediators including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2. (
  • Similar studies with human bronchoalveolar cells showed inhibition of histamine release from mast cells and beta-glucuronidase release from macrophages. (
  • Flow cytometry: The reagent is designed for analysis of human blood cells using 4 μl reagent / 100 μl of whole blood or 10 6 cells in a suspension. (
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of human peripheral blood cells with anti-human CD45 (HI30) PerCP-Cy™5.5. (
  • Human bone marrow (BM) niche includes several nonhematopoietic cells, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial and neural cells that offer physical support to hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) and regulate their homeostasis. (
  • 4 Due to the low frequency of mesenchymal progenitors in the human BM, where they only occur for approximately 0.001% to 0.01% of BM mononuclear cells (MNCs), ex vivo expansion of MSCs is necessary to reach sufficient numbers for clinical use. (
  • Bone marrow is a spongy material inside the bones that makes white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. (
  • The chemistry panel is unremarkable, and the CBC reveals a white blood cell count of 4.6 × 10 3 cells/μL (reference range, 4.5-11 × 103 cells/μL), a hemoglobin level of 13.7 g/dL (reference range, 13.5-17.5 g/dL), a hematocrit of 43% (reference range, 41% to 50%), and a platelet count of 120 × 10 3 cells/μL μL (reference range, 150-450 × 103 cells/μL). (
  • As the first-of-its-kind platform, the Microbubble-assisted UltraSound-guided Immunotherapy of Cancer (MUSIC) approach employs nanocomplexes combined with microbubbles to effectively deliver cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), an immunotransmitter involved in anticancer immunity, into antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, molecules, and organs that spread throughout the human body. (
  • Bone marrow is a spongy tissue located inside your bones that produces the white blood cells (WBC) to fight against infection, the platelets to assist blood clots, and the red blood cells to transport oxygen. (
  • They represent antigen cells derived from white blood cells. (
  • that is histopathological y very simi- T cel s, B cel s, natural kil er cel s, LMP1 of EBV can transform ro- lar to that caused by hepatitis B vi- macrophages, and dendritic cells, dent fibroblasts and is expressed rus (HBV) in humans, but it does so and this humanized mouse model in most of the human cancers as- through a different mechanism. (
  • Our body fat is rich in mesenchymal stem cells [although it occurs in various concentrations in almost every tissue in the human body]. (
  • Once harvested, separated, activated by photo-activation and combined with powerful growth factors harvested from your own platelets, the cells are returned to the body. (
  • First is the realization that this class of cells can be isolated from almost every tissue in the human body. (
  • They are also expressed on other human tissues such as vascular endothelium and epithelium, sensory neurons and platelets (4). (
  • Examination of a peripheral blood smear is helpful to assess the presence of thrombocytopenia, although a platelet count is necessary to quantify its severity. (
  • Antigenic Sites in Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Hammarstrom et al. (
  • The ABO blood group antigens (A, B, and H) are determined by carbohydrate molecules that are ordinarily considered as red blood cell antigens. (
  • CD8+ recognized class I alloantigens or conventional antigens (e.g., viruses) associated with class I histocompatability molecules [5-8]. (
  • Each unit of platelets should raise the recipient's platelet count by 6000 to 10,000/mm3: however, poor incremental increases occur with alloimmunization from previous transfusions , bleeding, fever, infection, autoimmune destruction, and hypertension. (
  • Markers of inflammation (hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, serum amyloid antigen (SAA) and platelet activation (soluble p-selectin and platelet monocyte aggregates (PMA) were measured using ELISA. (
  • The Tandem-MP Ostase ImmunoEnzymetric Assay is an in vitro device for the quantitative measurement of Skeletal Alkaline Phosphatase (sALP), an indicator of osteoblastic activity, in human serum. (
  • In this study, we determined AQP4-Ab serum levels in 96 samples from eight NMO-IgG positive patients (median follow-up 62 months) in a newly developed fluorescence-based immunoprecipitation assay employing recombinant human AQP4. (
  • Moreover, The use of animals as surrogate rine host, can provide a platform for animal models for tumour viruses in hosts for the study of human tu- in vivo infection. (
  • In humans, the disease follows infection by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and begins as flu-like symptoms that can rapidly progress to hemorrhaging and death. (
  • Treatment of malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. (
  • Although guidelines have been established for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) for adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, they have not been available for children (1). (
  • In addition, when platelets are activated, negatively charged phospholipids move from the inner to the outer leaflet of the membrane bilayer. (
  • Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. (
  • Maternal alloantibodies against the human platelet Ag (HPA)-1a allotype of the platelet β 3 integrin GpIIb/IIIa can cause severe fetal or neonatal hemorrhage. (
  • β2 microglobulin plays a role in the presentation of peptide antigens to the immune system. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (A, B, and C) and II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system contains a large number of genes involved in immune system function in humans. (
  • In one study 9% of 268 dogs with decreased platelet counts were diagnosed as having either primary ITP or Evans' syndrome (ITP and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia). (
  • Humans with a weak immune system have a higher risk of experiencing frequent infections and severe symptoms. (
  • 3.) immunophenotyping human peripheral whole blood and 4. (
  • Patients who have low platelets or platelets that don't function properly (e.g. cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy) need platelet transfusions as part of their treatment. (
  • DHTRs and refractoriness to platelet transfusions are discussed in this article. (
  • You're welcome to try different donation programs to see which you like best: blood, plasma or platelets. (
  • Human platelet-MP (PMP), the main MP population in plasma, were prepared in vitro. (
  • 2004) Assignment of the four disulfides in the N-terminal somatomedin B domain of native vitronectin isolated from human plasma. (
  • In humans, plasma IGF-I levels are barely detectable at birth, rise gradually during childhood, peak during mid-puberty until approximately 40 years of age, then decline gradually. (
  • Blood groups appear to be markers for various human diseases and their distribution among different communities, ethnic groups and geographical boundaries varies over time. (
  • Although the ABO blood group antigens are constant throughout life, the distribution of blood groups among different communities, ethnic groups and geographical boundaries do vary over time (5,9), even within the same region (10). (
  • rapid detection of HLA-B27 antigen expression in erythrocyte-lysed whole blood (LWB). (
  • A complex of genes on chromosome 6 that code for the antigens that determine tissue and blood compatibility. (
  • Platelets are the component of blood that helps with clotting. (
  • If an injury or blood loss occurs, platelets are released, and a person's blood begins to clot to prevent excessive bleeding. (
  • When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets stick to the edges of it, clustering together to plug the hole. (
  • If the injury to the vessel is large, platelets alone will not stop the bleeding, so they release other factors that start blood clotting. (
  • Platelets are donated through a process called plateletpheresis, which is much more efficient than gathering platelets from whole blood donations. (
  • The platelet donation process follows the same steps as whole blood donation registration, screening, donation and after-care. (
  • This makes 'platelet typing' crucial: matching not only A, O, B and AB red blood cell types but also the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), which is more extensive and differentiating. (
  • Ask us about donating platelets at your next whole blood donation or give us a call at 1 888 2 DONATE (1-888-236-6283). (
  • Once I start donating platelets, can I still give blood? (
  • If you do wish to donate both blood and platelets, you need to wait 56 days after either type of donation before making the other. (
  • Blood is just as important as platelets: we appreciate your generosity and commitment, whatever you're able to give. (
  • But instead of going straight into a collection bag, the blood passes through a centrifuge that separates out your platelets. (
  • In the blood bank, 60% of units are centrifuged to separate the buffy coat in preparation for platelet separation. (
  • In 1939-1940, the Rhesus (Rh) blood group system was discovered, leading to the development of minor antigen compatibility testing. (
  • Blood stem cell donation is similar to blood platelet donation. (
  • the disease caused by the cognate cel s from human cord blood. (
  • Blood donors were included consecutively after a medical interview and screened for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and Treponema pallidum infections. (
  • One example is barium, which is toxic to humans and animals in soluble form. (
  • Compulsory serologic testing was also done for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), hepatitis B and C, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2, and HIV-1 and -2. (
  • For instance, mice are able to reconstitute most lymphomas in monkeys and humans woodchuck hepatitis virus induces major components of the human provides strong support for a direct hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) haematolymphoid system including oncogenic role of EBV in vivo. (
  • Human platelets were stained with anti-human CD42b (clone HIP1) Brilliant Violet 421™ (filled histogram) or mouse IgG1, κ Brilliant Violet 421™ isotype control (open histogram). (
  • These in vitro, and their expression in these human tumour virus. (
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of a human tonsil cryosection fixed with 4% PFA. (
  • A curated database of candidate human ageing-related genes and genes associated with longevity and/or ageing in model organisms. (
  • Database of human genes associated with cellular senescence. (
  • Evolution of Human Immunoglobulin k J Region Genes, Hieter et al. (
  • Cultured Human Fibroblasts Synthesize and Secrete Thrombospondin and Incorporate it into Extracellular Matrix, Jaffe et al. (
  • On resting platelets, GP IIb/IIIa is unable to bind fibrinogen or vWf. (
  • Matrix metalloproteases and their tissue inhibitors in non-alcoholic liver fibrosis of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (
  • Circulating fibrocytes display many functional properties, such as phagocytosis, antigen presentation, cytokine and connective tissue matrix production, and the capacity to proliferate and differentiate. (
  • Tissue typing or HLA (human leukocyte antigen) typing. (