Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Autoantibodies directed against newly-formed EPITOPES created as the COMPLEMENT cascade is activated and the proteins involved change their conformations.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.

Induction of complement attack on human cells by Gal(alpha1,3)Gal xenoantigen expression as a gene therapy approach to cancer. (1/163)

Galactose(alpha1,3)galactose on the surface of cells of non-primate organs is the major xenoantigen responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransplantation. The antigen is synthesised by (alpha1, 3)galactosyl transferase. Humans lack this enzyme and their serum contains high levels of pre-existing natural antibody which recognises the structure and activates complement. We have evaluated in vitro the potential for delivery of this enzyme to sensitise human cells to complement attack as a gene therapy approach to cancer. Retrovirus-mediated delivery of (alpha1,3)galactosyl transferase resulted in high level expression which led to serum-mediated lysis of five human cell targets, including endothelial and primary melanoma cells. Lysis was specific for those cells expressing the antigen in a mixed cell population. The mechanism of cell lysis mimicked that involved in hyperacute rejection: activation of the classical complement pathway by natural antibody specific for galactose(alpha1,3)galactose. The degree of lysis was determined by both the level of specific antibody and the expression of glycophosphatidylinositol-linked complement regulatory proteins. We conclude that expression of (alpha1,3)galactosyl transferase is a promising new therapeutic approach for cancer gene therapy, avoiding toxicity problems associated with application of prodrugs and with the potential to elicit further immunological responses.  (+info)

The human antibody response to porcine xenoantigens is encoded by IGHV3-11 and IGHV3-74 IgVH germline progenitors. (2/163)

Preformed and induced Ab responses present a major immunological barrier to the use of pig organs for human xenotransplantation. We generated IgM and IgG gene libraries established from lymphocytes of patients treated with a bioartificial liver (BAL) containing pig hepatocytes and used these libraries to identify IgVH genes that encode human Ab responses to pig xenoantigens. Genes encoded by the VH3 family are increased in expression in patients following BAL treatment. cDNA libraries representing the VH3 gene family were generated, and the relative frequency of expression of genes used to encode the Ab response was determined at days 0, 10, and 21. Ig genes derived from the IGHV3-11 and IGHV3-74 germline progenitors increase in frequency post-BAL. The IGHV3-11 gene encodes 12% of VH3 cDNA clones expressed as IgM Abs at day 0 and 32.4-39.0% of cDNA clones encoding IgM Abs in two patients at day 10. IGHV3-11 and IGHV3-74 genes encoding IgM Abs in these patients are expressed without evidence of somatic mutation. By day 21, an isotype switch occurs and IGHV3-11 IgVH progenitors encode IgG Abs that demonstrate somatic mutation. We cloned these genes into a phagemid vector, expressed these clones as single-chain Abs, and demonstrated that the IGHV3-11 gene encodes Abs with the ability to bind to the gal alpha (1,3) gal epitope. Our results demonstrate that the xenoantibody response in humans is encoded by IgVH genes restricted to IGHV3-11 and IGHV3-74 germline progenitors. IgM Abs are expressed in germline configuration and IgG Abs demonstrate somatic mutations by day 21.  (+info)

The Th1/Th2 nature of concurrent immune responses to unrelated antigens can be independent. (3/163)

We tested the independence hypothesis, namely that the Th1/Th2 nature of concurrent immune responses, generated in the same secondary lymphoid organ to non-cross-reacting Ags, can be independently determined. Some infectious agents and some adjuvants contain modulatory molecules that affect the Th1/Th2 nature of immune responses in a non-Ag-specific manner. We therefore excluded infectious agents as Ags and the use of adjuvants to generate immune responses. We first show that the dose of xenogeneic RBC administered i.v. determines the Th1/Th2 nature of the splenic immune response. Low doses generate a virtually exclusive Th1 response, whereas a higher dose induces either a mixed Th1/Th2 or a predominantly Th2 response, and stimulates the production of specific Abs. We immunized individual mice simultaneously with a low dose of one kind of xenogeneic RBC and with a higher dose of another non-cross-reacting xenogeneic RBC and assessed the Th1/Th2 nature of the immune responses generated in the spleen to each kind of RBC. The Th1/Th2 nature of the response to each RBC in doubly immunized mice was indistinguishable from that of the corresponding immune response in singly immunized mice. We discuss the significance of our findings for understanding immune class regulation, and the possible reasons why such independence is not always seen.  (+info)

Class II MHC/peptide complexes are released from APC and are acquired by T cell responders during specific antigen recognition. (4/163)

T cell expression of class II MHC/peptide complexes may be important for maintenance of peripheral self-tolerance, but mechanisms underlying the genesis of class II MHC glycoproteins on T cells are not well resolved. T cell APC (T-APC) used herein were transformed IL-2-dependent clones that constitutively synthesized class II MHC glycoproteins. When pulsed with myelin basic protein (MBP) and injected into Lewis rats, these T-APC reduced the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas unpulsed T-APC were without activity. Normal MBP-reactive clones cultured without APC did not express class II MHC even when activated with mitogens and exposed to IFN-gamma. However, during a 4-h culture with T-APC or macrophage APC, recognition of MBP or mitogenic activation of responder T cells elicited high levels of I-A and I-E expression on responders. Acquisition of class II MHC glycoproteins by responders was resistant to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, coincided with transfer of a PKH26 lipophilic dye from APC to responders, and resulted in the expression of syngeneic and allogeneic MHC glycoproteins on responders. Unlike rested I-A- T cell clones, rat thymic and splenic T cells expressed readily detectable levels of class II MHC glycoproteins. When preactivated with mitogens, naive T cells acquired APC-derived MHC class II molecules and other membrane-associated proteins when cultured with xenogeneic APC in the absence of Ag. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that APC donate membrane-bound peptide/MHC complexes to Ag-specific T cell responders by a mechanism associated with the induction of tolerance.  (+info)

HLA-E and HLA-G expression on porcine endothelial cells inhibit xenoreactive human NK cells through CD94/NKG2-dependent and -independent pathways. (5/163)

Human NK cells contribute a significant role to host defense as well as xenogeneic cytotoxicity. Previous studies using human 721.221 cell line have shown that peptides derived from the leader sequence of the HLA-G binds and up-regulates the surface expression of HLA-E molecules, which was considered to consequently provide negative signals to human NK cells. However, the direct role of HLA-G in inhibiting human NK cells remains controversial. In this study, we showed that the expression of HLA-G or HLA-E in porcine endothelial cells directly protected sensitive porcine cells from human NK cell-mediated xenogeneic cytotoxicity. Ab blocking assays using F(ab')2 of the HLA class I-specific mAb PA2.6 indicated that the protection was directly mediated by the expression of HLA-G and HLA-E on the porcine cells. The HLA-E-mediated protection was blocked by anti-human CD94 Ab. In addition, the engagement of HLA-E lead to the phosphorylation of the CD94/NKG2 complex and the recruitment of SH2 domain-containing protein phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) to the complex. Therefore, HLA-E protected porcine cells from xenoreactive human NK cells through a CD94/NKG2-dependent pathway. In contrast, HLA-G inhibited human NK cells in the absence of CD94/NKG2 phosphorylation or SHP-1 recruitment, and the inhibition was not blocked by anti-CD94 Ab. Therefore, HLA-G protected porcine cells from human NK cells through a CD94/NKG2-independent pathway. These results demonstrated that both HLA-E and HLA-G could directly inhibit human NK cells in the absence of other endogenous HLA class I molecules. These results also have practical implications in preventing xenograft rejection mediated by human NK cells.  (+info)

Xenotransplantation: the importance of the Galalpha1,3Gal epitope in hyperacute vascular rejection. (6/163)

The transplantation of organs from other species into humans is considered to be a potential solution to the shortage of human donor organs. Organ transplantation from pig to human, however, results in hyperacute rejection, initiated by the binding of human natural antidonor antibody and complement. The major target antigen of this natural antibody is the terminal disaccharide Galalphal,3Gal, which is synthesized by Galbeta1,4GlcNAc alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase. Here we review our current knowledge of this key enzyme. A better understanding of structure, enzyme properties, and expression pattern of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase has opened up several novel therapeutic approaches to prevent hyperacute vascular rejection. Cloning, and expression in vitro of the corresponding cDNA, has allowed to develop strategies to induce immune tolerance, and deplete or neutralize the natural xenoreactive antibody. Elucidation of the genomic structure has led to the production of transgenic animals that are lacking alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase activity. A detailed knowledge of the enzyme properties has formed the basis of approaches to modify donor organ glycosylation by intracellular competition. Study of the expression pattern of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase has helped to understand the mechanism of hyperacute rejection in discordant xenotransplantation, and that of complement-mediated, natural immunity against interspecies transmission of retroviruses.  (+info)

Taking lessons from dendritic cells: multiple xenogeneic ligands for leukocyte integrins have the potential to stimulate anti-tumor immunity. (7/163)

Expression of large numbers of different costimulatory integrin ligands (CILs) attributes dendritic cells with an ability to induce primary anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we show that optimized gene transfer of the xenogeneic (human) CILs VCAM-1, MAdCAM-1 and ICAM-1 causes rapid and complete rejection of established mouse EL-4 tumors, and generates prolonged systemic anti-tumor immunity; whereas human E-cadherin weakly slows tumor growth. In each case the immune response was mediated by CD8+ T cells and NK cells, accompanied by augmented tumor-specific cytolytic T cell (CTL) activity involving both the perforin and Fas-ligand pathways. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from cured mice rapidly cleared established tumors in recipients. The mechanism for CIL-mediated immunity is unknown, but may involve CTL-facilitated tumor lysis, since CTLs were generally twice as efficient at killing CIL-transfected tumor cells than parental tumor cells. Optimized CIL-based gene therapy may provide an approach to complement or replace conventional DC adoptive cell therapy for suppressing tumor growth.  (+info)

Naturally developing memory T cell xenoreactivity to swine antigens in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (8/163)

Naturally developing xenospecific Abs are well-documented barriers to xenograft transplantation in humans, but whether analogous xenoreactive T cell immunity develops is not known. We used an enzyme-linked immunospot assay to determine the frequency and cytokine profiles of xenoreactive PBLs from a panel of human volunteers. Because naive T cells produce only IL-2 in short term culture, IFN-gamma production by this approach is a measure of a memory immune response. Stimulation of human PBLs or purified T lymphocytes with stimulator cells from inbred swine revealed a high frequency of IFN-gamma producers with 5-fold fewer IL-2 producers. In contrast, lymphocytes obtained from neonatal umbilical cord blood contained swine-specific IL-2 producers but few IFN-gamma producers, which is what one would expect to find with a naive phenotype. Moreover, PBLs from adults with a history of abstention from pork consumption responded to swine cells with a significantly lower frequency of IFN-gamma producers than PBLs from adults with unrestricted diets did, suggesting that pork consumption may result in priming of swine-specific T cell immunity. Our findings provide the first evidence for naturally occurring xenospecific T cell immunity in humans. The detected strength of this memory response suggests that it will present a formidable barrier to transplantation of swine organs.  (+info)

PPL THERAPEUTICS PLC. WORLD S FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT OF. CLONED KNOCK-OUT PIGS. Christmas-born pigs are a major step towards successful production of animal organs and cells for human transplantation use. Blacksburg, Virginia: PPL Therapeutics Plc, one of the world s leading biopharmaceutical companies in the application of transgenic technology to the production of human proteins for therapeutic and nutritional applications, is pleased to announce it has produced knock-out piglets which were born as a result of using nuclear transfer (cloning) and PPL s patented gene targeting technology. The five healthy births took place on Christmas Day, December 25, 2001. It has always been the objective of PPL s xenotransplantation program to produce knock-out pigs. In the future, this vital step should enable organs and/or cells from such animals to be transplanted into humans and not be rejected by the human recipient. A knock-out pig has the specific gene that leads to the human immune system rejecting pig ...
It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26rbw/+;Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries. ...
For the first time, the N-glycosylation patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgGs) isolated from the serum of two varieties of knockout pigs (lacking N-glycolylneuraminic acid..
Chen, DX, Riesbeck, K, McVey, JH, Kemball-Cook, G, Tuddenham, EGD, Lechler, RI and Dorling, A (2001) Human thrombin and FXa mediate porcine endothelial cell activation; modulation by expression of TFPI-CD4 and hirudin-CD4 fusion proteins ...
Acute vascular rejection in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation involves recognition and damage of porcine (po) endothelial cells (EC) by human (hu) leukocytes, probably including natural killer (NK) cells. To study such interactions we analyzed rolling and static adhesion of hu NK cells to po EC. T...
Porcine SWC8小鼠单克隆抗体[MIL3](ab34020)可与猪样本反应并经IHC, Flow Cyt实验严格验证,被4篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
In view of the participation of vascular endothelial cells (EC) in a wide range of normal and pathological conditions, phenotypic heterogeneity of EC is an important concept for consideration:...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of antibody with Forssman antigen in guinea pigs. T2 - A mechanism of adaptation to antibody- and complement-mediated injury. AU - Yuzawa, Y.. AU - Brett, J.. AU - Fukatsu, A.. AU - Matsuo, S.. AU - Caldwell, P. R.B.. AU - Niesen, N.. AU - Milgrom, F.. AU - Godman, G.. AU - Stern, D.. AU - Andres, G.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Forssman antigen is a glycosphingolipid with antigenic specificity determined by extra-membrane haptenic sugars similar to blood group antigens and antigens that are the main barrier to xenogeneic organ transplantation. Herein, we describe the localization of Forssman antigen in guinea pig lungs and kidneys and the consequences of its interaction with antibodies in vitro and in vivo (Forssman reaction). Exposure of cultured guinea pig aortic endothelial cells to Forssman antibodies induced rapid redistribution of antigen-antibody complexes at the cell surface, followed by shedding that occurred by blebbing of plasma membrane as vesicles or ...
Heterophile definition is - of, relating to, or being an antibody circulating in blood serum that is reactive with antigen originating in a different species. How to use heterophile in a sentence.
The major limitation of organ transplantation is the shortage of available organs. Xenotransplantation is considered to be an effective way to resolve the problem. Immune rejection is a major hurdle for the successful survival of pig xenografts in primate recipients. Cytokines play important roles in inflammation and many diseases including allotransplantation, however, their roles in xenotransplantation have been less well investigated. We assessed the role of several cytokines in xenotransplantation using an in vitro model of human antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) and porcine iliac endothelial cells (PIECs) were selected as target cells. The complement regulators (CD46, CD55 and CD59) and junction protein genes were assessed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, or western-blotting assay. Flow cytometry assay was also used to evaluate C3 and C5b-9 deposition, as well as the extent of human IgM and IgG binding to PIECs. Gene silencing was
Hiai, H; Shisa, H; Nishizuka, Y; and Miyawaki, H, An antigen-binding cell tumor. Heterophile cold hemagglutinin as a membrane-bound receptor on a mouse lymphoma. (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 975 ...
Looking for online definition of Forssman antigen in the Medical Dictionary? Forssman antigen explanation free. What is Forssman antigen? Meaning of Forssman antigen medical term. What does Forssman antigen mean?
Looking for online definition of xenoantibody in the Medical Dictionary? xenoantibody explanation free. What is xenoantibody? Meaning of xenoantibody medical term. What does xenoantibody mean?
The sheep cell agglutination test or heterophile antibody reaction, as it is also called, is a laboratory procedure of considerable value in clinical medicine. In this country one frequently speaks alternately of the Paul-Bunnell test; and in Europe it is often referred to as the Hanganutziu-Deicher reaction. In 1911 Forssman1 recognized the nonspecificity of certain antigen-antibody reactions. The terms heterogenetic, heterophilic, or heterophile are applied to those antibodies that react with an antigen (sheep erythrocytes) which seemingly had nothing to do with their development. One type of heterophile antibody is known as the Forssman antibody, but there are other varieties ...
Synonyms for Antibodies, heterophile in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Antibodies, heterophile. 4 synonyms for infectious mononucleosis: glandular fever, kissing disease, mono, mononucleosis. What are synonyms for Antibodies, heterophile?
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes the most recent progress in xeno lung transplantation (XLTx) to date. It describes the potential mechanisms of early xeno lung graft loss, as well as the latest therapeutic strategies to overcome them. RECENT FINDINGS: Using ex-vivo perfusion models of porcine lungs with human blood, the use of genetically modified pig lungs along with novel pharmaceutical approaches has recently been studied. Strategies that have demonstrated improved lung survival include the knockout of known xenoantigens (GalTKO and N-glycolylneuraminic acid-KO), genes that regulate complement activation (hCD46 and hCD55), as well as the inflammation/coagulation cascade (human leukocyte antigen-E, human thrombomodulin, human endothelial protein C receptor, hCD47, hCD39, hCD73 and heme oxygenase-1 ...
TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing interlinkedness. Blue is used for terms that have a relation with the terms in this document, but occur in other documents ...
Heterophile abs. Abs in the samples against abs in the assay. Only way to remove is review your data and locate high false positives. Add into your sample buffer non-specific ab (IgG) of the species used as capture and detector in your system and check with the false positive. ,,use this buffer and pre-incubate the samples to bind up the heterophile ab,, Once the false positive is reduced or eliminated test a select few of your samples. Hopefully, the samples will line up according to the conentration you expect ...
Non-human chimeric mammals are created from a mammal having hematopoietic cells replaced with hematopoietic cells from a hematopoietic deficient mammal donor, and optionally in which xenogeneic cells and/or tissue are engrafted. The xenogeneic, preferably human, cells or tissue may be hematopoietic cells, in which case the chimeric mammal can produce xenogeneic B and/or T cells, and can be used as a source of mammalian, preferably human, monoclonal antibodies and/or T cells. Alternatively, the xenogeneic cells or tissue may be non-hematopoietic, such as normal or pathological cells or tissue, which can form a stable transplant in the chimeric mammal and thus can be used as an animal model of various pathologies or to test therapeutic or diagnostic agents or modalities.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ICL \ anti-Pig IgG h+l Unconjugated A.P. Host Goat \ GGHL-5A for more molecular products just contact us
Anti-Pig Alkaline Phosphatase validated for WB, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, IM, Dot, ICC/IF. Other Alkaline Phosphatase secondaries available.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 6s04.1. Crystal structure of an inverting family GH156 exosialidase from uncultured bacterium pG7 in complex with N-glycolylneuraminic acid
GMail Drive is a Shell Namespace Extension that creates a virtual filesystem around your Google GMail account, allowing you to use GMail as a storage medium. GMail Drive creates a virtual filesystem on top of your Google GMail account and enables you to save and retrieve files stored on your GMail account directly from inside Windows Explorer. GMail Drive literally adds a new drive to your computer under the My Computer folder, where you can create new folders, copy and dragndrop files to ...
Looking for heterophile antibody test? Find out information about heterophile antibody test. heterophile agglutination test Explanation of heterophile antibody test
J:188842 Bergfeld AK, et al., Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: elucidating the intracellular fate of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17;287(34):28865-81 ...
xenotransplantation - Read articles from Issue 2018(07). Read article PDFs using your inistitutions subscriptions with no additional login.
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Erratum: Absence of Gal epitope prolongs survival of swine lungs in an ex vivo model of hyperacute rejection (Xenotransplantation (2011) DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2011.00633.x). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Glycotope Receives Regulatory Approval For Glycoexpress(TM) Technology And Initiates First Clinical Trial With Lead Antibody GT-MAB 2.5-GEX - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Xenotransplantation is the transplanting of animal tissues and organs into a human, and is being studied as a substitute for human organ donors.
How its done: Doctors take an organ that was donated by an animal source (most commonly pigs are used in this process) and surgically implant it into a human recipient that needs the new organs ...
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Porcine circovirus type 2 Capsid antibody for IHC, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Porcine circovirus type 2 Capsid pAb (GTX128120) is tested in Porcine circovirus type 2 samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Forssman antigen using novel glycosyltransferases identified in Campylobacter jejuni and Pasteurella multocida
Tissue-engineered (TE) corneas were fabricated from porcine collagen cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminoproplyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), and were transplanted into BALB/c mice orthotopically using a full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) procedure. The biocompatibility was evaluated by assessing both local and systemic immune responses. Myeloid cells including granulocytes and macrophages were the main infiltrating cells in recipient cornea and in retro-TE corneal membrane which developed 7-10 days post surgery. Sodium citrate was found to be effective in reducing fibrin accumulation in anterior chamber post grafting at early time points, but it did not prevent formation of the retro-TE corneal membrane. No significant T cell activation was observed in the submandibular draining lymph nodes (SMDLN) by flow cytometry. Anti-porcine type I collagen IgG antibodies were detected in the serum of grafted mice from 2 weeks post grafting and the concentration of ...
0113] Free Neu5Gc can be taken up by human epithelial cells from an exogenous source and incorporated into different subcellular fractions. Evidence was presented suggesting that the small amounts of Neu5Gc found in some human tissues originated from dietary sources and showed that human Caco-2 cells (human epithelial cells from a primary colon carcinoma) in culture could metabolically incorporate free Neu5Gc, as determined by a Western blot of a total homogenate, using and anti-Neu5Gc antibody. Increasing incorporation of Neu5Gc was found in the total homogenate fraction of the cells over time, with the highest level reached after incubation with 3 mM Neu5Gc for 3 days. Moreover, Western blotting with an anti Neu5Gc antibody demonstrated metabolic incorporation of Neu5Gc into glycoproteins of these cells. The partitioning of the exogenous Neu5Gc into different subcellular fractions of these cells has now been studied. Prior to feeding, Caco-2 cells were split and cultured in human serum instead ...
Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not sufficient for interface builds; for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map. ...
Goat anti-Pig IgG-heavy and light chain cross adsorbed Antibody Affinity Purified - 0.5 mg - Bethyl Laboratories, Inc. - antibodies
SureStep™ Mono Test,A rapid test for the visual, qualitative detection of heterophile antibodies specific to infectious mononucleosis in human serum, plasma or whole blood specimens. This test is intended as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis in patients with characteristic clinical symptoms.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
The QuickVue+ Mononucleosis Test detects IgM heterophile antibodies in acute phase infections using serum, plasma or whole blood.
ISIS Sustainable Science Audit #2. August 2000. Xenotransplantation How Bad Science and Big Business Put the World at Risk from Viral Pandemics. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho. Director. Institute of Science in Society. PO Box 32097. London NW1 0XR. UK. Summary. Xenotransplantation - the transplant of animal organs into human beings - is a multi-billion dollar business venture built on the anticipated sale of patented techniques and organs, as well as drugs to overcome organ-rejection (1). It has received strong criticism and opposition from scientists warning of risks of new viruses crossing from animal organs to human subjects and from there to infect the population at large. Our regulators, however, are adopting a permissive attitude for clinical trials to go ahead. Scientific reports of virus crossing from pig to human cells (2), and of viral infections in humans subjects transplanted with baboon livers (3), are being ignored or dismissed, while inconclusive, widely faulted papers are taken as evidence that ...
J. Krause; J. E. Herbert-Read; F. Seebacher; P. Domenici; A. D. M. Wilson; S. Marras; M. B. S. Svendsen; D. Strömborn; J. F. Steffensen; S. Krause; P. E. Viblanc; P. Couillaud; P. Bach; P. S. Sabarros; P. Zaslansky; R. H. J. M. ...
Sialic acids are prominent termini of mammalian glycoconjugates and are key binding determinants for cell-cell recog-nition lectins. Binding of the sialic acid-dependent lectin, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), to nerve cells is implicated in the inhibition of nerve regeneration after injury. Therefore, blocking MAG binding to nerve cell sialoglycoconjugates might enhance nerve regeneration. Previously, we reported that certain sialoglycoconjugates bearing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) but not N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) support MAG binding (Collins et al., 1997a). We now report highly efficient conversion of sialic acids on living neural cells from exclusively NeuAc to predominantly NeuGc using a novel synthetic metabolic precursor, N-glycolylmannosamine pentaacetate (Man-NGc-PA). When NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells, which normally express only NeuAc (and bind to MAG), were cultured in the presence of 1 mM ManNGcPA, they expressed 80-90% of their sialic acid precursor pool as
A technique for the transfer of endothelial cells and expression of recombinant genes in vivo could allow the introduction of proteins of therapeutic value in the management of cardiovascular diseases. Porcine endothelial cells expressing recombinant beta-galactosidase from a murine amphotropic retroviral vector were introduced with a catheter into denuded iliofemoral arteries of syngeneic animals. Arterial segments explanted 2 to 4 weeks later contained endothelial cells expressing beta-galactosidase, an indication that they were successfully implanted on the vessel wall. ...
In recent years, there have been many advances in the field of biotechnology. With these advances, have come the arguments of how this information should be used, and how ethical these new processes might be. One of these processes includes xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation is a process in which animal organs are used for vital organ transplants to humans. This process is controversial for obvious reasons, but requires further examination. Besides just vital organs, there are many other types of transplants that can also be performed. These transplants include skin grafts, corneal transplants, and bone transplants. This is done to try to solve the worldwide problem of the shortage in human organs. The amount of organs available cannot compare to the amount of organs needed, therefore xenotransplantation is performed, and a human can receive a vital organ or other life saving material from an animal. Xenotransplantation could also be used to cure other diseases where there is a shortage of ...
Compare & find the top performing anti-Pig (Porcine) IFNB1 antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)).
Compare & find the top performing anti-Pig (Porcine) IL1RN antibody for Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)).
Mechanism of human lymphocyte stimulation by concanavalin A: role of valence and surface binding sites.: A monovalent form of concanavalin A (m-Con A) has been
December 2nd, 2013 by Naito-Matsui, Y., Takada, S., Kano, Y., Iyoda, T., Sugai, M., Shimizu, A., Inaba, K., Nitschke, L., Tsubata, T., Oka, S., Kozutsumi, Y., Takematsu, H.. Sialic acids (Sias) are often conjugated to the termini of cellular glycans and are key mediators of cellular recognition. Sias are nine-carbon acidic sugars, and, in vertebrates, the major species are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), differing in structure at the C5 position. Previously, we described a positive feedback loop involving regulation of Neu5Gc expression in mouse B cells. In this context, Neu5Gc negatively regulated B-cell proliferation and Neu5Gc expression was suppressed upon activation. Similarly, resting mouse T cells expressed principally Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac was induced upon activation. In the present work, we used various probes to examine sialoglycan expression by activated T cells in terms of the Sia species expressed and the linkages of Sias to glycans. Upon T-cell ...
Clearview IM,For the qualitative detection of Infectious mononucleosis IgM heterophile antibodies in human whole blood, serum and plasma specimens.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
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In immunology, cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from ... An example of helpful cross-reactivity is in heterophile antibody tests, which detect Epstein-Barr virus using antibodies with ... There can be cross-reactivity between the immune system and the antigens of two different pathogens, or between one pathogen ... For example, the tetanus toxin is a single protein macromolecular antigen but will stimulate many immune responses due to the ...
Heterophile antibodies are antibodies induced by external antigens (heterophile antigens). Some cross-react with self-antigens ... Heterophile antigen An immunoassay is a biochemical test, frequently used in medical diagnostic testing, that measures the ... These are considered heterophile antibodies. In clinical diagnosis, the heterophile antibody test specifically refers to a ... Heterophile antibodies can cause significant interference in any immunoassay. The presence of a heterophile antibody is ...
Heterophile also can mean that it is an antibody that reacts with antigens other than the antigen that stimulated it (an ... Elgh, F; Linderholm, M (1996). "Evaluation of six commercially available kits using purified heterophile antigen for the rapid ... It has the following characteristics: VCAs (Viral Capsid Antigen) of the IgM class, antibodies to EBV early antigen (anti-EA), ... An elevated heterophile antibody level may persist up to 1 year. The test is usually performed using commercially available ...
Heterophile antigens are antigens of similar nature, if not identical, that are present in different tissues in different ... Example: Forssman antigen, cross reacting microbial antigen so antibodies to these antigens produced by one species cross react ... Other heterophile antigens are responsible for some diagnostic serological tests such as: Weil-Felix reaction for typhus fever ... Usually different species have different antigen sets but the hetereophile antigen is shared by different species. ...
Rapaport FT, Kano K, Milgrom F (1968). "Heterophile antibodies in human transplantation". J. Clin. Invest. 47 (3): 633-42. doi: ... The Hu-1 antigens were renamed the Human-lymphoid (HL) allo-antigens (HL-As). Allo-antigen comes from the observation that a ... Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were ... As a result, scientists were able to identify a few antigens. At first the first antigens were called the Hu-1 antigens and ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ... heterophile MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.224 - antibodies, monoclonal MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.224.570 - muromonab-cd3 MeSH ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 - complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 - ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
Heterophile antigens are antigens of similar nature, if not identical, that are present in different tissues in different ... Example: Forssman antigen, cross reacting microbial antigen so antibodies to these antigens produced by one species cross react ... Other heterophile antigens are responsible for some diagnostic serological tests such as: Weil-Felix reaction for typhus fever ... Usually different species have different antigen sets but the hetereophile antigen is shared by different species. ...
... or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species. ... Antigens, Heterophile. Known as: heterologous antigen, Hanganutziu Deicher Antigens, Antigens, Xenogenic Expand. ... Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in ... Two cell lines have been established from insulinomas obtained by targeted expression of the simian virus 40 T antigen gene in ...
Rapaport FT, Kano K, Milgrom F (1968). "Heterophile antibodies in human transplantation". J. Clin. Invest. 47 (3): 633-42. doi: ... The Hu-1 antigens were renamed the Human-lymphoid (HL) allo-antigens (HL-As). Allo-antigen comes from the observation that a ... Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) began as a list of antigens identified as a result of transplant rejection. The antigens were ... As a result, scientists were able to identify a few antigens. At first the first antigens were called the Hu-1 antigens and ...
An antigen-binding cell tumor. Heterophile cold hemagglutinin as a membrane-bound receptor on a mouse lymphoma. ... Hiai, H; Shisa, H; Nishizuka, Y; and Miyawaki, H, "An antigen-binding cell tumor. Heterophile cold hemagglutinin as a membrane- ... Neoplasm:, Serology: Antigen, Types of Tumors:, Strains: BALB/C, C3HF (C3HB,ZB) ...
Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the ... These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, ... Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. ... Subscribe to New Research on Heterophile Antibodies Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen ...
Paul-Bunnell antigen and a possible mechanism of formation of heterophile antibodies in patients with infectious mononucleosis ... Heterophile antigen asociated with a glycoprotein from the bovine erythrocyte membrane. Vox Sang.; 43: 57-70. ... Higashi H, Naiki M, Matuo S, Okouchi K. (1977) Antigen of serum sickness type of heterophile antibodies in human sera: ... Nakarai H, Saida T, Shibata Y, Irie RF, Kano K. (1987) Expression of heterophile, Paul-Bunnell and Hanganutziu-Deicher antigens ...
Antibodies, Heterophile / blood * Antibodies, Viral / blood* * Antibody Affinity * Antigens, Viral / immunology* * Capsid ... Background: In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, IgG- and IgM-antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA) and IgG-antibodies to ... Sera were also tested for heterophile antibodies (HA). To verify the presence of IgM-antibodies an EBV IgM immunoblot was ... Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) can occur simultaneously both in late primary infection and during subclinical viral ...
Forssman antigen-antibody reaction explanation free. What is Forssman antigen-antibody reaction? Meaning of Forssman antigen- ... Looking for online definition of Forssman antigen-antibody reaction in the Medical Dictionary? ... Synonym(s): heterophil antibody; heterophile antibody. Forssman antigen - the antibody that develops in infectious ... Forssman antigen-antibody reaction - the combination of Forssman antibody with heterogenetic antigen of the Forssman type. ...
Antibodies, Heterophile * Antibodies, Viral * Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens * Immunoglobulin M * Reagent Kits, Diagnostic ...
What are heterophile antibodies? Abs which react to antigens from animal erythrocytes ...
These heterophile antibodies react to antigens from animal RBCs.. * Sheep RBCs agglutinate in the presence of heterophile ... Kano K, Milgrom F. Heterophile antigens and antibodies in medicine. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1977. 77:43-69. [Medline]. ... Major antibodies - Heterophile (Paul-Bunnell), EBV antigens, cold agglutinins (anti-1), smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) ... Heterophile antibody tests * Patients with infectious mononucleosis should first be tested with a heterophile antibody test. ...
What is Forssman antigen? Meaning of Forssman antigen medical term. What does Forssman antigen mean? ... Looking for online definition of Forssman antigen in the Medical Dictionary? Forssman antigen explanation free. ... heterogeneic antigen xenogeneic antigen.. heterogenetic antigen (heterophil antigen) (heterophile antigen) one capable of ... flagellar antigen H antigen.. Forssman antigen a heterogenetic antigen discovered in guinea pig tissues, capable of lysing ...
Kano K, Milgrom F. Heterophile antigens and antibodies in medicine. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1977. 77:43-69. [Medline]. ... How is the heterophile antibody test used to differentiate heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis (mono) and Epstein- ... What is the sensitivity and specificity of the heterophile antibody test in the workup of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectious ... The presence of heterophile antibodies in infectious mononucleosis. Am J Med Sci. 1932. 183:90-104. ...
The terms "heterogenetic," "heterophilic," or "heterophile" are applied to those antibodies that react with an antigen (sheep ... HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION CAUSED BY BACTERIAL INFECTION(HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION CAUSED BY BACTERIAL INFECTION*) ... HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS(HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS*) ROBERT E ... HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS(HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS*). Ann ...
Test is an ELISA method for the qualitative ... antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in human serum. When the EBNA ... testing such as the EBV ... viral capsid IgG ... heterophile tests, the results can serve as an .... ... VZV IgG Test is an ... detection of IgG to ...
Antibodies, Heterophile. Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are ... Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the ... Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be ... Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the ...
Find out information about heterogenetic antigen. heterophile antigen Explanation of heterogenetic antigen ... heterogenetic antigen. [¦hed·ə·rō·jə¦ned·ik ′ant·i·jən] (immunology) heterophile antigen ... heterogenetic antigen. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. ... Heterogenetic antigen , Article about heterogenetic antigen by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
A rapid test for group A streptococcal antigens and a test for heterophile agglutinins were negative; he received oral ...
Heterophile antigens are characterized as:. *. A. Found in unrelated plants or animals but cross-react with the same antibody ... Immunology Quiz- Antigen And Antibody Structure Immunology Quiz- Antigen And Antibody Structure ... Which MHC class of antigens is necessary for antigen recognition by CD4-positive T-cells? ... A serological reaction is set up in which the antigen is bound to a larger carrier, the antibody is soluble, and they bind and ...
EBV Antibody To Viral Capsid Antigen, IgM,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... BioSign® Mono - Rapid Infectious Mononucleosis Heterophile Antibody (IgM) Test. 5. OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test. 6. ... Antigen-Antibody Pens, a set of any 3 pens. 10. Antigen-Antibody Pen For Biotin-tagged antibodies (all species). 11. Antigen- ...
False-negative results of heterophile antibody tests are relatively common early in the course of infection. Patients with ... Antibodies to viral capsid antigen (i.e., VCA-IgG and VCA-IgM) are produced slightly earlier than the heterophile antibody and ... Elgh F, Linderholm M. Evaluation of six commercially available kits using purified heterophile antigen for the rapid diagnosis ... as does a positive heterophile antibody test. False-negative results of heterophile antibody tests are relatively common early ...
Definition of heterophile antibodies. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... and high-specificity high-affinity antibodies against antigens from animal species. In clinical practice, the most important ... heterophile antibodies. Definition: human antibodies capable of binding to animal immunoglobulins and possibly of interfering ... The three groups of heterophile antibodies are polyspecific antibodies, antiimmunoglobulin antibodies, ...
... or being an antibody circulating in blood serum that is reactive with antigen originating in a different species. How to use ... Share heterophile Post the Definition of heterophile to Facebook Share the Definition of heterophile on Twitter ... Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with heterophile. Comments on heterophile What made you want to look up heterophile? ... Time Traveler for heterophile The first known use of heterophile was in 1920. See more words from the same year ...
Heterophile antibody, or monospot, testing is commonly used to diagnosis it. Antigen testing for the Epstein-Barr virus and ... viral capsid antigens can provide a more definitive diagnosis earlier.. Lafferty said its also challenging to determine ...
Define heterophile antibody and discuss the significance of the terms "heterophile positive" and "heterophile negative" ... o Immunostaining for viral antigens in cell or tissue samples = IE antigens give fastest results for culture samples. o PCR can ... Lab test = heterophile Abs detected by hemagglutination test. o If heterophile positive = EBV infection ... No viral antigens present = makes it hard for host to target and eliminate infected cells. Express only 1 gene: Latency ...
LBXTBA - TB Antigen result. Variable Name: LBXTBA. SAS Label: TB Antigen result. English Text: TB Antigen result. Target: Both ... The effect of heterophile antibodies in the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold IT ELISA is minimized by the addition of normal mouse serum to ... LBXTBA (TB antigen value) minus LBXTBN (Nil) value must be =, 0.35 IU gamma interferon (IF)/ml AND LBXTBA (TB antigen value) ... TB Antigen tube and a Mitogen tube (positive control). The tubes are shaken to mix antigen with the whole blood and incubated ...
The guinea pig kidney antigen absorbs (removes) Forssman heterophile antibodies while the beef red cell stroma removes ... The panel includes four antibody measurements: IgM viral capsid antigen (VCA), IgG VCA, Early Antigen (EA), and Epstein-Barr ... Initial testing is based on the demonstration of heterophile antibodies produced in infectious mononucleosis. Heterophile ... Infectious mononucleosis causes production of nonForssman heterophile antibodies. Testing for heterophile antibodies must ...
... and serologically the disease is characterized by a positive heterophile antibody and 26. antibodies to various viral antigens ... alteration of surface antigens. This process is referred to as antigenic shift. Antigenic drift is a slight change in a gene, ... c. IgM antibody to HB core antigen (anti-HBc IgM) indicates recent acute infection. As anti-HBs is forming, the level of HBsAg ... Commonly used rotavirus antigen ture. Spread of the disease is associated with assay tests include latex agglutination and ...
Immunohistochemical detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen in human malignant melanoma . Arch Dermatol Res . 282 ... In general, carbohydrate antigens are self-antigens and thus have low antigenic potential. The antibody produced is typically a ... In general, carbohydrate antigens are self-antigens and thus have low antigenic potential. The antibody produced is typically a ... Immunohistochemical detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen in human malignant melanoma . Arch Dermatol Res . 282 ...
... appear predominant in newborns and are useful in initial defense mechanisms against multiple bacterial and viral antigens. To ... heterophile antibodies were observed in three of 75 (4.0%) normal controls (11). No heterophile antibodies were detected in the ... heterophile antibody production and type 1 diabetes) was expected because heterophile antibody-positive subjects were found ... "heterophile antibodies." Heterophile antibodies may cause interference because of Ig aggregation, binding of the capture ...
  • Other antigens indicating EBV infection are less useful diagnostically and include early antigen (EA), which is present early in EBV infectious mononucleosis. (medscape.com)
  • The panel includes four antibody measurements: IgM viral capsid antigen (VCA), IgG VCA, Early Antigen (EA), and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA), which help determine the stage of the patient's EBV infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • All serum samples were tested for EBV-specific serology, including VCA IgM, VCA IgG, early antigen (EA) IgG, and EBNA antibody ( 1 , 9 , 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibodies are also detected to early antigen (EA) in acute infection: these antibodies disappear over time in most patients. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • A definitive diagnosis can be made by testing serum antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigens (EBV VCA IgM/IgG), anti-EBV early antigen (EA IgG) and EBV nuclear antigen proteins (EBNA IgG). (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Therefore antibodies are produced in rabbit serum by injecting the antigen (antiforssman antibodies). (wikipedia.org)
  • Higashi H, Naiki M, Matuo S, Okouchi K. (1977) Antigen of serum sickness type of heterophile antibodies in human sera: identification as gangliosides with N-glycolylneuraminic acid. (edu.pl)
  • Merrick JM, Zadarlik K, Milgrom F. (1978) Characterization of the Hanganutziu-Deicher (serum-sickness) antigen as gangliosides containing N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid. (edu.pl)
  • antigen-1 (EBNA-1) in human serum. (bio-medicine.org)
  • of, relating to, or being an antibody circulating in blood serum that is reactive with usually weak antigen originating in a different species Even though heterophile antibodies have nothing to do with EBV [ Epstein-Barr virus ] … heterophile antibody tests remain the principal method to diagnose IM [ infectious mononucleosis ] … - Carey-Ann D. Burnham et al. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The effect of heterophile antibodies in the QuantiFERON ® -TB Gold IT ELISA is minimized by the addition of normal mouse serum to the green diluent and the use of F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody fragments as the IFN-γ capture antibody coated the microplate wells. (cdc.gov)
  • First, the serum is mixed with two different antigen suspensions, guinea pig kidney antigen and beef red blood cell stroma, prior to testing with the horse red cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In infectious mononucleosis, agglutination should be seen in the serum mixed with guinea pig antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Analysis of the two-site ELISA assay used to measure serum IL-4 revealed evidence for heterophile antibodies, i.e., nonanalyte substances in serum capable of binding antibodies mutivalently and providing erroneous analyte (e.g. (pnas.org)
  • or heterophile antibodies to the bovine serum proteins involved in the assay ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The QuickVue+ Mononucleosis Test detects IgM heterophile antibodies in acute phase infections using serum, plasma or whole blood. (quidel.com)
  • Serum heterophile antibodies interfere with prostate specific antigen test and result in over treatment in a patient with prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Measurement of serum prostate specific antigen using IMx prostate specific antigen assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The value of serum prostate specific antigen determinations before and after radical prostatectomy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We evaluated serum prostate specific antigen before and after radical prostatectomy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heterophile antibodies occur during EBV infection but are not specific for EBV infection, as they also occur in patients with rheumatic diseases, lymphoma, hepatitis and other viral infections, serum sickness and in some healthy individuals. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • An EIA microwell test used for qualitative detection of IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen in serum. (thermofisher.com)
  • Remel ImmunoWELL SS-B is an EIA microwell test used for quantitative detection of antibodies against SS-B antigens in serum. (thermofisher.com)
  • Rapid latex agglutination test used for detection of heterophile (Paul-Bunnell) antibodies associated with infectious mononucleosis in human serum or plasma. (thermofisher.com)
  • Thermo Scientific™ Remel RPR Antigen is used for detection of reagin in human serum. (thermofisher.com)
  • An EIA membrane test that simultaneously detects the presence of heterophile antibodies and antibodies to EBV-VCA and CMV in serum. (thermofisher.com)
  • Carbon antigen agglutination test used in Syphilis screening for detection and semi-quantitative assessment of reagin antibodies in serum or plasma. (thermofisher.com)
  • The origin of antigenicity of pig islets is mainly N-linked sugars including sialic acid antigens, but not the alpha-Gal, and pig islets can be injured by both the classical and the alternative complement pathway in human serum. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, when serum samples obtained from 10 patients who were convalescing from ehrlichiosis were tested against each antigen, only three serum samples had any reactivities, and these serum samples reacted with only a few of the antigenic bands. (utmb.edu)
  • In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, IgG- and IgM-antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA) and IgG-antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) can occur simultaneously both in late primary infection and during subclinical viral reactivation in immunocompetent persons, and the differential diagnosis is of importance. (nih.gov)
  • EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) appears after 1-2 months and persists throughout life. (medscape.com)
  • The detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to the virus capsid antigen (VCA) in the absence of antibody to EB nuclear antigen (EBNA) is regarded as suggestive of acute primary EBV infection because EBNA antibodies develop only in late convalescence ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The presence or absence of EBV viral capsid ‎antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG antibodies was recorded. (who.int)
  • IgG antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) appear two-four weeks after onset and persist for life. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Sheep RBCs agglutinate in the presence of heterophile antibodies and are the basis for the Paul-Bunnell test. (medscape.com)
  • Elevated levels of IFN-γ in the Nil sample may occur with the presence of heterophile antibodies, or to intrinsic IFN-γ secretion. (cdc.gov)
  • Other heterophile antigens are responsible for some diagnostic serological tests such as: Weil-Felix reaction for typhus fever Paul Bunnell test for infectious mononucleosis Cold agglutinin test in primary atypical pneumonia Chemically, heterophile antigens are composed of lipoprotein-polysaccharide complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA are not typical antigens, like those found on surface of infectious agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification. (curehunter.com)
  • Paul-Bunnell antigen and a possible mechanism of formation of heterophile antibodies in patients with infectious mononucleosis. (edu.pl)
  • Sera of patients with infectious mononucleosis contain heterophile anti-Paul- Bunnell (PB) antibodies to erythrocytes of numerous mammalian species. (edu.pl)
  • Merrick JM, Schifferle R, Zadarlik K, Kano K, Milgrom F. (1977) Isolation and partial characterization of the heterophile antigen of infectious mononucleosis from bovine erythrocytes. (edu.pl)
  • Forssman antigen - the antibody that develops in infectious mononucleosis reacts specifically with the Forssman antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The heterophile antibody test (eg, the Monospot test) results may be negative early in the course of EBV infectious mononucleosis. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who remain heterophile negative after 6 weeks with a mononucleosis illness should be considered as having heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with heterophile infectious mononucleosis should be tested for EBV-specific antibodies before definitively diagnosing heterophile-negative infectious mononucleosis. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with heterophile- or Monospot-negative infectious mononucleosis should be tested serologically as are patients who present with a mononucleosislike illness who are negative for heterophile antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • In clinical practice, the most important significance of heterophile antibodies is their use in diagnosing infectious mononucleosis. (drugs.com)
  • Initial testing is based on the demonstration of heterophile antibodies produced in infectious mononucleosis . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Infectious mononucleosis causes production of nonForssman heterophile antibodies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1) The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis in young adults can regularly be made on the basis of clinical presentation, atypical lymphocytosis and a positive heterophile antibody test. (shmabstracts.com)
  • For example, the heterophile antibodies detected by Monospot are often not present in children with infectious mononucleosis. (cdc.gov)
  • In the case of infectious diseases , the antigens are components of invading microorganism's structure that are usually composed of proteins or polysaccharides. (microbeonline.com)
  • The QuantiFERON ® -TB Gold IT test is a test for Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) responses to petide antigens that simulate mycobacterial proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Most antigens are high molecular weight substances, but low molecular weight substances will also act as antigens if they bind to proteins in the body. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • 13] This problem led to development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), with elevated sensitivity and specificity due to their ability to distinguish each virus' specific reactivity by using synthetic antigens that mimic specific immunodominant epitopes of the most immunogenic and persistent proteins. (scielosp.org)
  • A measurement of the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen in a biological specimen. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The determination of the amount of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen present in a sample. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies to Complex Membrane Protein Targets: Antigen Generation and Antibody Discovery Strategies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Mapping studies using stimulator cells from inbred and outbred guinea pigs and blocking studies with alloantisera and xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies to guinea pig Ia antigens indicated that these T cell colonies were specifically stimulated to proliferate by Ia molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • Species-specific monoclonal antibodies suggest that PAECs directly present swine MHC antigens to human T cells and that human CD4 and CD8 molecules participate in this interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Agglutination of horse RBCs on exposure to heterophile antibodies is the basis of the Monospot test. (medscape.com)
  • Heterophile antibody, or monospot, testing is commonly used to diagnosis it. (gantdaily.com)
  • A positive result from a rapid slide (Monospot) test for IM specific heterophile antibodies is diagnostic, and no further testing is necessary. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Diagnosis is usually made by demonstrating a positive reaction to a rapid slide test (usually referred to as a Monospot test) for the specific heterophile anibodies seen in IM. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Monospot test is based upon the principle that IM heterophile antibodies will agglutinate horse red blood cells (because they are nonForssman). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A The Monospot test (a quick version of the Paul Bunnell test) is not strictly a diagnostic test for glandular fever as it actually detects antibodies directed against sheep and horse red cells, called heterophile antibodies. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • A rapid heterophile-antibody test ("monospot") may be positive. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Our results indicate that nonreversible truncation of the outer core is not a viable option for developing a live oral Salmonella vaccine, while a wzy mutant that retains one O-antigen unit is adequate for stimulating the optimal protective immunity to homologous or heterologous antigens by oral, intranasal, or intraperitoneal routes of administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Use of the E.coli-expressed N protein in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay improved the sensitivity and specificity when compared with heterologous antigens used previously. (utmb.edu)
  • When antisera were reacted with heterologous antigens, cross-reactivity among these species was virtually restricted to the 70-kDa antigen. (utmb.edu)
  • Evidence is presented that the corresponding antigen of bovine erythrocytes is not, as previously described, a single molecule, but a series of glycoproteins with glycans terminated with N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). (edu.pl)
  • This finding confirms a previous report that human erythrocyte Neu5Ac containing sialoglycoprotein with similar O-linked glycans as the PB-antigen of bovine erythrocytes exhibits only very low PB activity (Patarca & Fletcher, 1995, Crit Rev Oncogen. (edu.pl)
  • Heterophile antigen asociated with a glycoprotein from the bovine erythrocyte membrane. (edu.pl)
  • Background and aim of study: Assessment of decellularization of xenogeneic biological scaffolds for tissue engineering has relied primarily on histological cellularity, though this may not ensure the removal of known xenogeneic antigens such as galactose-α1,3-galactose (α-gal) and MHC I. Methods: Bovine pericardium (BP) underwent standard (Std) decellularization consisting of hypotonic lysis and treatment with DNAse/RNAse. (elsevier.com)
  • EBV-induced heterophile antibodies can be identified by specific absorption by bovine red cells but not guinea pig kidney cells. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The three groups of heterophile antibodies are polyspecific antibodies, antiimmunoglobulin antibodies, and high-specificity high-affinity antibodies against antigens from animal species. (drugs.com)
  • I am trying to set up a sandwich ELISA, using two affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the same antigen (the two antibodies are against two different petides of the same antigen). (protocol-online.org)
  • The primary antibodies and goat anti-rabbit IgG were purified by immunosorbent affinity chromatography, using the respective pure antigen coupled to Sepharose as the immunosorbent. (rupress.org)
  • An atypical lymphocytosis of at least 20 percent or atypical lymphocytosis of at least 10 percent plus lymphocytosis of at least 50 percent strongly supports the diagnosis, as does a positive heterophile antibody test. (aafp.org)
  • Heterophile antigens are antigens of similar nature, if not identical, that are present in different tissues in different biological species, classes or kingdoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually different species have different antigen sets but the hetereophile antigen is shared by different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Example: Forssman antigen, cross reacting microbial antigen so antibodies to these antigens produced by one species cross react with antigens of other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. (curehunter.com)
  • Heterophile antibodies are those that react with the cells from a different (nonhuman) species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Alloantigens are antigens found in different members of the same species (the red blood cell antigens A and B are examples). (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Heterophile antigens are identical antigens found in the cells of different species. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Antibodies are raised in non‐human species targeted to specific epitope of the intended target (antigen). (els.net)
  • Enterococcus species (Streptococcus beta-haemolytic, group D).- Antigen detection. (worldcat.org)
  • These results document the molecular sizes of electrophoretically separated antigens of the three Ehrlichia species, confirm their serologic relationships, and support the novel nature of the agent(s) of human ehrlichiosis in the United States. (utmb.edu)
  • antigen-antibody reaction the reversible binding of antigen to homologous antibody by the formation of weak bonds between antigenic determinants on antigen molecules and antigen binding sites on immunoglobulin molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. one that combines with antibody produced in response to a different but related antigen, owing to similarity of antigenic determinants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A measure of the binding constant of a single antigen combining site with a monovalent antigenic determinant. (rxpgonline.com)
  • This report expands the breadth of available knowledge concerning the antigenic components and serologic responses to component antigens of E. canis, E. sennetsu, and E. risticii. (utmb.edu)
  • Forssman antigen is a glycosphingolipid with antigenic specificity determined by extra-membrane haptenic sugars similar to blood group antigens and antigens that are the main barrier to xenogeneic organ transplantation. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Exposure of cultured guinea pig aortic endothelial cells to Forssman antibodies induced rapid redistribution of antigen-antibody complexes at the cell surface, followed by shedding that occurred by blebbing of plasma membrane as vesicles or fragments, and was associated with disappearance of antigen from the cell surface (antigenic modulation). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection induces specific antibodies to EBV and various unrelated non-EBV heterophile antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Antigen testing for the Epstein-Barr virus and viral capsid antigens can provide a more definitive diagnosis earlier. (gantdaily.com)
  • class II a's major histocompatibility antigens found only on immunocompetent cells, primarily B lymphocytes and macrophages. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Individuals infected with M. tuberculosis complex organisms ( M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, M. canetti ) usually have lymphocytes in their blood that recognize these and other mycobacterial antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • Epitopes are immunologically active regions of an immunogen that bind to antigen-specific membrane receptors on lymphocytes or to secreted antibodies. (microbeonline.com)
  • Antigens that have not been exposed to immature lymphocytes during this critical period may be later recognized as nonself , or foreign , by the immune system. (microbeonline.com)
  • Most of them depend on the unique features of the reaction between an antigen and its complementary antibody to achieve specificity for the analyte of interest. (els.net)
  • Heterophile antibody testing has a specificity of nearly 100%, though case reports of false positives (most notably in acute HIV infection) exist. (shmabstracts.com)
  • In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. (edu.au)
  • Xenogeneic tissues, however, contain molecules, known as antigens, which invoke an immune reaction following implantation into a patient. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to remove the antigens from a xenogeneic tissue to prevent immune rejection of the graft. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the goal of an antigen removal process should be to reduce the antigen content of a xenogeneic tissue while preserving its mechanical functionality. (elsevier.com)
  • To expand the clinical use of antigen-removed xenogeneic tissues as biomechanically functional grafts, it is essential that researchers examine tissue antigen content, ECM composition and architecture, and mechanical properties as new antigen removal processes are developed. (elsevier.com)
  • Adding SD treatment resulted in apparent acellularity, but persistence of xenogeneic antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • Only the addition of SDS resulted in complete histological acellularity and removal of xenogeneic antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • However, known xenogeneic antigens can be targeted for removal by novel decellularization treatments such as α-galactosidase. (elsevier.com)
  • Virus isolation attempts have been unsuccessful thus far, resulting in a lack of homologous antigen for use in diagnostic assays. (utmb.edu)
  • For this reason, a molecular approach was initiated to produce recombinant homologous antigen. (utmb.edu)
  • These data demonstrate that even in the absence of a virus isolate, the necessary homologous antigen can be produced and can serve to improve the detection and diagnostic capabilities needed to combat this newly recognized fatal respiratory illness in the United States. (utmb.edu)
  • Forssman antigen-antibody reaction - the combination of Forssman antibody with heterogenetic antigen of the Forssman type. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Forssman antigen a heterogenetic antigen discovered in guinea pig tissues, capable of lysing sheep erythrocytes in the presence of complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Herein, we describe the localization of Forssman antigen in guinea pig lungs and kidneys and the consequences of its interaction with antibodies in vitro and in vivo (Forssman reaction). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Guinea pigs surviving frequent intravenous injections of increasing amounts of antibodies, for a total of 20 to 40 lethal doses, developed a partial or complete adaptation to generalized Forssman reaction, and adaptation was associated with partial or complete modulation of Forssman antigen at the surface of the pulmonary and, in minor degree, renal endothelial and epithelial cells. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the antigenicity of pig islets, including the Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R (the alpha-Gal) and Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigens, and the pathway involved in human complement activation. (nih.gov)
  • These heterophile antibodies react to antigens from animal RBCs. (medscape.com)
  • The terms "heterogenetic," "heterophilic," or "heterophile" are applied to those antibodies that react with an antigen (sheep erythrocytes) which seemingly had nothing to do with their development. (annals.org)
  • To determine the prevalence of TB infection, NHANES participants 6 years of age and older who consented to this component were skin tested with a tuberculin-purified protein derivative (PPD) product, tubersol, a commercially available antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • B. Process for analysis which involve an in vitro antigen-antibody, immunological or protein binding interaction other than those involving a living antigen, or enzyme label. (uspto.gov)
  • N protein-expressing Hela cells served as excellent antigens for an improved indirect immunofluorescence assay. (utmb.edu)
  • A dipstick immunoassay which allows for the rapid, qualitative detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen (viral fusion protein) directly from. (quidel.com)
  • Which of the following is true of HLA (MHC) class I antigens? (proprofs.com)
  • Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. (edu.au)
  • A laboratory test that measures the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) found in the blood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A meta-analysis of the performance characteristics of the free prostate-specific antigen test. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Validity of the prostate specific antigen test for prostate cancer screening: followup study with a bank of 21,000 sera in Finland. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PURPOSE We investigate the validity of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a screening test for prostate cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some assays are subjected to interferences due to the presence of unusual antibodies in the sample (heterophile and human anti‐animal antibodies). (els.net)
  • Antigens present in excess concentrations can produce falsely low results in both immunoprecipitation (prozone) and immunometric (hook effect) assays. (els.net)
  • The uptake and processing of antigens by macrophages in the tissue is an initial, critical step in most immune responses. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • An antigen-antibody complex is formed which increases virus replication and makes penetration of macrophages by the virus easier through opsonization. (scielo.br)
  • Dipstick immunoassay for the rapid qualitative detection of Group A Streptococcal antigen from throat swab specimens. (quidel.com)
  • The QuickVue In-Line Strep A Test uses a unique in-line extraction to detect group A streptococcal antigen directly from patient throat swab specimens. (quidel.com)
  • The QuickVue+ Strep A Test detects group A streptococcal antigen directly from throat swabs and beta-hemolytic colonies on blood agar plates. (quidel.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus binds to this antigen and infects and kills T cells bearing this antigen, thus gradually destroying the body's ability to resist infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When IgM on the surface of an immature B cell binds to a self-antigen, which of the following processes can occur? (proprofs.com)
  • Schematic representation of a homogeneous immunoassay in which, when present, the sample antigen binds to the antibody, thereby allowing access of a substrate to the active site of an enzyme labelled with the antigen. (els.net)
  • In the absence of sample antigen, the antibody binds to the antigen attached to the enzyme, inhibiting access to the substrate, thereby effectively modulating the activity. (els.net)
  • The part of an immunoglobulin molecule that binds antigen specifically. (rxpgonline.com)
  • The summation of multiple affinities, for example when a polyvalent antibody binds to a polyvalent antigen. (rxpgonline.com)
  • Designed to actively block interfering antibodies (HAAAs, RF, Heterophiles) by neutralizing them, allowing the binding of analyte/antigen to capture and detector antibodies to occur. (merckmillipore.com)
  • or antigen - antibody - antibody (bold indicates target analyte). (quidel.com)
  • Porcine aortic endothelial cells activate human T cells: direct presentation of MHC antigens and costimulation by ligands for human CD2 and CD28. (nih.gov)
  • Allo-reactive T cells reactive with Ia antigens from strain 2 and 13 guinea pigs were cloned by plating T cells from primary mixed leukocyte cultures in soft agar and expanding the resulting colonies in liquid culture. (elsevier.com)
  • These changes allow considering some gangliosides as tumor-associated antigens and they have been selected as possible target for active and passive immunotherapy [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The resulting conjugate may induce an immune response directed against the antigen. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • A term covering immune reactions to non-pathogenic antigens, which lead to inflammation and deleterious effects in the host. (rxpgonline.com)
  • Antigens may also be immunogens if they are able to trigger an immune response, or haptens if not. (rxpgonline.com)
  • In the context of an attenuated vaccine strain delivering the pneumococcal antigen PspA, all of the mutations tested resulted in reduced immune responses against PspA and Salmonella antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • Heterophile test antibodies are sensitive and specific for EBV heterophile antibodies, they are present in peak levels 2-6 weeks after primary EBV infection, and they may remain positive in low levels for up to a year. (medscape.com)
  • The presence of these antibodies suggests previous exposure to the antigen (past infection) and excludes EBV infection acquired in the previous year. (medscape.com)
  • False-negative results of heterophile antibody tests are relatively common early in the course of infection. (aafp.org)
  • After incubation of the blood with antigens for 16 to 24 hours and in conjunction with a regularly scheduled shipment, specimens were sent to a contracted laboratory on frozen refrigerant packs or dry ice where the QFT-GIT test for tuberculosis infection was conducted. (cdc.gov)
  • Although primary EBV infection can be diagnosed by an assay for heterophile antibodies in adults, this assay's sensitivity is low for children ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Patients with indeterminate results of viral capsid antigen IgM test at the time of primary infection and no subsequent seroconversion. (analesdepediatria.org)
  • The sheep cell agglutination test or heterophile antibody reaction, as it is also called, is a laboratory procedure of considerable value in clinical medicine. (annals.org)
  • Agglutination applies to red blood cells as well as to bacteria and inert particles covered with antigen. (rxpgonline.com)
  • A specialized type of cell, bearing cell surface class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules, involved in processing and presentation of antigen to inducer, or helper , T cells. (rxpgonline.com)
  • Specifically, this altered glycoprotein is an immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule reactive to the heterophilic alpha-Gal epitope [Galα-1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R]. While similar changes in glycosylation have been observed in several autoimmune diseases, the specific immunoglobulins and their antigen recognition profiles were not determined. (asm.org)
  • 3. How can I test whether my antigen is heterophilic with the rabbit one? (protocol-online.org)
  • Physical examination reveals pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy, and laboratory analysis reveals atypical lymphocytosis, heterophile antibody, and evidence of mild hepatitis. (quidel.com)
  • The heterophile test is less useful in children younger than 2 years, in whom the results are frequently negative. (medscape.com)
  • A test is considered positive for an IFN-γ response to the TB Antigen tube that is significantly above the Nil IFN-γ IU/mL value. (cdc.gov)
  • The QuickVue Influenza A+B Test detects and differentiates influenza type A and type B antigens directly from nasal swab and nasopharyngeal swab specimens. (quidel.com)
  • 3-5] Second, the heterophile antibody test used in this study had a sensitivity of only 78% for IM. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While the functions of the gene products involved in synthesis of core and O-antigen have been elucidated, the effect of removing O-antigen and core sugars on the virulence and immunogenicity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has not been systematically studied. (elsevier.com)
  • these cells carry immunoglobulin and class II MHC (major histocompatibility complex) antigens on their surfaces. (rxpgonline.com)
  • In addition to IgM and IgG serology, our laboratory performs culture, antigen detection, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). (asm.org)
  • Forssman antibody - a heterogenetic antibody specific for the Forssman group of heterogenetic antigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As with heterophile antibody responses, specific EBV antibodies may not be present in children younger than 2 years. (medscape.com)
  • carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) an oncofetal glycoprotein antigen originally thought to be specific for adenocarcinoma of the colon, but now known to be found in many other cancers and some nonmalignant conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Nil samples adjust for background, heterophile antibody effects, or non-specific IFN-γ in blood samples. (cdc.gov)
  • What are the most specific cells containing antigens that agglutinate with heterophile antibodies? (proprofsdiscuss.com)
  • If it is heterophile rx then you may also use non-specific rabbit IgG to remove the heterophile along with dilution (if possible). (protocol-online.org)
  • Alloreactive T cells from individual soft agar colonies specific for guinea pig Ia antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability of heterozygous lymphoid cells to produce only one allelic form of antigen-specific receptor when they have the genetic endowment to produce both. (rxpgonline.com)
  • antibodies are generally defined in terms of their specific binding to the immunizing antigen. (rxpgonline.com)
  • This procedure effectively removed cross-reactive and heterophile antibodies, which permitted the specific staining and localization of each antigen by the unlabeled peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. (rupress.org)