Therapy with Helminths
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
Blood Group Antigens
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Hepatitis B Antigens
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Amino Acid Sequence
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Simian virus 40
Sensitivity and Specificity
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Parasitic Diseases, Animal
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
gp100 Melanoma Antigen
Lewis Blood-Group System
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Differential serodiagnosis for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis using fractions of Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (antigen B) and E. multilocularis protoscolex (EM18). (1/1434)Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid and E. multilocularis protoscolex extract were fractionated by a single step of preparative isoelectric focusing, resulting in an antigen B-rich fraction (8-kD) and an Em18-rich fraction, respectively. The usefulness of both fractions for differential serodiagnosis of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis was evaluated by a large-scale immunoblot analysis on a battery of 354 serum samples. These included 66 from AE patients originating from four different endemic areas, 173 from CE patients originating from seven different endemic areas, 71 from patients with other parasitic diseases, 15 from patients with hepatomas, and 29 from healthy individuals. In an immunoblot with the antigen B-rich fraction, 92% (158 of 173) of the CE sera as well as 79% (52 of 66) of the AE sera reacted with the 8-kD subunit. No cross-reactivity occurred with any sera from patients with cysticercosis, other parasitic diseases, or with hepatomas, or from healthy controls. In an immunoblot with the Em18-rich fraction, all but two sera from AE patients (64 of 66, 97%) recognized Em18, and only nine of 34 CE sera from China reacted with it. All other (139) CE sera from six other countries were negative as were all (115) other non-echinococcosis sera. These findings indicate that antigen B (8-kD) is not species-specific for E. granulosus but is genus-specific for Echinococcus, and that the Em18 antigen is a reliable serologic marker for species-specific differentiation of AE from CE. (+info)
Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. (2/1434)We developed a serologic assay to identify adult Taenia solium tapeworm carriers using excretory/secretory (TSES) antigens collected from in vitro cultured T. solium tapeworms. To identify taeniasis-specific antigens we used an immunoblot assay with serum samples from T. solium tapeworm carriers and cysticercosis patients. Antigens were identified that reacted with antibodies present in serum samples from taeniasis cases and not with those from cysticercosis patients. Using serum samples collected from persons with confirmed T. solium tapeworm infections, the test was determined to be 95% (69 of 73) sensitive. Serum samples (n = 193) from persons with other parasitic infections, including T. saginata tapeworm infections, do not contain cross-reacting antibodies to TSES, indicating that the assay is 100% specific. These data suggest that the immunoblot assay using TSES antigens can be used to identify persons with current or recent T. solium tapeworm infections and provides a new, important tool for epidemiologic purposes, including control and prevention strategies. (+info)
Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (3/1434)The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested. (+info)
Inhibitory effect of artemether on proteinase of Schistosoma japonicum. (4/1434)AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the thio proteinase ("hemoglobinase", Hem) of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Hem was extracted from S japonicum adults. The inhibitory effect of Art on the activity of Hem to degrade human hemoglobin (Hgb) was examined with UV-photometer at 280 nm, SDS-PAGE and scanning at 600 nm on a chromoscanner. RESULTS: Human Hgb was degraded at pH 4.0 by the Hem. The activities of Hem preincubated at 37 degrees C with Art 0.14, 1.4, and 14 mmol.L-1, were inhibited by 30.2%, 39.8%, and 45.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Art possesses an inhibitory effect to Hem of S japonicum. (+info)
Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (5/1434)Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice. (+info)
A novel 62-kilodalton egg antigen from Schistosoma mansoni induces a potent CD4(+) T helper cell response in the C57BL/6 mouse. (6/1434)In infection with Schistosoma mansoni, hepatic granuloma formation is mediated by CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells sensitized to schistosomal egg antigens. There is considerable variation among infected individuals with respect to both severity of disease and the T-cell response to egg antigens. In the BL/6 mouse, the egg granulomas are relatively small and the relevant sensitizing egg antigens are largely unknown. We investigated the CD4(+) Th cell response of infected BL/6 mice to egg antigens fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found a prominent lymphoproliferative response to be directed against a 62-kDa component. With the aid of a specific T-cell hybridoma, 4E6, the 62-kDa antigen was isolated; following partial digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C, an internal amino acid sequence was found to be identical with one present in the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) of the organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Treponema pallidum and to differ by one residue from PEPCK of various other species. In CD4(+) Th cells from 7.5- 8.5-week-infected BL/6 mice, the purified 62-kDa molecule elicited a potent proliferative response which, based on cytokine analysis, was of a mixed Th-1 and Th-2 type. Our results reveal a novel egg antigen of particular prominence in the BL/6 mouse and suggest that the immune response in schistosomiasis is a product of sensitization to egg antigens that may vary considerably in immunogenicity from strain to strain. (+info)
Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (7/1434)The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone. (+info)
Tolerization of mice to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens causes elevated type 1 and diminished type 2 cytokine responses and increased mortality in acute infection. (8/1434)The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages of schistosome infection, egg-tolerized mice suffered high mortalities. Granuloma size and deposition of collagen in the liver were significantly reduced in egg-tolerized mice. Similarly, limited granuloma responses were detected in the intestines of these mice, and this was associated with a >90% reduction in egg excretion. Histologically, egg-tolerized mice had exacerbated hepatocyte damage, with extensive microvesicular steatosis. Elevated plasma transaminase levels confirmed the damage to hepatocytes. Infected egg-tolerized mice had impaired proliferation responses to egg Ag but intact responses to worm Ag. Tolerized mice had diminished Ab responses to egg Ag and had a type 1 cytokine isotype pattern to worm Ag, with elevated IgG2a and diminished IgG1 and IgE. Egg-tolerized mice failed to down-regulate type 1 cytokines that are normally elicited during early schistosome infection. Hepatic granuloma cells from egg-tolerized mice were also type 1 cytokine dominated, with elevated frequencies of Tc1/Th1 and reduced Tc2/Th2 cells. This study demonstrates that mice tolerized to schistosome eggs have elevated type 1 cytokine responses with diminished type 2 responses and reduced anti-egg Ab during schistosome infection, and these effects are detrimental to the host. (+info)
T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens | JEM
The lineage differentiation of TFH cells has been unclear. In our system, TFH cells possess canonical attributes of Th2 cells. Further, kinetic analysis of TFH cell development showed that the percentages of IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells in draining LNs remained relatively constant (∼16% of total CD4+ cells) from day 7-14 after SEA immunization, whereas the contribution of PD-1+ TFH cells to this population doubled from 21-42% over the same time period (Fig. 1 B), suggesting that TFH cells develop from within the PD-1− IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cell population. To formally address this, we FACS-purified IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells that lacked the classical TFH markers CXCR5 and PD-1 (Fig. 4 E) from the pooled draining LNs of Thy1.1 4get mice that had been immunized 5 d earlier with SEA. These cells were then adoptively transferred into congenic Thy1.2 recipient BALB/c mice or JHD mice, which were then immediately immunized with SEA. After 7 d, Thy1.1+ donor cells in the reactive LNs of recipient animals (Fig. 5 ...
An Unbiased View of food poisen
antigens from a few sources: (i) all ES, somatic, and cuticular antigens as a result of tissue penetration and subsequent degeneration of the larvae, more info resulting in exposure to the whole profile on the parasites antigens; (ii) ES antigens only, in instances exactly where You will find a expulsion on the parasite intact, perhaps following penetration of intestine tissue has transpired; and (iii) cuticular and somatic antigens from lifeless larvae contained in food, through which case ES antigens could well be current only in minimal quantities-this last position has also been advised by Jackson (127 ...
2017 US Immunodiagnostic Instrument and Reagent Supplier Shares, and Market Segment Sales Forecasts
LONDON, Feb. 1, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- 2017 US Immunodiagnostic Instrument and Reagent Supplier Shares, and Market Segment Sales Forecasts.
Efficacy of Purified Schistosoma Japonicum Egg Antigens for Elisa Serodiagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Japonica: Specificity...
Abstract At present, there is no consensus that purified schistosome egg antigens offer any advantage in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Previously, we demonstrated by multiple techniques that the major serologic antigens in Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA) are glycoproteins, and that the glycoproteins with highest specificity and sensitivity are hydrophobes. We therefore tested these materials for their specificity, sensitivity and cost effectiveness in the ELISA. In this study we used five SEA fractions that varied in their purity and antigenicity. The order of immunologic specific activity in the ELISA, measured by titration of a standard sera pool, was: hydrophobic glycoproteins (highest), crude SEA glycoproteins, hydrophilic glycoproteins, crude SEA, and SEA proteins (lowest). Complexity (purity) of these materials were (in rank order), hydrophilic glycoproteins (purest), hydrophobic glycoproteins, crude glycoproteins, SEA proteins, and
Humoral and cellular immune response of mice challenged with Yersinia pestis antigenic preparations | The Brazilian Journal of...
Objectives. The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response.. Methods. The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40μg or 20μg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry.. Results. Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40μg or 20μg ...
Characterisation of IgG(T) serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally...
Cyathostomins are the most common parasitic nematodes of horses. Larval stages, which inhabit the intestinal wall, are particularly pathogenic and can cause severe colitis and colic. Despite their clinical importance, diagnostic techniques for the prepatent stages do not exist. A method that could estimate mucosal infection intensity would have a major impact on the control and diagnosis of cyathostominosis. Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental infections, natural infections and in horses that presented with clinical larval cyathostominosis. In experimentally-infected animals, anti-25 kDa complex IgG(T) levels correlated positively with field exposure and with early third stage larval (r(s)=0.74, P=0.015) and total mucosal parasite (r(s)=0.78, P=0.010) burdens. In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly ...
Upstream Biosciences CEO to Unveil Promising New Approach toTreating Sleeping Sickness at International...
Keynote Address to Highlight Upstream s Drug Candidates That Have Demonstrated Promising In Vitro Activity Against Sleeping Sickness and Other Parasitic Disease
High levels of IgG4 to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens in individuals with periportal fibrosis. | The American Journal of...
Specific IgG4 and IgE responses to adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were examined in 267 individuals from an area in which schistosomiasis mansoni is endemic. Based on information obtained from clinical and sonographic examinations of this sample, the individuals were divided in three groups: 1) 204 individuals without periportal fibrosis, and liver and spleen enlargements; 2) 41 individuals without periportal fibrosis, but presenting with organopathy, with or without organomegaly; and 3) 22 individuals with periportal fibrosis, regardless of their status as having hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Levels of IgG4 to SEA were significantly higher in sera from patients with fibrosis compared with the patients from the other two groups. We also found significantly higher levels of IgG4 against SEA in egg-negative patients with fibrosis compared with egg-negative patients from the other two groups. This report demonstrates a specific humoral response in patients presenting with initial
Schistosoma Mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens | The Journal of Immunology
A cell-mediated immunologic granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs is now generally accepted as being responsible for the hepatosplenic disease of chronic schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a soluble extract of S. mansoni eggs (SEA) both induces and elicits granulomatous hypersensitivity and other forms of cell-mediated immunologic reactivity. Mice with chronic light S. mansoni infections show spontaneous suppression of granulomatous hypersensitivity in the presence of high levels of anti-SEA antibodies. Immunodiffusion analysis using antiserum obtained from these mice and SEA resulted in the identification of three major serologic antigens which have been designated MSA1, MSA2, and MSA3. Initial studies with Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the three antigens were markedly different in m.w. and at least two of the three were glycoproteins. The antigens were then extracted from crude SEA by adsorption to ...
Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma Haematobium induces HCV replication in PBMC from patients with chronic HCV infection | BMC...
This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as on cell proliferation in patients with chronic HCV infection. PBMC from 26 patients with chronic HCV infection were cultured for 72 hours in presence and absence of 50 μg SEA/ml medium. Intracellular HCV RNA quantification of plus and minus strands was assessed before and after stimulation. PBMC from five healthy subjects were cultured for 7 days, flow cytometric analysis of DNA content was used to assess the mitogenic effect of SEA on PBMC proliferation compared to phytoheamaglutinine (PHA). Quantification of the intracellular viral load showed increased copy number/cell of both or either viral strands after induction with SEA in 18 of 26 patients (69.2%) thus indicating stimulation of viral replication. Flow cytometric analysis showed that mean ± S.D. of percent values of cell proliferation was induced from 3.2 ± 1
Granuloma Formation around Filarial Larvae Triggered by Host Responses to an Excretory/Secretory Antigen | Infection and...
Over the past several years, our lab has been attempting to determine the mechanism by which inbred strains of mice, which we use as model mammalian hosts, respond to experimental filarial infections. The outcome of these studies indicates that an important host defense mechanism is the formation of multicellular aggregates of leukocytes called granulomas around incoming infectious larvae. Our previous studies indicated an important role for T cells (for the recruitment of a robust population of leukocytes and for activating macrophages along the alternative pathway of activation), B lymphocytes (particularly the B1 subset), and macrophages and eosinophils (for participating in the granulomas). We have demonstrated the crucial importance of antifilarial antibodies of the IgM isotype in binding to the surface of the larvae and facilitating the adhesion of activated macrophages to the larvae. We have further shown that the in vitro cytoadherence assay is a good surrogate for in vivo granuloma ...
Immunomodulatory effect of antigenic fractions of a recent clinical isolate of L. donovani on monocytic cell lines<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulatory effect of antigenic fractions of a recent clinical isolate of L. donovani on monocytic cell lines. AU - Tripathi, Parul. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Naik, Sita. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines are important mediators of the immune response to Leishmania. We have recently reported that following SDS-PAGE separation and transfer of whole L. donovani antigen (strain 2001, a recent clinical isolate from Bihar) into 11 fractions (named F1 to F11; MW range 139-24.2 Kd), only the high molecular weight (MW) fractions (F1 to F4; MW range 134-64.2 Kd) had immunostimulatory activity when tested in leishmania exposed immune individuals. The F1 to F11 fractions were able to induce significant proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of leishmania exposed immune individuals and production of variable amounts of IFN-γ IL-12p40 and IL-10. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of L. donovani promastigotes whole ...
Keele Research Repository - Keele University
Doenhoff, MJ and El-Faham, M and Liddell, S and Fuller, HR and Stanley, RG and Schramm, G and Igetei, JE (2016) Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs). PLoS One. ISSN 1932-6203 ...
Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses | Journal of Experimental Medicine |...
DCs are known to play a pivotal role in the initiation and polarization of T cell responses, and S. mansoni egg preparations have been shown to prime Th2 cells via the functional modulation of DCs (MacDonald et al., 2001; de Jong et al., 2002). To study and identify the components from S. mansoni egg preparations that instruct Th2 development, we used a well established co-culture system of human monocyte-derived DC and naive CD4+ T cells, which is generally thought to mimic in vivo DC-mediated T helper cell polarization (Kapsenberg, 2003). It stands to reason that ESPs from live eggs (Cass et al., 2007) are the first egg-derived molecules to interact with cells of the innate immune system, including DCs. Therefore, we initially tested ESPs for their capacity to condition DCs to prime Th2 development from naive CD4+ T cells. Similar to SEA, exposure of DCs to ESP resulted in a robust Th2 skewing irrespective of the presence or absence of LPS as a neutral maturation factor (Fig. 1 A). In a recent ...
Lacto-N-fucopentaose III Found on Schitosoma mansoni Egg Antigens Functions as Adjuvant for Proteins by Inducing Th2-Type...
FIGURE 1. In vivo Ab production after the intranasal immunization with saline, HSA or sugar-conjugated HSA in BALB/c (A-D) and C57BL/6 (E and F) mice. Serum samples were taken after prime (▦), boost (□), and challenge (▪) as described in Materials and Methods. Ab of IgG (A and E), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses (B) specific for HSA were measured by indirect ELISA and estimated by endpoint titer. IgE titers specific for HSA (C and F) and the volume of serum total IgE (D) were determined by sandwich ELISA. Levels of HSA-specific IgE were presented as the absorbance at 450 nm from duplicate wells of 1/4 serum dilution. Results show the mean ± SEM of four individual serum per group. Data are representative of three (A-D) and two (E and F) separate experiments.. ...
Immunodiagnosis | definition of immunodiagnosis by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of immunodiagnosis in the Medical Dictionary? immunodiagnosis explanation free. What is immunodiagnosis? Meaning of immunodiagnosis medical term. What does immunodiagnosis mean?
Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer...
Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high
Development of Innovative Research Technique in Genetic Epidemiology of Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases in Lao PDR for...
SATREPS: Japanese government (JST/JICA) program for international joint research into global issues by researchers in Japan and developing countries. In the first three years beginning in April 2008, a total of 49 projects commenced in 28 countries.
Heart worm Antigen test | German Shepherds Forum
Has anyone done the heart worm antigen text on their pups? My vet sent a reminder that Ozzy needs this. Never did it on any of my prior dogs. He has been on...
Breast Cancer Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy by Roberto L. Ceriani | Waterstones
Buy Breast Cancer Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy by Roberto L. Ceriani from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20.
Investigation of changes in immune responses in schistosomiasis patients co-infected with HIV following praziquantel treatment
Praziquantel (PZQ) efficacy and immune responses to schistosome antigens following cure were investigated in Schistosoma mansoni infected adult fishermen resident in Kisumu, Kenya with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Schistosomiasis negative/HIV negative and schistosomiasis negative/HIV positive fishermen were used as controls. Proliferative responses to schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA), soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) as well as leves of typical T helper-1 (TH-1) type, [gamma interferon (IFN-)] and T helper-2 (TH-2) type [Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] cytokines were assayed at baseline, one month and four months post-treatment with Praziquantel. Indications of immunosuppression were determined by CD4+ counts and HIV testing by ELISA and Western blot. Cure success and reinfection rates were determined by longitudinal follow up of eggs ...
Characterization of an immunodominant Onchocerca volvulus antigen with patient sera and a monoclonal antibody. | Journal of...
Adult Onchocerca voluvlus and infective larvae, but not microfilariae contain an immunodominant antigen (33,000 and 21,000 Mr in females, 39,000, 33,000, and 21,000 Mr in males, 133,000 Mr in infective larvae) which is recognized by an Onchocerca-specific mAb. The component is part of the reproductive organs and muscles. 96.2% of onchocerciasis sera contained antibodies detectable by immunoblotting against it. Antigen purified by immunoaffinity chromatography was specifically recognized in immunoblots by onchocerciasis sera, but not by sera from other filarial infections. The high immunogenicity, the specificity, and the occurrence in infective larvae of this antigen indicate an immunodiagnostic potential and a possible role in the immunobiology of the parasite. ...
Excretory-secretory antigen is better than crude antigen for the serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis by ELISA
Clonorchis sinensis ESA proved to be a better serodiagnostic antigen than CA for ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity of ELISA with ESA was 92.5% while that of ELISA with CA was 88.2%, when 509 human sera of clonorchiasis were screened in the present study, which was statistically significant. The diagnostic specificity of ELISA with ESA was increased to 93.1% from 87.8% by using CA. Especially cross-reactivity of ESA with serum specimens of opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis was reduced compared to that of CA.. C. sinensis ESA was found to include proteins of 7-8, 12.5, and 30 kDa (Kim, 1998), and the 7 or 8 kDa protein predominated (Chung et al., 2002). ESA has been suggested to be a valuable candidate diagnostic antigen of active clonorchiasis in rabbits and humans (Kim, 1994 & 1998). The protein bands in C. sinensis ESA were also found to form 7-8, 17 and 26-28 kDa bands, while in CA bands at 35, 43, 55, and 70 kDa were additionally observed (Hong et al., 1997, 1999).. The 7-8 ...
Schistosome egg antigens, including the glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, trigger the development of regulatory B cells
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
Browsing by Subject intestinal schistosomiasis
Through the use of Schistosoma mansoni antigens we attempted to develop a non-invasive assay that would diagnose an infection of intestinal schistosomiasis. We isolated parts of the Schistosoma mansoni parasite shed ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with egg antigens of Schistosoma japonicum | SpringerLink
A micromethod of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to infections with Schistosoma japonicumin humans and mice with egg antigens. In mouse infections, antibody responses were...
Antigenic variation in Schistosoma - Kingston University Research Repository
Schistosomes have an outer tegument that protects them from the host immune system. Parasite antigens expressed on or within the surface layer of the tegument have been suggested to be potential vaccine targets such as tetraspanin 23 (TSP23). Little is known about the evolution and diversity of tegumental antigens, an important consideration given that vaccines are being designed and are failing. Moreover, these antigens, including TSP23, are in direct contact with the host immune system, and so accelerated and adaptive evolution may be occurring. Species of Schistosoma infect a variety of definitive hosts. The way in which these hosts are shaping the evolution of antigens across different species of Schistosoma needs investigating. Much attention has been focussed on the production of an effective multi-species vaccine against the schistosomes, and there has been little success in absolute clearance or even establishment of continued immune memory post-infection. The aim of this study was ...
Fasciola hepatica - WikEM
Leder K, et al. Liver flukes: Fascioliasis. In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate; 2014. www.uptodate.com. Accessed December 24, 2014 ...
Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites: Answer to Case 567
As many of you pointed out, this eggs beautifully demonstrates the filaments arising from the 2 poles of the inner membrane (arrow heads, below image). You cant make it out here, but there are 4-8 of these filaments arising from each pole. You can also nicely see the hooks of the 6-hooked oncosphere ...
BioVaxys and WuXi to Collaborate on SARS-CoV-2 S-Protein Production
WuXi will produce SARS-CoV-2 s-proteins for BioVaxys COVID-19 vaccine candidate, BVX-0320, and for its Covid-T immunodiagnostic program.
Radiograf MR - souschef, Billeddiagnostisk afdeling, SUH Roskilde (Opslag hos Region Sjælland)
Karriereopslag hos Region Sjælland, Akademikernes Jobbank: Stillingsopslag Radiografstilling MR souschef Billeddiagnostisk Afdeling, Sjællands Universitets Hospital, Roskilde Er du uddannet radiograf, og har erfaring og viden indenfor MR, har vi en ledig fuldtidsstilling som souschef i vores velfungerende MR-gruppe pr. 1. April 2020 eller efter aftale. Stillingen er vagtfri - dog kan man deltage i udvidet åbningstid
Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESPs) modulate the differentiation and immune functions of buffalo dendritic...
Fasciola gigantica infection threatens the health of both humans and animals in the world. The excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of this fluke has been reported to impair the activation and maturation of immune cells. We have previously shown the influence of F. gigantica ESPs (FgESPs) on the maturation of buffalo dendritic cells (DCs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potency of FgESPs in shifting the differentiation and immune functions of buffalo DCs. Buffalo DCs were incubated with FgESPs directly or further co-cultured with lymphocytes in vitro. qRT-PCR was employed to determine the gene expression profile of DCs or the mixed cells, and an ELISA was used to measure cytokine levels in the supernatants. Hoechst and Giemsa staining assays, transmission electron microscopy, caspase-3/7 activity test and histone methylation test were performed to determine DC phenotyping, apoptosis and methylation. To investigate the mechanism
Schistosoma mansoni Larvae Do Not Expand or Activate Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Their Migratory Phase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Schistosoma mansoni Larvae Do Not Expand or Activate Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Their Migratory Phase. AU - Redpath, Stephen A. AU - van der Werf, Nienke. AU - MacDonald, Andrew S. AU - Maizels, Rick M. AU - Taylor, Matthew D. N1 - MR/K020196/1 PY - 2015/10. Y1 - 2015/10. N2 - Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in suppression of immune responses during parasitic helminth infection, both by controlling damaging immunopathology and by inhibiting protective immunity. During the patent phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection, Foxp3(+) Treg cells are activated and suppress egg-elicited Th2 responses, but little is known of their induction and role during the early prepatent larval stage of infection. We quantified Foxp3(+) Treg cell responses during the first 3 weeks of murine S. mansoni infection in C57BL/6 mice, a time when larval parasites migrate from the skin and transit the lungs en route to the hepatic and mesenteric vasculature. In contrast to other ...
Schistosoma mansoni egg | SCAN: The Schistosomiasis Collection at the NHM
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Schistosoma mansoni egg credit Aidan Emery March 2014 | SCAN: The Schistosomiasis Collection at the NHM
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Trichinella spiralis - Redorbit
Trichinella spiralis, sometimes known as the pork worm, is a parasite within the Nematoda class. It can be found in pigs, rats, humans, and bears. This worm causes trichinosis in humans, most often from consuming undercooked pork. This species is the smallest within its class, reaching an average body length of .16 centimeters. Females are twice as large as males, displaying a sexual dimorphism. The reproductive organs of females are unique to the species in that the front end holds developed juveniles, while the back end, where the uterus is found, holds undeveloped eggs. The genome of this species was completed in 2011.. Trichinella spiralis requires one host to mature and survive, because it spends its entire life within the one host. When a human ingests the larvae, which are protected by a cyst like formation, the PH of the stomach allows them to hatch and travel into the intestines. After reaching this area, the larvae dig into the mucosa to grow and breed. Females can live for up to six ...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of protein...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of proteins in excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis.: Two genes encoding Trichinella p
2016 US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment...
2016 US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Strategies Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com 600 Pages
Bideoa: Donostiako Piratak | Txupinazoa 2015 | Donostiako Aste Nagusia | EITB
Donostiako Piratek ekitaldi berezia egin dute bertako Aste Nagusiari hasiera emateko. Gazteak dantzan jarri ditu txupinazoak La Flamenka gunean.
Willie Colón | Boomshakalaka
eitb.eus-en geure eta beste batzuen cookieak erabiltzen ditugu nabigatzeko esperientzia hobetzeko. Nabigatzen jarraitzen baduzu, gure cookieen politika onartzen duzula ulertuko dugu. Informazio gehiago Onartu ...
DSpace at EWHA: Excretory-secretory products secreted by Paragonimus westermani delay the spontaneous cell death of human...
Background: Eosinophils play important roles in tissue inflammatory responses associated with helminth infections. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) produced by tissue-invasive helminths contain a large quantity of proteolytic enzymes that can modulate the host's immune responses. However, little is known regarding the roles of worm-derived products that are responsible for eosinophilic inflammatory responses in helminth infections. Objective: In the present study, we investigated whether ESP produced by Paragonimus westermani, which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, regulates both cell survival and death of human eosinophils. Methods: The ESP was obtained from P. westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM). Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors, and the purified eosinophils were incubated with or without the ESP secreted by PwNEM. The viability of eosinophils was assessed by staining with propidium iodide using the flow ...
The Role of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Immune Protection against Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice
The co-occurrence of malaria and schistosomiasis is common in tropical regions of the world. Malaria induces a strong Th1 response while schistosomiasis skews the response to a Th2. Several studies demonstrate a non consistent effect of schistosomiasis infection on progression of malaria. On one hand, schistosomiasis infections protect against cerebral malaria while on the other hand, they are associated with increased malaria severity. This study examined the role of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on Plasmodium berghei malaria progression in BALB/c mice. The objectives were to determine the changes in Th1, Th2 cytokines and IgG levels which are markers associated with malaria and schistosomiasis protection and also determine if S. mansoni eggs lead to protection from P. berghei malaria. Two groups of mice were used: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group was injected with a triple dose of S. mansoni eggs at ten day interval before being challenged with P. berghei. The ...
Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected...
The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic gold standard reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the true prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on ...
FOCOS AUSCULTATORIOS PDF
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. La edad media de las pacientes fue El peso medio de nacimiento fue gramos Tres neonatos presentaron trastornos alimentarios, uno hipoglucemia y otro enfermedad de membrana hialina, ductus arterioso permeable, sepsis y plaquetopenia. It has a high maternal and perinatal morbi-mortality rate. Maternal and neonatal variables were analized. Mean maternal age was MAH O Deteksi Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica pada Kerbau Perah Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica merupakan cacing kelas trematoda.. Telur cacing ini berbentuk oval dan dilengkapi dengan operculum yang berfungsi sebagai jalan keluar larva mirasidium pada saat telur menetas. Ukuran telur Fasciola gigantica lebih besar dibandingkan ukuran telur Fasciola hepatica. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi telur cacing Fasciola Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and ...
Microbes & Human Health: Excretory-secretory products of Giardia lamblia induce interleukin-8production in human colonic cells...
Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G. lamblia-induced cytokine production in human epithelial cells. Incubation of the gastrointestinal cell line HT-29 with G. lamblia GS trophozoites triggered production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IL-8 production was not significantly decreased by physically separating the HT-29 cells and G. lamblia GS trophozoites. Indeed, treatment of HT-29 with G. lamblia excretory-secretory products (ESP) induced IL-8 production. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift and transfection assays using mutagenized IL-8 promoter reporter plasmids indicated that IL-8 production by G. lamblia ESP occurs through activation of two transcriptional factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in HT-29 cells. In addition, activation of two ...
Fasciola hepatica in the rat: immune responses associated with the development of resistance to infection<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fasciola hepatica in the rat. T2 - immune responses associated with the development of resistance to infection. AU - Keegan, P S. AU - Trudgett, A. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - F. hepatica infections were established in rats and immune responses were monitored during primary and challenge infections. Antibody levels peaked at 3 weeks post-primary infection and at 6 days post-challenge infection. No significant correlation was found between antibody titre and number of flukes recovered at autopsy. Immunoblotting revealed a limited number of immunogenic polypeptides. When antibodies from these reactive bands were eluted and tested by IFA they all gave identical binding patterns: on juvenile fluke sections tegumental syncytium, tegumental cells and gut cells were labelled, while on adult sections the same antibodies labelled gut cells, reproductive tissue, excretory ducts and flame cells. This suggested that these tissues shared a common epitope or range of epitopes. A ...
Guilherme Corr a de Oliveira
22. Falc o PL, Corr a de Oliveira G, Busek SU, Rodrigues-Caldas I, Martins-Filho OA, Malaquias LCC, Silveira MAS, Corr a-Oliveira R. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: IL-10 modulates in vitro granuloma formation modulating the expression of CD28, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). XXIV Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Immunology. guas de Lind ia, 24-27 de Outubro de 1999 ...
Proposed Solution to Odor of Feces at La Jolla Beaches: Anti-Sea Lion Wall - UCSD Guardian
Gigantic urban agglomerations and barely populated villages alike have their own local problems. Even in a paradise free of major socioeconomic issues, such as La Jolla, we can still smell trouble like sea lion and bird poop. For the past few years, the area has been suffering from a natural yet nauseous smell - feces from the animals of La Jolla Cove. A seemingly minor inconvenience causes strong feelings in the hearts and noses of La Jollans. But with rotating plastic cylinders to humanely displace the sea lions, it is time to end the stink once and for all.. The problem with the foul scent of animal and bird excrements began in La Jolla Cove when city authorities decided to put up a fence along the cliffs to prevent people from entering an unsafe sheer area. While making the cliffs safer for tourists and residents, the fence created a people-free zone that sea lions and birds gladly occupied. The unusually large concourse of animals soon befouled their new habitat, producing an unbearable ...
sandwich elisa principle list - sandwich elisa principle for sale
sandwich elisa principle for sale - 1048 - sandwich elisa principle wholesalers & sandwich elisa principle manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Germany Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Market 2013Sales Forecasts, Supplier Shares, Competitive Strategies
Germany Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Market 2013Sales Forecasts, Supplier Shares, Competitive Strategies Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com [Report Price $3950]
DI-fusion Schistosoma mansoni CBP/p300 has a conserved domain structure...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Fascioliasis - Health, Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Parasitic, Flukes
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans..
DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Infectious Diseases: Parasitic: Flukes: Fascioliasis
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans.
PuraImmuno + CBD Capsules Immune System Support - PuraHemp
Vitamin C , Boosts the antioxidant and immune support while supporting nerve function enhanced with Citrus Bioflavonoids.. • PuraImmuno Blend , increases circulating lymphocyte levels in a healthy as well as a low immune individual, by increasing the number of leukocytes, T-Cells, B-Cells and NK cells whose natural function are to directly support immune health.. With PuraHemps proprietary PuraImmuno Plus, you will increase phagocytic activity of macrophages making your body less susceptible to harmful bacteria. ...
FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION - PDF
FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal because of a reaction with its environment. For the purpose of this report, corrosion is the result of an electrochemical reaction
MOLECULAR IMMUNODIAGNOSIS OF TB INFECTION: A PILOT STUDY - Immunology
2016-2020 Future Horizons and Growth Strategies in the US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Markets: Instrument and...
Complete report $11,500. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts, supplier shares) $7,500.VPGMarketResearch.coms new report is a strategic analysis of major business ...
Reagents arkistot - Immuno Diagnostic
Offices are open on business days from 8:30 to 16:00.. Orders, product search/enquiries and other questions: info(@)immunodiagnostic.fi. ...
Ongoing Wish Swap Round 56 - DONE - ORGANIZED CRAFT SWAPS
Ongoing Wish Swap Round 56 - DONE - ORGANIZED CRAFT SWAPS - PLEASE READ WHOLE POST BEFORE JOINING SWAPOrganizers: sunspotted and TwiztidBlood*IMPORTANT PM INFO* When sending PMs, please label them as OWS 56 wit
Follicular B helper T cells
May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ... In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... Follicular helper T cells (also known as follicular B helper T cells and abbreviated as TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T ...
Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho Highlands of Kenya. "Moses Rugutt named Nacosti head". Business ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA. Anthelmintic resistance amongst ...
Effects of parasitic worms on the immune system
2002). "An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen". J Immunol. 169 (6): 3284-3292 ... In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. ... In the journal EMBO Reports, Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where ... However, helminths also regulate Th2-caused diseases, such as allergy and asthma. Rook postulates that different parasitic ...
They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. Eosinophils are ... They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth ... Shi HZ (September 2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (3): 520-7. doi: ...
Pathogen-driven selection has been supported in allele frequency studies including MHC I and blood group antigens. Gene ... networks have also been correlated with specific pathogens including helminths. Studies have shown genes that are differently ... Zoonosis Immunology Migration Ecology Cross-species transmission Emerging infectious disease Foodborne illness Antibody Antigen ...
... helminths, allergens). Antibodies that bind to surface antigens (for example, on bacteria) will attract the first component of ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... It is important to note that this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by ... This means binding between antibody and antigen is reversible, and the antibody's affinity towards an antigen is relative ...
A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ...
It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites ... Firstly, the antigen and antibody rapidly form antigen-antibody complexes within few seconds and this is followed by a slower ... It acts on antigen-antibody reaction in which the antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ...
Anthelmintic resistance amongst sheep and goats in Kenya and Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA; ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. They also have an external structure or ... ADCC is also important in the use of vaccines, as creation of antibodies and the destruction of antigens introduced to the host ... Frey, Joachim (2019/12). "RTX Toxins of Animal Pathogens and Their Role as Antigens in Vaccines and Diagnostics". Toxins. 11 ( ...
Adult hookworm antigens have also been identified as potential candidates for vaccines. When adult worms attach to the ... For example, helminth infections cause potent and highly polarized immune response characterized by increased T-helper cell ... Research on larval antigens has focused on proteins that are members of the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily, ... Research is currently stymied at the development of at least one of these antigens as a recombinant protein for testing in ...
This involves the use of mass spectrometry find parasite antigens (proteins which activate an adaptive immune response) which ... Mutapi's lab at the University of Edinburgh, the Parasite Immuno-epidemiology Group, researches immune responses to helminths ... Currently there are no available vaccines for infections by helminth worms including bilharzia. Mutapi is pioneering proteomics ...
... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ...
Of all the known helminth species, the most important helminths with respect to understanding their transmission pathways, ... Sophisticated tests such as serological assays, antigen tests, and molecular diagnosis are also available; however, they are ... Specific helminths can be identified through microscopic examination of their eggs (ova) found in faecal samples. The number of ... Helminths may cause iron-deficiency anemia. This is most severe in heavy hookworm infections, as Necator americanus and ...
The clearance of helminth in mice that lacked taste receptor function (Trpm5 or/-gustducin KO) or enough tuft cells (Pou2f3 KO ... A loss of tolerance to antigens that appear in the environment cause inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) ... Helminth colonization inducts a type-2 immune response, causes mucosal healing and achieves clinical remission. During an ... This shows that tufts cells are important in playing a protective role during the helminth infections. It was observed that IL- ...
High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such ... Muck, A.; Pires, M.; Lammie, P. (2003). "Influence of infection with non-filarial helminths on the specificity of serological ... as Strongyloides and Schistosoma antigens, as demonstrated in reported cases. It is important to exclude other parasitic ...
... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ... Responses to specific helminths are also characterised with elevated levels of IgE antibodies. Idiotype Janeway, CA; Travers, P ... IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in the serum and is often generated following repeated exposure to the same antigen or ... sIgA has also been shown to potentiate the immune response in intestinal tissue by uptake of antigen together with the bound ...
T helper cell
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
Pao LI, Bedzyk WD, Persin C, Cambier JC (February 1997). "Molecular targets of CD45 in B cell antigen receptor signal ... Similar results can be seen during helminth infections. When mice are infected by Strongyloides ratti the mice with BTLA ... Pao LI, Cambier JC (March 1997). "Syk, but not Lyn, recruitment to B cell antigen receptor and activation following stimulation ... Vilen BJ, Famiglietti SJ, Carbone AM, Kay BK, Cambier JC (July 1997). "B cell antigen receptor desensitization: disruption of ...
... s are critical for primary responses to local Th2 antigens e.g. helminths and viruses and that is why ILC2s are abundant in ... These cells lack antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene. ILC2s produce type ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203 (4): 1105-16. doi:10.1084/jem.20051615 ... 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13) and are involved in responses to helminths, allergens, some viruses, such as ...
... and helminths. Lack of exposure to sufficient benign antigens, particularly during childhood, is sometimes suggested as a cause ... Extra-cellular antigens primarily trigger the TH2 response, as observed with allergies, while intracellular antigens trigger a ... Helminths are parasitic worms such as hookworms, whipworms, and threadworms that have evolved to live within a host organism on ... Helminth infection has emerged as one possible explanation for the low incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in less ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRII receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE ... When an appropriate allergic antigen or parasite is present, the cross-linking of at least two IgE molecules and their Fc ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...
... it acts to protect against several bowel infections caused by helminths. This role of IL-25 has been demonstrated in these ... promotes efficient protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection by enhancing the antigen-specific IL-9 response ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203 (4): 1105-16. doi:10.1084/jem.20051615 ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. The Rockefeller University Press. OCLC 679042420. Angkasekwinai P, Srimanote P, ...
An antigen is a substance that ignites the immune response. The cells involved in recognizing the antigen are Lymphocytes. Once ... and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in ... If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before being exposed to the antigen itself then the child will ... The body's capability to react to antigens depends on a person's age, antigen type, maternal factors and the area where the ...
Adaptive immune system
Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells. Endogenous antigens are ... In general, Th2 responses are more effective against extracellular bacteria, parasites including helminths and toxins. Like ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... The host's cells express "self" antigens. These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface ...
As part of normal physiological processes, they are involved in key steps of antigen presentation as part of the adaptive ... A number of parasites, including helminths (parasitic worms), use papain-like proteases as mechanisms for invasion of their ...
Increased production of antigen-specific IgG1 and total IgE, but slight decrease in antigen-specific IgG2b corroborate Th2 ... February 2022). "Mechanisms of the host immune response and helminth-induced pathology during Trichobilharzia regenti ( ... Several parasite antigens recognized specifically by host IgY are considered as candidates for immunodiagnostics. The infection ... Lymphocytes from their skin draining lymph nodes produce IL-4 and IL-5 after stimulation with parasite antigens which shows Th2 ...
Loa loa filariasis
Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... helminths), and that a positive serologic test does not necessarily distinguish among infections. The new tests have not ... healthcare providers used a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin-test antigen for filariasis diagnosis. If ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... The IgE isotype has co-evolved with basophils and mast cells in the defence against parasites like helminths (like Schistosoma ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic reactions to drugs, bee stings, and antigen ... CD23 may also allow facilitated antigen presentation, an IgE-dependent mechanism whereby B cells expressing CD23 are able to ...
Helminths are thought to have been as old as the adaptive immune system, suggesting that they may have co-evolved, also ... They include: Reciprocal inhibition between immune responses directed against distinct antigens of the Old Friends microbes ... Of all the various types of pathogens known to cause disease in humans, helminths warrant special attention, because of their ... Maizels, R. M.; McSorley, H. J.; Smyth, D. J. (July 2014). "Helminths in the hygiene hypothesis: sooner or later?". Clinical & ...
Pattern recognition receptor
PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... similarly fucose presents the same for certain bacteria and helminths; and glucans are present on mycobacteria and fungi. In ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMC 7169806. PMID 16948640. Bahar O, Pruitt R, Luu DD, ... Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C), and Mincle i.e. macrophage‑inducible C‑type lectin (CLEC4E). The nomenclature (mannose ...
Index of biochemistry articles
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... helminth protein - helper T cell - hemopexin - hemoglobin - herpes simplex virus protein vmw65 - heterocyclic compound - ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ...
"Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet N°366". World Health Organization. June 2013. Archived from the original on ... Ascariasis may result in allergies to shrimp and dustmites due to the shared antigen, tropomyosin; this has not been confirmed ... Horák P (1992). "Helminth eggs in the sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Czechoslovakia". Folia Parasitologica. 39 (2 ... A similar study in the same area showed that 73% of children working on these farms were infected with helminths, particularly ...
Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ... such as helminths, could protect against allergy. Therefore, reduced exposure to these organisms, particularly in developed ...
Furthermore, a cocktail of H. polygyrus excretory-secretory antigens can be collected, and administered to mice in the presence ... Reynolds, Lisa A.; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M. (2012-10-11). "Immunity to the model intestinal helminth parasite ... 17 October 2017). "HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33". Immunity. 47 (4): 739-751. doi: ... as it is used as a model of human helminth infection to which a spectrum of natural resistance to parasite infection exists. ...
The active Jak pathways lead to inflammation and downstream activation of plasma cells and B lymphocytes which release antigen ... Also, epidemiological studies support a protective role for helminths against AD. Likewise, children with poor hygiene are at a ... According to the hygiene hypothesis, early childhood exposure to certain microorganisms (such as gut flora and helminth ... and antigen and allergen penetration of the epidermal layer. Filaggrin mutations are also associated with a decrease in natural ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins See List ... helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, monoclonal ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...
For example, expulsion from the gut of a variety of mouse helminths requires IL-13 secreted by Th2 cells. IL-13 induces several ... Deletion of IL-13 from mice does not markedly affect either Th2 cell development or antigen-specific IgE responses induced by ...
These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... "Helminth Infections: Soil-transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis", Disease Control Priorities in Developing ... Signal of unknowns can be compared to that of standards allowing quantitation of the target antigen. To aid in the diagnosis of ... For example, "Strep throat" is often diagnosed within minutes, and is based on the appearance of antigens made by the causative ...
Complement fixation test are methods of identifying different kinds of parasites by detecting the presence of their antigens on ... foetus Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma equiperdum Veterinary helminthology is focused on veterinary important helminth parasites ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ... helminth MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.224 - antibodies, monoclonal ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 - complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 - ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
Blanchard R, Klassen P (April 1997). "H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men". J. Theor. Biol. 185 (3): 373-8. Bibcode:1997JThBi. ... 2005). "Helminths and the Modulation of Mucosal Inflammation". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 21 (2): 51-58. PMID ...
Along with other helminth parasites Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, S. haematobium was declared as Group 1 ( ... In chronic infections, or if eggs are difficult to find, an intradermal injection of schistosome antigen to form a wheal is ... Deelder, A.M.; Miller, R.L.; de Jonge, N.; Krijger, F.W. (1990). "Detection of schistosome antigen in mummies". The Lancet. 335 ... To evade detection by the host's immune system, the adults have the ability to coat themselves with host antigen. Individuals ...
Early clinical trials suggested that exposure to helminths such as Trichuris suis or Necator americanus can improve IBD. ... possibly targeting microbial antigens. While Crohn's is an immune-related disease, it does not appear to be an autoimmune ... Parker W (December 2017). "Not infection with parasitic worms, but rather colonization with therapeutic helminths". Immunology ... Weinstock JV, Elliott DE (March 2013). "Translatability of helminth therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases". International ...
Alternatively, an antigen of Opisthorchis viverrini can be detected by ELISA test. A polymerase chain reaction test that can be ... Keiser, J.; Utzinger, J. R. (2007). "Artemisinins and synthetic trioxolanes in the treatment of helminth infections". Current ... periductal fibrosis and/or cellular responses to antigens from the infecting fluke. These conditions predispose to ... metabolites and excreted/secreted antigens as well as immunopathological processes. In silico analyses using techniques of ...
Molecular analysis surface antigens has found significant genetic and phenotypic variation in strains of N. risticii, these ... using naturally infected aquatic insects and helminth vectors: preliminary report". Equine Veterinary Journal. 32 (4): 275-9. ... Strain variation among isolates can be determined by identifying surface antigens or by performing whole-genome sequencing. ... "Molecular basis for antigenic variation of a protective strain-specific antigen of Ehrlichia risticii". Infection and Immunity ...
A study revealed that the turkeys also had H1N1 and were seropositive to its antigens. Maternally derived H1N1 antibodies were ... Primates: At the University of Ibadan Zoological Garden in Nigeria, fecal samples of zookeepers tested positive for helminths ( ... The exact same strain of helminths and protozoan cysts were found in the zoo's non-human primates thus implicating a zoonosis ...
At the time, a debate remained on the etiology, some favoured bacterial infection while some believed as helminth infection. ... The SRA gene is a truncated version of the major and variable surface antigen of the parasite, the variant surface glycoprotein ...
Kreider T, Anthony RM, Urban JF, Gause WC (August 2007). "Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections". Current ... M2 macrophages resolve inflammation, help tissue healing, tolerate self-antigens and certain neoantigens (for example apoptotic ... antigen presentation by MHC II system, and production of IL-10 and TGF-𝛽, leading to tissue regeneration and internalization of ... Ability of TAMs to present tumour-associated antigens is decreased as well as stimulation of the anti-tumour functions of T and ...
Studies have shown that certain parts of the tegument (in this case, the antigen named Teg) can actually suppress the immune ... a type of helminth) of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. It infects the livers of various mammals, including humans ... Proteases secreted by F. hepatica have been used experimentally in immunizing antigens. List of parasites (human) Veterinary ... "The Fasciola hepatica Tegumental Antigen Suppresses Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function". Infection and Immunity. 77 (6): ...
An integrated immunoproteomics and bioinformatics approach for the analysis of Schistosoma japonicum tegument proteins
However, vaccines are not yet available, thus it is important to identify new target antigens from schistosome tegument ... Antigens, Helminth / immunology * Antigens, Helminth / metabolism* * Helminth Proteins / immunology * Helminth Proteins / ... Here, thirty highly immunoreactive tegument proteins and 10 antigens with an AUC value greater than 0.90 were identified at ... We found that thirty highly immunoreactive tegument proteins and 10 antigens with an AUC value greater than 0.90 were ...
Health of Resettled Iraqi Refugees --- San Diego County, California, October 2007--September 2009
In contrast, other resettling refugee populations have had rates of pathogenic intestinal helminths (e.g., Ascaris spp., ... Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among refugees entering the United States between 2006 and 2008. Hepatology 2010;51: ... no helminths were identified. All other identified species were of little or indeterminate clinical significance (e.g., ... of 2,957 refugees of any age were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, an indication of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. ...
Antibody - Wikipedia
Antibody-antigen interactionsEdit. The antibodys paratope interacts with the antigens epitope. An antigen usually contains ... helminths, allergens). ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens. It has been shown to activate ... Antibodies also form complexes by binding to antigen: this is called an antigen-antibody complex or immune complex. Small ...
Frontiers | Development of the Brazilian Anti Schistosomiasis Vaccine Based on the Recombinant Fatty Acid Binding Protein Sm14...
This antigen was discovered and developed under a Brazilian platform led by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, from the Health ... Evaluation of antigens of Fasciola gigantic as vaccines against tropical fasciolosis in cattle. Int J Parasitol (1997) 27(11): ... A Schistosoma mansoni fatty acid-binding protein, Sm14, is the potential basis of a dual-purpose anti-helminth vaccine. Proc ... A cDNA clone encoding part of the major 25,000-dalton surface membrane antigen of adult Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitol Res ( ...
Antibiotic Perturbation of Microbiota and Allergy Development
Air pollution, dietary changes, the absence of helminth colonization and antibiotic use have all been implicated in the rise of ... Allergies are characterized by exaggerated immune responses to foreign antigens from non-pathogenic substances. The prevalence ... helminth infections and antibiotic use have been shown to modify the composition of the microbiota.[4,6] ... leading to aberrant responses when harmless antigens are encountered later in life. More recently, an alternative hypothesis ...
The Elite is Desperately Trying to Convince You to Eat Bugs. Here's Why. | Alternative | Before It's News
Integrated Serologic Surveillance of Population Immunity and Disease Transmission - Volume 24, Number 7-July 2018 - Emerging...
Feeser KR, Cama V, Priest JW, Thiele EA, Wiegand RE, Lakwo T, et al. Characterizing reactivity to Onchocerca volvulus antigens ... Blackwell AD, Tamayo MA, Beheim B, Trumble BC, Stieglitz J, Hooper PL, et al. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first ... Effect of helminth-induced immunity on infections with microbial pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:1118-26. DOIPubMedGoogle ... will further extend the number of antigens included in a single assay, and new antigen discovery through high-throughput ...
ASTMH - Non-CDC Options for Molecular and Serologic Testing for Parasitic Diseases
Infectious Disease - Helminth Infestation Pages Alveolar Hydatid Disease Ascaris Cysticercosis Dipylidiasis Echinococcosis ... Casonis Antigen. *Echinococcus serologic titer. *Test Sensitivity: 50% of lung infections. *EITB has highest sensitivity and ... Anti-Helminth agents (used concurrently with surgery). *Albendazole (Albenza). *Mebendazole (Vermox). *Not available as of 2012 ... Helminth Infestation Chapter Hematology and Oncology Chapter Human Immunodeficiency Virus Chapter Immunization Chapter ...
International consensus conference on stool banking for faecal microbiota transplantation in clinical practice | Gut
Intestinal Flukes: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Intestinal Helminths Recovered from Humans in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR with a Particular Note on Haplorchis pumilio ... Advances in the Diagnosis of Human Opisthorchiasis: Development of Opisthorchis viverrini Antigen Detection in Urine. PLoS Negl ... Immune modulation by helminth parasites of ruminants: implications for vaccine development and host immune competence. Parasite ... Its rapid epithelial cell turnover seems to facilitate the rejection of intestinal helminths. In rats, it has been shown that E ...
Prenatal risk factors of wheezing at the age of four years in Tanzania | Thorax
Adaptive Immunity in Animals - Immune System - MSD Veterinary Manual
If, however, their antigen receptors bind to a foreign antigen fragment in an MHC-protein complex, then the T cell will kill ... IgE is optimized to control invasion by parasites such as helminths or arthropods. However, it also mediates a rapid acute ... Each antigen receptor is highly specific, and each lymphocyte expresses only a single form of antigen receptor. Thus, millions ... The first step involves the capture and processing of antigens (an antigen is a substance that is foreign to the host, such as ...
IL-10, IL-6 and CD14 polymorphisms and sepsis outcome in ventilated very low birth weight infants | BMC Medicine | Full Text
Kyle Burrows, BSc | Immunology Profiles Interview | STEMCELL Technologies
... bacteria or helminths, but also tolerate the commensal bacteria and innocuous food antigens in the gut. ... ILC2s in the lung are very important for inducing airway inflammation in response to antigens. You have ILC3s that are ... These cells do not possess any antigen specific receptors; however, like T cells, they commonly express CD25 and CD127. ILCs ... where immune regulation is critical to prevent unnecessary immune responses toward commensal and food antigens. Th17 cells are ...
Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to...
Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere ... Animals, Antibodies, Protozoan, Antigens, Helminth, Cameroon, Elephantiasis, Geography, Humans, Immunoglobulin G, Lymphedema, ... Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere ...
Erica M. Pasini, MD: Biomedical Primate Research Centre: primate reseach relevant for human health and disease: malaria, TB,...
An atypical and functionally diverse family of Kunitz-type cysteine/serine proteinase inhibitors secreted by the helminth...
... cathepsin L proteases and/or impairs host immune cell activation by blocking lysosomal cathepsin proteases involved in antigen ... T1 - An atypical and functionally diverse family of Kunitz-type cysteine/serine proteinase inhibitors secreted by the helminth ... An atypical and functionally diverse family of Kunitz-type cysteine/serine proteinase inhibitors secreted by the helminth ... An atypical and functionally diverse family of Kunitz‑type cysteine/ serine proteinase inhibitors secreted by the helminth ...
Rectum - McMaster Experts
Helminth antigen-based strategy to ameliorate inflammation in an experimental model of colitis Academic Article ... A transgenic mouse line harboring a smooth muscle alpha-actin promoter polyomavirus middle T antigen transgene develops an ... Comparison of rectal mucosal proliferation measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry and whole ...
Antigens, Helminth - Preferred Concept UI. M0001419. Scope note. Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune ... The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.. Annotation:. coord IM with specific helminth /immunol ... Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. ... The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes. Preferred term. Antigens, Helminth ...
MARC details for record no. 23972 › WHO HQ Library catalog
IMSEAR at SEARO: Epitope specific monoclonal antibodies from heterologous antigen for immunodiagnosis of filariasis.
Antigens, Helminth. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. en_US. ... The excretory secretory (ES) antigens produced from Setaria digitata were studied by PAGE and Western blot and compared with ... Monoclonal antibodies (K3AE7 and K3BD5) developed against the ES antigen were evaluated by ELISA for the diagnosis of human ... Cent per cent positive reaction was found with the circulating filarial antigen (CFA) of microfilaria carriers, occult and ...
mediaTUM - Media and Publication Server
... including those elicited by parasitic helminths, remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that soluble egg antigen (SEA ... including those elicited by parasitic helminths, remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that soluble egg antigen (SEA ... highlighting the physiological importance of this pathway in Th2 polarization during a helminth infection. In summary, we ...
Code System Concept
Human papillomaviruses agents Human papillomavirus (HPV) Arhivă de ilustraţii | k | Fotosearch - Human papillomaviruses agents
Le papillomavirus, interview du Pr Gondry hpv therapy nedir What does word helminth mean cancer de colon que hacer, bacterii ... Substanța activă a unui vaccin este un antigen destinat să stimuleze apărarea naturală a organismului. ... Respiratie urat mirositoare la copii helminth for sale, papiloma escamoso faringe enterobius vermicularis monoxeno. ...
"Antigen Specific Cd4+ T Cell Responses Against A Gastrointestinal Nema" by Bonnie Douglas Douglas
... but issues of T cell antigen specificity in the context of helminth-induced Th2 and T regulatory cell (Treg) responses have not ... Altogether, this new model system reveals that helminth-specific CD4+ T cells can adopt effector as well as immunosuppressive ... This report establishes a new resource for studying the nature and function of helminth-specific T cells. ... and FLAG peptide in order to track and study helminth-specific CD4+ T cells. C57BL/6 mice infected with this stable transgenic ...