Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Therapy with Helminths: The treatment of immune system diseases by deliberate infestation with helminths. This therapy is partly based on the HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS which states that the absence of parasites increases immune dysregulation because of the lack of stimulation of REGULATORY T-CELLS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Nematospiroides dubius: A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.Strongylida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Filarioidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Schistosoma: A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CHistocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Schistosomiasis mansoni: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nippostrongylus: A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Filariasis: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Necator americanus: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Trichinella spiralis: A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Ascaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Hymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Necatoriasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mebendazole: A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Taeniasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Hymenolepis nana: The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Wuchereria bancrofti: A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hymenolepis: A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Spiruroidea: A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Schistosomiasis haematobia: A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Elephantiasis, Filarial: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Laos

Differential serodiagnosis for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis using fractions of Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (antigen B) and E. multilocularis protoscolex (EM18). (1/1434)

Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid and E. multilocularis protoscolex extract were fractionated by a single step of preparative isoelectric focusing, resulting in an antigen B-rich fraction (8-kD) and an Em18-rich fraction, respectively. The usefulness of both fractions for differential serodiagnosis of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis was evaluated by a large-scale immunoblot analysis on a battery of 354 serum samples. These included 66 from AE patients originating from four different endemic areas, 173 from CE patients originating from seven different endemic areas, 71 from patients with other parasitic diseases, 15 from patients with hepatomas, and 29 from healthy individuals. In an immunoblot with the antigen B-rich fraction, 92% (158 of 173) of the CE sera as well as 79% (52 of 66) of the AE sera reacted with the 8-kD subunit. No cross-reactivity occurred with any sera from patients with cysticercosis, other parasitic diseases, or with hepatomas, or from healthy controls. In an immunoblot with the Em18-rich fraction, all but two sera from AE patients (64 of 66, 97%) recognized Em18, and only nine of 34 CE sera from China reacted with it. All other (139) CE sera from six other countries were negative as were all (115) other non-echinococcosis sera. These findings indicate that antigen B (8-kD) is not species-specific for E. granulosus but is genus-specific for Echinococcus, and that the Em18 antigen is a reliable serologic marker for species-specific differentiation of AE from CE.  (+info)

Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. (2/1434)

We developed a serologic assay to identify adult Taenia solium tapeworm carriers using excretory/secretory (TSES) antigens collected from in vitro cultured T. solium tapeworms. To identify taeniasis-specific antigens we used an immunoblot assay with serum samples from T. solium tapeworm carriers and cysticercosis patients. Antigens were identified that reacted with antibodies present in serum samples from taeniasis cases and not with those from cysticercosis patients. Using serum samples collected from persons with confirmed T. solium tapeworm infections, the test was determined to be 95% (69 of 73) sensitive. Serum samples (n = 193) from persons with other parasitic infections, including T. saginata tapeworm infections, do not contain cross-reacting antibodies to TSES, indicating that the assay is 100% specific. These data suggest that the immunoblot assay using TSES antigens can be used to identify persons with current or recent T. solium tapeworm infections and provides a new, important tool for epidemiologic purposes, including control and prevention strategies.  (+info)

Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (3/1434)

The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of artemether on proteinase of Schistosoma japonicum. (4/1434)

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the thio proteinase ("hemoglobinase", Hem) of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Hem was extracted from S japonicum adults. The inhibitory effect of Art on the activity of Hem to degrade human hemoglobin (Hgb) was examined with UV-photometer at 280 nm, SDS-PAGE and scanning at 600 nm on a chromoscanner. RESULTS: Human Hgb was degraded at pH 4.0 by the Hem. The activities of Hem preincubated at 37 degrees C with Art 0.14, 1.4, and 14 mmol.L-1, were inhibited by 30.2%, 39.8%, and 45.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Art possesses an inhibitory effect to Hem of S japonicum.  (+info)

Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (5/1434)

Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice.  (+info)

A novel 62-kilodalton egg antigen from Schistosoma mansoni induces a potent CD4(+) T helper cell response in the C57BL/6 mouse. (6/1434)

In infection with Schistosoma mansoni, hepatic granuloma formation is mediated by CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells sensitized to schistosomal egg antigens. There is considerable variation among infected individuals with respect to both severity of disease and the T-cell response to egg antigens. In the BL/6 mouse, the egg granulomas are relatively small and the relevant sensitizing egg antigens are largely unknown. We investigated the CD4(+) Th cell response of infected BL/6 mice to egg antigens fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found a prominent lymphoproliferative response to be directed against a 62-kDa component. With the aid of a specific T-cell hybridoma, 4E6, the 62-kDa antigen was isolated; following partial digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C, an internal amino acid sequence was found to be identical with one present in the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) of the organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Treponema pallidum and to differ by one residue from PEPCK of various other species. In CD4(+) Th cells from 7.5- 8.5-week-infected BL/6 mice, the purified 62-kDa molecule elicited a potent proliferative response which, based on cytokine analysis, was of a mixed Th-1 and Th-2 type. Our results reveal a novel egg antigen of particular prominence in the BL/6 mouse and suggest that the immune response in schistosomiasis is a product of sensitization to egg antigens that may vary considerably in immunogenicity from strain to strain.  (+info)

Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (7/1434)

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.  (+info)

Tolerization of mice to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens causes elevated type 1 and diminished type 2 cytokine responses and increased mortality in acute infection. (8/1434)

The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages of schistosome infection, egg-tolerized mice suffered high mortalities. Granuloma size and deposition of collagen in the liver were significantly reduced in egg-tolerized mice. Similarly, limited granuloma responses were detected in the intestines of these mice, and this was associated with a >90% reduction in egg excretion. Histologically, egg-tolerized mice had exacerbated hepatocyte damage, with extensive microvesicular steatosis. Elevated plasma transaminase levels confirmed the damage to hepatocytes. Infected egg-tolerized mice had impaired proliferation responses to egg Ag but intact responses to worm Ag. Tolerized mice had diminished Ab responses to egg Ag and had a type 1 cytokine isotype pattern to worm Ag, with elevated IgG2a and diminished IgG1 and IgE. Egg-tolerized mice failed to down-regulate type 1 cytokines that are normally elicited during early schistosome infection. Hepatic granuloma cells from egg-tolerized mice were also type 1 cytokine dominated, with elevated frequencies of Tc1/Th1 and reduced Tc2/Th2 cells. This study demonstrates that mice tolerized to schistosome eggs have elevated type 1 cytokine responses with diminished type 2 responses and reduced anti-egg Ab during schistosome infection, and these effects are detrimental to the host.  (+info)

*Follicular B helper T cells

May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ... In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B ... Follicular B helper T cells (also known as just follicular helper T cells or TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells found ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ...

*Antibody

... helminths, allergens). Antibodies that bind to surface antigens (for example, on bacteria) will attract the first component of ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... It is important to note that this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by ... Each of these variants can bind to a different antigen. This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding ...

*Basophil

... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends Parasitol. 25 (12): 551-6. doi:10.1016/j.pt ...

*Tropical eosinophilia

High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such ... Muck, A.; Pires, M.; Lammie, P. (2003). "Influence of infection with non-filarial helminths on the specificity of serological ... as strongyloides and schistosoma antigens, as demonstrated in reported cases. It is important to exclude other parasitic ...

*Helminth protein

A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ...

*Effects of parasitic worms on the immune system

2002). "An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen." J Immunol. 169(6): 3284-3292. ... In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. ... Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where the immune system is forced to ... However, helminths also regulate Th2-caused diseases, such as allergy and asthma. Professor Rook postulates that different ...

*Antigen-antibody interaction

It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ... In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. The ... It came to be known as "Goldberg's theory" (of antigen-antibody reaction). There are several types of antibodies and antigens, ...

*Helminthiasis

Of all the known helminth species, the most important helminths with respect to understanding their transmission pathways, ... Sophisticated tests such as serological assays, antigen tests, and molecular diagnosis are also available; however, they are ... Specific helminths can be identified through microscopic examination of their eggs (ova) found in faecal samples. The number of ... Helminths may cause iron-deficiency anemia. This is most severe in heavy hookworm infections, as Necator americanus and ...

*Helminthic therapy

... and helminths. Lack of exposure to sufficient benign antigens, particularly during childhood, is sometimes suggested as a cause ... Extra-cellular antigens primarily trigger the TH2 response, as observed with allergies, while intracellular antigens trigger a ... Helminths are parasitic worms such as hookworms, whipworms, and threadworms that have evolved to live within a host organism on ... Helminth infection has emerged as one possible explanation for the low incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in less ...

*Eosinophil

They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. Eosinophils are ... They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth ... Shi H (2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". J Leukoc Biol. 76 (3): 520-7. doi:10.1189/jlb.0404228. PMID ...

*Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... Subsequently, interaction between FceRI and the Fc portion of helminth-bound IgE signals the eosinophil to degranulate. Several ... Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. They also have an external structure or ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, ...

*Isotype (immunology)

... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ... Responses to specific helminths are also characterised with elevated levels of IgE antibodies. Idiotype Stavnezer, Janet (1996 ... IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in the serum and is often generated following repeated exposure to the same antigen or ... sIgA has also been shown to potentiate the immune response in intestinal tissue by uptake of antigen together with the bound ...

*Immunotherapy

Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ... The helminths down regulate the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines, Interleukin-12 (IL-12), Interferon-Gamma (IFN-γ) and Tumour ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... Co-evolution with helminths has shaped some of the genes associated with Interleukin expression and immunological disorders, ...

*Fc receptor

The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE ... When an appropriate allergic antigen or parasite is present, the cross-linking of a least two of IgE molecules and their Fc ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...

*Transverse myelitis

One major theory posits that immune-mediated inflammation is present as the result of exposure to a viral antigen.[citation ... Other associated causes are the helminth infection schistosomiasis, spinal cord injuries, vascular disorders that impede the ...

*Loa loa filariasis

Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... helminths), and a positive serologic test does not necessarily distinguish between infections-up and coming serologic tests ... In the past, health care providers use a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin test antigen for filariasis ...

*Immunoglobulin E

Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". Eur. J. Immunol. 37 (5): ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ... Basophils, upon the cross-linking of their surface IgE by antigens, release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and ...

*Adaptive immune system

Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells. Endogenous antigens are ... In general, Th2 responses are more effective against extracellular bacteria, parasites including helminths and toxins. Like ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... The host's cells express "self" antigens. These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface ...

*ILC2

These cells lack antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene. ILC2s produce type ... ILC2s play the crucial role of secreting type 2 cytokines in response to helminth infection. They have also been implicated in ... ILC2s are critical for primary responses to local Th2 antigens e.g. helmints and viruses and that is why ILC2s are abundant in ...

*Hygiene hypothesis

Autoimmune liver disease can be modulated by active helminth infections. The anti-inflammatory effects of helminth infection ... Allergic conditions are caused by inappropriate immunological responses to harmless antigens driven by a TH2-mediated immune ... Helminths are thought to have been as old as the adaptive immune system, suggesting that they may have co-evolved, also ... Helminth therapy is one alternative. Probiotics (drinks or foods) have never been shown to reintroduce microbes to the gut. As ...

*Degranulation

Antigens interact with IgE molecules already bound to high affinity Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells to induce ... following interaction between their Fc receptors and IgE molecules that are bound to large parasites like helminths. Four kinds ...

*T helper cell

For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...

*Haemonchus contortus

Some of these glycan structures might represent antigens which are not exposed to host immune system, and thus have potential ... doi:10.1016/0304-4017(95)00926-4. Dorny, P.; Batubara, A.; Iskander, M.; Pandey, V. (1996). "Helminth infections of sheep in ... anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats". Parasite. 22: 7. doi:10.1051/parasite/ ... https://www.sanger.ac.uk/resources/downloads/helminths/haemonchus-contortus.html Anderson, Samuel. "Summary of Results: New ...

*Crohn's disease

Infections with helminths may alter the autoimmune response that causes the disease. Trials of extracts from the worm Trichuris ... A novel multi-antigen virally vectored vaccine against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis". PLoS ONE. 2 (11): ... Early clinical trials suggested that exposure to helminths such as Trichuris suis or Necator americanus can improve IBD. ... Weinstock, Joel V.; Elliott, David E. (2013). "Translatability of helminth therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases". ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins MeSH ... helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, monoclonal ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...

*Pattern recognition receptor

PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines The microbe ... similarly fucose presents the same for certain bacteria and helminths; and glucans are present on mycobacteria and fungi. In ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMID 16948640. "Understanding Immunotherapy". Cancer. ...
The lineage differentiation of TFH cells has been unclear. In our system, TFH cells possess canonical attributes of Th2 cells. Further, kinetic analysis of TFH cell development showed that the percentages of IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells in draining LNs remained relatively constant (∼16% of total CD4+ cells) from day 7-14 after SEA immunization, whereas the contribution of PD-1+ TFH cells to this population doubled from 21-42% over the same time period (Fig. 1 B), suggesting that TFH cells develop from within the PD-1− IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cell population. To formally address this, we FACS-purified IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells that lacked the classical TFH markers CXCR5 and PD-1 (Fig. 4 E) from the pooled draining LNs of Thy1.1 4get mice that had been immunized 5 d earlier with SEA. These cells were then adoptively transferred into congenic Thy1.2 recipient BALB/c mice or JHD mice, which were then immediately immunized with SEA. After 7 d, Thy1.1+ donor cells in the reactive LNs of recipient animals (Fig. 5 ...
antigens from a few sources: (i) all ES, somatic, and cuticular antigens as a result of tissue penetration and subsequent degeneration of the larvae, more info resulting in exposure to the whole profile on the parasites antigens; (ii) ES antigens only, in instances exactly where You will find a expulsion on the parasite intact, perhaps following penetration of intestine tissue has transpired; and (iii) cuticular and somatic antigens from lifeless larvae contained in food, through which case ES antigens could well be current only in minimal quantities-this last position has also been advised by Jackson (127 ...
Abstract At present, there is no consensus that purified schistosome egg antigens offer any advantage in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Previously, we demonstrated by multiple techniques that the major serologic antigens in Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA) are glycoproteins, and that the glycoproteins with highest specificity and sensitivity are hydrophobes. We therefore tested these materials for their specificity, sensitivity and cost effectiveness in the ELISA. In this study we used five SEA fractions that varied in their purity and antigenicity. The order of immunologic specific activity in the ELISA, measured by titration of a standard sera pool, was: hydrophobic glycoproteins (highest), crude SEA glycoproteins, hydrophilic glycoproteins, crude SEA, and SEA proteins (lowest). Complexity (purity) of these materials were (in rank order), hydrophilic glycoproteins (purest), hydrophobic glycoproteins, crude glycoproteins, SEA proteins, and
Objectives. The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response.. Methods. The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40μg or 20μg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry.. Results. Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40μg or 20μg ...
Cyathostomins are the most common parasitic nematodes of horses. Larval stages, which inhabit the intestinal wall, are particularly pathogenic and can cause severe colitis and colic. Despite their clinical importance, diagnostic techniques for the prepatent stages do not exist. A method that could estimate mucosal infection intensity would have a major impact on the control and diagnosis of cyathostominosis. Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental infections, natural infections and in horses that presented with clinical larval cyathostominosis. In experimentally-infected animals, anti-25 kDa complex IgG(T) levels correlated positively with field exposure and with early third stage larval (r(s)=0.74, P=0.015) and total mucosal parasite (r(s)=0.78, P=0.010) burdens. In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly ...
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Specific IgG4 and IgE responses to adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were examined in 267 individuals from an area in which schistosomiasis mansoni is endemic. Based on information obtained from clinical and sonographic examinations of this sample, the individuals were divided in three groups: 1) 204 individuals without periportal fibrosis, and liver and spleen enlargements; 2) 41 individuals without periportal fibrosis, but presenting with organopathy, with or without organomegaly; and 3) 22 individuals with periportal fibrosis, regardless of their status as having hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Levels of IgG4 to SEA were significantly higher in sera from patients with fibrosis compared with the patients from the other two groups. We also found significantly higher levels of IgG4 against SEA in egg-negative patients with fibrosis compared with egg-negative patients from the other two groups. This report demonstrates a specific humoral response in patients presenting with initial
A cell-mediated immunologic granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs is now generally accepted as being responsible for the hepatosplenic disease of chronic schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a soluble extract of S. mansoni eggs (SEA) both induces and elicits granulomatous hypersensitivity and other forms of cell-mediated immunologic reactivity. Mice with chronic light S. mansoni infections show spontaneous suppression of granulomatous hypersensitivity in the presence of high levels of anti-SEA antibodies. Immunodiffusion analysis using antiserum obtained from these mice and SEA resulted in the identification of three major serologic antigens which have been designated MSA1, MSA2, and MSA3. Initial studies with Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the three antigens were markedly different in m.w. and at least two of the three were glycoproteins. The antigens were then extracted from crude SEA by adsorption to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulatory effect of antigenic fractions of a recent clinical isolate of L. donovani on monocytic cell lines. AU - Tripathi, Parul. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Naik, Sita. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines are important mediators of the immune response to Leishmania. We have recently reported that following SDS-PAGE separation and transfer of whole L. donovani antigen (strain 2001, a recent clinical isolate from Bihar) into 11 fractions (named F1 to F11; MW range 139-24.2 Kd), only the high molecular weight (MW) fractions (F1 to F4; MW range 134-64.2 Kd) had immunostimulatory activity when tested in leishmania exposed immune individuals. The F1 to F11 fractions were able to induce significant proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of leishmania exposed immune individuals and production of variable amounts of IFN-γ IL-12p40 and IL-10. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of L. donovani promastigotes whole ...
Doenhoff, MJ and El-Faham, M and Liddell, S and Fuller, HR and Stanley, RG and Schramm, G and Igetei, JE (2016) Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs). PLoS One. ISSN 1932-6203 ...
FIGURE 1. In vivo Ab production after the intranasal immunization with saline, HSA or sugar-conjugated HSA in BALB/c (A-D) and C57BL/6 (E and F) mice. Serum samples were taken after prime (▦), boost (□), and challenge (▪) as described in Materials and Methods. Ab of IgG (A and E), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses (B) specific for HSA were measured by indirect ELISA and estimated by endpoint titer. IgE titers specific for HSA (C and F) and the volume of serum total IgE (D) were determined by sandwich ELISA. Levels of HSA-specific IgE were presented as the absorbance at 450 nm from duplicate wells of 1/4 serum dilution. Results show the mean ± SEM of four individual serum per group. Data are representative of three (A-D) and two (E and F) separate experiments.. ...
SATREPS: Japanese government (JST/JICA) program for international joint research into global issues by researchers in Japan and developing countries. In the first three years beginning in April 2008, a total of 49 projects commenced in 28 countries.
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Praziquantel (PZQ) efficacy and immune responses to schistosome antigens following cure were investigated in Schistosoma mansoni infected adult fishermen resident in Kisumu, Kenya with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Schistosomiasis negative/HIV negative and schistosomiasis negative/HIV positive fishermen were used as controls. Proliferative responses to schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA), soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) as well as leves of typical T helper-1 (TH-1) type, [gamma interferon (IFN-)] and T helper-2 (TH-2) type [Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] cytokines were assayed at baseline, one month and four months post-treatment with Praziquantel. Indications of immunosuppression were determined by CD4+ counts and HIV testing by ELISA and Western blot. Cure success and reinfection rates were determined by longitudinal follow up of eggs ...
Adult Onchocerca voluvlus and infective larvae, but not microfilariae contain an immunodominant antigen (33,000 and 21,000 Mr in females, 39,000, 33,000, and 21,000 Mr in males, 133,000 Mr in infective larvae) which is recognized by an Onchocerca-specific mAb. The component is part of the reproductive organs and muscles. 96.2% of onchocerciasis sera contained antibodies detectable by immunoblotting against it. Antigen purified by immunoaffinity chromatography was specifically recognized in immunoblots by onchocerciasis sera, but not by sera from other filarial infections. The high immunogenicity, the specificity, and the occurrence in infective larvae of this antigen indicate an immunodiagnostic potential and a possible role in the immunobiology of the parasite. ...
Clonorchis sinensis ESA proved to be a better serodiagnostic antigen than CA for ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity of ELISA with ESA was 92.5% while that of ELISA with CA was 88.2%, when 509 human sera of clonorchiasis were screened in the present study, which was statistically significant. The diagnostic specificity of ELISA with ESA was increased to 93.1% from 87.8% by using CA. Especially cross-reactivity of ESA with serum specimens of opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis was reduced compared to that of CA.. C. sinensis ESA was found to include proteins of 7-8, 12.5, and 30 kDa (Kim, 1998), and the 7 or 8 kDa protein predominated (Chung et al., 2002). ESA has been suggested to be a valuable candidate diagnostic antigen of active clonorchiasis in rabbits and humans (Kim, 1994 & 1998). The protein bands in C. sinensis ESA were also found to form 7-8, 17 and 26-28 kDa bands, while in CA bands at 35, 43, 55, and 70 kDa were additionally observed (Hong et al., 1997, 1999).. The 7-8 ...
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
Through the use of Schistosoma mansoni antigens we attempted to develop a non-invasive assay that would diagnose an infection of intestinal schistosomiasis. We isolated parts of the Schistosoma mansoni parasite shed ...
A micromethod of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to infections with Schistosoma japonicumin humans and mice with egg antigens. In mouse infections, antibody responses were...
Schistosomes have an outer tegument that protects them from the host immune system. Parasite antigens expressed on or within the surface layer of the tegument have been suggested to be potential vaccine targets such as tetraspanin 23 (TSP23). Little is known about the evolution and diversity of tegumental antigens, an important consideration given that vaccines are being designed and are failing. Moreover, these antigens, including TSP23, are in direct contact with the host immune system, and so accelerated and adaptive evolution may be occurring. Species of Schistosoma infect a variety of definitive hosts. The way in which these hosts are shaping the evolution of antigens across different species of Schistosoma needs investigating. Much attention has been focussed on the production of an effective multi-species vaccine against the schistosomes, and there has been little success in absolute clearance or even establishment of continued immune memory post-infection. The aim of this study was ...
Karriereopslag hos Region Sjælland, Akademikernes Jobbank: Stillingsopslag Radiografstilling MR souschef Billeddiagnostisk Afdeling, Sjællands Universitets Hospital, Roskilde Er du uddannet radiograf, og har erfaring og viden indenfor MR, har vi en ledig fuldtidsstilling som souschef i vores velfungerende MR-gruppe pr. 1. April 2020 eller efter aftale. Stillingen er vagtfri - dog kan man deltage i udvidet åbningstid
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Trichinella spiralis, sometimes known as the pork worm, is a parasite within the Nematoda class. It can be found in pigs, rats, humans, and bears. This worm causes trichinosis in humans, most often from consuming undercooked pork. This species is the smallest within its class, reaching an average body length of .16 centimeters. Females are twice as large as males, displaying a sexual dimorphism. The reproductive organs of females are unique to the species in that the front end holds developed juveniles, while the back end, where the uterus is found, holds undeveloped eggs. The genome of this species was completed in 2011.. Trichinella spiralis requires one host to mature and survive, because it spends its entire life within the one host. When a human ingests the larvae, which are protected by a cyst like formation, the PH of the stomach allows them to hatch and travel into the intestines. After reaching this area, the larvae dig into the mucosa to grow and breed. Females can live for up to six ...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of proteins in excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis.: Two genes encoding Trichinella p
2016 US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Strategies Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com 600 Pages
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Background: Eosinophils play important roles in tissue inflammatory responses associated with helminth infections. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) produced by tissue-invasive helminths contain a large quantity of proteolytic enzymes that can modulate the host's immune responses. However, little is known regarding the roles of worm-derived products that are responsible for eosinophilic inflammatory responses in helminth infections. Objective: In the present study, we investigated whether ESP produced by Paragonimus westermani, which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, regulates both cell survival and death of human eosinophils. Methods: The ESP was obtained from P. westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM). Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors, and the purified eosinophils were incubated with or without the ESP secreted by PwNEM. The viability of eosinophils was assessed by staining with propidium iodide using the flow ...
The co-occurrence of malaria and schistosomiasis is common in tropical regions of the world. Malaria induces a strong Th1 response while schistosomiasis skews the response to a Th2. Several studies demonstrate a non consistent effect of schistosomiasis infection on progression of malaria. On one hand, schistosomiasis infections protect against cerebral malaria while on the other hand, they are associated with increased malaria severity. This study examined the role of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on Plasmodium berghei malaria progression in BALB/c mice. The objectives were to determine the changes in Th1, Th2 cytokines and IgG levels which are markers associated with malaria and schistosomiasis protection and also determine if S. mansoni eggs lead to protection from P. berghei malaria. Two groups of mice were used: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group was injected with a triple dose of S. mansoni eggs at ten day interval before being challenged with P. berghei. The ...
The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic gold standard reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on ...
Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G. lamblia-induced cytokine production in human epithelial cells. Incubation of the gastrointestinal cell line HT-29 with G. lamblia GS trophozoites triggered production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IL-8 production was not significantly decreased by physically separating the HT-29 cells and G. lamblia GS trophozoites. Indeed, treatment of HT-29 with G. lamblia excretory-secretory products (ESP) induced IL-8 production. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift and transfection assays using mutagenized IL-8 promoter reporter plasmids indicated that IL-8 production by G. lamblia ESP occurs through activation of two transcriptional factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in HT-29 cells. In addition, activation of two ...
22. Falc o PL, Corr a de Oliveira G, Busek SU, Rodrigues-Caldas I, Martins-Filho OA, Malaquias LCC, Silveira MAS, Corr a-Oliveira R. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: IL-10 modulates in vitro granuloma formation modulating the expression of CD28, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). XXIV Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Immunology. guas de Lind ia, 24-27 de Outubro de 1999 ...
Gigantic urban agglomerations and barely populated villages alike have their own local problems. Even in a paradise free of major socioeconomic issues, such as La Jolla, we can still smell trouble like sea lion and bird poop. For the past few years, the area has been suffering from a natural yet nauseous smell - feces from the animals of La Jolla Cove. A seemingly minor inconvenience causes strong feelings in the hearts and noses of La Jollans. But with rotating plastic cylinders to humanely displace the sea lions, it is time to end the stink once and for all.. The problem with the foul scent of animal and bird excrements began in La Jolla Cove when city authorities decided to put up a fence along the cliffs to prevent people from entering an unsafe sheer area. While making the cliffs safer for tourists and residents, the fence created a people-free zone that sea lions and birds gladly occupied. The unusually large concourse of animals soon befouled their new habitat, producing an unbearable ...
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans..
FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal because of a reaction with its environment. For the purpose of this report, corrosion is the result of an electrochemical reaction
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Looking for online definition of Gnathostoma spinigerum in the Medical Dictionary? Gnathostoma spinigerum explanation free. What is Gnathostoma spinigerum? Meaning of Gnathostoma spinigerum medical term. What does Gnathostoma spinigerum mean?
Background: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Several native and recombinant antigens, derived from different stages of E. granulosus life cycle, have been used for vaccine trials. In vitro reared adult worms are good candidates for vaccination as they do not produce fertile egg/s and do not have any risk of contamination for researchers. Objective: To evaluate different antigens derived from in vitro reared E. granulosus adult worms for the immunization of BALB/c mice against secondary hydatidosis. Methods: Viable protoscoleces (PCSs) of sheep hydatid cyst were cultivated in S.10E.H media. Excretory secretory (E/S) and crude antigens were prepared from reared adult worms. A total of fifty BALB/c mice, each 8-weeks-old, were divided into 5 groups of 10 mice. Three groups were subcutaneously immunized with crude, E/S and immunodominant antigens on days 1 and 28. The fourth group received only PBS and the fifth group had no injection.
Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a chronic parasitic disease, is a major health problem in many countries. The performance of the currently available serodiagnostic tests for the diagnosis of CE is unsatisfactory. Objective: The current study aimed at sub-cloning a gene, encoding the B8/1 subunit of antigen B (AgB) from Echinococcus granulosus, using gene optimization for the immunodiagnosis of human CE. Methods: The coding sequence for AgB8/1 subunit of Echinococcus granulosus was selected from GenBank and was gene-optimized. The sequence was synthesized and inserted into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Purification was performed with GST tag affinity column. Diagnostic performance of the produced recombinant antigen, native antigen B and a commercial ELISA kit were further evaluated in an ELISA system, using a panel of sera from CE patients and controls. Results: SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the protein of interest had a high expression level and purity after GST tag affinity purification. Western blotting
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cysteine protease secreted by Paragonimus westermani attenuates effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with immunoglobulin G. AU - Myeong Heon Shin, Heon Shin. AU - Kita, H.. AU - Hae Young Park, Young Park. AU - Ju Young Seoh, Young Seoh. PY - 2001/3/14. Y1 - 2001/3/14. N2 - An immunoglobulin G (IgG)-coated surface, such as that found on helminth parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for eosinophil activation. The cysteine proteases secreted by tissue-invasive helminth larvae play an important role in evasion of the immune response by degrading the host immunoglobulins. In this study, we investigated whether cysteine proteases in the excretory-secretory product (ESP) produced by Paragonimus westermani newly existed metacercariae (PwNEM), which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, could modify effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with IgG. We coated 96-well plates with human IgG in the absence or ...
Definition of taenia solium in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of taenia solium. What does taenia solium mean? Information and translations of taenia solium in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Antibody detection can be useful to indicate schistosome infection in patients who have traveled in schistosomiasis endemic areas and in whom eggs cannot be demonstrated in fecal or urine specimens. Test sensitivity and specificity vary widely among the many tests reported for the serologic diagnosis of schistosomiasis and are dependent on both the type of antigen preparations used (crude, purified, adult worm, egg, cercarial) and the test procedure.. At CDC, a combination of tests with purified adult worm antigens are used for antibody detection. All serum specimens are tested by FAST-ELISA using Schistosoma mansoni adult microsomal antigen (MAMA). A positive reaction (greater than 9 units/µl serum) indicates infection with Schistosoma species. Sensitivity for S. mansoni infection is 99%, 95% for Schistosoma haematobium infection, and ,50% for Schistosoma japonicuminfection. Specificity of this assay for detecting schistosome infection is 99%. Because test sensitivity with the FAST-ELISA is ...
The Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is able to induce IL-12 expression by cells of innate immunity and to shift to T(H)1 human allergen-specific T(H)2 cells in vitro. We performed an in vivo investigation of the ability of HP-NAP to downmodulate the T(H)2 response induced in mice by Trichinella spiralis infection. Groups of T spiralis-infected BALB/c mice received intraperitoneal PBS/rat IgG2b (control animals) or 10 microg of HP-NAP with or without anti-Toll-like receptor 2 antibody on days 10 and 28 after infection. Blood eosinophils, total and T spiralis-specific IgE levels, and cytokine levels were measured in the plasma up to day 42, when splenocytes were cultured for cytokine production. RESULTS: Although control animals showed significant eosinophilia and increase of total and T spiralis-specific IgE, IL-4, and IL-5 levels from days 10 to 14, HP-NAP-treated animals showed less eosinophilia and total and excretory/secretory antigens of T spiralis-specific IgE in ...
Serine proteases are found in the excretory-secretory (ES) products from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae, have collagenolytic and elastolytic activities, and may be related to the larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, the serine protease gene (TspSP-1.2, GenBank accession No. EU302800) encoding a 35.5kDa protein from T. spiralis was cloned, and recombinant TspSP-1.2 protein was produced in an Escherichia coli expression system. An anti-TspSP-1.2 serum recognized the native protein migrating at 35.5kDa by the Western blotting of the crude or ES antigens from muscle larvae at 42days post infection. An immunolocalization analysis identified TspSP-1.2 in the cuticle and internal organs of the parasite. Transcription and expression of the TspSP-1.2 gene was observed at all developmental stages of T. spiralis (adult worms, newborn larvae, pre-encapsulated larvae and muscle larvae). An in vitro invasion assay showed that, when anti-TspSP-1.2 serum, serum of infected mice and ...
Author Summary Schistosomiasis japonica, a chronic human parasitic disease in the Peoples Republic of China, the Philippines and areas of Indonesia, is a zoonosis with over 40 different mammals, including a number of ruminants, that can act as reservoir hosts for the infection. Precise identification of the major infection reservoirs is important for the control of Schistosoma japonicum as their targeted treatment can prevent environmental contamination and transmission of the parasite, thus reducing the risk to humans. Current copro-parasitological techniques are generally unsatisfactory for identifying and quantifying S. japonicum eggs in ruminant feces due to the large volume of cellulosic debris present. The new approach we describe here, the FEA-SD technique, removes much of this material by sieving and centrifugation with ethyl actate and renders any remaining debris transparent by use of a potassium hydroxide (KOH) digestion, providing much improved visualization of eggs, enabling the collection
Schistosoma bovis is a ruminant pathogen that is poorly known at a molecular level. With an aim of identifying the parasite proteins involved in host-parasite interplay, we studied two protein extracts that contain, respectively, the proteins excreted/secreted by the adult worm (ES) and the tegumental proteins exposed to the host (TG). The 2-DE, 2-D immunoblot and MS were employed to separate and identify the antigenic proteins and the most abundant non-antigenic proteins in each extract. There were some 400 and 600 spots detected in the ES and the TG extracts, respectively. Ninety-six spots were subjected to MS analysis and 64 of them were identified. Overall, we identified 18 S. bovis proteins located at the host-parasite interface, 16 of which have not been identified previously in this parasite, and one of which -lysozyme- has never been reported in a Schistosoma species. Of the proteins identified, at least 4 can counteract host defence mechanisms. The other proteins are also likely to play ...
Pulmonary paragonimiasis is the most common presentation of patients infected with Paragonimus spp., although extrapulmonary (cerebral, abdominal) paragonimiasis may occur. Detection of eggs in sputum or feces of patients with paragonimiasis is often very difficult; therefore, serodiagnosis may be very helpful in confirming infections and for monitoring the results of individual chemotherapy. In the United States, detection of antibodies to Paragonimus westermani has helped physicians differentiate paragonimiasis from tuberculosis in Indochinese immigrants. The complement fixation (CF) test has been the standard test for paragonimiasis; it is highly sensitive for diagnosis and for assessing cure after therapy. Because of the technical difficulties of CF, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests were developed as a replacement. The immunoblot (IB) assay performed with a crude antigen extract of P. westermani has been in use at CDC since 1988. Positive reactions, based on demonstration of an 8-kDa ...
Schistosome parasite egg. Light micrograph of liver tissue with an egg (schistosome, centre) of the Schistosoma mansoni parasite. This parasitic trematode worm causes schistosomiasis or bilharzia in humans. Adult worms live in pairs in the blood stream surrounding the digestive tract. Hepatic schistosomiasis occurs when eggs cross from blood vessels into the liver and become trapped, forming granulomas. The most severe cases produce hepatomegaly or fibrosis of the liver. A female Schistosoma worm can produce 300 eggs per day. Magnification: x50 at 35mm size. - Stock Image M120/0120
Trichinella spiralis. Light micrograph of a section through cysts caused by Trichinella spiralis roundworms in pork muscle tissue. The pork muscle is stained blue. Several circular cysts are visible (dark blue, top right, lower right and lower left). Larvae are visible inside the cysts (purple). The cysts are being attacked by white blood cells (red). T. spiralis is a parasitic nematode worm. Human infection, usually caused by eating contaminated pork, causes Trichinosis. The larvae mature in the intestines and reproduce, spreading around the body causing fevers and pain, and forming muscular cysts. Magnification x35 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image Z180/0207
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens combined with abnormal alpha-fetoprotein enhance immunodiagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. AU - Chen, Yao. AU - Zhou, Yusen. AU - Qiu, Suimin. AU - Wang, Kaijuan. AU - Liu, Siwei. AU - Peng, Xuan Xian. AU - Li, Junfeng. AU - Tan, Eng M.. AU - Zhang, Jian Ying. PY - 2010/3/1. Y1 - 2010/3/1. N2 - The identification and characterization of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their use in antigen mini-arrays for cancer immunodiagnosis has been of interest recently as an approach to cancer detection. In this study, autoantibodies in sera from a patient with HCC were used as probes to immunoscreen a HepG2 cDNA expression library for the identification of TAAs involved in malignant liver transformation. Recombinant proteins from two genes identified in this manner, Sui1 and RalA were expressed, purified and used as antigens in immunoassays to detect the presence of antibodies in sera from 77 patients with HCC, 30 with chronic hepatitis ...
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Complete report $6,100. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts, supplier shares) $3,950.. 2016 Spain Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Markets is a new strategic analysis of major business opportunities emerging in the Spanish clinical chemistry and immunodiagnostic markets during the nextfive years. The report explores future trends in the Spanish market; provides estimates of the specimen, test and sales volumes, as well as major suppliers sales and market shares; compares features of leading analyzers; profiles key competitors; and identifies specific product and marketing opportunities emerging during the next five years.. The report provides five-year volume and sales forecasts for over 100 clinical chemistry, TDM, endocrine, cancer, immunoprotein and abused drug assays performed in hospitals, commercial laboratories, physician offices, and ambulatory care centers, including controls, calibrators and consumables.. Rationale. The clinical chemistry and immunodiagnostic markets are ...
Smithers, S R. and Gammage, K, "Recovery of schistosoma mansoni from the skin, lungs and hepatic portal system of naive mice and mice previously exposed to s. Mansoni: evidence for two phases of parasite attrition in immune mice." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 1717 ...
Chao, Lin Po (1984) A study of cellular responses to Schistosoma mansoni in the mouse. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. Full text available as ...
Looking for online definition of Anisakis in the Medical Dictionary? Anisakis explanation free. What is Anisakis? Meaning of Anisakis medical term. What does Anisakis mean?
REFERENCE RANGE: Negative. Results of this assay must be interpreted with caution, as broad variations in antibody response occur, and levels may remain elevated for years after infection. Further, as with many parasitic serology assays, antibodies induced by other parasitic infections may crossreact in this assay. Although a negative result usually rules out infection with Toxocara spp., parallel testing of serial samples may prove useful in following patients with suspected Toxocara infection.. ...
IL-13 specifically induces physiological changes in parasitized organs that are required to expel the offending organisms or their products. For example, expulsion from the gut of a variety of mouse helminths requires IL-13 secreted by Th2 cells. IL-13 induces several changes in the gut that create an environment hostile to the parasite, including enhanced contractions and glycoprotein hyper-secretion from gut epithelial cells, that ultimately lead to detachment of the organism from the gut wall and their removal. The eggs of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni may lodge in a variety of organs including the gut wall, liver, lung and even central nervous system, inducing the formation of granulomas under the control of IL-13. Here, however, the eventual result is organ damage and often profound or even fatal disease, not resolution of the infection. An emerging concept is that IL-13 may antagonize Th1 responses that are required to resolve intracellular infections. In this immune dysregulated ...
Main Article. The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.. ...
[561 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Italy Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Strategies report by Venture Planning Group. Complete report $6,100. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts,...
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1FHE: Crystallization, structural determination and analysis of a novel parasite vaccine candidate: Fasciola hepatica glutathione S-transferase.
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Has anyone tried this? Does anyone know how to obtain this therapy? I increasingly hear about helminth therapy for Crohns and other autoimmune...
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Versjon: 1.0 Diagnostisering og oppfølging av Sjøgrens Syndrom i Helse Midt- Norge Anbefalt: Fagnettverk revmatiske sykdommer Godkjent: Dato: Hensikt Ensartet diagnostikk og behandling av primært
Hormones play a significant role in murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis, and they may also participate in the susceptibility to Taenia solium cysticercosis. In the present study, in vitro effects are reported for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
This report describes for the first time the occurrence of alveolar echinococcosis in two exotic rodent species in Europe. A pet chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger) was euthanized due to a painful enlargement of the abdominal cavity, and a Prevosts squirrel (Callosciurus prevostii borneoensis) was found dead in the enclosure of a zoo. At necropsy, extended liver lesions consisting of small vesicles and cysts were observed in the livers of both animals. Histological examination revealed that these cysts were composed of an outer, homogenous, eosinophilic layer and an inner, cellular germinal layer. The cysts from both animals contained numerous protoscolices. The morphological diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode infections was confirmed by molecular means. ...
article{8508426, author = {Gabri{\e}l, Sarah and Dorny, Pierre and Mwape, KE and Trevisan, C and Braae, UC and Magnussen, P and Thys, S and Bulaya, C and Phiri, IK and Sikasunge, CS and Makungu, C and Afonso, S and Nicolau, Q and Johansen, MV}, issn = {0001-706X}, journal = {ACTA TROPICA}, keyword = {HEALTH-EDUCATION INTERVENTION,RESOURCE-POOR COMMUNITIES,SYNTHETIC,PEPTIDE VACCINE,PORCINE CYSTICERCOSIS,GLOBAL BURDEN,MBEYA REGION,PIGS,OXFENDAZOLE,INFECTIONS,NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS,Taenia solium,Control,Sub-Saharan africa,One health}, language = {eng}, pages = {252--260}, title = {Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis : the best way forward for sub-Saharan Africa?}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.04.010}, volume = {165}, year = {2017 ...
RIVERA-GUERRERO, Ma Isabel et al. Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage. Salud pública Méx [online]. 2004, vol.46, n.5, pp.425-429. ISSN 0036-3634.. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different cooking times and temperatures, as well as of some seasonings, on the viability of Taenia solium metacestodes in spicy meat and hot sausage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted by the Universidad Autónoma de Guerrero (Guerrero State Autonomous University), Mexico in 1999. Infected pork meat was bought in the community of Azacoaloya, in the municipality of Chilapa de Alvarez, Guerrero State. It was used to prepare spicy meat (adobada) and hot sausage (chorizo). Only the meat in which metacestode viability was proven was used. The products obtained underwent a) room temperature for 12 to 100 hours; b) temperatures of -10 to 37ºC for 24 hours; c) boiling (97ºC) from 1 to 15 minutes. To determine the effect of the seasonings, ...
Construction and Identification of a Recombinant Plasmid Encoding Echinococcus granulosus Oncosphere Antigen (EG95)Abstract Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented cont
This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection.
Administration of an antifibrotic agent as an adjunct to antihelmintic treatment with the objective of morbidity reduction was investigated in the murine schistosomiasis mansoni model. Antifibrotic, beta-aminopropionitrile treatment has a profound effect on the cellular matrix composition of the liver granuloma of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice when given alone, resulting in increase macrophage infiltration. These macrophages, in response to stimulation with soluble egg antigen or lipopolysaccharide produced elevated levels of nitric oxide but low levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha compared to untreated infected mice. This also correlated with reduced liver granuloma size. In spite of low numbers of eggs in the liver, mice receiving a combine treatment had a high level of resistance to a challenge infection compared with mice receiving only praziquantel. Those mice also exhibited a reduced lymphocyte proliferative response, similar to that of infected untreated mice. Antifibrotic treatment ...
Cysticercosis is a disease characterized by the harboring of the larval form (cysticercus) of Taenia solium in any tissue or organ. Although many sites of infection have been documented, the larvae are often found associated with the central nervous system. Presence of the cysticerci in the brain may cause increased cranial pressure, seizures and altered mental states. The disease is acquired by ingestion of T. solium eggs out of which the larvae slip in the intestine. This may happen from a number of different routes such as food contaminated with feces or contaminated water. Additionally, humans can be infected with the tapeworm itself by uptake of larvae containing meat. If eggs are set free in such tapeworm carriers, an endogenous infection with cysticercus will happen. Diagnosis of cysticercosis usually requires multiple methods such as radiography and serology. Although use of specific antigens has helped to increase ELISAs sensitivity and specificity, significant cross reactions with ...
Diagnostic tools for the detection of infection with Onchocerca volvulus are presently limited to microfilaria detection in skin biopsies and serological assessment using the Ov16 immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) rapid test, both of which have limited sensitivity. We have investigated the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on immunodominant linear epitopes previously discovered. Peptides that were used in these assays were designated O. volvulus motif peptides (OvMP): OvMP-1 (VSV-EPVTTQET-VSV), OvMP-2 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV), OvMP-3 (VSV-QTSNLD-VSV), and the combination of the latter two, OvMP-23 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV-QTSNLD-VSV). Sensitivity (O. volvulus infection), specificity (non-helminth infections), and cross-reactivity (helminth infections) were determined using several panels of clinical plasma isolates. OvMP-1 was found to be very sensitive (100%) and specific (98.7%), but showed substantial cross-reactivity with other helminths. Of the other peptides, ...
... Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma ja·pon·i·cum (jā-pŏnĭ-kəm) n. A trematode that causes schistosomiasis japonicum and is found throughout eastern Asia.
Current guidelines for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) recommend the use of the lentil lectin-bound glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (LLGP-EITB) as the reference standard for serological testing. In response to the drawbacks involved with the use of the LLGP-EITB, a recombinant T24H antigen (rT24H) EITB assay was developed, with promising results. However, the test has yet to be evaluated among individuals from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the performance of the rT24H EITB assay for the detection of NCC cases in a panel of serum samples (N = 366, of which 173 patients presented with epileptic seizures and/or severe chronic headaches, and 193 matched manifestation-free participants) collected as part of a large community-based trial in Burkina Faso ...
Pork infected with Cysticerci. Infection with T. solium in the small intestine is a condition known at taeniasis. During taeniasis, a cysticercus from uncooked meat develops into an adult tapeworm, which attaches to the intestinal wall in the small intestine via its scolex and remains there to grow. Taeniasis is often asymptomatic, with the only sign being the presence of proglottids in the feces. It is easily treatable, usually with the antilhelminthetic drug Praziquantel. Taeniasis is not the main risk stemming from T. solium infection. Cysticercosis - a result of auto-infection - features far more dangerous pathogenesis in humans.. ...
Synonyms for opisthorchiasis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for opisthorchiasis. 1 word related to opisthorchiasis: infestation. What are synonyms for opisthorchiasis?
Cysticerci meaning in french - What is the french translation meaning for cysticerci? View cysticerci meaning with french definition at wordnik dictionary.
Thomas, Lian F.; de Glanville, Will; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; De C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M. 2017. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005371 ...
The role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in host defenses against infectious agents is unknown as these cells have not previously been demonstrated to kill microorganisms directly. We studied the cytotoxicity of T lymphocytes purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects for the multicellular schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated T cells were cultured with schistosomula at a 5,000:1 effector/target (E:T) ratio for 18 h at 37 degrees C. Unstimulated T cells killed 2.1 +/- 0.6% of schistosomula as judged by dye uptake and did not change their infectivity for mice. In contrast, PHA-stimulated T cells killed 41.3 +/- 3.1% of schistosomula by dye uptake and 56.7 +/- 7.7% of these organisms could not mature to adult worms in vivo. Killing was associated with and dependent on increased binding of PHA-stimulated T lymphocytes to schistosomula. Significant schistosomula killing first was noted after 2 h of exposure to T cells to PHA ...
Although field-sampling procedures to capture gDNA from individual schistosome larval stages directly from their natural hosts exist, they do pose some technical and logistical challenges hampering certain epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to develop, refine and evaluate an alternative methodology, which enables better preservation of large numbers of individual schistosome larval stages and eggs collected in low resource endemic areas, to provide PCR-quality DNA for multi-locus genetic analysis. The techniques reported here present simple and effective short-term field and long-term laboratory preservation and storage systems for individually sampled schistosome eggs and larval stages using a commercially available aqueous stabilisation reagent, RNAlater® eliminating the need for more cumbersome resources such as refrigerators, heaters and centrifuge equipment for immediate specimen processing. Adaptations to a general gDNA extraction method are described, that enables the acquisition
09 Associated Institutions , Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) , Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology , Molecular Parasitology and Epidemiology (Beck ...
Fascioliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the trematode species Fasciola hepatica, distributed worldwide, and Fasciola gigantica, restricted to given regions of Africa and Asia. This disease in humans shows an increasing importance, which relies on its recent widespread emergence related to climate and global changes and also on its pathogenicity in the invasive, biliary, and advanced chronic phases in the human endemic areas, mainly of developing countries. In spite of the large neurological affection capacity of Fasciola, this important pathogenic aspect of the disease has been pronouncedly overlooked in the past decades and has not even appear within the numerous reviews on the parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Read More ...
Unibiotest has an enthusiastic and creative R&D team, consisting with a group of experienced technicians in lateral flow immunoassay field, and set up long relationship with first-class institutes,universities,academies, to provide excellent service for human healthy and earth ...
Cysticercosis (ie, infection caused by eggs of the pork tapeworm) is an increasingly common medical problem in the United States, especially in the Southwest and other areas where large populations migrated from endemic areas and among populations that often travel to these areas. Cysticercosis is caused by the metacestode, or larval, stage ...
RESULTS: Eleven of the 114 compounds tested revealed IC50 values ≤ 10 μM against both S. mansoni stages. Five of these lost activity against adult S. mansoni in the presence of serum albumin. Of 6 compounds studied in vivo, the highest activity was observed from two kinase inhibitors trametinib, and vandetanib, which reduced worm burden by 63.6 and 48.1% respectively, after a single oral dose of 400 mg/kg body weight ...
cysticercosis definition: The condition of being infested with cysticerci.; A common parasitic infestation associated with the central nervous system, due to the ingestion of eggs or larvae of tapeworm…
Liver Fluke in Cattle Also known as: Bovine Fasciolosis, Fasciola hepatica Bovine fasciolosis is an economically important disease of cattle, which can be associated with particular regions throughout the world directly linked to the habitat of an aquatic mud snail.
Neurocysticercosis (pronounced as new-row-cis-t-sir-co-cis) is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system.
Looking for Bancroftian filariasis? Find out information about Bancroftian filariasis. abnormal enlargement of any part of the body due to obstruction of the lymphatic channels in the area , usually affecting the arms, legs, or external... Explanation of Bancroftian filariasis

Quantitative Proteomics of Enriched Esophageal and Gut Tissues from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni Pinpoints...Quantitative Proteomics of Enriched Esophageal and Gut Tissues from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni Pinpoints...

Major challenges to control the transmission persist, and the discovery of protective antigens remains of critical importance ... Schistosomes are blood-dwelling helminth parasites that cause schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease resulting in inflammation ...
more infohttp://www.bioinfor.com/quantitative-proteomics-enriched-esophageal-gut-tissues-human-blood-fluke-schistosoma-mansoni-pinpoints-secreted-proteins-vaccine-development/

T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens | JEMT follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens | JEM

We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP ... we have been studying Th2 response development and regulation in parasitic helminth infections; helminths and antigens derived ... 2 B) and ICOS (not depicted). Thus, in mice mounting a Th2 response to helminth antigens, the great majority of CD4+ T cells ... T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Justin J. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/206/5/991

Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic...Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic...

Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic ... Luis I. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Magaly Pérez-Miranda, et al., "Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/972506/cta/

Responses to malarial antigens are altered in helminth-infected children.Responses to malarial antigens are altered in helminth-infected children.

... Author(s): Hartgers, F.C.; Obeng, B.B.; Kruize, Y.C. ... Malaria and helminth infections often coincide in the same tropical regions. Studies of the consequences of helminth and ... In response to iRBCs, levels of interleukin (IL)-10, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha,were higher in samples from helminth- ... These results indicate that the presence of helminth infection modulates the immune response to malarial parasites, making it ...
more infohttps://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/81667

In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens  - KielprintsIn vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens - Kielprints

Immunogenicity of antigens was increased with parasite prevalence as well.. Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved ... Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter- ... In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens ... to helminth parasite antigens Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 36 (1). pp. 130-140. DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019. ...
more infohttp://eprints.uni-kiel.de/22108/

Frontiers | Elevated IgG Responses in Infants Are Associated With Reduced Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection |...Frontiers | Elevated IgG Responses in Infants Are Associated With Reduced Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection |...

IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... potentially mediated by exposure to antigens both related and unrelated to Mtb. ... IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.01529/full

Establishment of an Experimental Procedure for Preparing Trial Serum Samples for the Specific Serodiagnosis of Toxocara canis...Establishment of an Experimental Procedure for Preparing Trial Serum Samples for the Specific Serodiagnosis of Toxocara canis...

... and antibodies to HBs antigen. The sera were divided, processed by both freeze-drying and freezing methods, and then stored. ... These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, ... These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, and ... excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, or either glycan antigens or deglycosylated TES antigens) and the type of antibodies (e.g ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpr/2020/6842975/

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Antibodies, Helminth); 0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Saposins). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1706. ... 0 (CCR5 protein, human); 0 (CD4 Antigens); 0 (CD8 Antigens); 0 (CXCR3 protein, human); 0 (Galactosylceramides); 0 ( ... for the 3 antigens. Antibodies to the 3 antigens could be detected in the serum samples of rabbits infected with 1000 cercariae ... RESULTS: Two novel antigens (SjSAPLP4 and SjSAPLP5) could specifically react to serum samples from both S. japonicum-infected ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D08.211.790.500

Search of: Helminthiasis - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: 'Helminthiasis' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antibody isotype response to helminth antigens.. 2377. All. 5 Years to 18 Years (Child, Adult). NCT01658774. 2242. 241642. ... Community Directed Treatment of Soil-Transmitted Helminths Among Young Children in Zambia. *Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection ... Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris, hookworm, Trichuris). *Intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections ( ... Treatment of Helminth co-Infection: Short-Term Effects on HIV-1 Progression Markers and Immune Activation. *HIV Infections ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=%22Helminthiasis%22

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Human Schistosomiasis Is Associated with Endotoxemia and Toll-Like...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Human Schistosomiasis Is Associated with Endotoxemia and Toll-Like...

Our report suggests that immunosuppressive schistosome antigens may have evolved to curb inflammatory responses to the high ... Helminth antigens modulate TLR-initiated dendritic cell activation. J Immunol 173: 7454-7461.[Crossref]. ... A helminth glycan induces APC maturation via alternative NF-kappa B activation independent of I kappa B alpha degradation. J ... Helminth cysteine proteases inhibit TRIF-dependent activation of macrophages via degradation of TLR3. J Biol Chem 285: 3383- ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0397

Amy S. McKee, PhD | Department of Medicine | University of Colorado DenverAmy S. McKee, PhD | Department of Medicine | University of Colorado Denver

Helminth antigens modulate TLR-initiated dendritic cell activation. J Immunol. 2004; 173:7454-61. ... Antigen-Specific Regulation of IgE Antibodies by Non-Antigen-Specific gamma-delta T Cells. J Immunol. 2013; 190: 913-21. ... MacLeod M, McKee AS, Crawford F, White J, Kappler J, Marrack P. CD4 memory T cells divide poorly in response to antigen because ... Pearce EJ, M Kane C, Sun J, J Taylor J, McKee AS, Cervi L. Th2 response polarization during infection with the helminth ...
more infohttp://www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/medicalschool/departments/medicine/ClinicalImmunology/Faculty/Pages/AmySMcKee,PhD.aspx

Table of Contents - December 15, 2004, 173 (12) | The Journal of ImmunologyTable of Contents - December 15, 2004, 173 (12) | The Journal of Immunology

Helminth Antigens Modulate TLR-Initiated Dendritic Cell Activation Colleen M. Kane, Laura Cervi, Jie Sun, Amy S. McKee, ... Plasticity within the Antigen-Combining Site May Manifest as Molecular Mimicry in the Humoral Immune Response Manisha Goel, ... Intestinal αβ T Cells Differentiate and Rearrange Antigen Receptor Genes In Situ in the Human Infant Amanda M. Williams, Paul W ... Increase in Affinity of the Single-Chain Fragment Domain above Threshold Does Not Increase T Cell Activation against Antigen- ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/12

Neurocysticercosis diagnosis according to Del Brutto et | Open-iNeurocysticercosis diagnosis according to Del Brutto et | Open-i

2001)22 and percentage antigen ELISA positivity.Shaded boxes indicate the ... while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a ... while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a ... non-shaded boxes indicate the number and percentage of antigen positive cases. NCC = neurocysticercosis, Ag pos = antigen ELISA ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3475663_pntd.0001851.g001&req=4

Sensitivity and complement of specificity of antigen EL | Open-iSensitivity and complement of specificity of antigen EL | Open-i

Sensitivity and complement of specificity of antigen ELISA detection of active neurocysticercosis in people with epilepsy. ... while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a ... while antigen detection in serum has never been included. This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a ... Bottom Line: The addition of antigen results as a major criterion allowed the correct diagnosis of definitive NCC in 10 out of ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3475663_pntd.0001851.g003&req=4

Methods, devices, kits and compositions for detecting roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm - IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.Methods, devices, kits and compositions for detecting roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm - IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.

Each specific helminth antibody may be an immobilized antigen capture reagent in a reaction zone (solid phase). A second ... "Antigen capture reagent" refers to any compound that is specific for the antigen or antigens of interest. The labeled antigen ... whipworm antigen, and/or hookworm antigen, wherein the one or more types of roundworm antigen, whipworm antigen, and hookworm ... whipworm antigens and/or hookworm antigens, only to detect one or more roundworm antigens, whipworm antigens and/or hookworm ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/9040245.html

Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses | JEMOmega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses | JEM

Soluble egg antigens of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni egg antigen [SEA]) induce strong Th2 responses ... Cutting edge: dendritic cells copulsed with microbial and helminth antigens undergo modified maturation, segregate the antigens ... Helminth antigens modulate TLR-initiated dendritic cell activation. J. Immunol. 173:7454-7461. ... DCs exposed to parasitic helminth-derived antigens, including SEA, are distinguished by their low production of IL-12, which is ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/206/8/1673.long

Patent US7993861 - Methods, devices, kits and compositions for detecting whipworm - Google PatentsPatent US7993861 - Methods, devices, kits and compositions for detecting whipworm - Google Patents

Method for the commercial production of helminths antigens. US4789631. Feb 17, 1984. Dec 6, 1988. Synbiotics Corporation. ... "Antigen capture reagent" refers to any compound that is specific for the antigen or antigens of interest. The labeled antigen ... Following binding of the antigen from the sample, the antigen capture reagent/antigen complex is detected by any suitable ... one or more antigen capture reagents (e.g., a non-immobilized labeled antigen capture reagent and an immobilized antigen ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7993861?dq=5,666,293

Thymic stromal lymphopoietin drives the development of IL-13+ Th2 cells | PNASThymic stromal lymphopoietin drives the development of IL-13+ Th2 cells | PNAS

2009) T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. J Exp Med 206:991-999. ... Naive and antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells express both subunits of the TSLP receptor. CD4+ T cells from spleen and pooled skin ... 1 A and B). In the CD44+ antigen-experienced CD4+ population, 35-40% of cells coexpressed both receptor subunits, about 20% ... 2009) IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells. J Exp Med ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/115/5/1033

Frontiers | Negative Regulation of Humoral Immunity Due to Interplay between the SLAMF1, SLAMF5, and SLAMF6 Receptors |...Frontiers | Negative Regulation of Humoral Immunity Due to Interplay between the SLAMF1, SLAMF5, and SLAMF6 Receptors |...

... mice also mounted significantly higher antibody responses to T-independent type 2 antigen. Furthermore, treatment of mice with ... mice also mounted significantly higher antibody responses to T-independent type 2 antigen. Furthermore, treatment of mice with ... T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. J Exp Med (2009) 206:991-9. doi: ... The fact that enhanced TI-antigen response is only limited to TI-2 antigens suggests that Slamf[1 + 5 + 6]−/− MZ B cell ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00158/full

IL-4 Haploinsufficiency Specifically Impairs IgE Responses against Allergens in Mice | The Journal of ImmunologyIL-4 Haploinsufficiency Specifically Impairs IgE Responses against Allergens in Mice | The Journal of Immunology

T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. J. Exp. Med. 206: 991-999. ... IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells. J. Exp. Med. 206: ... Analysis of antigen-specific B-cell memory directly ex vivo. Methods Mol. Biol. 271: 173-188. ... IL-9- and mast cell-mediated intestinal permeability predisposes to oral antigen hypersensitivity. J. Exp. Med. 205: 897-913. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/198/5/1815.long

T Lymphocytes: Plasticity of SubsetsT Lymphocytes: Plasticity of Subsets

2009) T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. Journal of Experimental Medicine ... Marrack P and Kappler JW (1976) Antigen‐specific and nonspecific mediatiors of T cell/B cell cooperation. II. Two helper T ... Cantor H and Boyse EA (1975) Functional subclasses of T‐lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. I. The generation of ... 2012) Rapid in vivo conversion of effector T cells into Th2 cells during helminth infection. Journal of Immunology 188 (2): 615 ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0026253.html

Research - University of AntwerpResearch - University of Antwerp

The effect of helminth antigens and the underlying immunological mechanisms will be studied on the degree of colitis and the ... The aim of the present study is to investigate the preventive and/or therapeutic effect of administration of helminth antigens ... Study of the therapeutical potential of helminth antigens for chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in mice.. 01/01/2007 -31/12/ ... Helminths posses immune modulating capacities that can be used for the treatment of immunological diseases like IBD. This new ...
more infohttps://www.uantwerpen.be/en/staff/benedicte-dewinter/research/

Volume 13, Issue 1 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and HygieneVolume 13, Issue 1 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Evaluation of Helminth Skin-Test Antigens in a Hospital in New York City Irving G. Kagan and Herman Zaiman ... immitis antigen, 9 to the T. spiralis antigen and 2 to the S. mansoni antigen. Among the 88 Puerto Rican patients 16 reacted to ... the A. cantonensis antigen, 10 to the D. immitis antigen, 9 to the T. spiralis antigen and 24 to the S. mansoni antigen. The ... An adult hospitalized group of 347 tubercular patients in New York City was skintested with four helminth antigens. In this ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/14761645/13/1?pageSize=50&page=1

McKay D[au] - PubMed - NCBIMcKay D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Helminth Antigen-Conditioned Dendritic Cells Generate Anti-Inflammatory CD4 T Cells Independent of Antigen Presentation via MHC ... mice expel the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and are protected from colitis by triggering a memory response with worm antigen. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=McKay+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a O-glycosylated, four alpha -helix bundle cytokine that has potent stimulatory activity for antigen-activated T cells. (rndsystems.com)
  • respectively, both of which can contribute to Th2 polarization after exposure to egg antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Allergen exposure primes IL-4 + Th2 cells in lymph node, but production of effector cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13 is thought to require additional signals from antigen and the environment. (pnas.org)
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to iRBCs, levels of interleukin (IL)-10, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha,were higher in samples from helminth-infected children than in those from uninfected children, as was expression of the regulatory molecules suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3, Foxp3, and programmed death (PD)-1. (ru.nl)
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T‐cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (els.net)
  • Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. (nih.gov)
  • Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the group of people with NCC, 100% of active NCC cases (6/6) had a positive Ag-ELISA result in serum, which was significantly higher compared to people with inactive lesions, in whom 33.3% (8/24) were positive on antigen detection (p = 0.005, Fisher's exact test) (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • Sensitivity and complement of specificity of antigen ELISA detection of active neurocysticercosis in people with epilepsy.Receiver operator characteristic curve showing the relationship between sensitivity (true positive rate) and complement of specificity (false positive rate) for antigen ELISA for the detection of active neurocysticercosis in people with epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings. (nih.gov)
  • Taking into account its limitations for diagnosis of inactive NCC, antigen detection can be of added value for diagnosing NCC in PWE by supporting diagnostic and treatment decisions. (nih.gov)
  • The addition of antigen results as a major criterion allowed the correct diagnosis of definitive NCC in 10 out of 17 patients as opposed to 0/17 without antigen results in the absence of neuroimaging. (nih.gov)