Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The treatment of immune system diseases by deliberate infestation with helminths. This therapy is partly based on the HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS which states that the absence of parasites increases immune dysregulation because of the lack of stimulation of REGULATORY T-CELLS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
A genus of large tapeworms.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.

Differential serodiagnosis for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis using fractions of Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (antigen B) and E. multilocularis protoscolex (EM18). (1/1434)

Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid and E. multilocularis protoscolex extract were fractionated by a single step of preparative isoelectric focusing, resulting in an antigen B-rich fraction (8-kD) and an Em18-rich fraction, respectively. The usefulness of both fractions for differential serodiagnosis of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis was evaluated by a large-scale immunoblot analysis on a battery of 354 serum samples. These included 66 from AE patients originating from four different endemic areas, 173 from CE patients originating from seven different endemic areas, 71 from patients with other parasitic diseases, 15 from patients with hepatomas, and 29 from healthy individuals. In an immunoblot with the antigen B-rich fraction, 92% (158 of 173) of the CE sera as well as 79% (52 of 66) of the AE sera reacted with the 8-kD subunit. No cross-reactivity occurred with any sera from patients with cysticercosis, other parasitic diseases, or with hepatomas, or from healthy controls. In an immunoblot with the Em18-rich fraction, all but two sera from AE patients (64 of 66, 97%) recognized Em18, and only nine of 34 CE sera from China reacted with it. All other (139) CE sera from six other countries were negative as were all (115) other non-echinococcosis sera. These findings indicate that antigen B (8-kD) is not species-specific for E. granulosus but is genus-specific for Echinococcus, and that the Em18 antigen is a reliable serologic marker for species-specific differentiation of AE from CE.  (+info)

Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. (2/1434)

We developed a serologic assay to identify adult Taenia solium tapeworm carriers using excretory/secretory (TSES) antigens collected from in vitro cultured T. solium tapeworms. To identify taeniasis-specific antigens we used an immunoblot assay with serum samples from T. solium tapeworm carriers and cysticercosis patients. Antigens were identified that reacted with antibodies present in serum samples from taeniasis cases and not with those from cysticercosis patients. Using serum samples collected from persons with confirmed T. solium tapeworm infections, the test was determined to be 95% (69 of 73) sensitive. Serum samples (n = 193) from persons with other parasitic infections, including T. saginata tapeworm infections, do not contain cross-reacting antibodies to TSES, indicating that the assay is 100% specific. These data suggest that the immunoblot assay using TSES antigens can be used to identify persons with current or recent T. solium tapeworm infections and provides a new, important tool for epidemiologic purposes, including control and prevention strategies.  (+info)

Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (3/1434)

The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of artemether on proteinase of Schistosoma japonicum. (4/1434)

AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the thio proteinase ("hemoglobinase", Hem) of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Hem was extracted from S japonicum adults. The inhibitory effect of Art on the activity of Hem to degrade human hemoglobin (Hgb) was examined with UV-photometer at 280 nm, SDS-PAGE and scanning at 600 nm on a chromoscanner. RESULTS: Human Hgb was degraded at pH 4.0 by the Hem. The activities of Hem preincubated at 37 degrees C with Art 0.14, 1.4, and 14 mmol.L-1, were inhibited by 30.2%, 39.8%, and 45.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Art possesses an inhibitory effect to Hem of S japonicum.  (+info)

Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (5/1434)

Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice.  (+info)

A novel 62-kilodalton egg antigen from Schistosoma mansoni induces a potent CD4(+) T helper cell response in the C57BL/6 mouse. (6/1434)

In infection with Schistosoma mansoni, hepatic granuloma formation is mediated by CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells sensitized to schistosomal egg antigens. There is considerable variation among infected individuals with respect to both severity of disease and the T-cell response to egg antigens. In the BL/6 mouse, the egg granulomas are relatively small and the relevant sensitizing egg antigens are largely unknown. We investigated the CD4(+) Th cell response of infected BL/6 mice to egg antigens fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found a prominent lymphoproliferative response to be directed against a 62-kDa component. With the aid of a specific T-cell hybridoma, 4E6, the 62-kDa antigen was isolated; following partial digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C, an internal amino acid sequence was found to be identical with one present in the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) of the organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Treponema pallidum and to differ by one residue from PEPCK of various other species. In CD4(+) Th cells from 7.5- 8.5-week-infected BL/6 mice, the purified 62-kDa molecule elicited a potent proliferative response which, based on cytokine analysis, was of a mixed Th-1 and Th-2 type. Our results reveal a novel egg antigen of particular prominence in the BL/6 mouse and suggest that the immune response in schistosomiasis is a product of sensitization to egg antigens that may vary considerably in immunogenicity from strain to strain.  (+info)

Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (7/1434)

The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone.  (+info)

Tolerization of mice to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens causes elevated type 1 and diminished type 2 cytokine responses and increased mortality in acute infection. (8/1434)

The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages of schistosome infection, egg-tolerized mice suffered high mortalities. Granuloma size and deposition of collagen in the liver were significantly reduced in egg-tolerized mice. Similarly, limited granuloma responses were detected in the intestines of these mice, and this was associated with a >90% reduction in egg excretion. Histologically, egg-tolerized mice had exacerbated hepatocyte damage, with extensive microvesicular steatosis. Elevated plasma transaminase levels confirmed the damage to hepatocytes. Infected egg-tolerized mice had impaired proliferation responses to egg Ag but intact responses to worm Ag. Tolerized mice had diminished Ab responses to egg Ag and had a type 1 cytokine isotype pattern to worm Ag, with elevated IgG2a and diminished IgG1 and IgE. Egg-tolerized mice failed to down-regulate type 1 cytokines that are normally elicited during early schistosome infection. Hepatic granuloma cells from egg-tolerized mice were also type 1 cytokine dominated, with elevated frequencies of Tc1/Th1 and reduced Tc2/Th2 cells. This study demonstrates that mice tolerized to schistosome eggs have elevated type 1 cytokine responses with diminished type 2 responses and reduced anti-egg Ab during schistosome infection, and these effects are detrimental to the host.  (+info)

The lineage differentiation of TFH cells has been unclear. In our system, TFH cells possess canonical attributes of Th2 cells. Further, kinetic analysis of TFH cell development showed that the percentages of IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells in draining LNs remained relatively constant (∼16% of total CD4+ cells) from day 7-14 after SEA immunization, whereas the contribution of PD-1+ TFH cells to this population doubled from 21-42% over the same time period (Fig. 1 B), suggesting that TFH cells develop from within the PD-1− IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cell population. To formally address this, we FACS-purified IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells that lacked the classical TFH markers CXCR5 and PD-1 (Fig. 4 E) from the pooled draining LNs of Thy1.1 4get mice that had been immunized 5 d earlier with SEA. These cells were then adoptively transferred into congenic Thy1.2 recipient BALB/c mice or JHD mice, which were then immediately immunized with SEA. After 7 d, Thy1.1+ donor cells in the reactive LNs of recipient animals (Fig. 5 ...
antigens from a few sources: (i) all ES, somatic, and cuticular antigens as a result of tissue penetration and subsequent degeneration of the larvae, more info resulting in exposure to the whole profile on the parasites antigens; (ii) ES antigens only, in instances exactly where You will find a expulsion on the parasite intact, perhaps following penetration of intestine tissue has transpired; and (iii) cuticular and somatic antigens from lifeless larvae contained in food, through which case ES antigens could well be current only in minimal quantities-this last position has also been advised by Jackson (127 ...
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Abstract At present, there is no consensus that purified schistosome egg antigens offer any advantage in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Previously, we demonstrated by multiple techniques that the major serologic antigens in Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA) are glycoproteins, and that the glycoproteins with highest specificity and sensitivity are hydrophobes. We therefore tested these materials for their specificity, sensitivity and cost effectiveness in the ELISA. In this study we used five SEA fractions that varied in their purity and antigenicity. The order of immunologic specific activity in the ELISA, measured by titration of a standard sera pool, was: hydrophobic glycoproteins (highest), crude SEA glycoproteins, hydrophilic glycoproteins, crude SEA, and SEA proteins (lowest). Complexity (purity) of these materials were (in rank order), hydrophilic glycoproteins (purest), hydrophobic glycoproteins, crude glycoproteins, SEA proteins, and
Objectives. The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response.. Methods. The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40μg or 20μg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry.. Results. Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40μg or 20μg ...
Cyathostomins are the most common parasitic nematodes of horses. Larval stages, which inhabit the intestinal wall, are particularly pathogenic and can cause severe colitis and colic. Despite their clinical importance, diagnostic techniques for the prepatent stages do not exist. A method that could estimate mucosal infection intensity would have a major impact on the control and diagnosis of cyathostominosis. Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental infections, natural infections and in horses that presented with clinical larval cyathostominosis. In experimentally-infected animals, anti-25 kDa complex IgG(T) levels correlated positively with field exposure and with early third stage larval (r(s)=0.74, P=0.015) and total mucosal parasite (r(s)=0.78, P=0.010) burdens. In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly ...
Keynote Address to Highlight Upstream s Drug Candidates That Have Demonstrated Promising In Vitro Activity Against Sleeping Sickness and Other Parasitic Disease
Specific IgG4 and IgE responses to adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were examined in 267 individuals from an area in which schistosomiasis mansoni is endemic. Based on information obtained from clinical and sonographic examinations of this sample, the individuals were divided in three groups: 1) 204 individuals without periportal fibrosis, and liver and spleen enlargements; 2) 41 individuals without periportal fibrosis, but presenting with organopathy, with or without organomegaly; and 3) 22 individuals with periportal fibrosis, regardless of their status as having hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Levels of IgG4 to SEA were significantly higher in sera from patients with fibrosis compared with the patients from the other two groups. We also found significantly higher levels of IgG4 against SEA in egg-negative patients with fibrosis compared with egg-negative patients from the other two groups. This report demonstrates a specific humoral response in patients presenting with initial
A cell-mediated immunologic granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs is now generally accepted as being responsible for the hepatosplenic disease of chronic schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a soluble extract of S. mansoni eggs (SEA) both induces and elicits granulomatous hypersensitivity and other forms of cell-mediated immunologic reactivity. Mice with chronic light S. mansoni infections show spontaneous suppression of granulomatous hypersensitivity in the presence of high levels of anti-SEA antibodies. Immunodiffusion analysis using antiserum obtained from these mice and SEA resulted in the identification of three major serologic antigens which have been designated MSA1, MSA2, and MSA3. Initial studies with Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the three antigens were markedly different in m.w. and at least two of the three were glycoproteins. The antigens were then extracted from crude SEA by adsorption to ...
Over the past several years, our lab has been attempting to determine the mechanism by which inbred strains of mice, which we use as model mammalian hosts, respond to experimental filarial infections. The outcome of these studies indicates that an important host defense mechanism is the formation of multicellular aggregates of leukocytes called granulomas around incoming infectious larvae. Our previous studies indicated an important role for T cells (for the recruitment of a robust population of leukocytes and for activating macrophages along the alternative pathway of activation), B lymphocytes (particularly the B1 subset), and macrophages and eosinophils (for participating in the granulomas). We have demonstrated the crucial importance of antifilarial antibodies of the IgM isotype in binding to the surface of the larvae and facilitating the adhesion of activated macrophages to the larvae. We have further shown that the in vitro cytoadherence assay is a good surrogate for in vivo granuloma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulatory effect of antigenic fractions of a recent clinical isolate of L. donovani on monocytic cell lines. AU - Tripathi, Parul. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Naik, Sita. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines are important mediators of the immune response to Leishmania. We have recently reported that following SDS-PAGE separation and transfer of whole L. donovani antigen (strain 2001, a recent clinical isolate from Bihar) into 11 fractions (named F1 to F11; MW range 139-24.2 Kd), only the high molecular weight (MW) fractions (F1 to F4; MW range 134-64.2 Kd) had immunostimulatory activity when tested in leishmania exposed immune individuals. The F1 to F11 fractions were able to induce significant proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of leishmania exposed immune individuals and production of variable amounts of IFN-γ IL-12p40 and IL-10. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of L. donovani promastigotes whole ...
Doenhoff, MJ and El-Faham, M and Liddell, S and Fuller, HR and Stanley, RG and Schramm, G and Igetei, JE (2016) Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs). PLoS One. ISSN 1932-6203 ...
DCs are known to play a pivotal role in the initiation and polarization of T cell responses, and S. mansoni egg preparations have been shown to prime Th2 cells via the functional modulation of DCs (MacDonald et al., 2001; de Jong et al., 2002). To study and identify the components from S. mansoni egg preparations that instruct Th2 development, we used a well established co-culture system of human monocyte-derived DC and naive CD4+ T cells, which is generally thought to mimic in vivo DC-mediated T helper cell polarization (Kapsenberg, 2003). It stands to reason that ESPs from live eggs (Cass et al., 2007) are the first egg-derived molecules to interact with cells of the innate immune system, including DCs. Therefore, we initially tested ESPs for their capacity to condition DCs to prime Th2 development from naive CD4+ T cells. Similar to SEA, exposure of DCs to ESP resulted in a robust Th2 skewing irrespective of the presence or absence of LPS as a neutral maturation factor (Fig. 1 A). In a recent ...
FIGURE 1. In vivo Ab production after the intranasal immunization with saline, HSA or sugar-conjugated HSA in BALB/c (A-D) and C57BL/6 (E and F) mice. Serum samples were taken after prime (▦), boost (□), and challenge (▪) as described in Materials and Methods. Ab of IgG (A and E), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses (B) specific for HSA were measured by indirect ELISA and estimated by endpoint titer. IgE titers specific for HSA (C and F) and the volume of serum total IgE (D) were determined by sandwich ELISA. Levels of HSA-specific IgE were presented as the absorbance at 450 nm from duplicate wells of 1/4 serum dilution. Results show the mean ± SEM of four individual serum per group. Data are representative of three (A-D) and two (E and F) separate experiments.. ...
Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high
SATREPS: Japanese government (JST/JICA) program for international joint research into global issues by researchers in Japan and developing countries. In the first three years beginning in April 2008, a total of 49 projects commenced in 28 countries.
Has anyone done the heart worm antigen text on their pups? My vet sent a reminder that Ozzy needs this. Never did it on any of my prior dogs. He has been on...
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Praziquantel (PZQ) efficacy and immune responses to schistosome antigens following cure were investigated in Schistosoma mansoni infected adult fishermen resident in Kisumu, Kenya with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Schistosomiasis negative/HIV negative and schistosomiasis negative/HIV positive fishermen were used as controls. Proliferative responses to schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA), soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) as well as leves of typical T helper-1 (TH-1) type, [gamma interferon (IFN-)] and T helper-2 (TH-2) type [Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] cytokines were assayed at baseline, one month and four months post-treatment with Praziquantel. Indications of immunosuppression were determined by CD4+ counts and HIV testing by ELISA and Western blot. Cure success and reinfection rates were determined by longitudinal follow up of eggs ...
Adult Onchocerca voluvlus and infective larvae, but not microfilariae contain an immunodominant antigen (33,000 and 21,000 Mr in females, 39,000, 33,000, and 21,000 Mr in males, 133,000 Mr in infective larvae) which is recognized by an Onchocerca-specific mAb. The component is part of the reproductive organs and muscles. 96.2% of onchocerciasis sera contained antibodies detectable by immunoblotting against it. Antigen purified by immunoaffinity chromatography was specifically recognized in immunoblots by onchocerciasis sera, but not by sera from other filarial infections. The high immunogenicity, the specificity, and the occurrence in infective larvae of this antigen indicate an immunodiagnostic potential and a possible role in the immunobiology of the parasite. ...
Clonorchis sinensis ESA proved to be a better serodiagnostic antigen than CA for ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity of ELISA with ESA was 92.5% while that of ELISA with CA was 88.2%, when 509 human sera of clonorchiasis were screened in the present study, which was statistically significant. The diagnostic specificity of ELISA with ESA was increased to 93.1% from 87.8% by using CA. Especially cross-reactivity of ESA with serum specimens of opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis was reduced compared to that of CA.. C. sinensis ESA was found to include proteins of 7-8, 12.5, and 30 kDa (Kim, 1998), and the 7 or 8 kDa protein predominated (Chung et al., 2002). ESA has been suggested to be a valuable candidate diagnostic antigen of active clonorchiasis in rabbits and humans (Kim, 1994 & 1998). The protein bands in C. sinensis ESA were also found to form 7-8, 17 and 26-28 kDa bands, while in CA bands at 35, 43, 55, and 70 kDa were additionally observed (Hong et al., 1997, 1999).. The 7-8 ...
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
Through the use of Schistosoma mansoni antigens we attempted to develop a non-invasive assay that would diagnose an infection of intestinal schistosomiasis. We isolated parts of the Schistosoma mansoni parasite shed ...
A micromethod of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to infections with Schistosoma japonicumin humans and mice with egg antigens. In mouse infections, antibody responses were...
Schistosomes have an outer tegument that protects them from the host immune system. Parasite antigens expressed on or within the surface layer of the tegument have been suggested to be potential vaccine targets such as tetraspanin 23 (TSP23). Little is known about the evolution and diversity of tegumental antigens, an important consideration given that vaccines are being designed and are failing. Moreover, these antigens, including TSP23, are in direct contact with the host immune system, and so accelerated and adaptive evolution may be occurring. Species of Schistosoma infect a variety of definitive hosts. The way in which these hosts are shaping the evolution of antigens across different species of Schistosoma needs investigating. Much attention has been focussed on the production of an effective multi-species vaccine against the schistosomes, and there has been little success in absolute clearance or even establishment of continued immune memory post-infection. The aim of this study was ...
Leder K, et al. Liver flukes: Fascioliasis. In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate; 2014. Accessed December 24, 2014 ...
As many of you pointed out, this eggs beautifully demonstrates the filaments arising from the 2 poles of the inner membrane (arrow heads, below image). You cant make it out here, but there are 4-8 of these filaments arising from each pole. You can also nicely see the hooks of the 6-hooked oncosphere ...
WuXi will produce SARS-CoV-2 s-proteins for BioVaxys COVID-19 vaccine candidate, BVX-0320, and for its Covid-T immunodiagnostic program.
Karriereopslag hos Region Sjælland, Akademikernes Jobbank: Stillingsopslag Radiografstilling MR souschef Billeddiagnostisk Afdeling, Sjællands Universitets Hospital, Roskilde Er du uddannet radiograf, og har erfaring og viden indenfor MR, har vi en ledig fuldtidsstilling som souschef i vores velfungerende MR-gruppe pr. 1. April 2020 eller efter aftale. Stillingen er vagtfri - dog kan man deltage i udvidet åbningstid
Fasciola gigantica infection threatens the health of both humans and animals in the world. The excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of this fluke has been reported to impair the activation and maturation of immune cells. We have previously shown the influence of F. gigantica ESPs (FgESPs) on the maturation of buffalo dendritic cells (DCs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potency of FgESPs in shifting the differentiation and immune functions of buffalo DCs. Buffalo DCs were incubated with FgESPs directly or further co-cultured with lymphocytes in vitro. qRT-PCR was employed to determine the gene expression profile of DCs or the mixed cells, and an ELISA was used to measure cytokine levels in the supernatants. Hoechst and Giemsa staining assays, transmission electron microscopy, caspase-3/7 activity test and histone methylation test were performed to determine DC phenotyping, apoptosis and methylation. To investigate the mechanism
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Trichinella spiralis, sometimes known as the pork worm, is a parasite within the Nematoda class. It can be found in pigs, rats, humans, and bears. This worm causes trichinosis in humans, most often from consuming undercooked pork. This species is the smallest within its class, reaching an average body length of .16 centimeters. Females are twice as large as males, displaying a sexual dimorphism. The reproductive organs of females are unique to the species in that the front end holds developed juveniles, while the back end, where the uterus is found, holds undeveloped eggs. The genome of this species was completed in 2011.. Trichinella spiralis requires one host to mature and survive, because it spends its entire life within the one host. When a human ingests the larvae, which are protected by a cyst like formation, the PH of the stomach allows them to hatch and travel into the intestines. After reaching this area, the larvae dig into the mucosa to grow and breed. Females can live for up to six ...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of proteins in excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis.: Two genes encoding Trichinella p
2016 US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Strategies Published by at 600 Pages geure eta beste batzuen cookieak erabiltzen ditugu nabigatzeko esperientzia hobetzeko. Nabigatzen jarraitzen baduzu, gure cookieen politika onartzen duzula ulertuko dugu. Informazio gehiago Onartu ...
Background: Eosinophils play important roles in tissue inflammatory responses associated with helminth infections. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) produced by tissue-invasive helminths contain a large quantity of proteolytic enzymes that can modulate the host's immune responses. However, little is known regarding the roles of worm-derived products that are responsible for eosinophilic inflammatory responses in helminth infections. Objective: In the present study, we investigated whether ESP produced by Paragonimus westermani, which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, regulates both cell survival and death of human eosinophils. Methods: The ESP was obtained from P. westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM). Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors, and the purified eosinophils were incubated with or without the ESP secreted by PwNEM. The viability of eosinophils was assessed by staining with propidium iodide using the flow ...
The co-occurrence of malaria and schistosomiasis is common in tropical regions of the world. Malaria induces a strong Th1 response while schistosomiasis skews the response to a Th2. Several studies demonstrate a non consistent effect of schistosomiasis infection on progression of malaria. On one hand, schistosomiasis infections protect against cerebral malaria while on the other hand, they are associated with increased malaria severity. This study examined the role of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on Plasmodium berghei malaria progression in BALB/c mice. The objectives were to determine the changes in Th1, Th2 cytokines and IgG levels which are markers associated with malaria and schistosomiasis protection and also determine if S. mansoni eggs lead to protection from P. berghei malaria. Two groups of mice were used: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group was injected with a triple dose of S. mansoni eggs at ten day interval before being challenged with P. berghei. The ...
The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic gold standard reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the true prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on ...
Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G. lamblia-induced cytokine production in human epithelial cells. Incubation of the gastrointestinal cell line HT-29 with G. lamblia GS trophozoites triggered production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IL-8 production was not significantly decreased by physically separating the HT-29 cells and G. lamblia GS trophozoites. Indeed, treatment of HT-29 with G. lamblia excretory-secretory products (ESP) induced IL-8 production. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift and transfection assays using mutagenized IL-8 promoter reporter plasmids indicated that IL-8 production by G. lamblia ESP occurs through activation of two transcriptional factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in HT-29 cells. In addition, activation of two ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fasciola hepatica in the rat. T2 - immune responses associated with the development of resistance to infection. AU - Keegan, P S. AU - Trudgett, A. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - F. hepatica infections were established in rats and immune responses were monitored during primary and challenge infections. Antibody levels peaked at 3 weeks post-primary infection and at 6 days post-challenge infection. No significant correlation was found between antibody titre and number of flukes recovered at autopsy. Immunoblotting revealed a limited number of immunogenic polypeptides. When antibodies from these reactive bands were eluted and tested by IFA they all gave identical binding patterns: on juvenile fluke sections tegumental syncytium, tegumental cells and gut cells were labelled, while on adult sections the same antibodies labelled gut cells, reproductive tissue, excretory ducts and flame cells. This suggested that these tissues shared a common epitope or range of epitopes. A ...
22. Falc o PL, Corr a de Oliveira G, Busek SU, Rodrigues-Caldas I, Martins-Filho OA, Malaquias LCC, Silveira MAS, Corr a-Oliveira R. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: IL-10 modulates in vitro granuloma formation modulating the expression of CD28, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). XXIV Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Immunology. guas de Lind ia, 24-27 de Outubro de 1999 ...
Gigantic urban agglomerations and barely populated villages alike have their own local problems. Even in a paradise free of major socioeconomic issues, such as La Jolla, we can still smell trouble like sea lion and bird poop. For the past few years, the area has been suffering from a natural yet nauseous smell - feces from the animals of La Jolla Cove. A seemingly minor inconvenience causes strong feelings in the hearts and noses of La Jollans. But with rotating plastic cylinders to humanely displace the sea lions, it is time to end the stink once and for all.. The problem with the foul scent of animal and bird excrements began in La Jolla Cove when city authorities decided to put up a fence along the cliffs to prevent people from entering an unsafe sheer area. While making the cliffs safer for tourists and residents, the fence created a people-free zone that sea lions and birds gladly occupied. The unusually large concourse of animals soon befouled their new habitat, producing an unbearable ...
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DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans..
Vitamin C , Boosts the antioxidant and immune support while supporting nerve function enhanced with Citrus Bioflavonoids.. • PuraImmuno Blend , increases circulating lymphocyte levels in a healthy as well as a low immune individual, by increasing the number of leukocytes, T-Cells, B-Cells and NK cells whose natural function are to directly support immune health.. With PuraHemps proprietary PuraImmuno Plus, you will increase phagocytic activity of macrophages making your body less susceptible to harmful bacteria. ...
FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal because of a reaction with its environment. For the purpose of this report, corrosion is the result of an electrochemical reaction
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Complete report $11,500. DataPack (test volumes, sales forecasts, supplier shares) $7,500.VPGMarketResearch.coms new report is a strategic analysis of major business ...
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May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ... In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... Follicular helper T cells (also known as follicular B helper T cells and abbreviated as TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T ...
Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho Highlands of Kenya. "Moses Rugutt named Nacosti head". Business ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA. Anthelmintic resistance amongst ...
2002). "An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen". J Immunol. 169 (6): 3284-3292 ... In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. ... Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where the immune system is forced to ... However, helminths also regulate Th2-caused diseases, such as allergy and asthma. Professor Rook postulates that different ...
They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. Eosinophils are ... They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth ... Shi HZ (September 2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (3): 520-7. doi: ...
... helminths, allergens). Antibodies that bind to surface antigens (for example, on bacteria) will attract the first component of ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... It is important to note that this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by ... This means binding between antibody and antigen is reversible, and the antibody's affinity towards an antigen is relative ...
Of all the known helminth species, the most important helminths with respect to understanding their transmission pathways, ... Sophisticated tests such as serological assays, antigen tests, and molecular diagnosis are also available; however, they are ... Specific helminths can be identified through microscopic examination of their eggs (ova) found in faecal samples. The number of ... Helminths may cause iron-deficiency anemia. This is most severe in heavy hookworm infections, as Necator americanus and ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. They also have an external structure or ... ADCC is also important in the use of vaccines, as creation of antibodies and the destruction of antigens introduced to the host ... Frey, Joachim (2019/12). "RTX Toxins of Animal Pathogens and Their Role as Antigens in Vaccines and Diagnostics". Toxins. 11 ( ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE ... When an appropriate allergic antigen or parasite is present, the cross-linking of at least two IgE molecules and their Fc ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...
Adult hookworm antigens have also been identified as potential candidates for vaccines. When adult worms attach to the ... For example, helminth infections cause potent and highly polarized immune response characterized by increased T-helper cell ... Research on larval antigens has focused on proteins that are members of the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily, ... Research is currently stymied at the development of at least one of these antigens as a recombinant protein for testing in ...
This involves the use of mass spectrometry find parasite antigens (proteins which activate an adaptive immune response) which ... Mutapi's lab at the University of Edinburgh, the Parasite Immuno-epidemiology Group, researches immune responses to helminths ... Currently there are no available vaccines for infections by helminth worms including bilharzia. Mutapi is pioneering proteomics ...
... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ...
Anthelmintic resistance amongst sheep and goats in Kenya and Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA; ...
... it acts to protect against several bowel infections caused by helminths. This role of IL-25 has been demonstrated in these ... promotes efficient protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection by enhancing the antigen-specific IL-9 response ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203 (4): 1105-16. doi:10.1084/jem.20051615 ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. The Rockefeller University Press. OCLC 679042420. Angkasekwinai P, Srimanote P, ...
The clearance of helminth in mice that lacked taste receptor function (Trpm5 or/-gustducin KO) or enough tuft cells (Pou2f3 KO ... A loss of tolerance to antigens that appear in the environment cause Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) ... Helminth colonization inducts a type 2 immune response, causes mucosal healing and achieves clinical remission. During an ... This shows that tufts cells are important in playing a protective role during the helminth infections. It was observed that IL- ...
High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such ... Muck, A.; Pires, M.; Lammie, P. (2003). "Influence of infection with non-filarial helminths on the specificity of serological ... as strongyloides and schistosoma antigens, as demonstrated in reported cases. It is important to exclude other parasitic ...
... s are critical for primary responses to local Th2 antigens e.g. helminths and viruses and that is why ILC2s are abundant in ... These cells lack antigen specific B or T cell receptor because of the lack of recombination activating gene. ILC2s produce type ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203 (4): 1105-16. doi:10.1084/jem.20051615 ... 2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13) and are involved in responses to helminths, allergens, some viruses, such as ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Erb KJ (May 2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". European Journal of ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic reactions to drugs, bee stings, and antigen ... CD23 may also allow facilitated antigen presentation, an IgE-dependent mechanism whereby B cells expressing CD23 are able to ...
... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ... Responses to specific helminths are also characterised with elevated levels of IgE antibodies. Idiotype Janeway, CA; Travers, P ... IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in the serum and is often generated following repeated exposure to the same antigen or ... sIgA has also been shown to potentiate the immune response in intestinal tissue by uptake of antigen together with the bound ...
An antigen is a substance that ignites the immune response. The cells involved in recognizing the antigen are Lymphocytes. Once ... and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in ... If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before being exposed to the antigen itself then the child will ... antigen type, maternal factors and the area where the antigen is presented. Neonates are said to be in a state of physiological ...
Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells. Endogenous antigens are ... In general, Th2 responses are more effective against extracellular bacteria, parasites including helminths and toxins. Like ... A critical difference between B cells and T cells is how each cell "sees" an antigen. T cells recognize their cognate antigen ... The host's cells express "self" antigens. These antigens are different from those on the surface of bacteria or on the surface ...
... and helminths. Lack of exposure to sufficient benign antigens, particularly during childhood, is sometimes suggested as a cause ... Extra-cellular antigens primarily trigger the TH2 response, as observed with allergies, while intracellular antigens trigger a ... Helminths are parasitic worms such as hookworms, whipworms, and threadworms that have evolved to live within a host organism on ... Helminth infection has emerged as one possible explanation for the low incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in less ...
Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... helminths), and that a positive serologic test does not necessarily distinguish among infections. The new tests have not ... In the past, healthcare providers used a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin-test antigen for filariasis ...
A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ...
It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites ... Firstly, the antigen and antibody rapidly form antigen-antibody complexes within few seconds and this is followed by a slower ... It acts on antigen-antibody reaction in which the antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ...
Helminths are thought to have been as old as the adaptive immune system, suggesting that they may have co-evolved, also ... They include: Reciprocal inhibition between immune responses directed against distinct antigens of the Old Friends microbes ... Of all the various types of pathogens known to cause disease in humans, helminths warrant special attention, because of their ... Maizels, R. M.; McSorley, H. J.; Smyth, D. J. (July 2014). "Helminths in the hygiene hypothesis: sooner or later?". Clinical & ...
Blanchard R, Klassen P (April 1997). "H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men". J. Theor. Biol. 185 (3): 373-8. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... 2005). "Helminths and the Modulation of Mucosal Inflammation". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 21 (2): 51-58. PMID ...
Antigens interact with IgE molecules already bound to high affinity Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells to induce ... following interaction between their Fc receptors and IgE molecules that are bound to large parasites like helminths. Four kinds ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.377.715.647.100 - alpha-macroglobulins See List ... helminth MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.224 - antibodies, monoclonal ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.377.715.548.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ... antigens, polyomavirus transforming MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.420 - papillomavirus e7 proteins MeSH D12.776.624.664.520.750 - ...
... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.950.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.124.790.106.050 - alpha 1-antichymotrypsin MeSH ... helminth MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.191 - antibodies, heterophile MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.224 - antibodies, monoclonal ... antigens, cd46 MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250 - complement c1 inactivator proteins MeSH D12.776.124.486.274.920.250.500 - ... antigen-antibody complex MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301 - antitoxins MeSH D12.776.124.486.485.114.301.138 - antivenins MeSH ...
1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... such as helminths, could protect against allergy. Therefore, reduced exposure to these organisms, particularly in developed ... Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". Eur. J. Immunol. 37 (5): ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
A. cantonensis is a helminth of the phylum Nematoda, order Strongylida, and superfamily Metastrongyloidea. Nematodes are ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR.[51] A rapid ... "Helminth Taxonomy - Phylum Nematoda". Schistosomiasis Research Group. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved ... Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ...
... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... 2004). "Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation". Int. Immunol. 16 (4): 585-96. ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ...
Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... helminths), and a positive serologic test does not necessarily distinguish between infections-up and coming serologic tests ... In the past, health care providers use a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin test antigen for filariasis ...
These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... Macroparasites[6] (worms or helminths) including nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, tapeworms (cestodes), and ... For example, "Strep throat" is often diagnosed within minutes, and is based on the appearance of antigens made by the causative ... Signal of unknowns can be compared to that of standards allowing quantitation of the target antigen. To aid in the diagnosis of ...
Complement fixation test are methods of identifying different kinds of parasites by detecting the presence of their antigens on ... Veterinary helminthology is focused on veterinary important helminth parasites, for example: *Ancylostoma duodenale ...
Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... parasites including helminths and toxins.[2] Like cytotoxic T cells, most of the CD4+ helper cells die on resolution of ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Endogenous antigensEdit. Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell ...
Correale J, Farez M, Razzitte G (August 2008). "Helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis induce regulatory B ... veoma kasan antigen -4). Rezultati faze IIa su objavljeni. ...
Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ... Helminth's relationship to humans as hosts should be classified as mutualistic or symbiotic.[citation needed] ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... The cells then destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen.[citation needed] ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Defense against helminths. Multiple Sclerosis Tfh. IL-21, IL-4. Bcl-6. Help B cells produce antibody. Asthma and other allergic ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[51] Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... against which helminths are not resistant.[34][35] The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound ... Large parasites like the helminth (worm) Schistosoma mansoni are too large for ingestion by phagocytes. They also have an ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...
If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before being exposed to the antigen itself then the child will ... and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in ... The body's capability to react to antigens depends on a person's age, antigen type, maternal factors and the area where the ... Antigen-presenting cells in newborns have a reduced capability to activate T cells. Also, T cells of a newborn proliferate ...
At the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a combination of tests with purified adult worm antigens is used for ... It belongs to the group of helminth infections.[10] Diagnosis is by finding eggs of the parasite in a person's urine or stool.[ ... All serum specimens are tested by FAST-ELISA using S. mansoni adult microsomal antigen. A positive reaction (greater than 9 ... Immunoblots with adult worm microsomal antigens are species-specific, so a positive reaction indicates the infecting species. ...
Brooker S, Clements AC, Bundy DA (2006). Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Adv ... Research on larval antigens has focused on proteins that are members of the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily, ... Knowles SC (August 2011). "The effect of helminth co-infection on malaria in mice". Int. J. Parasitol. 41 (10): 1041-51. doi: ... The term "hookworm" is sometimes used to refer to hookworm infection.[11] A hookworm is a type of parasitic worm (helminth). ...
... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ...
Human leukocyte antigen associations may even be at work. In fact, this linkage on chromosome 6 may be the most convincing and ... The therapy tests the hygiene hypothesis which argues that the absence of helminths in the colons of people in the developed ...
Erb KJ (2007). „Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". Eur. J. Immunol. 37 (5): ... Kod alergičnih osoba, mastociti su obloženi specifičnim IgE antitelima za neki antigen. Oblaganje mastocita IgE antitelima se ... Degranulacija, 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - medijatori (histamin, proteaze, hemokini, heparin); 5 - granule; 6 ... Takva reakcija se može javiti u roku od nekoliko minuta nakon što senzibilisana osoba ponovo unese antigen. ...
PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... similarly fucose presents the same for certain bacteria and helminths; and glucans are present on mycobacteria and fungi. In ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMC 7169806. PMID 16948640. "Understanding ...
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... helminth protein - helper T cell - hemopexin - hemoglobin - herpes simplex virus protein vmw65 - heterocyclic compound - ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ...
"Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet N°366". World Health Organization. June 2013. Archived from the original on ... Ascariasis may result in allergies to shrimp and dustmites due to the shared antigen, tropomyosin; this has not been confirmed ... Horák P (1992). "Helminth eggs in the sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Czechoslovakia". Folia Parasitologica. 39 (2 ... A similar study in the same area showed that 73% of children working on these farms were infected with helminths, particularly ...
Furthermore, a cocktail of H. polygyrus excretory-secretory antigens can be collected, and administered to mice in the presence ... Reynolds, Lisa A.; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M. (2012-10-11). "Immunity to the model intestinal helminth parasite ... 17 October 2017). "HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33". Immunity. 47 (4): 739-751. doi: ... as it is used as a model of human helminth infection to which a spectrum of natural resistance to parasite infection exists. ...
We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP ... we have been studying Th2 response development and regulation in parasitic helminth infections; helminths and antigens derived ... 2 B) and ICOS (not depicted). Thus, in mice mounting a Th2 response to helminth antigens, the great majority of CD4+ T cells ... T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Justin J. ...
Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic ... Luis I. Terrazas, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Magaly Pérez-Miranda, et al., "Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression ...
... Author(s): Hartgers, F.C.; Obeng, B.B.; Kruize, Y.C. ... Malaria and helminth infections often coincide in the same tropical regions. Studies of the consequences of helminth and ... In response to iRBCs, levels of interleukin (IL)-10, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha,were higher in samples from helminth- ... These results indicate that the presence of helminth infection modulates the immune response to malarial parasites, making it ...
IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... potentially mediated by exposure to antigens both related and unrelated to Mtb. ... IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive ...
... a causal association between helminths and atopic diseases remains uncertain. ... Although helminth infections can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, ... Antibodies, Helminth / blood * Antibodies, Helminth / immunology * Antigens, Helminth / immunology * Helminthiasis / blood * ... Interactions between helminth parasites and allergy Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Feb;9(1):29-37. doi: 10.1097/ACI. ...
Antigen Presentation. Cytokines. Helminth. Healthy Volunteer. Cross-Over Study. Helminth Infection. Additional relevant MeSH ... Comparison of Immune Response in Normal Volunteers and Patients With Helminth Infections. This study has been completed. ... Normal volunteers and patients with acute helminth (a type of parasite) infections aged 18 years older may be eligible for this ... Normal volunteers and patients with acute helminth (a type of parasite) infections aged 18 years older may be eligible for this ...
... soluble egg antigens from Schistosoma mansoni; soluble worm antigen preparation from Schistosoma mansoni ... In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune ... Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipients ability to respond to a second boost. ... Childhood vaccination; Chronic helminth infection; Endemic schistosomiasis; HIV Gag vaccine; Listeria monocytogenes; Lm; SEA; ...
Immunogenicity of antigens was increased with parasite prevalence as well.. Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved ... Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter- ... In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens ... to helminth parasite antigens Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 36 (1). pp. 130-140. DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019. ...
Schistosome soluble egg antigen decreases Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T-cell effector function with concomitant ... Frequency distribution of helminth species among adult TB patients co-infected with any helminth in an urban and rural setting ... The overall prevalence of helminth co-infections in TB patients was 23.1%. As shown in Table 4, the prevalence of helminth co- ... Helminth investigations. For the diagnosis of helminth infections, stool and urine samples were collected once from each ...
... and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen ... based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of ... Antigen was present in faeces before patency and antigen levels were independent of T. pisiformis egg output. The second assay ... and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen ...
... and antibodies to HBs antigen. The sera were divided, processed by both freeze-drying and freezing methods, and then stored. ... These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, ... These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, and ... excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, or either glycan antigens or deglycosylated TES antigens) and the type of antibodies (e.g ...
We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one ... Weighted odds ratio stratified by age group for helminth infection in cases versus controls was 0.50 (95% confidence interval ... At the end, all pupils submitted a stool sample for microscopic investigation for helminth eggs. ... Helminth infection rate in cases was 21 of 115 (18.3%) compared with 456 of 1,327 (34.4%) in controls. ...
Evaluation of Helminth Skin-Test Antigens in a Hospital in New York City Irving G. Kagan and Herman Zaiman ... immitis antigen, 9 to the T. spiralis antigen and 2 to the S. mansoni antigen. Among the 88 Puerto Rican patients 16 reacted to ... the A. cantonensis antigen, 10 to the D. immitis antigen, 9 to the T. spiralis antigen and 24 to the S. mansoni antigen. The ... An adult hospitalized group of 347 tubercular patients in New York City was skintested with four helminth antigens. In this ...
... infection versus those with LTBI+ without concomitant helminth infection (Hel-). Immune responses to mycobacterial antigens ... Tissue-invasive helminth parasites infect close to 500 million people worldwide and are associated with strong T helper (Th)2 ... Kumar NP, George PJ, Kumaran P, Dolla CK, Nutman TB, Babu S. Diminished systemic and antigen-specific type 1, type 17, and ... LTBI+ Hel-individuals who test positive for other intestinal helminth infection will be treated with a single standard dose of ...
Searching for antigen B genes and their adaptive sites in distinct strains and species of the helminth Echinococcus Journal ...
While each helminth species completes a distinct life cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease ... While each helminth species completes a distinct life-cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease ... The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host ... The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host ...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Helminth Zoonoses online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Helminth Zoonoses, CURRENT TOPICS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE by S. Geerts. ... Characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus proteins and antigens from hydatid cyst fluid.- Existence of an urban cycle of ... Although the life cycles of most helminths of zoonotic importance are well known, there are still major gaps in our knowledge ...
0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Biomarkers). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1803. [Cu] Atualiza o por classe:. 180309. ... They were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen using SNAP Heartworm RT test kit. In this population, the average ...
0 (Antibodies, Helminth); 0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Saposins). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1706. ... 0 (CCR5 protein, human); 0 (CD4 Antigens); 0 (CD8 Antigens); 0 (CXCR3 protein, human); 0 (Galactosylceramides); 0 ( ... for the 3 antigens. Antibodies to the 3 antigens could be detected in the serum samples of rabbits infected with 1000 cercariae ... RESULTS: Two novel antigens (SjSAPLP4 and SjSAPLP5) could specifically react to serum samples from both S. japonicum-infected ...
Antigen presenting cells from mice harboring the filarial nematode: Brugia malayi, prevent cellular proliferation but not ... Helminth stimulated macrophages are an important source of TNF-α in coinfected mice. We have recently observed that helminth ... 1⇓). Helminth infection alone also induces increased colonic macrophage accumulation (Fig. 1⇓C). More significantly, helminth ... helminth infection and helminth infection-induced-Th2 cytokine responses have been suggested to affect macrophages by inducing ...
Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products ... Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate ... Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the ... the benefits of local treatment with helminth antigens for experimental colitis and prompt consideration of helminth antigen- ...
Method for the commercial production of helminths antigens. US4789631. Feb 17, 1984. Dec 6, 1988. Synbiotics Corporation. ... "Antigen capture reagent" refers to any compound that is specific for the antigen or antigens of interest. The labeled antigen ... Following binding of the antigen from the sample, the antigen capture reagent/antigen complex is detected by any suitable ... one or more antigen capture reagents (e.g., a non-immobilized labeled antigen capture reagent and an immobilized antigen ...
The molecular basis of antigen variation. The mode of..." Nematodes "...Intestinal helminths: Epidemiology, morbidity and ...
Antigen-specific cellular hyporesponsiveness in a chronic human helminth infection is mediated by T(h)3/T(r)1-type cytokines IL ... Modulation of murine cytokine responses to mycobacterial antigens by helminth-induced T helper 2 cell responses. J Immunol 1993 ... Effect of deworming on human T cell responses to mycobacterial antigens in helminth-exposed individuals before and after ... We will consider the effective eradication of helminths during this time period and the effects of helminths on immunity. We ...
May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ... In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... Follicular helper T cells (also known as follicular B helper T cells and abbreviated as TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T ...
Antigen Receptor Allelic Exclusion: An Update and Reappraisal. Brenna L. Brady, Natalie C. Steinel, and Craig H. Bassing. J ... Helminth Infections Decrease Host Susceptibility to Immune-Mediated Diseases. Joel V. Weinstock and David E. Elliott. J Immunol ... Landscape of Tumor Antigens in T Cell Immunotherapy. Sadia Ilyas and James C. Yang. J Immunol 2015 195: 5117-5122 ... Unique Human Tumor Antigens: Immunobiology and Use in Clinical Trials. Giorgio Parmiani, Annamaria De Filippo, Luisa Novellino ...
Helminth antigens modulate TLR-initiated dendritic cell activation. J Immunol. 2004; 173:7454-61. ... Antigen-Specific Regulation of IgE Antibodies by Non-Antigen-Specific gamma-delta T Cells. J Immunol. 2013; 190: 913-21. ... MacLeod M, McKee AS, Crawford F, White J, Kappler J, Marrack P. CD4 memory T cells divide poorly in response to antigen because ... Pearce EJ, M Kane C, Sun J, J Taylor J, McKee AS, Cervi L. Th2 response polarization during infection with the helminth ...
MHC-restricted antibody responses to Trichuris muris excretory/secretory (E/S) antigen. Parasite Immunol. 12, 509-527 (1990). ... Helminths and the IBD hygiene hypothesis. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 15, 128-133 (2009). doi:10.1002/ibd.20633pmid:18680198. ... Helminth colonization is associated with increased diversity of the gut microbiota. PLOS Negl. Trop. Dis. 8, e2880 (2014). doi: ... such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection ...
Systemic impact of intestinal helminth infections. *Pankaj Mishra, Mark Palma, David Bleich, P. F. Loke, William C. Gause ... Antigen-driven bystander effect accelerates epicutaneous sensitization with a new protein allergen. *Li-Fang Wang, J. S. Chen, ... Effects of lactoferrin on elicitation of the antigen-specific cellular and humoral cutaneous response in mice.. *Michał Zimecki ... Delineating the Role of Histamine-1- and -4-Receptors in a Mouse Model of Th2-Dependent Antigen-Specific Skin Inflammation. * ...
  • These results indicate that the presence of helminth infection modulates the immune response to malarial parasites, making it more anti-inflammatory. (
  • Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy that may depend on the timing or intensity of the exposure or host genetic factors. (
  • Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. (
  • Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). (
  • We detected decreasing magnitudes of in vitro responses to antigens from generalist to specialist parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. (
  • In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. (
  • Tissue-invasive helminth parasites infect close to 500 million people worldwide and are associated with strong T helper (Th)2 responses and regulatory networks that downregulate potentially protective Th1 responses. (
  • The two common tissue invasive helminth parasites are Wuchereria bancrofti, that causes lymphatic filariasis and Strongyloides stercoralis, that causes stronyloidiasis. (
  • Further delineation of the convoluted interface between helminth infection and the pulmonary host immune responses is critical to the development of novel therapeutics that are critically needed to prevent the significant global morbidity caused by these parasites. (
  • Helminths are multicellular parasitic organisms belonging to a diverse taxonomic group of metazoans that compromise the phylum Platyhelminths, known as flatworms, including cestodes and trematodes, and Nematoda, known as roundworms, including Ascaris , hookworm, whipworms, filarial parasites, and others. (
  • Other helminth proteins promote parasite survival in other ways, particularly since parasites must depend on hosts for the supply of essential nutrients. (
  • Parasites like helminths do not synthesize their own fatty acids or sterols, and are consequently dependent on their hosts for essential nutrients. (
  • Immunopathogenetic Aspects of Disease Induced by Helminth Parasites. (
  • It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites. (
  • Considering the profound immune activation and dysregulation induced by helminth parasites, the overlapping geographic distributions of helminth and bacterial infections, and the potential to modulate bacteria-associated intestinal inflammation, we have recently established a coinfection model system to facilitate detailed analysis of the combined effects of helminth and bacterial pathogens on host responses. (
  • That helminth infection may involve NS cells was suggested in a study where peritoneal implantation of larval filarial parasites in mice expanded the resident NS population ( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • Helminths, parasites residing in the digestive system in mammals, exemplify immunomodulation in order to freely inhabit the host organism. (
  • Helminth parasites are the most potent natural inducers of T helper 2 (Th2) cell-polarized responses. (
  • Helminth parasites are effective in biasing Th2 immunity and inducing regulatory pathways that minimize excessive inflammation within their hosts, thus allowing chronic infection to occur whilst also suppressing bystander atopic or autoimmune diseases. (
  • Helminth parasites secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can be internalised by host immune cells resulting in modulation of host immunity. (
  • Helminth parasites such as the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus strongly inhibit T helper type 2 (Th2) allergy, as well as colitis and autoimmunity. (
  • Gastrointestinal helminth parasites in stray cats from the mid-Ebro Valley, Spain. (
  • During NCC, the parasites release immunodominant glycan antigens in the CNS environment, invoking immune responses. (
  • Moreover, Fasciola shares antigens with other parasites such as S. mansoni increasing the possibility of cross-reactions when antibody detection assay systems were used for diagnosis of infection ( Espino and Finlay, 1994 ). (
  • Helminth parasites bias immune responses to the CD4 + Th2 type and can be immune suppressive ( 3 - 10 ). (
  • Helminths are worm-like parasites, some of which have the potential to inhabit the human gastrointestinal track or other regions of the body. (
  • Illness caused by the geohelminth or intestinal helminth parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm is recognized as a major cause of disability in resource poor regions of the tropics where they are estimated to infect approximately 2 billion humans. (
  • They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. (
  • nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of microorganisms or helminth parasites or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances. (
  • These factors are important in immune response that protect us from parasites, including helminths (worms). (
  • We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (
  • Th2 cells and their associated cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play a crucial role in promoting host survival during infection with parasitic helminths that have tissue-dwelling phases ( 8 ), and they can mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths ( 9 ). (
  • In this study, we investigated the antimalarial immune responses of Ghanaian children living in a rural area with a high prevalence of both helminth infection and Plasmodium falciparum infection. (
  • In this study, we examined the relationship between total plasma IgG levels, IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive QuantiFERON (QFT) test. (
  • Our data suggest a possible protective association between raised antibody titers and acquisition of Mtb infection, potentially mediated by exposure to antigens both related and unrelated to Mtb . (
  • Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. (
  • This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. (
  • Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. (
  • We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. (
  • The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen extract, was used in a time-course of T. pisiformis experimental infection in dogs. (
  • Immune responses to mycobacterial antigens from co-infected individuals will also be evaluated before and after treatment for helminth infection. (
  • Host organs such as the lungs are a frequent target of helminth infection. (
  • Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens. (
  • To dissect the mechanisms by which helminths modulate the host's response to enteric bacteria and bacteria-mediated intestinal inflammation, we have recently established a coinfection model and shown that coinfection with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus exacerbates colitis induced by infection with the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium . (
  • These results demonstrate that helminth infection can impair host protection against concurrent enteric bacterial infection and promote bacteria-induced intestinal injury through a mechanism that involves the induction of alternatively activated macrophages. (
  • Helminth infection has been shown to dampen Th1 reactions to other infections ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (
  • In contrast to Th1-type pro-inflammatory responses, chronic helminth infection leads to polarized Th2-type responses, and little is known about innate immune responses during acute helminth infection. (
  • Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. (
  • Epidemiological and experimental data strongly support the hypothesis that a reduction in helminth infection is linked to a rise in the incidence rates of autoimmune diseases [ 21 ]. (
  • show that intestinal helminth infection, caused by parasitic worms, protects IBD-susceptible mice from developing the disease. (
  • what is the mucosal cell response to IL-4 and IL-13 in helminth infection? (
  • how do eosinophils get activated and respond to helminth infection? (
  • Thus, this helminth parasite targets IL-33 production as part of its armory of suppressive effects, forestalling the development of the type 2 immune response to infection and allergic sensitization. (
  • The immunology of parasitic helminths is now attracting intense interest, due to the exciting and intricate relationship between immunity and pathogenesis, the proposed significance of regulatory immune controls in modulating both infection and disease, including allergies and autoimmunity, and the application of new molecular tools to the field situation. (
  • Currently, research aims to trace how helminths manipulate host immune cell populations, identify molecular mediators and receptor pathways involved in the host-pathogen dialogue, and design new interventions for control of infection in both human and animal contexts. (
  • The possibility of cross reactivity with other helmintic antigens has also being raised in some studies, (16) although a study performed in Ivory Coast found no negative influence when their subjects had concurrent infection with soil-transmitted helminthes. (
  • Excretory/secretory antigen may be used for serodiagnosis of paramphistomosis infection in sheep. (
  • Awad WS, Ibrahim AK, Salib FA (2009) Using indirect ELISA to assess different antigens for the serodiagnosis of F. gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and donkeys. (
  • Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed virus clearance. (
  • These observations suggest that helminth infection may influence immune responses to concurrent viral infections. (
  • Using a mouse model of NCC by infection with the related parasite Mesocestoides corti , we have investigated the role of mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1), a CLR which recognizes high-mannose-containing glycan antigens. (
  • She discusses the immune system, autoimmunity and helminth infection, coevolution of helminths and immunity, the localized impact, immune modulation, response, helminth influence on immunity, types of chronic tissue helminth infection, pathogen co-existence and immunity, and helminths and autoimmunity in mice. (
  • The greatest incidence of each of these diseases is in sub-Saharan Africa, where helminth infection is endemic ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • To evaluate the influence of helminth infection on vaccines, we can evaluate the ability to induce vaccine-specific immune responses in helminth-infected recipients or in recipients who have been treated with immune-biasing helminth antigens ( 11 - 13 ). (
  • Specifically, helminth infection has been shown to suppress immune responses to a Th1-type vaccine and impair the expansion of pathogen-specific cytotoxic CD8 + T cell (cytotoxic T lymphocyte [CTL]) responses ( 18 - 20 ). (
  • showing suppression of tetanus-specific responses in schistosome-infected children ( 8 ), helminth infection may pose a significant problem for the development of virus-specific CTL and Th1-type HIV-1 vaccines ( 7 , 8 , 11 ). (
  • One method to overcome helminth-induced vaccine suppression is to identify vaccine vectors that are capable of producing vaccine-specific responses irrespective of helminth infection. (
  • The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. (
  • T. ovis has provided a model for the development of vaccines against other taeniid species, and collectively these are the most-effective defined-antigen vaccines against any parasitic infection ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • 2 Similarly, newborns exposed in utero to filarial infection but without evidence cord blood T cell reactivity to filarial antigen and presumed to be 'tolerized', had a 12-fold greater risk of later filariasis infection compared to newborns of uninfected mothers. (
  • The study was designed to address the specific question of whether the presence of maternal A. lumbricoides infection may sensitize the fetus in utero to A. lumbricoides antigens. (
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4). (
  • Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and thereby limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) control. (
  • Using a pulmonary mouse model of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that S. mansoni coinfection or immunization with S. mansoni egg antigens can reversibly impair Mtb -specific T cell responses without affecting macrophage-mediated Mtb control. (
  • The hypothesis is discussed with particular reference to Type I diabetes in the NOD mouse and the ability of the helminth infection Schistosoma mansoni to prevent its onset. (
  • There is good reason to suspect a detrimental effect of helminth infection on the course of HIV infection. (
  • Background: On the basis of immunological considerations and in vitro trials on co-infections there is strong reason to suspect a detrimental effect of helminth infection on the course of HIV. (
  • The immunological answer very efficiently evoked by helminth infection is aimed at hijacking and suppressing the immune system in order to suit the requirements of the specific helminth. (
  • This permits helminths to cause chronic infection, often persisting over years and allowing some infecting worms to grow to several centimetres of length within their host. (
  • Some clinical trials have been able to confirm this detrimental effect of helminths on HIV infection, while other trials failed to do so. (
  • A recent Cochrane review on clinical trials with HIV and helminth co-infection found an overall slight reduction of HIV viral load if helminth infection was treated. (
  • Currently, data are limited on recombinant diagnostic antigens for detection of E. granulosus infection in sheep [ 11 , 12 ], and the diagnostic sensitivity of the recombinant proteins used was very low in these reports. (
  • Importantly, Th2 responses are associated with the development of strong antibody responses, particularly IgG1 and IgE, which in certain helminth infections are implicated in resistance to reinfection ( 10 - 12 ). (
  • Malaria and helminth infections often coincide in the same tropical regions. (
  • To review the findings of recent human studies of the association between helminth parasite infections and allergy and discuss their potential relevance to public health. (
  • Infections with Trichuris trichiura in early life are associated with a reduced prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity later in life and infants of helminth-infected mothers have been reported to have a reduced prevalence of eczema. (
  • Although helminth infections can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and atopic diseases remains uncertain. (
  • Normal volunteers and patients with acute helminth (a type of parasite) infections aged 18 years older may be eligible for this study. (
  • We comparatively studied epidemiological features of TB and helminth co-infections in adult patients from rural and urban settings of Tanzania. (
  • Clinical characteristics and helminth co-infections pattern differ in TB patients in urban and rural Tanzania. (
  • Together, the impact of helminth infections contributes to more than 12 million disability adjusted life years (DALYS), a measure of significant global mortality and morbidity ( 2 ). (
  • For some human helminth infections, such as paragonomiasis, the adult stage of the parasite takes up its final residence in the lung ( 3 ). (
  • Additionally, the database can also be used to develop protein targets for new drugs to treat helminth infections. (
  • The distribution of several pathogenic helminth infections coincides geographically with many devastating microbial diseases, including enteric bacterial infections. (
  • The major importance of helminth infections includes not only the direct pathogenic effect of the worms but also the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system, which may alter the response to other Ags or pathogens and cause additional immunopathology. (
  • Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. (
  • Cross-sectional studies on the relationship between skin prick tests and helminth infections suggested a general protective effect on the atopic reaction [ 10 ]. (
  • Many studies have since demonstrated that helminth infections lower the risk of autoimmunity or allergy [ 12 ]. (
  • The methods, devices, kits and compositions of the present invention may be used to confirm the presence or absence of roundworm, whipworm and/or hookworm in a fecal sample from a mammal and may also be able to distinguish between one or more helminth infections. (
  • Ocular infections caused by helminths in human are rare. (
  • what is the response to helminth infections? (
  • neither antigen injections protected hosts against subsequent helminth infections. (
  • Slowly, it was learned that hosts do develop acquired immunity against helminths, but its mechanism is different from that known for bacterial and viral infections-a complex phenomenon involving antibodies and antibody-induced cells like eosinophils or mast or other cells which are at play in destroying a helminth. (
  • Most of the immunological work on helminths is carried out in laboratory models using schistosomes, Trichinella , and Nippostrongylus species with a few studies in natural infections. (
  • Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that helminth infections have positive effects due to their potential to protect against autoimmune diseases. (
  • Data indicates that pre-departure albendazole treatment has dramatically decreased the overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in refugees. (
  • Helminth infections are neglected diseases that cause enormous morbidity to populations predominantly in the developing world. (
  • M2 macrophages are critical for enabling the host to tolerate and resist helminth infections. (
  • Infections with geohelminths including A. lumbricoides , the most prevalent geohelminth, may influence both the development of allergy, 1 and susceptibility to helminth and non-parasitic infectious diseases of childhood. (
  • There is strong evidence that maternal infections with filarial and schistosome helminth infections have profound effects on immunity to helminths and other pathogens. (
  • 4 To our knowledge, there is no published evidence that maternal infections with A. lumbricoides , alters the immune response in utero , even though this helminth is estimated to infect over 1 billion people. (
  • Schistosoma, other helminth infections, and associated risk factors in preschool-aged children in urban Tanzania. (
  • Randomised Open-label Trial Testing Presumptive Anthelminthic Treatment on Progression of HIV in ART-naïve HIV-positive Patients in a Rural African Setting With Presumed High Prevalence of Helminth Infections. (
  • In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. (
  • Lacto- N -fucopentaose III (LNFPIII) is found in human milk and on the Th2 driving helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni . (
  • Soluble egg antigens of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni ( S. mansoni egg antigen [SEA]) induce strong Th2 responses both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such as strongyloides and schistosoma antigens, as demonstrated in reported cases. (
  • Parasitic helminth worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni , are endemic in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among the population. (
  • helminths and antigens derived from them inherently induce Th2-polarized responses ( 13 ). (
  • Responses to malarial antigens are altered in helminth-infected children. (
  • Studies of the consequences of helminth and malaria coinfection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. (
  • Experiment 3 (sympatric/allopatric combinations): In vitro responses of leukocytes from six stickleback populations to S. solidus antigens from identical populations in a fully crossed design. (
  • We investigated in vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to parasite antigens. (
  • In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on the prevalence of the parasite in the population of origin, rather than on sympatry. (
  • Likewise, leukocytes from stickleback populations with a high S. solidus prevalence showed higher in vitro responses to S. solidus antigens compared to populations with low S. solidus prevalence. (
  • HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, S. (
  • To compare the immune responses to mycobacterial antigens, including PPD and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate protein, in individuals who are LTBI+ Fil- versus those who are LTBI+ Fil+. (
  • To compare immune responses to mycobacterial antigens in LTBI+Fil+ co-infected individuals, before and after treatment for filarialinfection. (
  • This ability to attenuate damaging Th1-driven inflammatory responses in the host ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ) has prompted the evaluation of helminth as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of some immune-mediated disorders, including certain types of inflammatory bowel diseases ( 9 ). (
  • IL-13 is necessary, not simply sufficient, for epicutaneously induced Th2 responses to soluble protein antigen. (
  • Although the ability of S. mansoni eggs and their soluble antigens to promote potent Th2 responses has been well documented, the specific components responsible for this activity are only beginning to be characterized. (
  • We show here that the depletion of CD301b + DCs specifically enhanced the development of Tfh cells, germinal center B cells and antibody responses against protein antigens. (
  • Through presenting processed antigens on their MHC molecules, dendritic cells (DCs) are primarily responsible for initiating T cell-mediated cellular immunity, which is also required for T cell-dependent antibody responses. (
  • Blockade of IL-33 release and suppression of type 2 innate lymphoid cell responses by helminth secreted products in airway allergy. (
  • In contrast to control vaccinia-infected animals, S. mansoni plus vaccinia-infected mice did not produce significant Th1 cytokine responses upon in vitro stimulation with recombinant gp120, consistent with previous results for nonparasite antigens. (
  • Our goal was to determine if the administration of schistosome soluble egg antigens (SEA) would negatively influence the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and Th1-type T cell responses to an HIV candidate vaccine in the Th1-biased C57BL/6 mouse strain. (
  • We want to understand the mechanisms that helminths and macrophages use to regulate our immune responses. (
  • We have also been studying how gastrointestinal helminths may regulate intestinal immune responses and interact with the gut microbiota. (
  • We use mouse models, clinical trials and field studies in Malaysia to determine how helminths, the gut microbiota and intestinal immune responses interact. (
  • To investigate if sensitization to Ascaris occurs in utero , we measured IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in Ascaris antigen-stimulated cord blood of newborns of infected and non-infected mothers using flow cytometry. (
  • Immune responses mediated by activated, antigen-specific T lymphocytes. (
  • Immunological responses in animals can be divided into two broad categories: humoral immunity, which refers to the production of antibody which becomes part of the body fluids (humors), especially serum, and cell-mediated or cellular immunity, which involves a variety of activities designed to destroy or at least contain cells that are recognized by the body as expressing foreign antigens on their cell surface, e.g. viral antigens. (
  • The basis of the vaccines will the combination of recombinant antigens with adjuvants capable of inducing specific types of immune responses. (
  • Therefore, MGL acts as an efficient endocytic antigen receptor on dermal DCs in vivo, able to prime Tn-specific T- and B-cell responses. (
  • 1 , 2 DCs acquire and process antigen and migrate to the lymphoid organs where they present antigen to specific T cells, thereby inducing primary T- and B-cell responses. (
  • Although Mbd2 is widely expressed in gastrointestinal immune cells and is implicated in regulating intestinal cancer, anti-helminth responses and colonic inflammation, the Mbd2-expressing cell types that control these responses are incompletely defined. (
  • Abstract Helminths, as complex pathogens, possess a large number of different epitopes, some of which may be similar to the epitopes of the host. (
  • Ability of an organism to recognize and defend itself against specific pathogens or antigens. (
  • Naturally Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens or pathogens enter body naturally. (
  • Glycans from a number of pathogens, including helminths, act as pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs), which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) known as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). (
  • Robust disease surveillance is a cornerstone of global health efforts that range from detecting emerging pathogens and epidemics to the control or elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, HIV, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) ( ) ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • All pathogens leave behind immunologic footprints in the form of antibodies that last for months to years and can be detected by testing dried blood spots or serum samples against panels of well-defined antigens. (
  • We will review the current evidence that helminths induce regulatory immune circuits that suppress aberrant inflammation and may be useful clinically to treat immune-mediated disease. (
  • Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens (PSTSA) used to induce the production of specific antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. (
  • Helminths induce a population of macrophages that are dependent on type 2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), also called alternatively activated M2 macrophages. (
  • To induce efficient immune response, glycosylated tumor-associated Tn antigens were used to target DCs through binding to macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL). (
  • We characterized a novel Grx (Eg-Grx1) from a parasitic helminth and present a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structure of this protein. (
  • Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B cells of the white blood cells and antigens during immune reaction. (
  • In the blood, the antigens are specifically and with high affinity bound by antibodies to form an antigen-antibody complex. (
  • The first correct description of the antigen-antibody reaction was given by Richard J. Goldberg at the University of Wisconsin in 1952. (
  • It came to be known as "Goldberg's theory" (of antigen-antibody reaction). (
  • There are several types of antibodies and antigens, and each antibody is capable of binding only to a specific antigen. (
  • The principles of specificity and cross-reactivity of the antigen-antibody interaction are useful in clinical laboratory for diagnostic purposes. (
  • Thus immune response in acquired immunity is due to the precise binding of antigens to antibody. (
  • Only very small area of the antigens and antibody molecules actually interact through complementary binding sites, called epitopes in antigens and paratopes in antibody. (
  • In an antibody, the Fab (fragment, antigen-binding) region is formed from the amino-terminal end of both the light and heavy chains of the immunoglobulin polypeptide. (
  • This region, called the variable (V) domain, is composed of amino acid sequences that define each type of antibody and their binding affinity to an antigen. (
  • Thus these regions may be part of a paratope, the part of an antibody that recognizes and binds to an antigen. (
  • Non-covalent bonds between antibody and antigen can also be mediated by interfacial water molecules. (
  • Such indirect bonds can contribute to the phenomenon of cross-reactivity, i.e. the recognition of different but related antigens by a single antibody. (
  • Antigen and antibody interact through a high affinity binding much like lock and key. (
  • Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (
  • Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. (
  • The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE) in an endemic area. (
  • The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (
  • [2] [3] Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (
  • The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (
  • [6] In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (
  • There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (
  • Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (
  • [2] This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (
  • [1] The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (
  • The most readily recognized response to the antigen is the production of antibody . (
  • The antigen-antibody reaction is an essential component of the overall immune response. (
  • Of equal or greater importance to antibody, particularly for some antigens, is the development of so-called cell-mediated immune response, which involves clonal expansion of specifically reactive T lymphocytes including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (T c lymphocytes) which play a major role in eliminating the foreign antigens that are cell associated. (
  • In vivo DC-targeting strategies, based on Tn-MGL interactions, constitute a promising strategy for enhancing antigen presentation and inducing potent antibody response. (
  • and by 19-20 weeks, circulating B cells have detectable surface immunoglobulin M. 6 This implies that the full sensitisation process must have occurred from antigen presentation through T cell proliferation to B cell stimulation and antibody production. (
  • Thus, one study has examined a coproantigen sandwich ELISA using recombinant O viverrini cathepsin F (rOv-CF) that uses chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) raised against rOv-CF in combination with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to the somatic O viverrini antigens. (
  • Antigen: Antigen: Molecules from a pathogen or foreign organism that provoke a specific immune response. (
  • EVs also play an important role in host-pathogen interactions, with recent work suggesting that they contribute to helminth immunomodulatory strategies. (
  • Here we have identified the proteins and sugars displayed on the outer surface of two sub-types of EVs released by the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica . (
  • The observed pro-inflammatory properties might reflect a recent response of the cells due to contact with a pathogen, whereas the anti-inflammatory properties might contribute to helminth-induced protection against inflammatory diseases. (
  • In response to iRBCs, levels of interleukin (IL)-10, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha,were higher in samples from helminth-infected children than in those from uninfected children, as was expression of the regulatory molecules suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3, Foxp3, and programmed death (PD)-1. (
  • These cells were exposed to the parasite molecules in combination with different TLR ligands, or Interferon gamma, and tested for the production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-12p40, and their ability to process antigen. (
  • Antigens are usually known to be complex and huge molecules that are external to the body. (
  • Not all molecules can be considered as antigens because there are certain factors that affect its ability to become potential threats to the body's defenses. (
  • As what have been stated, there are actually receptors which are considered to be molecules that only detect certain patterns and this can only be compatible to the determinants on an antigen. (
  • Unlike classical T cells, NKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of CD1 molecules 2 . (
  • 1. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens are introduced in vaccines (immunization). (
  • Isolation of Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens. (
  • Latchumikanthan A, Soundararajan C, Dhinakarraj G, Abdul Basith S (2012) Purification and characterization of excretory/secretory antigens of Fasciola gigantica . (
  • The present study was designed to prepare a pair of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) (IgG 4 A7 and IgG 4 B12) against Fasciola gigantica Cathepsin L. (CL) and used them in development of sandwich ELISA and dot-ELISA to detect Circulating Fasciola Antigens (CFA) in serum samples collected from a total of 157 sheep. (
  • Fasciola antigens detected in serum of sheep by ELISA showed 94.8% sensitivity and 95% specificity. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a pair of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) raised against Fasciola CL antigen for detection of circulating Fasciola antigen using sandwich ELISA and dot-ELISA in serum samples of sheep naturally infected with Fasciola . (
  • During the time of egg deposition, schistosome-infected mice exhibit a downregulation in interleukin 2 and interferon gamma production toward parasite antigens, mitogens, and foreign nonparasite protein antigens. (
  • It is even possible to show that cultured cord blood cells from neonates born to parasitised mothers will produce IgE when stimulated with parasite antigens. (
  • Antibodies in sera from multiple sclerosis patients recognize Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory antigens. (
  • Arunkumar S, Prakash Krupakaran R, Balamurugan TC Pandiyan DV (2014) Assessment of matrix metalloproteinase activity in excretory/secretory antigens of Gastrothylax crumenifer from buffalo by gelatinzymography. (
  • Saifullah MK, Ahmad Gul, Abidi SMA (2011) Isolation and partial characterization of excretory/secretory antigens of Gastrothylax crumenifer . (
  • Previous studies have shown that the intestinal helminth coinfection is accompanied by lowered in vitro production of interferon-gamma and elevated production of interleukin 10 in individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). (
  • In the present study, using our in vivo coinfection model as well as in vitro approaches, we test the hypothesis that the phenotypic and functional alterations in macrophages induced by the helminth-driven T cell response may contribute to the observed alterations in the response to C. rodentium . (
  • Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces arginase-1-expressing type 2 granulomas, thereby increasing inflammation and TB disease severity. (
  • Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (
  • The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (
  • The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host innate and adaptive immune cells. (
  • Acquired immunity depends upon the interaction between antigens and a group of proteins called antibodies produced by B cells of the blood. (
  • McKee AS, Burchill MA, Munks MW, Jin L, Kappler J, Friedman RS, Jacobelli J, and Marrack P. Host DNA released in response to aluminum adjuvant enhances MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation and prolongs CD4 T-cell interactions with dendritic cells. (
  • Antigen-Specific Regulation of IgE Antibodies by Non-Antigen-Specific gamma-delta T Cells. (
  • Allergen exposure primes IL-4 + Th2 cells in lymph node, but production of effector cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13 is thought to require additional signals from antigen and the environment. (
  • Besides being the cause for the activation of self-reactive immune cells, molecular mimicry may also be the cause for the expansion of regulatory T cells, crucial for the host tolerance of self-antigens. (
  • Cell Mediated Immunity Involves specialized set of lymphocytes called T cells that recognize foreign antigens on the surface of cells. (
  • MHC class I-related molecule MR1 presents riboflavin- and folate-related metabolites to mucosal-associated invariant T cells, but it is unknown whether MR1 can present alternative antigens to other T cell lineages. (
  • These data extend the role of MR1 beyond microbial antigen presentation and indicate MR1T cells are a normal part of the human T cell repertoire. (
  • Helminth Antigen-Conditioned Dendritic Cells Generate Anti-Inflammatory CD4 T Cells Independent of Antigen Presentation via MHC II. (
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a O-glycosylated, four alpha -helix bundle cytokine that has potent stimulatory activity for antigen-activated T cells. (
  • The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. (
  • The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. (
  • [11] They have also recently been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells . (
  • However, NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen presenting cells and the quantity and quality of these stimulator cells can vary substantially. (
  • Thus, a standardized system that relies on artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) could produce the stimulating effects of DC without the pitfalls of allo- or xenogeneic cells 12, 13 . (
  • In vivo targeting of C-type lectin receptors is an effective strategy for increasing antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • Recent strategies for improving prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have focused on the efficient delivery of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). (
  • The presence of antigen that binds to the IgE leads to the release of granules by the mast cells that contain a number of mediators of inflammation, including histamine. (
  • Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. (
  • IgE's Fab paratope binds to allergic antigen , for example house dust mite particles, while its Fc region binds to Fc receptor ε. (
  • These receptors actually have one recognition site which is the area where the determinant of an antigen binds. (
  • This antigen is a surface-exposed lipoprotein that binds human fH, a downregulator of the alternative complement pathway ( 25 ). (
  • Three ELISA assays, based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of Taenia- and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. (
  • In both the human Taenia and canine Echinococcus studies antigen could be detected in faecal samples from infected hosts stored in 5% formalin for 6 months. (
  • Characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus proteins and antigens from hydatid cyst fluid. (
  • Serum samples are also unreliable mainly because of cross-reactive antigens ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Trichuris muris is very closely related to the human parasite T. trichiura sharing cross reactive antigens. (
  • 2 These findings support previous data in African refugees resettling to the United States, showing a similar decrease in soil-transmitted helminths following implementation of pre-departure albendazole treatment. (
  • IgG titers against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. (
  • However, these assays use natural E. granulosus hydatid cyst fluid antigens, which are difficult and expensive to prepare, and cannot be commercialized. (
  • The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens. (
  • Helminth proteins modulate the immune response of their hosts, but do not suppress it entirely. (
  • After discovery of the host-protective To45W antigen, two further host-protective recombinant antigens (To16 and To18) were also identified ( 4 ). (
  • Human studies suggest that helminth coinfections contribute to increased TB susceptibility and increased rates of TB reactivation. (
  • Helminths, including nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, are complex parasitic organisms that infect at least one billion people globally living in extreme poverty. (
  • Diseases caused by helminths (e.g., nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes) are a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries because of poor hygiene, lack of public health education, and limited medical resources ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Nevertheless, the sensitivity and specificity of serological and immunological assays depend on both the antigens (e.g., crude products from T. canis larvae, native or recombinant Toxocara spp. (
  • However, this immune modulation also affects non-related antigens (for example HIV) which would actually require a different line of immunological action. (
  • The MHV were stimulated in vitro with S. mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) or soluble worm antigens (SWA). (
  • Helminth induced morbidity is largely due to the direct impact of the helminth on host tissues and indirectly from the host inflammatory response reflecting the complex helminth-host interface. (
  • Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to examine if the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus and its excretory/secretory products (HES) are able to suppress inflammatory disease. (
  • Loss of helminth exposures also occurred in Western Europe corresponding with the spread of immune mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease. (
  • We characterized the response of an individual who self infected with helminths to treat his symptoms of ulcerative colitis in order to better understand how helminths could suppress inflammatory bowel diseases. (
  • Weinstock [ 9 ] proposed that the modern lifestyle lacking consistent exposure to intestinal helminths is an important environmental factor contributing to IBD. (
  • respectively, both of which can contribute to Th2 polarization after exposure to egg antigens. (
  • 5 These studies show that the entrenched paradigm that early antigen exposure induces tolerance is not consistently the case. (
  • Despite their pathogenic properties, helminth proteins have potential to be co-opted to treat a number of other human diseases. (
  • Given the modulatory properties of helminth proteins, it has been suggested that they may be co-opted to successfully treat other human diseases, particularly those associated with auto-immunity disorders. (
  • Although the life cycles of most helminths of zoonotic importance are well known, there are still major gaps in our knowledge especially in the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis and treat- ment The International Colloquium on Helminth Zoonoses held at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, 11-12 December 1986, laid emphasis on more recent advances made in the control and epidemiology of these zoonotic diseases. (
  • At the same time, it seems that the ability of helminths to reduce immune response could be made use of in therapies of diseases caused by an overactive immune system. (
  • For several decades researchers have investigated the applicability of helminths to treat autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, allergy, asthma, and - most recently - diabetes. (
  • It is clear that there is virtually universal priming to environmental antigens which has occurred before birth, but in those infants destined to be allergic and develop diseases such as asthma, the responsiveness is altered. (
  • Available at . (
  • Saifullah MK, Ahmad Gul, Nizami WA, Abidi SMA (2000) Partial purification and characterization of Gastrothylax crumenifer somatic antigens. (
  • The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). (
  • Previously identified ESTs, which correspond to known helminth proteins, are used to predict the location and function of newly discovered helminth proteins based on genomic sequencing. (
  • etc.Antigens Most are proteins or large polysaccharides from a foreign organism. (
  • A second combines a detergent-treated OMV vaccine with three recombinant proteins containing five novel antigens that were identified as vaccine candidates by "reverse vaccinology" ( 14 ). (
  • The intestinal immune system - gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) - is responsible for recognising a given antigen, direct defence against it, and the generation of the immune response. (
  • Host immune system does not respond to antigens. (
  • If the immunogen causes the entire Immune System to react, there are also substances that can cause parts or specific segments of the said system to react aggressively and these are known as antigens. (
  • Antigens are substances that can stimulate one part of the Immune System which can in turn alert other segments eventually leading to the activation of the entire system or the creation of an immune response. (
  • You may also hear about determinants which are actually parts of the antigen that are the ones recognized by the agents of the Immune System. (
  • Response: Involves production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigens. (
  • Cantor H and Boyse EA (1975) Functional subclasses of T‐lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. (
  • excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, or either glycan antigens or deglycosylated TES antigens) and the type of antibodies (e.g., total IgG, IgG subclass, or IgM) that are being measured [ 1 ]. (
  • Serum containing antibodies to a specific antigen(s). (
  • Stool and urine samples were subjected to diagnose helminthiases using Kato-Katz, Baermann, urine filtration, and circulating cathodic antigen tests. (
  • Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test. (
  • Meshgi EA, Eslami A, Halajian A (2009) Determination of diagnostic antigens in cattle amphistomiasis using western blotting. (
  • Effects of lactoferrin on elicitation of the antigen-specific cellular and humoral cutaneous response in mice. (
  • In mice, MGL + CD103 − dermal DCs efficiently captured and processed glycosylated Tn antigen in vivo, inducing a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T-cell response. (
  • Immunity developed as an individual is exposed to antigens is called adaptive or acquired immunity, in contrast to immunity developed at birth, which is innate immunity. (
  • However, when it comes to the antigen, it is entirely different because yes, the receptors for the antigen can be a part of the body or is considered as self but then the antigen itself is known by the body as non self. (
  • Excretory and secretory antigen of adult Cotylophoron cotylophorum and Gastrothylax crumenifer was prepared and characterized by SDS-PAGE. (
  • Excretory/Secretory (E/S) antigens of G. crumenifer and C. cotylophorum were prepared by incubating in PBS at 28.3 °C overnight in a shaking incubator and centrifuged. (
  • The granules within the secretory blebs were shown to stain specifically for the presence of each of the three host-protective antigens. (
  • Rickard and Bell ( 23 - 25 ) showed that some host-protective antigens from oncospheres were excretory/secretory products. (
  • 21 , 22 ) proposed that the secretions contained in secretory blebs produced from the penetration glands of activated oncospheres may be a source of host-protective antigens. (
  • Urine assay, particularly of O viverrini excretory-secretory (ES) antigens in urine, has been used to detect O viverrini in Thailand. (
  • Vaccine development against parasitic helminths. (
  • The capacity of Tn-glycosylated antigens-and the multiple antigenic glycopeptide Tn3 therapeutic candidate vaccine-to target mouse and human MGL + DCs are demonstrated, especially regarding dermal DCs. (
  • Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings. (
  • A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% were determined for the diagnosis of active NCC using antigen ELISA. (
  • 2001)22 and percentage antigen ELISA positivity.Shaded boxes indicate the "Del Brutto diagnoses" (except for *), non-shaded boxes indicate the number and percentage of antigen positive cases. (
  • NCC = neurocysticercosis, Ag pos = antigen ELISA positivity, CSF = cerebrospinal fluid, PWE = people with epilepsy. (
  • In the group of people with NCC, 100% of active NCC cases (6/6) had a positive Ag-ELISA result in serum, which was significantly higher compared to people with inactive lesions, in whom 33.3% (8/24) were positive on antigen detection (p = 0.005, Fisher's exact test) (Figure 1). (
  • Indirect ELISA (iELISA) using recombinant protein as the antigen has the advantages of high reproducibility and antigen source stability. (
  • This is especially remarkable considering the vast array of luminal antigens and other immune stimulatory factors that daily encounter the mucosal surface. (
  • Finally we show that Sm16 shares the altered intracellular processing observed for 0-3hRP, and is able to delay antigen processing by macrophages. (
  • Depending on the antigen, the binding may impede the biological process causing the disease or may activate macrophages to destroy the foreign substance. (
  • While each helminth species completes a distinct life cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease. (
  • Analysis of MR1T cell clones revealed specificity for distinct cell-derived antigens and alternative transcriptional strategies for metabolic programming, cell cycle control and functional polarization following antigen stimulation. (
  • I. The generation of functionally distinct T‐cell subclasses is a differentiative process independent of antigen. (