Therapy with Helminths
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
Blood Group Antigens
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Hepatitis B Antigens
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Amino Acid Sequence
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Simian virus 40
Sensitivity and Specificity
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Parasitic Diseases, Animal
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
gp100 Melanoma Antigen
Lewis Blood-Group System
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Differential serodiagnosis for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis using fractions of Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (antigen B) and E. multilocularis protoscolex (EM18). (1/1434)Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid and E. multilocularis protoscolex extract were fractionated by a single step of preparative isoelectric focusing, resulting in an antigen B-rich fraction (8-kD) and an Em18-rich fraction, respectively. The usefulness of both fractions for differential serodiagnosis of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis was evaluated by a large-scale immunoblot analysis on a battery of 354 serum samples. These included 66 from AE patients originating from four different endemic areas, 173 from CE patients originating from seven different endemic areas, 71 from patients with other parasitic diseases, 15 from patients with hepatomas, and 29 from healthy individuals. In an immunoblot with the antigen B-rich fraction, 92% (158 of 173) of the CE sera as well as 79% (52 of 66) of the AE sera reacted with the 8-kD subunit. No cross-reactivity occurred with any sera from patients with cysticercosis, other parasitic diseases, or with hepatomas, or from healthy controls. In an immunoblot with the Em18-rich fraction, all but two sera from AE patients (64 of 66, 97%) recognized Em18, and only nine of 34 CE sera from China reacted with it. All other (139) CE sera from six other countries were negative as were all (115) other non-echinococcosis sera. These findings indicate that antigen B (8-kD) is not species-specific for E. granulosus but is genus-specific for Echinococcus, and that the Em18 antigen is a reliable serologic marker for species-specific differentiation of AE from CE. (+info)
Development of a serologic assay to detect Taenia solium taeniasis. (2/1434)We developed a serologic assay to identify adult Taenia solium tapeworm carriers using excretory/secretory (TSES) antigens collected from in vitro cultured T. solium tapeworms. To identify taeniasis-specific antigens we used an immunoblot assay with serum samples from T. solium tapeworm carriers and cysticercosis patients. Antigens were identified that reacted with antibodies present in serum samples from taeniasis cases and not with those from cysticercosis patients. Using serum samples collected from persons with confirmed T. solium tapeworm infections, the test was determined to be 95% (69 of 73) sensitive. Serum samples (n = 193) from persons with other parasitic infections, including T. saginata tapeworm infections, do not contain cross-reacting antibodies to TSES, indicating that the assay is 100% specific. These data suggest that the immunoblot assay using TSES antigens can be used to identify persons with current or recent T. solium tapeworm infections and provides a new, important tool for epidemiologic purposes, including control and prevention strategies. (+info)
Granulomatous inflammatory response to recombinant filarial proteins of Brugia species. (3/1434)The lymphatic inflammatory response in Brugia-infected jirds peaks early during primary infections and then decreases in severity as judged by the numbers of lymph thrombi present within these vessels. Antigen-specific hypersensitivity reactions in these animals was measured by a pulmonary granulomatous inflammatory response (PGRN) induced by somatic adult worm antigen (SAWA)-coated beads, and by cellular proliferative responses of renal lymph node cells. The kinetics of these responses temporally correspond to lymphatic lesion formation. The importance of any single antigen to the induction of this inflammatory response has not been elucidated. In this study, the PGRN was used to measure the cellular immune response to four recombinant filarial proteins during the course of a primary B. pahangi infection. These proteins were BpL4, glycoprotein (glutathione peroxidase) gp29, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, and filarial chitinase. All were fusion proteins of maltose-binding protein (MBP). Control beads included those coated with diethanolamine (DEA), SAWA, or MBP. The measurements of PRGN were made at 14, 28, 56, and > 150 days postinfection (PI) in infected jirds, in jirds sensitized with SAWA, and in uninfected jirds. The secretory homolog of glutathione peroxidase gp29 was the only recombinant protein tested that induced a significantly greater PGRN (P < 0.05) than controls. This was seen at 28 days PI. These observations indicate that gp29 may be part of the worm antigen complex that induces an early inflammatory response, a response similar to that observed with SAWA. These studies indicate that this approach is useful in investigating the functional ability of specific proteins in the induction and down-regulation of immune-mediated inflammatory responses elicited by filarial parasites. Absence of a granulomatous response to the other recombinant proteins used may be related to the nature and sensitivity of the assay used or the character of recombinant proteins tested. (+info)
Inhibitory effect of artemether on proteinase of Schistosoma japonicum. (4/1434)AIM: To study the effect of artemether (Art) on the thio proteinase ("hemoglobinase", Hem) of Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: Hem was extracted from S japonicum adults. The inhibitory effect of Art on the activity of Hem to degrade human hemoglobin (Hgb) was examined with UV-photometer at 280 nm, SDS-PAGE and scanning at 600 nm on a chromoscanner. RESULTS: Human Hgb was degraded at pH 4.0 by the Hem. The activities of Hem preincubated at 37 degrees C with Art 0.14, 1.4, and 14 mmol.L-1, were inhibited by 30.2%, 39.8%, and 45.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Art possesses an inhibitory effect to Hem of S japonicum. (+info)
Interleukin-10 and antigen-presenting cells actively suppress Th1 cells in BALB/c mice infected with the filarial parasite Brugia pahangi. (5/1434)Infection with the third-stage larvae (L3) of the filarial nematode Brugia results in a Th2-biased immune response in mice and humans. Previously we have shown that the production of interleukin 4 (IL-4) is critical for down-regulating polyclonal Th1 responses in L3-infected mice. However, the in vitro neutralization of IL-4 did not fully recover the defective polyclonal Th1 responses, nor did it result in the production of any antigen (Ag)-specific Th1 cytokines, suggesting that perhaps infection with L3 does not result in priming of Th1 cells in vivo. In this study, we analyzed the role of IL-10 and Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in the spleen as additional factors controlling the Th2 bias in infected mice. Our data show that IL-10 and APCs also contribute to the suppression of mitogen-driven Th1 responses of spleen cells from infected mice. In addition, the neutralization of IL-10 or the replacement of the resident APC population from spleen cell cultures resulted in the production of Ag-specific Th1 cytokines. Irradiated spleen cells from either L3-infected or uninfected mice were able to restore Ag-specific Th1 responses in vitro. Therefore, it appears that Brugia-reactive Th1 cells are primed following infection with L3, but are actively suppressed in vivo by a mechanism that involves IL-10 and the resident APC population, but not IL-4. These results indicate that a complex interplay of cytokines and cell populations underscores the Th2-polarized response in L3-infected mice. (+info)
A novel 62-kilodalton egg antigen from Schistosoma mansoni induces a potent CD4(+) T helper cell response in the C57BL/6 mouse. (6/1434)In infection with Schistosoma mansoni, hepatic granuloma formation is mediated by CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells sensitized to schistosomal egg antigens. There is considerable variation among infected individuals with respect to both severity of disease and the T-cell response to egg antigens. In the BL/6 mouse, the egg granulomas are relatively small and the relevant sensitizing egg antigens are largely unknown. We investigated the CD4(+) Th cell response of infected BL/6 mice to egg antigens fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found a prominent lymphoproliferative response to be directed against a 62-kDa component. With the aid of a specific T-cell hybridoma, 4E6, the 62-kDa antigen was isolated; following partial digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C, an internal amino acid sequence was found to be identical with one present in the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) of the organisms Caenorhabditis elegans and Treponema pallidum and to differ by one residue from PEPCK of various other species. In CD4(+) Th cells from 7.5- 8.5-week-infected BL/6 mice, the purified 62-kDa molecule elicited a potent proliferative response which, based on cytokine analysis, was of a mixed Th-1 and Th-2 type. Our results reveal a novel egg antigen of particular prominence in the BL/6 mouse and suggest that the immune response in schistosomiasis is a product of sensitization to egg antigens that may vary considerably in immunogenicity from strain to strain. (+info)
Vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with leucine aminopeptidase induces high levels of protection against fascioliasis in sheep. (7/1434)The potential of different parasite proteinases for use as vaccine candidates against fascioliasis in sheep was studied by vaccinating animals with the cathepsin L proteinases CL1 and CL2 and with leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) purified from adult flukes. In the first trial, sheep were immunized with CL1 or CL2 and the mean protection levels obtained were 33 and 34%, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in egg output was observed in sheep vaccinated either with CL1 (71%) or with CL2 (81%). The second trial was performed to determine the protective potential of the two cathepsin L proteinases assayed together, as well as in combination with LAP, and of LAP alone. The combination of CL1 and CL2 induced higher levels of protection (60%) than those produced when these enzymes were administered separately. Those sheep that received the cocktail vaccine including CL1, CL2, and LAP were significantly protected (78%) against metacercarial challenge, but vaccination with LAP alone elicited the highest level of protection (89%). All vaccine preparations induced high immunoglobulin G titers which were boosted after the challenge infection, but no correlations between antibody titers and worm burdens were found. However, the sera of those animals vaccinated with LAP contained LAP-neutralizing antibodies. Reduced liver damage, as assessed by the level of the liver enzyme gamma-glutamyl transferase, was observed in the groups vaccinated with CL1, CL2, and LAP or with LAP alone. (+info)
Tolerization of mice to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens causes elevated type 1 and diminished type 2 cytokine responses and increased mortality in acute infection. (8/1434)The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages of schistosome infection, egg-tolerized mice suffered high mortalities. Granuloma size and deposition of collagen in the liver were significantly reduced in egg-tolerized mice. Similarly, limited granuloma responses were detected in the intestines of these mice, and this was associated with a >90% reduction in egg excretion. Histologically, egg-tolerized mice had exacerbated hepatocyte damage, with extensive microvesicular steatosis. Elevated plasma transaminase levels confirmed the damage to hepatocytes. Infected egg-tolerized mice had impaired proliferation responses to egg Ag but intact responses to worm Ag. Tolerized mice had diminished Ab responses to egg Ag and had a type 1 cytokine isotype pattern to worm Ag, with elevated IgG2a and diminished IgG1 and IgE. Egg-tolerized mice failed to down-regulate type 1 cytokines that are normally elicited during early schistosome infection. Hepatic granuloma cells from egg-tolerized mice were also type 1 cytokine dominated, with elevated frequencies of Tc1/Th1 and reduced Tc2/Th2 cells. This study demonstrates that mice tolerized to schistosome eggs have elevated type 1 cytokine responses with diminished type 2 responses and reduced anti-egg Ab during schistosome infection, and these effects are detrimental to the host. (+info)
T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens | JEM
The lineage differentiation of TFH cells has been unclear. In our system, TFH cells possess canonical attributes of Th2 cells. Further, kinetic analysis of TFH cell development showed that the percentages of IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells in draining LNs remained relatively constant (∼16% of total CD4+ cells) from day 7-14 after SEA immunization, whereas the contribution of PD-1+ TFH cells to this population doubled from 21-42% over the same time period (Fig. 1 B), suggesting that TFH cells develop from within the PD-1− IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cell population. To formally address this, we FACS-purified IL-4/GFP+ CD4+ T cells that lacked the classical TFH markers CXCR5 and PD-1 (Fig. 4 E) from the pooled draining LNs of Thy1.1 4get mice that had been immunized 5 d earlier with SEA. These cells were then adoptively transferred into congenic Thy1.2 recipient BALB/c mice or JHD mice, which were then immediately immunized with SEA. After 7 d, Thy1.1+ donor cells in the reactive LNs of recipient animals (Fig. 5 ...
An Unbiased View of food poisen
antigens from a few sources: (i) all ES, somatic, and cuticular antigens as a result of tissue penetration and subsequent degeneration of the larvae, more info resulting in exposure to the whole profile on the parasites antigens; (ii) ES antigens only, in instances exactly where You will find a expulsion on the parasite intact, perhaps following penetration of intestine tissue has transpired; and (iii) cuticular and somatic antigens from lifeless larvae contained in food, through which case ES antigens could well be current only in minimal quantities-this last position has also been advised by Jackson (127 ...
2017 US Immunodiagnostic Instrument and Reagent Supplier Shares, and Market Segment Sales Forecasts
LONDON, Feb. 1, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- 2017 US Immunodiagnostic Instrument and Reagent Supplier Shares, and Market Segment Sales Forecasts.
Efficacy of Purified Schistosoma Japonicum Egg Antigens for Elisa Serodiagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis Japonica: Specificity...
Abstract At present, there is no consensus that purified schistosome egg antigens offer any advantage in the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Previously, we demonstrated by multiple techniques that the major serologic antigens in Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigen (SEA) are glycoproteins, and that the glycoproteins with highest specificity and sensitivity are hydrophobes. We therefore tested these materials for their specificity, sensitivity and cost effectiveness in the ELISA. In this study we used five SEA fractions that varied in their purity and antigenicity. The order of immunologic specific activity in the ELISA, measured by titration of a standard sera pool, was: hydrophobic glycoproteins (highest), crude SEA glycoproteins, hydrophilic glycoproteins, crude SEA, and SEA proteins (lowest). Complexity (purity) of these materials were (in rank order), hydrophilic glycoproteins (purest), hydrophobic glycoproteins, crude glycoproteins, SEA proteins, and
Humoral and cellular immune response of mice challenged with Yersinia pestis antigenic preparations | The Brazilian Journal of...
Objectives. The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. pestis, we assessed the role of these antigens in inducing an immune response.. Methods. The immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the Y. pestis (YP) total extract and the Y. pestis fraction 1 capsular antigen protein (F1) was determined in Swiss-Webster mice immunized with 40μg or 20μg for each preparation. Immunophenotyping was performed by flow cytometry.. Results. Animals immunized with the YP total extract did not elicit detectable anti-F1 antibodies (Ab) in the hemaglutination/inhibition (HA/HI) test. Animals immunized with 40μg or 20μg ...
Characterisation of IgG(T) serum antibody responses to two larval antigen complexes in horses naturally- or experimentally...
Cyathostomins are the most common parasitic nematodes of horses. Larval stages, which inhabit the intestinal wall, are particularly pathogenic and can cause severe colitis and colic. Despite their clinical importance, diagnostic techniques for the prepatent stages do not exist. A method that could estimate mucosal infection intensity would have a major impact on the control and diagnosis of cyathostominosis. Here, serum IgG(T) responses to two larval antigen complexes of 25 and 20 kDa were quantified in horses with experimental infections, natural infections and in horses that presented with clinical larval cyathostominosis. In experimentally-infected animals, anti-25 kDa complex IgG(T) levels correlated positively with field exposure and with early third stage larval (r(s)=0.74, P=0.015) and total mucosal parasite (r(s)=0.78, P=0.010) burdens. In naturally exposed horses whose parasite burdens were quantified upon post-mortem examination, antigen-specific IgG(T) responses were significantly ...
Upstream Biosciences CEO to Unveil Promising New Approach toTreating Sleeping Sickness at International...
Keynote Address to Highlight Upstream s Drug Candidates That Have Demonstrated Promising In Vitro Activity Against Sleeping Sickness and Other Parasitic Disease
High levels of IgG4 to Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens in individuals with periportal fibrosis. | The American Journal of...
Specific IgG4 and IgE responses to adult worm antigen and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were examined in 267 individuals from an area in which schistosomiasis mansoni is endemic. Based on information obtained from clinical and sonographic examinations of this sample, the individuals were divided in three groups: 1) 204 individuals without periportal fibrosis, and liver and spleen enlargements; 2) 41 individuals without periportal fibrosis, but presenting with organopathy, with or without organomegaly; and 3) 22 individuals with periportal fibrosis, regardless of their status as having hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly. Levels of IgG4 to SEA were significantly higher in sera from patients with fibrosis compared with the patients from the other two groups. We also found significantly higher levels of IgG4 against SEA in egg-negative patients with fibrosis compared with egg-negative patients from the other two groups. This report demonstrates a specific humoral response in patients presenting with initial
Schistosoma Mansoni Soluble Egg Antigens | The Journal of Immunology
A cell-mediated immunologic granulomatous response to Schistosoma mansoni eggs is now generally accepted as being responsible for the hepatosplenic disease of chronic schistosomiasis. Previous investigations have demonstrated that a soluble extract of S. mansoni eggs (SEA) both induces and elicits granulomatous hypersensitivity and other forms of cell-mediated immunologic reactivity. Mice with chronic light S. mansoni infections show spontaneous suppression of granulomatous hypersensitivity in the presence of high levels of anti-SEA antibodies. Immunodiffusion analysis using antiserum obtained from these mice and SEA resulted in the identification of three major serologic antigens which have been designated MSA1, MSA2, and MSA3. Initial studies with Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the three antigens were markedly different in m.w. and at least two of the three were glycoproteins. The antigens were then extracted from crude SEA by adsorption to ...
Soluble egg antigen of Schistosoma Haematobium induces HCV replication in PBMC from patients with chronic HCV infection | BMC...
This study was conducted to examine, in vitro , the effect of soluble egg antigen (SEA) of S. haematobium on intracellular HCV RNA load in peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as on cell proliferation in patients with chronic HCV infection. PBMC from 26 patients with chronic HCV infection were cultured for 72 hours in presence and absence of 50 μg SEA/ml medium. Intracellular HCV RNA quantification of plus and minus strands was assessed before and after stimulation. PBMC from five healthy subjects were cultured for 7 days, flow cytometric analysis of DNA content was used to assess the mitogenic effect of SEA on PBMC proliferation compared to phytoheamaglutinine (PHA). Quantification of the intracellular viral load showed increased copy number/cell of both or either viral strands after induction with SEA in 18 of 26 patients (69.2%) thus indicating stimulation of viral replication. Flow cytometric analysis showed that mean ± S.D. of percent values of cell proliferation was induced from 3.2 ± 1
Granuloma Formation around Filarial Larvae Triggered by Host Responses to an Excretory/Secretory Antigen | Infection and...
Over the past several years, our lab has been attempting to determine the mechanism by which inbred strains of mice, which we use as model mammalian hosts, respond to experimental filarial infections. The outcome of these studies indicates that an important host defense mechanism is the formation of multicellular aggregates of leukocytes called granulomas around incoming infectious larvae. Our previous studies indicated an important role for T cells (for the recruitment of a robust population of leukocytes and for activating macrophages along the alternative pathway of activation), B lymphocytes (particularly the B1 subset), and macrophages and eosinophils (for participating in the granulomas). We have demonstrated the crucial importance of antifilarial antibodies of the IgM isotype in binding to the surface of the larvae and facilitating the adhesion of activated macrophages to the larvae. We have further shown that the in vitro cytoadherence assay is a good surrogate for in vivo granuloma ...
Immunomodulatory effect of antigenic fractions of a recent clinical isolate of L. donovani on monocytic cell lines<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunomodulatory effect of antigenic fractions of a recent clinical isolate of L. donovani on monocytic cell lines. AU - Tripathi, Parul. AU - Chandra, Dinesh. AU - Naik, Sita. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines are important mediators of the immune response to Leishmania. We have recently reported that following SDS-PAGE separation and transfer of whole L. donovani antigen (strain 2001, a recent clinical isolate from Bihar) into 11 fractions (named F1 to F11; MW range 139-24.2 Kd), only the high molecular weight (MW) fractions (F1 to F4; MW range 134-64.2 Kd) had immunostimulatory activity when tested in leishmania exposed immune individuals. The F1 to F11 fractions were able to induce significant proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of leishmania exposed immune individuals and production of variable amounts of IFN-γ IL-12p40 and IL-10. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of L. donovani promastigotes whole ...
Keele Research Repository - Keele University
Doenhoff, MJ and El-Faham, M and Liddell, S and Fuller, HR and Stanley, RG and Schramm, G and Igetei, JE (2016) Cross-Reactivity between Schistosoma mansoni Antigens and the Latex Allergen Hev b 7: Putative Implication of Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants (CCDs). PLoS One. ISSN 1932-6203 ...
Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses | Journal of Experimental Medicine |...
DCs are known to play a pivotal role in the initiation and polarization of T cell responses, and S. mansoni egg preparations have been shown to prime Th2 cells via the functional modulation of DCs (MacDonald et al., 2001; de Jong et al., 2002). To study and identify the components from S. mansoni egg preparations that instruct Th2 development, we used a well established co-culture system of human monocyte-derived DC and naive CD4+ T cells, which is generally thought to mimic in vivo DC-mediated T helper cell polarization (Kapsenberg, 2003). It stands to reason that ESPs from live eggs (Cass et al., 2007) are the first egg-derived molecules to interact with cells of the innate immune system, including DCs. Therefore, we initially tested ESPs for their capacity to condition DCs to prime Th2 development from naive CD4+ T cells. Similar to SEA, exposure of DCs to ESP resulted in a robust Th2 skewing irrespective of the presence or absence of LPS as a neutral maturation factor (Fig. 1 A). In a recent ...
Lacto-N-fucopentaose III Found on Schitosoma mansoni Egg Antigens Functions as Adjuvant for Proteins by Inducing Th2-Type...
FIGURE 1. In vivo Ab production after the intranasal immunization with saline, HSA or sugar-conjugated HSA in BALB/c (A-D) and C57BL/6 (E and F) mice. Serum samples were taken after prime (▦), boost (□), and challenge (▪) as described in Materials and Methods. Ab of IgG (A and E), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses (B) specific for HSA were measured by indirect ELISA and estimated by endpoint titer. IgE titers specific for HSA (C and F) and the volume of serum total IgE (D) were determined by sandwich ELISA. Levels of HSA-specific IgE were presented as the absorbance at 450 nm from duplicate wells of 1/4 serum dilution. Results show the mean ± SEM of four individual serum per group. Data are representative of three (A-D) and two (E and F) separate experiments.. ...
Immunodiagnosis | definition of immunodiagnosis by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of immunodiagnosis in the Medical Dictionary? immunodiagnosis explanation free. What is immunodiagnosis? Meaning of immunodiagnosis medical term. What does immunodiagnosis mean?
Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer...
Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP) IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high
Development of Innovative Research Technique in Genetic Epidemiology of Malaria and Other Parasitic Diseases in Lao PDR for...
SATREPS: Japanese government (JST/JICA) program for international joint research into global issues by researchers in Japan and developing countries. In the first three years beginning in April 2008, a total of 49 projects commenced in 28 countries.
Heart worm Antigen test | German Shepherds Forum
Has anyone done the heart worm antigen text on their pups? My vet sent a reminder that Ozzy needs this. Never did it on any of my prior dogs. He has been on...
Breast Cancer Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy by Roberto L. Ceriani | Waterstones
Buy Breast Cancer Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy by Roberto L. Ceriani from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE UK delivery on orders over £20.
Investigation of changes in immune responses in schistosomiasis patients co-infected with HIV following praziquantel treatment
Praziquantel (PZQ) efficacy and immune responses to schistosome antigens following cure were investigated in Schistosoma mansoni infected adult fishermen resident in Kisumu, Kenya with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Schistosomiasis negative/HIV negative and schistosomiasis negative/HIV positive fishermen were used as controls. Proliferative responses to schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA), soluble adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD) as well as leves of typical T helper-1 (TH-1) type, [gamma interferon (IFN-)] and T helper-2 (TH-2) type [Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10)] cytokines were assayed at baseline, one month and four months post-treatment with Praziquantel. Indications of immunosuppression were determined by CD4+ counts and HIV testing by ELISA and Western blot. Cure success and reinfection rates were determined by longitudinal follow up of eggs ...
Characterization of an immunodominant Onchocerca volvulus antigen with patient sera and a monoclonal antibody. | Journal of...
Adult Onchocerca voluvlus and infective larvae, but not microfilariae contain an immunodominant antigen (33,000 and 21,000 Mr in females, 39,000, 33,000, and 21,000 Mr in males, 133,000 Mr in infective larvae) which is recognized by an Onchocerca-specific mAb. The component is part of the reproductive organs and muscles. 96.2% of onchocerciasis sera contained antibodies detectable by immunoblotting against it. Antigen purified by immunoaffinity chromatography was specifically recognized in immunoblots by onchocerciasis sera, but not by sera from other filarial infections. The high immunogenicity, the specificity, and the occurrence in infective larvae of this antigen indicate an immunodiagnostic potential and a possible role in the immunobiology of the parasite. ...
Excretory-secretory antigen is better than crude antigen for the serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis by ELISA
Clonorchis sinensis ESA proved to be a better serodiagnostic antigen than CA for ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity of ELISA with ESA was 92.5% while that of ELISA with CA was 88.2%, when 509 human sera of clonorchiasis were screened in the present study, which was statistically significant. The diagnostic specificity of ELISA with ESA was increased to 93.1% from 87.8% by using CA. Especially cross-reactivity of ESA with serum specimens of opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and paragonimiasis was reduced compared to that of CA.. C. sinensis ESA was found to include proteins of 7-8, 12.5, and 30 kDa (Kim, 1998), and the 7 or 8 kDa protein predominated (Chung et al., 2002). ESA has been suggested to be a valuable candidate diagnostic antigen of active clonorchiasis in rabbits and humans (Kim, 1994 & 1998). The protein bands in C. sinensis ESA were also found to form 7-8, 17 and 26-28 kDa bands, while in CA bands at 35, 43, 55, and 70 kDa were additionally observed (Hong et al., 1997, 1999).. The 7-8 ...
Schistosome egg antigens, including the glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, trigger the development of regulatory B cells
Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
Browsing by Subject intestinal schistosomiasis
Through the use of Schistosoma mansoni antigens we attempted to develop a non-invasive assay that would diagnose an infection of intestinal schistosomiasis. We isolated parts of the Schistosoma mansoni parasite shed ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with egg antigens of Schistosoma japonicum | SpringerLink
A micromethod of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to infections with Schistosoma japonicumin humans and mice with egg antigens. In mouse infections, antibody responses were...
Antigenic variation in Schistosoma - Kingston University Research Repository
Schistosomes have an outer tegument that protects them from the host immune system. Parasite antigens expressed on or within the surface layer of the tegument have been suggested to be potential vaccine targets such as tetraspanin 23 (TSP23). Little is known about the evolution and diversity of tegumental antigens, an important consideration given that vaccines are being designed and are failing. Moreover, these antigens, including TSP23, are in direct contact with the host immune system, and so accelerated and adaptive evolution may be occurring. Species of Schistosoma infect a variety of definitive hosts. The way in which these hosts are shaping the evolution of antigens across different species of Schistosoma needs investigating. Much attention has been focussed on the production of an effective multi-species vaccine against the schistosomes, and there has been little success in absolute clearance or even establishment of continued immune memory post-infection. The aim of this study was ...
Fasciola hepatica - WikEM
Leder K, et al. Liver flukes: Fascioliasis. In: Post T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, Mass.: UpToDate; 2014. www.uptodate.com. Accessed December 24, 2014 ...
Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites: Answer to Case 567
As many of you pointed out, this eggs beautifully demonstrates the filaments arising from the 2 poles of the inner membrane (arrow heads, below image). You cant make it out here, but there are 4-8 of these filaments arising from each pole. You can also nicely see the hooks of the 6-hooked oncosphere ...
BioVaxys and WuXi to Collaborate on SARS-CoV-2 S-Protein Production
WuXi will produce SARS-CoV-2 s-proteins for BioVaxys COVID-19 vaccine candidate, BVX-0320, and for its Covid-T immunodiagnostic program.
Radiograf MR - souschef, Billeddiagnostisk afdeling, SUH Roskilde (Opslag hos Region Sjælland)
Karriereopslag hos Region Sjælland, Akademikernes Jobbank: Stillingsopslag Radiografstilling MR souschef Billeddiagnostisk Afdeling, Sjællands Universitets Hospital, Roskilde Er du uddannet radiograf, og har erfaring og viden indenfor MR, har vi en ledig fuldtidsstilling som souschef i vores velfungerende MR-gruppe pr. 1. April 2020 eller efter aftale. Stillingen er vagtfri - dog kan man deltage i udvidet åbningstid
Fasciola gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESPs) modulate the differentiation and immune functions of buffalo dendritic...
Fasciola gigantica infection threatens the health of both humans and animals in the world. The excretory/secretory products (ESPs) of this fluke has been reported to impair the activation and maturation of immune cells. We have previously shown the influence of F. gigantica ESPs (FgESPs) on the maturation of buffalo dendritic cells (DCs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potency of FgESPs in shifting the differentiation and immune functions of buffalo DCs. Buffalo DCs were incubated with FgESPs directly or further co-cultured with lymphocytes in vitro. qRT-PCR was employed to determine the gene expression profile of DCs or the mixed cells, and an ELISA was used to measure cytokine levels in the supernatants. Hoechst and Giemsa staining assays, transmission electron microscopy, caspase-3/7 activity test and histone methylation test were performed to determine DC phenotyping, apoptosis and methylation. To investigate the mechanism
Schistosoma mansoni Larvae Do Not Expand or Activate Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Their Migratory Phase<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Schistosoma mansoni Larvae Do Not Expand or Activate Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells during Their Migratory Phase. AU - Redpath, Stephen A. AU - van der Werf, Nienke. AU - MacDonald, Andrew S. AU - Maizels, Rick M. AU - Taylor, Matthew D. N1 - MR/K020196/1 PY - 2015/10. Y1 - 2015/10. N2 - Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in suppression of immune responses during parasitic helminth infection, both by controlling damaging immunopathology and by inhibiting protective immunity. During the patent phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection, Foxp3(+) Treg cells are activated and suppress egg-elicited Th2 responses, but little is known of their induction and role during the early prepatent larval stage of infection. We quantified Foxp3(+) Treg cell responses during the first 3 weeks of murine S. mansoni infection in C57BL/6 mice, a time when larval parasites migrate from the skin and transit the lungs en route to the hepatic and mesenteric vasculature. In contrast to other ...
Schistosoma mansoni egg credit Aidan Emery oct 2013 | SCAN: The Schistosomiasis Collection at the NHM
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Schistosoma mansoni egg credit Aidan Emery March 2014 | SCAN: The Schistosomiasis Collection at the NHM
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith ...
Trichinella spiralis - Redorbit
Trichinella spiralis, sometimes known as the pork worm, is a parasite within the Nematoda class. It can be found in pigs, rats, humans, and bears. This worm causes trichinosis in humans, most often from consuming undercooked pork. This species is the smallest within its class, reaching an average body length of .16 centimeters. Females are twice as large as males, displaying a sexual dimorphism. The reproductive organs of females are unique to the species in that the front end holds developed juveniles, while the back end, where the uterus is found, holds undeveloped eggs. The genome of this species was completed in 2011.. Trichinella spiralis requires one host to mature and survive, because it spends its entire life within the one host. When a human ingests the larvae, which are protected by a cyst like formation, the PH of the stomach allows them to hatch and travel into the intestines. After reaching this area, the larvae dig into the mucosa to grow and breed. Females can live for up to six ...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of protein...
Molecular cloning and characterisation of two kinds of proteins in excretory-secretory products of Trichinella pseudospiralis.: Two genes encoding Trichinella p
2016 US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment...
2016 US Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Analyzers and Reagents: Supplier Shares, Volume and Sales Country Segment Forecasts, Innovative Technologies, Competitive Strategies Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com 600 Pages
Bideoa: Donostiako Piratak | Txupinazoa 2015 | Donostiako Aste Nagusia | EITB
Donostiako Piratek ekitaldi berezia egin dute bertako Aste Nagusiari hasiera emateko. Gazteak dantzan jarri ditu txupinazoak La Flamenka gunean.
Willie Colón | Boomshakalaka
eitb.eus-en geure eta beste batzuen cookieak erabiltzen ditugu nabigatzeko esperientzia hobetzeko. Nabigatzen jarraitzen baduzu, gure cookieen politika onartzen duzula ulertuko dugu. Informazio gehiago Onartu ...
DSpace at EWHA: Excretory-secretory products secreted by Paragonimus westermani delay the spontaneous cell death of human...
Background: Eosinophils play important roles in tissue inflammatory responses associated with helminth infections. Excretory-secretory products (ESP) produced by tissue-invasive helminths contain a large quantity of proteolytic enzymes that can modulate the host's immune responses. However, little is known regarding the roles of worm-derived products that are responsible for eosinophilic inflammatory responses in helminth infections. Objective: In the present study, we investigated whether ESP produced by Paragonimus westermani, which cause pulmonary or extrapulmonary paragonimiasis in human beings, regulates both cell survival and death of human eosinophils. Methods: The ESP was obtained from P. westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM). Eosinophils were purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors, and the purified eosinophils were incubated with or without the ESP secreted by PwNEM. The viability of eosinophils was assessed by staining with propidium iodide using the flow ...
The Role of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs in Immune Protection against Plasmodium berghei Infected Mice
The co-occurrence of malaria and schistosomiasis is common in tropical regions of the world. Malaria induces a strong Th1 response while schistosomiasis skews the response to a Th2. Several studies demonstrate a non consistent effect of schistosomiasis infection on progression of malaria. On one hand, schistosomiasis infections protect against cerebral malaria while on the other hand, they are associated with increased malaria severity. This study examined the role of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on Plasmodium berghei malaria progression in BALB/c mice. The objectives were to determine the changes in Th1, Th2 cytokines and IgG levels which are markers associated with malaria and schistosomiasis protection and also determine if S. mansoni eggs lead to protection from P. berghei malaria. Two groups of mice were used: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group was injected with a triple dose of S. mansoni eggs at ten day interval before being challenged with P. berghei. The ...
Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected...
The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic gold standard reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the true prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on ...
FOCOS AUSCULTATORIOS PDF
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. La edad media de las pacientes fue El peso medio de nacimiento fue gramos Tres neonatos presentaron trastornos alimentarios, uno hipoglucemia y otro enfermedad de membrana hialina, ductus arterioso permeable, sepsis y plaquetopenia. It has a high maternal and perinatal morbi-mortality rate. Maternal and neonatal variables were analized. Mean maternal age was MAH O Deteksi Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica pada Kerbau Perah Fasciola hepatica dan Fasciola gigantica merupakan cacing kelas trematoda.. Telur cacing ini berbentuk oval dan dilengkapi dengan operculum yang berfungsi sebagai jalan keluar larva mirasidium pada saat telur menetas. Ukuran telur Fasciola gigantica lebih besar dibandingkan ukuran telur Fasciola hepatica. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi telur cacing Fasciola Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and ...
Microbes & Human Health: Excretory-secretory products of Giardia lamblia induce interleukin-8production in human colonic cells...
Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G. lamblia-induced cytokine production in human epithelial cells. Incubation of the gastrointestinal cell line HT-29 with G. lamblia GS trophozoites triggered production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IL-8 production was not significantly decreased by physically separating the HT-29 cells and G. lamblia GS trophozoites. Indeed, treatment of HT-29 with G. lamblia excretory-secretory products (ESP) induced IL-8 production. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift and transfection assays using mutagenized IL-8 promoter reporter plasmids indicated that IL-8 production by G. lamblia ESP occurs through activation of two transcriptional factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in HT-29 cells. In addition, activation of two ...
Fasciola hepatica in the rat: immune responses associated with the development of resistance to infection<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fasciola hepatica in the rat. T2 - immune responses associated with the development of resistance to infection. AU - Keegan, P S. AU - Trudgett, A. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - F. hepatica infections were established in rats and immune responses were monitored during primary and challenge infections. Antibody levels peaked at 3 weeks post-primary infection and at 6 days post-challenge infection. No significant correlation was found between antibody titre and number of flukes recovered at autopsy. Immunoblotting revealed a limited number of immunogenic polypeptides. When antibodies from these reactive bands were eluted and tested by IFA they all gave identical binding patterns: on juvenile fluke sections tegumental syncytium, tegumental cells and gut cells were labelled, while on adult sections the same antibodies labelled gut cells, reproductive tissue, excretory ducts and flame cells. This suggested that these tissues shared a common epitope or range of epitopes. A ...
Guilherme Corr a de Oliveira
22. Falc o PL, Corr a de Oliveira G, Busek SU, Rodrigues-Caldas I, Martins-Filho OA, Malaquias LCC, Silveira MAS, Corr a-Oliveira R. Human schistosomiasis mansoni: IL-10 modulates in vitro granuloma formation modulating the expression of CD28, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). XXIV Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Immunology. guas de Lind ia, 24-27 de Outubro de 1999 ...
Proposed Solution to Odor of Feces at La Jolla Beaches: Anti-Sea Lion Wall - UCSD Guardian
Gigantic urban agglomerations and barely populated villages alike have their own local problems. Even in a paradise free of major socioeconomic issues, such as La Jolla, we can still smell trouble like sea lion and bird poop. For the past few years, the area has been suffering from a natural yet nauseous smell - feces from the animals of La Jolla Cove. A seemingly minor inconvenience causes strong feelings in the hearts and noses of La Jollans. But with rotating plastic cylinders to humanely displace the sea lions, it is time to end the stink once and for all.. The problem with the foul scent of animal and bird excrements began in La Jolla Cove when city authorities decided to put up a fence along the cliffs to prevent people from entering an unsafe sheer area. While making the cliffs safer for tourists and residents, the fence created a people-free zone that sea lions and birds gladly occupied. The unusually large concourse of animals soon befouled their new habitat, producing an unbearable ...
sandwich elisa principle list - sandwich elisa principle for sale
sandwich elisa principle for sale - 1048 - sandwich elisa principle wholesalers & sandwich elisa principle manufacturers from China manufacturers.
Germany Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Market 2013Sales Forecasts, Supplier Shares, Competitive Strategies
Germany Clinical Chemistry and Immunodiagnostic Market 2013Sales Forecasts, Supplier Shares, Competitive Strategies Published by VPGMarketResearch.com at researchbeam.com [Report Price $3950]
DI-fusion Schistosoma mansoni CBP/p300 has a conserved domain structure...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Infectious Diseases: Parasitic: Flukes: Fascioliasis
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans.
Fascioliasis - Health, Conditions and Diseases, Infectious Diseases, Parasitic, Flukes
Fascioliasis is a parasitic condition caused by a flatworm, Fasciola. It is primarily a disease of animals but can be transmitted to humans..
PuraImmuno + CBD Capsules Immune System Support - PuraHemp
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FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION - PDF
FUNDAMENTALS OF CATHODIC PROTECTION Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal because of a reaction with its environment. For the purpose of this report, corrosion is the result of an electrochemical reaction
MOLECULAR IMMUNODIAGNOSIS OF TB INFECTION: A PILOT STUDY - Immunology
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Follicular B helper T cells
May 2009). "T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens". J Exp Med. 206 (5): 991-9 ... In germinal centers, antigen-experienced TFH cells rapidly upregulate the expression of CD40L, which binds and stimulates the B ... Therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, similar to B cell activation by T-cell independent antigens, a quick burst of low ... Follicular helper T cells (also known as follicular B helper T cells and abbreviated as TFH), are antigen-experienced CD4+ T ...
Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho Highlands of Kenya. "Moses Rugutt named Nacosti head". Business ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA. Anthelmintic resistance amongst ...
Effects of parasitic worms on the immune system
2002). "An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen". J Immunol. 169 (6): 3284-3292 ... In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. ... Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where the immune system is forced to ... However, helminths also regulate Th2-caused diseases, such as allergy and asthma. Professor Rook postulates that different ...
They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. Eosinophils are ... They have also been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells. Eosinophils are responsible for tissue damage and ... After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth ... Shi HZ (September 2004). "Eosinophils function as antigen-presenting cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 76 (3): 520-7. doi: ...
... helminths, allergens). Antibodies that bind to surface antigens (for example, on bacteria) will attract the first component of ... Rh factor, also known as Rh D antigen, is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rh-positive (Rh+) have this ... It is important to note that this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by ... This means binding between antibody and antigen is reversible, and the antibody's affinity towards an antigen is relative ...
T helper cell
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. ... Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. They also have an external structure or ... ADCC is also important in the use of vaccines, as creation of antibodies and the destruction of antigens introduced to the host ... Frey, Joachim (2019/12). "RTX Toxins of Animal Pathogens and Their Role as Antigens in Vaccines and Diagnostics". Toxins. 11 ( ...
Adult hookworm antigens have also been identified as potential candidates for vaccines. When adult worms attach to the ... For example, helminth infections cause potent and highly polarized immune response characterized by increased T-helper cell ... Research on larval antigens has focused on proteins that are members of the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily, ... Research is currently stymied at the development of at least one of these antigens as a recombinant protein for testing in ...
This involves the use of mass spectrometry find parasite antigens (proteins which activate an adaptive immune response) which ... Mutapi's lab at the University of Edinburgh, the Parasite Immuno-epidemiology Group, researches immune responses to helminths ... Currently there are no available vaccines for infections by helminth worms including bilharzia. Mutapi is pioneering proteomics ...
... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ...
Anthelmintic resistance amongst sheep and goats in Kenya and Epidemiology and control of ruminant helminths in the Kericho ... Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA; ...
Of all the known helminth species, the most important helminths with respect to understanding their transmission pathways, ... Sophisticated tests such as serological assays, antigen tests, and molecular diagnosis are also available; however, they are ... Specific helminths can be identified through microscopic examination of their eggs (ova) found in faecal samples. The number of ... Helminths may cause iron-deficiency anemia. This is most severe in heavy hookworm infections, as Necator americanus and ...
The clearance of helminth in mice that lacked taste receptor function (Trpm5 or/-gustducin KO) or enough tuft cells (Pou2f3 KO ... A loss of tolerance to antigens that appear in the environment cause Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Crohn's disease (CD) ... Helminth colonization inducts a type 2 immune response, causes mucosal healing and achieves clinical remission. During an ... This shows that tufts cells are important in playing a protective role during the helminth infections. It was observed that IL- ...
High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such ... Muck, A.; Pires, M.; Lammie, P. (2003). "Influence of infection with non-filarial helminths on the specificity of serological ... as strongyloides and schistosoma antigens, as demonstrated in reported cases. It is important to exclude other parasitic ...
... they are rarely highly mutated and have broad antigen reactivity thus providing an early response to a wide range of antigens ... Responses to specific helminths are also characterised with elevated levels of IgE antibodies. Idiotype Janeway, CA; Travers, P ... IgG4 is the least abundant IgG subclass in the serum and is often generated following repeated exposure to the same antigen or ... sIgA has also been shown to potentiate the immune response in intestinal tissue by uptake of antigen together with the bound ...
Loa loa filariasis
Antigen detection using an immunoassay for circulating filarial antigens constitutes a useful diagnostic approach, because ... helminths), and a positive serologic test does not necessarily distinguish between infections-up and coming serologic tests ... In the past, health care providers use a provocative injection of Dirofilaria immitis as a skin test antigen for filariasis ...
... and helminths. Lack of exposure to sufficient benign antigens, particularly during childhood, is sometimes suggested as a cause ... Extra-cellular antigens primarily trigger the TH2 response, as observed with allergies, while intracellular antigens trigger a ... Helminths are parasitic worms such as hookworms, whipworms, and threadworms that have evolved to live within a host organism on ... Helminth infection has emerged as one possible explanation for the low incidence of autoimmune diseases and allergies in less ...
Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ... Helminth's relationship to humans as hosts should be classified as mutualistic or symbiotic. ... causing them to display the antigen. Upon transfusion into the person, these activated cells present the antigen to the ... The cells then destroy the tumor cells that express the antigen. ...
A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Erb KJ (2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". Eur. J. Immunol. 37 (5): ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE ... When an appropriate allergic antigen or parasite is present, the cross-linking of at least two IgE molecules and their Fc ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...
It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites ... Firstly, the antigen and antibody rapidly form antigen-antibody complexes within few seconds and this is followed by a slower ... It acts on antigen-antibody reaction in which the antibodies cross-link particulate antigens resulting in the visible clumping ... Antigen-antibody interaction, or antigen-antibody reaction, is a specific chemical interaction between antibodies produced by B ...
... it acts to protect against several bowel infections caused by helminths. This role of IL-25 has been demonstrated in these ... promotes efficient protective immunity against Trichinella spiralis infection by enhancing the antigen-specific IL-9 response ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203 (4): 1105-16. doi:10.1084/jem.20051615 ... and IL-13 at the onset of helminth expulsion. The Rockefeller University Press. OCLC 679042420. Angkasekwinai P, Srimanote P, ...
If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before being exposed to the antigen itself then the child will ... and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in ... The body's capability to react to antigens depends on a person's age, antigen type, maternal factors and the area where the ... Antigen-presenting cells in newborns have a reduced capability to activate T cells. Also, T cells of a newborn proliferate ...
T helper cell
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... Erb KJ (May 2007). "Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". European Journal of ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic reactions to drugs, bee stings, and antigen ... CD23 may also allow facilitated antigen presentation, an IgE-dependent mechanism whereby B cells expressing CD23 are able to ...
Imunoglobulin E - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Erb KJ (2007). „Helminths, allergic disorders and IgE-mediated immune responses: where do we stand?". Eur. J. Immunol. 37 (5): ... Kod alergičnih osoba, mastociti su obloženi specifičnim IgE antitelima za neki antigen. Oblaganje mastocita IgE antitelima se ... Degranulacija, 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - medijatori (histamin, proteaze, hemokini, heparin); 5 - granule; 6 ... Takva reakcija se može javiti u roku od nekoliko minuta nakon što senzibilisana osoba ponovo unese antigen. ...
An antigen is a substance that ignites the immune response. The cells involved in recognizing the antigen are Lymphocytes. Once ... and helminth infestations) as well. Hence, research in the field of immunology is of prime importance for the advancements in ... If a child is exposed to the antibody for a particular antigen before being exposed to the antigen itself then the child will ... antigen type, maternal factors and the area where the antigen is presented. Neonates are said to be in a state of physiological ...
1 - antigen. 2 - IgE antibody. 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - ... such as helminths, could protect against allergy. Therefore, reduced exposure to these organisms, particularly in developed ... Other widely promoted tests such as the antigen leukocyte cellular antibody test and the food allergy profile are considered ...
A. cantonensis is a helminth of the phylum Nematoda, order Strongylida, and superfamily Metastrongyloidea. Nematodes are ... Consequently, alternative approaches to detect antigen-antibody reactions are being explored, such as immuno-PCR. A rapid ... "Helminth Taxonomy - Phylum Nematoda". Schistosomiasis Research Group. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved ... Chye SM, Lin SR, Chen YL, Chung LY, Yen CM (January 2004). "Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensis ...
... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... 2004). "Helminth infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation". Int. Immunol. 16 (4): 585-96. ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ...
These tests are based upon the ability of an antibody to bind specifically to an antigen. The antigen, usually a protein or ... Macroparasites (worms or helminths) including nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, tapeworms (cestodes), and ... For example, "Strep throat" is often diagnosed within minutes, and is based on the appearance of antigens made by the causative ... Signal of unknowns can be compared to that of standards allowing quantitation of the target antigen. To aid in the diagnosis of ...
Complement fixation test are methods of identifying different kinds of parasites by detecting the presence of their antigens on ... Veterinary helminthology is focused on veterinary important helminth parasites, for example: *Ancylostoma duodenale ...
Adaptive immune system
Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... parasites including helminths and toxins. Like cytotoxic T cells, most of the CD4+ helper cells die on resolution of ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Endogenous antigensEdit. Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell ...
Potencijalne terapije multiple skleroze
Correale J, Farez M, Razzitte G (August 2008). "Helminth infections associated with multiple sclerosis induce regulatory B ... veoma kasan antigen -4). Rezultati faze IIa su objavljeni. ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Defense against helminths. Multiple Sclerosis Tfh. IL-21, IL-4. Bcl-6. Help B cells produce antibody. Asthma and other allergic ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
The positive B cell signaling is initiated by binding of foreign antigen to surface immunoglobulin. The same antigen-specific ... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRI receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound ... Large parasites like the helminth (worm) Schistosoma mansoni are too large for ingestion by phagocytes. They also have an ... IgE antibodies bind to antigens of allergens. These allergen-bound IgE molecules interact with Fcε receptors on the surface of ...
At the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a combination of tests with purified adult worm antigens is used for ... It belongs to the group of helminth infections. Diagnosis is by finding eggs of the parasite in a person's urine or stool.[ ... All serum specimens are tested by FAST-ELISA using S. mansoni adult microsomal antigen. A positive reaction (greater than 9 ... Immunoblots with adult worm microsomal antigens are species-specific, so a positive reaction indicates the infecting species. ...
Brooker S, Clements AC, Bundy DA (2006). Global epidemiology, ecology and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Adv ... Research on larval antigens has focused on proteins that are members of the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily, ... Knowles SC (August 2011). "The effect of helminth co-infection on malaria in mice". Int. J. Parasitol. 41 (10): 1041-51. doi: ... The term "hookworm" is sometimes used to refer to hookworm infection. A hookworm is a type of parasitic worm (helminth). ...
... pollen proteins or helminth antigens. Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ...
Human leukocyte antigen associations may even be at work. In fact, this linkage on chromosome 6 may be the most convincing and ... The therapy tests the hygiene hypothesis which argues that the absence of helminths in the colons of people in the developed ...
Pattern recognition receptor
PRRs also mediate the initiation of antigen-specific adaptive immune response and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ... similarly fucose presents the same for certain bacteria and helminths; and glucans are present on mycobacteria and fungi. In ... CLEC12B DC immunoreceptor (DCIR) subfamily which includes: DCIR/CLEC4A Dectin 2/CLEC6A Blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA2) ( CLEC4C) ... Tissue Antigens. 68 (3): 193-209. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00649.x. PMC 7169806. PMID 16948640. "Understanding ...
Index of biochemistry articles
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... helminth protein - helper T cell - hemopexin - hemoglobin - herpes simplex virus protein vmw65 - heterocyclic compound - ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ...
"Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet N°366". World Health Organization. June 2013. Archived from the original on ... Ascariasis may result in allergies to shrimp and dustmites due to the shared antigen, tropomyosin; this has not been confirmed ... Horák P (1992). "Helminth eggs in the sludge from three sewage treatment plants in Czechoslovakia". Folia Parasitologica. 39 (2 ... A similar study in the same area showed that 73% of children working on these farms were infected with helminths, particularly ...
Furthermore, a cocktail of H. polygyrus excretory-secretory antigens can be collected, and administered to mice in the presence ... Reynolds, Lisa A.; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M. (2012-10-11). "Immunity to the model intestinal helminth parasite ... 17 October 2017). "HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33". Immunity. 47 (4): 739-751. doi: ... as it is used as a model of human helminth infection to which a spectrum of natural resistance to parasite infection exists. ...
Antigens, Helminth | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Molecular Characterization and Diagnostic Value ofTaenia solium Low-Molecular-Weight Antigen Genes Yasuhito Sako, Minoru Nakao ... Urinary Hydatid Antigen Detection by Coagglutination, a Cost-Effective and Rapid Test for Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis in ... Are Alternative Sources of Parasitic (Cysticercal) Antigens Necessary for Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis? Muralidhar K. Katti ... Analysis of 16S rRNA and 51-Kilodalton Antigen Gene and Transmission in Mice of Ehrlichia risticii in Virgulate Trematodes from ...
T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens | JEM
We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP ... we have been studying Th2 response development and regulation in parasitic helminth infections; helminths and antigens derived ... 2 B) and ICOS (not depicted). Thus, in mice mounting a Th2 response to helminth antigens, the great majority of CD4+ T cells ... T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens. Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Justin J. ...
Helminth Excreted/Secreted Antigens Repress Expression of LPS-Induced Let-7i but Not miR-146a and miR-155 in Human Dendritic...
Responses to malarial antigens are altered in helminth-infected children.
... Author(s): Hartgers, F.C.; Obeng, B.B.; Kruize, Y.C. ... Malaria and helminth infections often coincide in the same tropical regions. Studies of the consequences of helminth and ... In response to iRBCs, levels of interleukin (IL)-10, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha,were higher in samples from helminth- ... These results indicate that the presence of helminth infection modulates the immune response to malarial parasites, making it ...
Frontiers | Elevated IgG Responses in Infants Are Associated With Reduced Prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection |...
IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... potentially mediated by exposure to antigens both related and unrelated to Mtb. ... IgG titres against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. ... IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive ...
In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens - Kielprints
Immunogenicity of antigens was increased with parasite prevalence as well.. Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved ... Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter- ... In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens ... to helminth parasite antigens Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 36 (1). pp. 130-140. DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019. ...
Interactions between helminth parasites and allergy
... a causal association between helminths and atopic diseases remains uncertain. ... Although helminth infections can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, ... Antibodies, Helminth / blood * Antibodies, Helminth / immunology * Antigens, Helminth / immunology * Helminthiasis / blood * ... Interactions between helminth parasites and allergy Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Feb;9(1):29-37. doi: 10.1097/ACI. ...
Comparison of Immune Response in Normal Volunteers and Patients With Helminth Infections - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Antigen Presentation. Cytokines. Helminth. Healthy Volunteer. Cross-Over Study. Helminth Infection. Additional relevant MeSH ... Comparison of Immune Response in Normal Volunteers and Patients With Helminth Infections. This study has been completed. ... Normal volunteers and patients with acute helminth (a type of parasite) infections aged 18 years older may be eligible for this ... Normal volunteers and patients with acute helminth (a type of parasite) infections aged 18 years older may be eligible for this ...
HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model...
... soluble egg antigens from Schistosoma mansoni; soluble worm antigen preparation from Schistosoma mansoni ... In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune ... Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipients ability to respond to a second boost. ... Childhood vaccination; Chronic helminth infection; Endemic schistosomiasis; HIV Gag vaccine; Listeria monocytogenes; Lm; SEA; ...
Coproantigen detection for immunodiagnosis of echinococcosis and taeniasis in dogs and humans
... and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen ... based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of ... Antigen was present in faeces before patency and antigen levels were independent of T. pisiformis egg output. The second assay ... and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen ...
Establishment of an Experimental Procedure for Preparing Trial Serum Samples for the Specific Serodiagnosis of Toxocara canis...
... and antibodies to HBs antigen. The sera were divided, processed by both freeze-drying and freezing methods, and then stored. ... These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, ... These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, and ... excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, or either glycan antigens or deglycosylated TES antigens) and the type of antibodies (e.g ...
Distinct clinical characteristics and helminth co-infections in adult tuberculosis patients from urban compared to rural...
Schistosome soluble egg antigen decreases Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T-cell effector function with concomitant ... Frequency distribution of helminth species among adult TB patients co-infected with any helminth in an urban and rural setting ... The overall prevalence of helminth co-infections in TB patients was 23.1%. As shown in Table 4, the prevalence of helminth co- ... Helminth investigations. For the diagnosis of helminth infections, stool and urine samples were collected once from each ...
Volume 13, Issue 1 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Evaluation of Helminth Skin-Test Antigens in a Hospital in New York City Irving G. Kagan and Herman Zaiman ... immitis antigen, 9 to the T. spiralis antigen and 2 to the S. mansoni antigen. Among the 88 Puerto Rican patients 16 reacted to ... the A. cantonensis antigen, 10 to the D. immitis antigen, 9 to the T. spiralis antigen and 24 to the S. mansoni antigen. The ... An adult hospitalized group of 347 tubercular patients in New York City was skintested with four helminth antigens. In this ...
Effect of Filarial Infection on Immune Responses in Latent Tuberculosis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... infection versus those with LTBI+ without concomitant helminth infection (Hel-). Immune responses to mycobacterial antigens ... Tissue-invasive helminth parasites infect close to 500 million people worldwide and are associated with strong T helper (Th)2 ... Kumar NP, George PJ, Kumaran P, Dolla CK, Nutman TB, Babu S. Diminished systemic and antigen-specific type 1, type 17, and ... LTBI+ Hel-individuals who test positive for other intestinal helminth infection will be treated with a single standard dose of ...
Searching for antigen B genes and their adaptive sites in distinct strains and species of the helminth Echinococcus - The...
Frontiers | Host Immunity and Inflammation to Pulmonary Helminth Infections | Immunology
While each helminth species completes a distinct life cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease ... While each helminth species completes a distinct life-cycle within the host, several helminths incite significant lung disease ... The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host ... The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Vaccines). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1710. [Cu] Atualiza o por classe:. 180228. ... Immunomic approaches for antigen discovery of human parasites.. [So] Source:. Expert Rev Proteomics;13(12):1091-1101, 2016 12. ... Immunomics elucidates that antigens are targets of induced or naturally acquired immunity (NAI), a promising solution to the ... To validate these candidates, in Phase II we constructed a focused array with these 20 candidate BD-associated antigens, and ...
Booktopia - Helminth Zoonoses, CURRENT TOPICS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE by S. Geerts, 9780898388961. Buy this...
Buy a discounted Hardcover of Helminth Zoonoses online from Australias leading online bookstore. ... Booktopia has Helminth Zoonoses, CURRENT TOPICS IN VETERINARY MEDICINE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE by S. Geerts. ... Characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus proteins and antigens from hydatid cyst fluid.- Existence of an urban cycle of ... Although the life cycles of most helminths of zoonotic importance are well known, there are still major gaps in our knowledge ...
Molecular programming of B cell memory | Nature Reviews Immunology
Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. Once in ... Following antigen recall, memory B cells require T cell help to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells. A recent surge ... In this Review, we integrate this new information about each phase of antigen-specific B cell development to describe the newly ... The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition ...
Multiple checkpoints keep follicular helper T cells under control to prevent autoimmunity | Cellular & Molecular Immunology
T follicular helper cells differentiate from Th2 cells in response to helminth antigens . J Exp Med 2009 ; 206 : 991 - 999 . ... which will readily happen in the case of foreign antigens, but not self-antigens. Germinal centre B cells then need to be ... Radic MZ, Weigert M . Genetic and structural evidence for antigen selection of anti-DNA antibodies . Annu Rev Immunol 1994 ; 12 ... King IL, Mohrs M . IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells in reactive lymph nodes during helminth infection are T follicular helper cells ...
Martindale's Pathology Center: Microbiology, Musculoskeletal, Neuropathology, Ophtalmic, ENT, Oral, Paleopathology,...
Patent US7993861 - Methods, devices, kits and compositions for detecting whipworm - Google Patents
Method for the commercial production of helminths antigens. US4789631. Feb 17, 1984. Dec 6, 1988. Synbiotics Corporation. ... "Antigen capture reagent" refers to any compound that is specific for the antigen or antigens of interest. The labeled antigen ... Following binding of the antigen from the sample, the antigen capture reagent/antigen complex is detected by any suitable ... one or more antigen capture reagents (e.g., a non-immobilized labeled antigen capture reagent and an immobilized antigen ...
Amy S. McKee, PhD | Department of Medicine | University of Colorado Denver
Helminth antigens modulate TLR-initiated dendritic cell activation. J Immunol. 2004; 173:7454-61. ... Antigen-Specific Regulation of IgE Antibodies by Non-Antigen-Specific gamma-delta T Cells. J Immunol. 2013; 190: 913-21. ... MacLeod M, McKee AS, Crawford F, White J, Kappler J, Marrack P. CD4 memory T cells divide poorly in response to antigen because ... Pearce EJ, M Kane C, Sun J, J Taylor J, McKee AS, Cervi L. Th2 response polarization during infection with the helminth ...
A Schistosome-Expressed Immunomodulatory Glycoconjugate Expands Peritoneal Gr1+ Macrophages That Suppress Naive CD4+ T Cell...
Suppressive antigen-presenting cells in helminth infection. Pathobiology 67: 265. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ... Antigen-presenting cells recruited by Brugia malayi induce Th2 differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 30: 1127 ... Expression of Lex antigen in Schistosoma japonicum and S. haemoatobium and immune responses to Lex in infected animals: lack of ... That helminth infection may involve NS cells was suggested in a study where peritoneal implantation of larval filarial ...
Table of Contents - December 15, 2004, 173 (12) | The Journal of Immunology
Helminth Antigens Modulate TLR-Initiated Dendritic Cell Activation Colleen M. Kane, Laura Cervi, Jie Sun, Amy S. McKee, ... Plasticity within the Antigen-Combining Site May Manifest as Molecular Mimicry in the Humoral Immune Response Manisha Goel, ... Intestinal αβ T Cells Differentiate and Rearrange Antigen Receptor Genes In Situ in the Human Infant Amanda M. Williams, Paul W ... Increase in Affinity of the Single-Chain Fragment Domain above Threshold Does Not Increase T Cell Activation against Antigen- ...
IL-13 is necessary, not simply sufficient, for epicutaneously induced Th2 responses to soluble protein antigen. - Semantic...
Systemic impact of intestinal helminth infections. *Pankaj Mishra, Mark Palma, David Bleich, P. F. Loke, William C. Gause ... Antigen-driven bystander effect accelerates epicutaneous sensitization with a new protein allergen. *Li-Fang Wang, J. S. Chen, ... Effects of lactoferrin on elicitation of the antigen-specific cellular and humoral cutaneous response in mice.. *Michał Zimecki ... Delineating the Role of Histamine-1- and -4-Receptors in a Mouse Model of Th2-Dependent Antigen-Specific Skin Inflammation. * ...
Methods, devices, kits and compositions for detecting roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm - IDEXX Laboratories, Inc.
Each specific helminth antibody may be an immobilized antigen capture reagent in a reaction zone (solid phase). A second ... "Antigen capture reagent" refers to any compound that is specific for the antigen or antigens of interest. The labeled antigen ... whipworm antigen, and/or hookworm antigen, wherein the one or more types of roundworm antigen, whipworm antigen, and hookworm ... whipworm antigens and/or hookworm antigens, only to detect one or more roundworm antigens, whipworm antigens and/or hookworm ...
Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease | Parasites & Vectors |...
Thus, the use of antagonists of TLR-signaling and agonists of their negative regulators from helminths or helminth products ... Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate ... Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the ... the benefits of local treatment with helminth antigens for experimental colitis and prompt consideration of helminth antigen- ...
ParasitesInfectionAntibodiesSchistosomaPrevalencePathogensResponsesInduceDendritic cellsParasitic helminthAntibodyMoleculesEchinococcusFasciolaSelf-antigensForeign antigensIntestinal helminthsExcretory-secretory antigensEpidemiologicalCellsCoinfectionResponse to helminthImmunity to helminthELISAHost immunityHeligmosomoidesExposure to an antigenInfections caused by helminthsReceptorsImmunizationProteinCross-reactive antigensSoil-transmitted helminthsDiseasesEndemicMiceHydatid cyst fluidRecombinant antigensCestodes and trematodesAssociation between helminthTissueSerumMansoniDiagnosis of NeurocysticercosisInflammationInflammatory bowel dDetectionTherapeuticLymphocytesHuman helminthCathodic antigenLuminal antigensDiagnostic antigensSubstancesInducesTissues
- These results indicate that the presence of helminth infection modulates the immune response to malarial parasites, making it more anti-inflammatory. (ru.nl)
- Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy that may depend on the timing or intensity of the exposure or host genetic factors. (nih.gov)
- In areas co-endemic for helminth parasites and HIV/AIDS, infants are often administered vaccines prior to infection with immune modulatory helminth parasites. (nih.gov)
- Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. (uni-kiel.de)
- Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). (uni-kiel.de)
- We detected decreasing magnitudes of in vitro responses to antigens from generalist to specialist parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. (uni-kiel.de)
- Tissue-invasive helminth parasites infect close to 500 million people worldwide and are associated with strong T helper (Th)2 responses and regulatory networks that downregulate potentially protective Th1 responses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The two common tissue invasive helminth parasites are Wuchereria bancrofti, that causes lymphatic filariasis and Strongyloides stercoralis, that causes stronyloidiasis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Further delineation of the convoluted interface between helminth infection and the pulmonary host immune responses is critical to the development of novel therapeutics that are critically needed to prevent the significant global morbidity caused by these parasites. (frontiersin.org)
- Helminths are multicellular parasitic organisms belonging to a diverse taxonomic group of metazoans that compromise the phylum Platyhelminths, known as flatworms, including cestodes and trematodes, and Nematoda, known as roundworms, including Ascaris , hookworm, whipworms, filarial parasites, and others. (frontiersin.org)
- Considering the profound immune activation and dysregulation induced by helminth parasites, the overlapping geographic distributions of helminth and bacterial infections, and the potential to modulate bacteria-associated intestinal inflammation, we have recently established a coinfection model system to facilitate detailed analysis of the combined effects of helminth and bacterial pathogens on host responses. (jimmunol.org)
- Helminths are worm-like animal parasites that have adapted over many millions of years to live in the gastrointestinal tract, blood, lungs, or other tissues of various species. (jimmunol.org)
- Helminths, parasites residing in the digestive system in mammals, exemplify immunomodulation in order to freely inhabit the host organism. (termedia.pl)
- Helminth parasites are effective in biasing Th2 immunity and inducing regulatory pathways that minimize excessive inflammation within their hosts, thus allowing chronic infection to occur whilst also suppressing bystander atopic or autoimmune diseases. (medworm.com)
- Helminth parasites are the most potent natural inducers of T helper 2 (Th2) cell-polarized responses. (rupress.org)
- Helminth parasites secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can be internalised by host immune cells resulting in modulation of host immunity. (plos.org)
- They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. (wikipedia.org)
- Gastrointestinal helminth parasites in stray cats from the mid-Ebro Valley, Spain. (degruyter.com)
- Helminth parasites such as the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus strongly inhibit T helper type 2 (Th2) allergy, as well as colitis and autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
- Helminths are worm-like parasites, some of which have the potential to inhabit the human gastrointestinal track or other regions of the body. (worldgastroenterology.org)
- During NCC, the parasites release immunodominant glycan antigens in the CNS environment, invoking immune responses. (asm.org)
- Moreover, Fasciola shares antigens with other parasites such as S. mansoni increasing the possibility of cross-reactions when antibody detection assay systems were used for diagnosis of infection ( Espino and Finlay, 1994 ). (scialert.net)
- Helminth parasites bias immune responses to the CD4 + Th2 type and can be immune suppressive ( 3 - 10 ). (asm.org)
- Illness caused by the geohelminth or intestinal helminth parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm is recognized as a major cause of disability in resource poor regions of the tropics where they are estimated to infect approximately 2 billion humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Our laboratory investigates the role of helminth parasites in evoking a T helper cell intestinal response and its effect on bacterial invasion. (massgeneral.org)
- nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of microorganisms or helminth parasites or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We find that after helminth infection, or immunization with helminth antigens, reactive lymphoid organs of 4get IL-4/GFP reporter mice contain populations of IL-4/GFP-expressing CD4 + T cells that display the TFH markers CXCR5, PD-1, and ICOS. (rupress.org)
- Th2 cells and their associated cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 play a crucial role in promoting host survival during infection with parasitic helminths that have tissue-dwelling phases ( 8 ), and they can mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
- In this study, we investigated the antimalarial immune responses of Ghanaian children living in a rural area with a high prevalence of both helminth infection and Plasmodium falciparum infection. (ru.nl)
- In this study, we examined the relationship between total plasma IgG levels, IgG elicited by childhood vaccines and soil-transmitted helminths, and Mtb infection prevalence, defined by positive QuantiFERON (QFT) test. (frontiersin.org)
- Our data suggest a possible protective association between raised antibody titers and acquisition of Mtb infection, potentially mediated by exposure to antigens both related and unrelated to Mtb . (frontiersin.org)
- Systemic Th2 biasing and immune suppression caused by helminth infection reduces cell-mediated responses to vaccines such as tetanus toxoid and BCG. (nih.gov)
- This allows us to determine if established vaccine responses are maintained or altered after helminth infection. (nih.gov)
- Our second objective asked if helminth infection post-vaccination alters the recipient's ability to respond to a second boost. (nih.gov)
- We report that HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses generated by Listeria vector HIV-1 vaccines are maintained following subsequent chronic schistosome infection, providing further evidence that Listeria vector vaccines induce potent vaccine-specific responses that can withstand helminth infection. (nih.gov)
- The first assay, using an antiserum against Taenia pisiformis antigen extract, was used in a time-course of T. pisiformis experimental infection in dogs. (nih.gov)
- The relationship between intestinal helminth infection and susceptibility to malaria remains unclear. (ajtmh.org)
- We used an unmatched case-control design to calculate the odds ratios for helminth infection in children with at least one attack of malaria (cases) and children with no malaria episodes during the study (controls). (ajtmh.org)
- Helminth infection rate in cases was 21 of 115 (18.3%) compared with 456 of 1,327 (34.4%) in controls. (ajtmh.org)
- The negative association between helminth infection and malaria may be of importance in the design of deworming programs. (ajtmh.org)
- Immune responses to mycobacterial antigens from co-infected individuals will also be evaluated before and after treatment for helminth infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Host organs such as the lungs are a frequent target of helminth infection. (frontiersin.org)
- To dissect the mechanisms by which helminths modulate the host's response to enteric bacteria and bacteria-mediated intestinal inflammation, we have recently established a coinfection model and shown that coinfection with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus exacerbates colitis induced by infection with the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium . (jimmunol.org)
- These results demonstrate that helminth infection can impair host protection against concurrent enteric bacterial infection and promote bacteria-induced intestinal injury through a mechanism that involves the induction of alternatively activated macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
- Helminth infection has been shown to dampen Th1 reactions to other infections ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Helminth infection may modulate the expression of Toll like receptors (TLR) in dendritic cells (DCs) and modify the responsiveness of DCs to TLR ligands. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epidemiological and experimental data strongly support the hypothesis that a reduction in helminth infection is linked to a rise in the incidence rates of autoimmune diseases [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- show that intestinal helminth infection, caused by parasitic worms, protects IBD-susceptible mice from developing the disease. (sciencemag.org)
- what is the mucosal cell response to IL-4 and IL-13 in helminth infection? (brainscape.com)
- how do eosinophils get activated and respond to helminth infection? (brainscape.com)
- After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and MCP1/4. (wikipedia.org)
- The possibility of cross reactivity with other helmintic antigens has also being raised in some studies, (16) although a study performed in Ivory Coast found no negative influence when their subjects had concurrent infection with soil-transmitted helminthes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Thus, this helminth parasite targets IL-33 production as part of its armory of suppressive effects, forestalling the development of the type 2 immune response to infection and allergic sensitization. (nih.gov)
- The immunology of parasitic helminths is now attracting intense interest, due to the exciting and intricate relationship between immunity and pathogenesis, the proposed significance of regulatory immune controls in modulating both infection and disease, including allergies and autoimmunity, and the application of new molecular tools to the field situation. (keystonesymposia.org)
- Currently, research aims to trace how helminths manipulate host immune cell populations, identify molecular mediators and receptor pathways involved in the host-pathogen dialogue, and design new interventions for control of infection in both human and animal contexts. (keystonesymposia.org)
- She discusses the immune system, autoimmunity and helminth infection, coevolution of helminths and immunity, the localized impact, immune modulation, response, helminth influence on immunity, types of chronic tissue helminth infection, pathogen co-existence and immunity, and helminths and autoimmunity in mice. (educator.com)
- Excretory/secretory antigen may be used for serodiagnosis of paramphistomosis infection in sheep. (springer.com)
- Awad WS, Ibrahim AK, Salib FA (2009) Using indirect ELISA to assess different antigens for the serodiagnosis of F. gigantica infection in cattle, sheep and donkeys. (springer.com)
- Using a mouse model of NCC by infection with the related parasite Mesocestoides corti , we have investigated the role of mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1), a CLR which recognizes high-mannose-containing glycan antigens. (asm.org)
- The greatest incidence of each of these diseases is in sub-Saharan Africa, where helminth infection is endemic ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
- To evaluate the influence of helminth infection on vaccines, we can evaluate the ability to induce vaccine-specific immune responses in helminth-infected recipients or in recipients who have been treated with immune-biasing helminth antigens ( 11 - 13 ). (asm.org)
- Specifically, helminth infection has been shown to suppress immune responses to a Th1-type vaccine and impair the expansion of pathogen-specific cytotoxic CD8 + T cell (cytotoxic T lymphocyte [CTL]) responses ( 18 - 20 ). (asm.org)
- showing suppression of tetanus-specific responses in schistosome-infected children ( 8 ), helminth infection may pose a significant problem for the development of virus-specific CTL and Th1-type HIV-1 vaccines ( 7 , 8 , 11 ). (asm.org)
- One method to overcome helminth-induced vaccine suppression is to identify vaccine vectors that are capable of producing vaccine-specific responses irrespective of helminth infection. (asm.org)
- An antigen-presenting cell (APC) is an immune cell that detects, engulfs, and informs the adaptive immune response about an infection. (oercommons.org)
- The absence of surface location of the T. ovis antigens suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody- and complement-mediated attack until some postoncospheral development has occurred after infection of the intermediate host. (asm.org)
- T. ovis has provided a model for the development of vaccines against other taeniid species, and collectively these are the most-effective defined-antigen vaccines against any parasitic infection ( 15 , 16 ). (asm.org)
- Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and thereby limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) control. (jci.org)
- Using a pulmonary mouse model of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that S. mansoni coinfection or immunization with S. mansoni egg antigens can reversibly impair Mtb -specific T cell responses without affecting macrophage-mediated Mtb control. (jci.org)
- 2 Similarly, newborns exposed in utero to filarial infection but without evidence cord blood T cell reactivity to filarial antigen and presumed to be 'tolerized', had a 12-fold greater risk of later filariasis infection compared to newborns of uninfected mothers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The study was designed to address the specific question of whether the presence of maternal A. lumbricoides infection may sensitize the fetus in utero to A. lumbricoides antigens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4). (bionity.com)
- We are particularly interested in exploring the mechanisms by which the helminth parasite modulates intestinal mucosal response to enteric bacteria and bacteria-associated intestinal inflammation using a co-infection model system. (massgeneral.org)
- Research in the Shi lab has shown that helminth co-infection results in an impaired host protection and the development of more severe C. rodentium -mediated intestinal inflammation by a STAT 6 (Th2) dependent mechanism. (massgeneral.org)
- Currently, data are limited on recombinant diagnostic antigens for detection of E. granulosus infection in sheep [ 11 , 12 ], and the diagnostic sensitivity of the recombinant proteins used was very low in these reports. (biomedcentral.com)
- The hypothesis is discussed with particular reference to Type I diabetes in the NOD mouse and the ability of the helminth infection Schistosoma mansoni to prevent its onset. (eurekaselect.com)
- These samples were found to be negative for other helminth antibodies, anti-HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, and antibodies to HBs antigen. (hindawi.com)
- excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, or either glycan antigens or deglycosylated TES antigens) and the type of antibodies (e.g., total IgG, IgG subclass, or IgM) that are being measured [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Antigen-Specific Regulation of IgE Antibodies by Non-Antigen-Specific gamma-delta T Cells. (ucdenver.edu)
- Antibodies in sera from multiple sclerosis patients recognize Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory antigens. (medworm.com)
- Response: Involves production of antibodies and generation of specialized lymphocytes against specific antigens. (scribd.com)
- Serum containing antibodies to a specific antigen(s). (scribd.com)
- The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens. (scribd.com)
- Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity (Antibody Involves production of antibodies against foreign antigens. (scribd.com)
- Slowly, it was learned that hosts do develop acquired immunity against helminths, but its mechanism is different from that known for bacterial and viral infections-a complex phenomenon involving antibodies and antibody-induced cells like eosinophils or mast or other cells which are at play in destroying a helminth. (springer.com)
- Even with such conclusive evidences of development of immunity against helminths, it still cannot be confirmed by detecting antibodies which is unlike bacterial and viral immunity. (springer.com)
- Comparison of diffusion-in-gel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with conventional serological methods for detection of class-specific antibodies to Salmonella typhi O antigen. (asm.org)
- The price for the determination of antibodies against one agent of helminth parasitic infections is CZK 587. (vfn.cz)
- Though the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures, or antigen-binding sites, to exist. (wikipedia.org)
- The present study was designed to prepare a pair of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) (IgG 4 A7 and IgG 4 B12) against Fasciola gigantica Cathepsin L. (CL) and used them in development of sandwich ELISA and dot-ELISA to detect Circulating Fasciola Antigens (CFA) in serum samples collected from a total of 157 sheep. (scialert.net)
- This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a pair of polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) raised against Fasciola CL antigen for detection of circulating Fasciola antigen using sandwich ELISA and dot-ELISA in serum samples of sheep naturally infected with Fasciola . (scialert.net)
- Protoscolex tegumental surface antigens (PSTSA) used to induce the production of specific antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 4 Direct immunisation of fetal baboons with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen results in specific IgG detectable in the fetal but not maternal circulation, and subsequent postnatal immunisation results in an enhanced production of antibodies. (bmj.com)
- In our model, mice are vaccinated against HIV-1 Gag using a Listeria vaccine vector (Lm-Gag) in a prime-boost manner, then infected with the human helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. (nih.gov)
- Soluble egg antigens of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni ( S. mansoni egg antigen [SEA]) induce strong Th2 responses both in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
- High antifilarial IgG titers to microfilariae often result in cross reactivity with other nonfilarial helminth antigens, such as strongyloides and schistosoma antigens, as demonstrated in reported cases. (wikipedia.org)
- Parasitic helminth worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni , are endemic in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among the population. (jci.org)
- Schistosoma, other helminth infections, and associated risk factors in preschool-aged children in urban Tanzania. (amedeo.com)
- Infections with Trichuris trichiura in early life are associated with a reduced prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity later in life and infants of helminth-infected mothers have been reported to have a reduced prevalence of eczema. (nih.gov)
- Immunogenicity of antigens was increased with parasite prevalence as well. (uni-kiel.de)
- In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on the prevalence of the parasite in the population of origin, rather than on sympatry. (uni-kiel.de)
- Likewise, leukocytes from stickleback populations with a high S. solidus prevalence showed higher in vitro responses to S. solidus antigens compared to populations with low S. solidus prevalence. (uni-kiel.de)
- Ascaris and hookworm were the most common helminths detected, with prevalence rates of 14 (12.2%) and 6 (5.2%) among cases compared with 333 (25.1%) and 132 (10.0%) in controls, respectively ( P = 0.001). (ajtmh.org)
- Epidemiologic data and animal experimentation suggest that elimination of helminths contributes to the increasing prevalence of some immune-mediated diseases in regions with ever-improving sanitation. (jimmunol.org)
- Data indicates that pre-departure albendazole treatment has dramatically decreased the overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in refugees. (cdc.gov)
- A large evaluation including more than 26,000 African and Asian refugees demonstrated single dose albendazole resulted in an absolute reduction of the prevalence of any soil-transmitted helminth from 20.8% to 4.7%, as measured by stool ova and parasite examination. (cdc.gov)
- The major importance of helminth infections includes not only the direct pathogenic effect of the worms but also the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system, which may alter the response to other Ags or pathogens and cause additional immunopathology. (jimmunol.org)
- Abstract Helminths, as complex pathogens, possess a large number of different epitopes, some of which may be similar to the epitopes of the host. (medworm.com)
- Ability of an organism to recognize and defend itself against specific pathogens or antigens. (scribd.com)
- Naturally Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens or pathogens enter body naturally. (scribd.com)
- Glycans from a number of pathogens, including helminths, act as pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs), which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) known as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). (asm.org)
- There is strong evidence that maternal infections with filarial and schistosome helminth infections have profound effects on immunity to helminths and other pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Infections with intestinal helminths and enteric bacterial pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), continue to be a major global health threat, especially for children. (massgeneral.org)
- However, the nature of the interaction and the exact mechanism by which helminth modulates the host's response to concurrent pathogens are still unclear. (massgeneral.org)
- Importantly, Th2 responses are associated with the development of strong antibody responses, particularly IgG1 and IgE, which in certain helminth infections are implicated in resistance to reinfection ( 10 - 12 ). (rupress.org)
- helminths and antigens derived from them inherently induce Th2-polarized responses ( 13 ). (rupress.org)
- Responses to malarial antigens are altered in helminth-infected children. (ru.nl)
- Studies of the consequences of helminth and malaria coinfection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. (ru.nl)
- HIV-1 vaccine-specific responses induced by Listeria vector vaccines are maintained in mice subsequently infected with a model helminth parasite, S. (nih.gov)
- Experiment 3 (sympatric/allopatric combinations): In vitro responses of leukocytes from six stickleback populations to S. solidus antigens from identical populations in a fully crossed design. (uni-kiel.de)
- We investigated in vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to parasite antigens. (uni-kiel.de)
- To compare the immune responses to mycobacterial antigens, including PPD and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate protein, in individuals who are LTBI+ Fil- versus those who are LTBI+ Fil+. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To compare immune responses to mycobacterial antigens in LTBI+Fil+ co-infected individuals, before and after treatment for filarialinfection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This ability to attenuate damaging Th1-driven inflammatory responses in the host ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ) has prompted the evaluation of helminth as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of some immune-mediated disorders, including certain types of inflammatory bowel diseases ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
- IL-13 is necessary, not simply sufficient, for epicutaneously induced Th2 responses to soluble protein antigen. (semanticscholar.org)
- Although the ability of S. mansoni eggs and their soluble antigens to promote potent Th2 responses has been well documented, the specific components responsible for this activity are only beginning to be characterized. (rupress.org)
- We show here that the depletion of CD301b + DCs specifically enhanced the development of Tfh cells, germinal center B cells and antibody responses against protein antigens. (elifesciences.org)
- Through presenting processed antigens on their MHC molecules, dendritic cells (DCs) are primarily responsible for initiating T cell-mediated cellular immunity, which is also required for T cell-dependent antibody responses. (elifesciences.org)
- Blockade of IL-33 release and suppression of type 2 innate lymphoid cell responses by helminth secreted products in airway allergy. (nih.gov)
- Our goal was to determine if the administration of schistosome soluble egg antigens (SEA) would negatively influence the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and Th1-type T cell responses to an HIV candidate vaccine in the Th1-biased C57BL/6 mouse strain. (asm.org)
- We want to understand the mechanisms that helminths and macrophages use to regulate our immune responses. (nyu.edu)
- We have also been studying how gastrointestinal helminths may regulate intestinal immune responses and interact with the gut microbiota. (nyu.edu)
- We use mouse models, clinical trials and field studies in Malaysia to determine how helminths, the gut microbiota and intestinal immune responses interact. (nyu.edu)
- The basis of the vaccines will the combination of recombinant antigens with adjuvants capable of inducing specific types of immune responses. (kimmelcancercenter.org)
- To investigate if sensitization to Ascaris occurs in utero , we measured IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in Ascaris antigen-stimulated cord blood of newborns of infected and non-infected mothers using flow cytometry. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This system involves two murine enteric infectious agents that induce distinct Th responses: (i) the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Th2) and (ii) the Gram-negative bacterium Citrobacter rodentium (Th1). (massgeneral.org)
- Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, Dr. Shi examines and defines the conditions under which dysregulation of intestinal mucosal response to luminal antigens triggers the development of intestinal inflammatory responses that ultimately result in chronic inflammatory disease. (massgeneral.org)
- Immune responses mediated by activated, antigen-specific T lymphocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Immunological responses in animals can be divided into two broad categories: humoral immunity, which refers to the production of antibody which becomes part of the body fluids (humors), especially serum, and cell-mediated or cellular immunity, which involves a variety of activities designed to destroy or at least contain cells that are recognized by the body as expressing foreign antigens on their cell surface, e.g. viral antigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Therefore, MGL acts as an efficient endocytic antigen receptor on dermal DCs in vivo, able to prime Tn-specific T- and B-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- 1 , 2 DCs acquire and process antigen and migrate to the lymphoid organs where they present antigen to specific T cells, thereby inducing primary T- and B-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
- Although Mbd2 is widely expressed in gastrointestinal immune cells and is implicated in regulating intestinal cancer, anti-helminth responses and colonic inflammation, the Mbd2-expressing cell types that control these responses are incompletely defined. (exeter.ac.uk)
- We will review the current evidence that helminths induce regulatory immune circuits that suppress aberrant inflammation and may be useful clinically to treat immune-mediated disease. (springer.com)
- Helminths induce a population of macrophages that are dependent on type 2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), also called alternatively activated M2 macrophages. (nyu.edu)
- To induce efficient immune response, glycosylated tumor-associated Tn antigens were used to target DCs through binding to macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL). (bloodjournal.org)
- Helminths evoke immune regulatory pathways often involving dendritic cells, regulatory T cells, and macrophages that help to control disease. (jimmunol.org)
- Helminths modulate intestinal inflammation through activation of interactive immune regulatory circuits involving regulatory T cells (Tregs), dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and several cytokines ( Fig. 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- McKee AS, Burchill MA, Munks MW, Jin L, Kappler J, Friedman RS, Jacobelli J, and Marrack P. Host DNA released in response to aluminum adjuvant enhances MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation and prolongs CD4 T-cell interactions with dendritic cells. (ucdenver.edu)
- Helminth Antigen-Conditioned Dendritic Cells Generate Anti-Inflammatory CD4 T Cells Independent of Antigen Presentation via MHC II. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Shi has also shown that the helminth modulates host response via the effect of dendritic cells. (massgeneral.org)
- In vivo targeting of C-type lectin receptors is an effective strategy for increasing antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs). (bloodjournal.org)
- Recent strategies for improving prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have focused on the efficient delivery of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). (bloodjournal.org)
- We characterized a novel Grx (Eg-Grx1) from a parasitic helminth and present a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structure of this protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- Beyond antigen recognition, antibody class determines immune function and antibody affinity controls the sensitivity of memory B cells. (nature.com)
- Diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle by antibody and antigen ELISA. (wikipedia.org)
- Many other blood grouping systems based either on membrane or sera antigen antibody interactions have also been discovered. (dadamo.com)
- Neuroimaging and specific T. solium cysticercosis antibody detection results are at the mainstay of this diagnosis, while antigen detection in serum has never been included. (nih.gov)
- The B158/B60 monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of circulating cysticercus antigen was carried out retrospectively on serum samples collected during a hospital-based study from 83 people with epilepsy (PWE) in an endemic area. (nih.gov)
- The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen , via the Fab's variable region . (wikipedia.org)
-   Each tip of the "Y" of an antibody contains a paratope (analogous to a lock) that is specific for one particular epitope (similarly analogous to a key) on an antigen, allowing these two structures to bind together with precision. (wikipedia.org)
- The BCR is found only on the surface of B cells and facilitates the activation of these cells and their subsequent differentiation into either antibody factories called plasma cells or memory B cells that will survive in the body and remember that same antigen so the B cells can respond faster upon future exposure. (wikipedia.org)
-  In most cases, interaction of the B cell with a T helper cell is necessary to produce full activation of the B cell and, therefore, antibody generation following antigen binding. (wikipedia.org)
- There are several different types of antibody heavy chains that define the five different types of crystallisable fragments (Fc) that may be attached to the antigen-binding fragments. (wikipedia.org)
- Each Fc region of a particular antibody isotype is able to bind to its specific Fc Receptor (except for IgD, which is essentially the BCR), thus allowing the antigen-antibody complex to mediate different roles depending on which FcR it binds. (wikipedia.org)
-  This enormous diversity of antibody paratopes on the antigen-binding fragments allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
-  The large and diverse population of antibody paratope is generated by random recombination events of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen-binding sites (or paratopes ), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity. (wikipedia.org)
- The most readily recognized response to the antigen is the production of antibody . (thefreedictionary.com)
- The antigen-antibody reaction is an essential component of the overall immune response. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Of equal or greater importance to antibody, particularly for some antigens, is the development of so-called cell-mediated immune response, which involves clonal expansion of specifically reactive T lymphocytes including cytotoxic T lymphocytes (T c lymphocytes) which play a major role in eliminating the foreign antigens that are cell associated. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In vivo DC-targeting strategies, based on Tn-MGL interactions, constitute a promising strategy for enhancing antigen presentation and inducing potent antibody response. (bloodjournal.org)
- and by 19-20 weeks, circulating B cells have detectable surface immunoglobulin M. 6 This implies that the full sensitisation process must have occurred from antigen presentation through T cell proliferation to B cell stimulation and antibody production. (bmj.com)
- In response to iRBCs, levels of interleukin (IL)-10, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha,were higher in samples from helminth-infected children than in those from uninfected children, as was expression of the regulatory molecules suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3, Foxp3, and programmed death (PD)-1. (ru.nl)
- Investigators are identifying key helminth-derived immune modulatory molecules that may have therapeutic usefulness in the control of inflammatory disease. (jimmunol.org)
- Antigen: Antigen: Molecules from a pathogen or foreign organism that provoke a specific immune response. (scribd.com)
- These cells were exposed to the parasite molecules in combination with different TLR ligands, or Interferon gamma, and tested for the production of the cytokines IL-10 and IL-12p40, and their ability to process antigen. (biomedcentral.com)
- Antigens are usually known to be complex and huge molecules that are external to the body. (infobarrel.com)
- Not all molecules can be considered as antigens because there are certain factors that affect its ability to become potential threats to the body's defenses. (infobarrel.com)
- As what have been stated, there are actually receptors which are considered to be molecules that only detect certain patterns and this can only be compatible to the determinants on an antigen. (infobarrel.com)
- Unlike classical T cells, NKT cells recognize lipid antigen in the context of CD1 molecules 2 . (jove.com)
- Three ELISA assays, based on hyperimmune rabbit serum raised against adult cestode somatic antigen, were applied in this study for the detection of Taenia- and Echinococcus-specific antigens in host faeces. (nih.gov)
- In both the human Taenia and canine Echinococcus studies antigen could be detected in faecal samples from infected hosts stored in 5% formalin for 6 months. (nih.gov)
- Characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus proteins and antigens from hydatid cyst fluid. (booktopia.com.au)
- Here we have identified the proteins and sugars displayed on the outer surface of two sub-types of EVs released by the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica . (plos.org)
- Isolation of Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens. (asm.org)
- Latchumikanthan A, Soundararajan C, Dhinakarraj G, Abdul Basith S (2012) Purification and characterization of excretory/secretory antigens of Fasciola gigantica . (springer.com)
- Fasciola antigens detected in serum of sheep by ELISA showed 94.8% sensitivity and 95% specificity. (scialert.net)
- The trade-off of the random process of receptor diversification is the unavoidable recognition of self-antigens with potentially dangerous affinity. (nature.com)
- What are self-antigens? (brainscape.com)
- Besides being the cause for the activation of self-reactive immune cells, molecular mimicry may also be the cause for the expansion of regulatory T cells, crucial for the host tolerance of self-antigens. (medworm.com)
- For instance, individuals produce innumerable "self" antigens and are constantly exposed to harmless foreign antigens, such as food proteins, pollen, or dust components. (oercommons.org)
- Cell Mediated Immunity Involves specialized set of lymphocytes called T cells that recognize foreign antigens on the surface of cells. (scribd.com)
- Weinstock [ 9 ] proposed that the modern lifestyle lacking consistent exposure to intestinal helminths is an important environmental factor contributing to IBD. (biomedcentral.com)
- Arunkumar S, Prakash Krupakaran R, Balamurugan TC Pandiyan DV (2014) Assessment of matrix metalloproteinase activity in excretory/secretory antigens of Gastrothylax crumenifer from buffalo by gelatinzymography. (springer.com)
- Saifullah MK, Ahmad Gul, Abidi SMA (2011) Isolation and partial characterization of excretory/secretory antigens of Gastrothylax crumenifer . (springer.com)
- We comparatively studied epidemiological features of TB and helminth co-infections in adult patients from rural and urban settings of Tanzania. (springer.com)
- Epidemiological and experimental data provide further evidence that reducing helminth infections increases the incidence rate of such autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that helminth infections have positive effects due to their potential to protect against autoimmune diseases. (dovepress.com)
- Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
- The relationship of TFH cells to the Th2 lineage was confirmed when TFH cells were found to develop from CXCR5 − PD-1 − IL-4/GFP + CD4 + T cells after their transfer into naive mice and antigen challenge in vivo. (rupress.org)
- The impact of helminths on the pulmonary immune response involves a sophisticated orchestration and activation of the host innate and adaptive immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Each phase involves antigen recognition by specific B cells and contact with cognate T follicular helper (T FH ) cells. (nature.com)
- Initial commitment to the memory B cell pathway occurs before germinal centre (GC) formation, following first contact with antigen-specific T FH cells (pre-GC phase). (nature.com)
- Following antigen recall, memory B cells require regulation by antigen-specific T FH cells to proliferate and differentiate into memory-response plasma cells (memory phase). (nature.com)
- Antigen-specific T FH cells regulate each phase of development and consolidate memory B cell fate in high-affinity pre-memory and memory B cells. (nature.com)
- The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition by specific B cells and cognate T helper cells. (nature.com)
- Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. (nature.com)
- Once in the germinal centre, B cells with variant B cell receptors must access antigens and present them to germinal centre T helper cells to enter long-lived memory B cell compartments. (nature.com)
- Following antigen recall, memory B cells require T cell help to proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells. (nature.com)
- Pape, K. A., Catron, D. M., Itano, A. A. & Jenkins, M. K. The humoral immune response is initiated in lymph nodes by B cells that acquire soluble antigen directly in the follicles. (nature.com)
- Batista, F. D. & Harwood, N. E. The who, how and where of antigen presentation to B cells. (nature.com)
- Carrasco, Y. R. & Batista, F. D. B cells acquire particulate antigen in a macrophage-rich area at the boundary between the follicle and the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. (nature.com)
- Allergen exposure primes IL-4 + Th2 cells in lymph node, but production of effector cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13 is thought to require additional signals from antigen and the environment. (pnas.org)
- These studies suggest that the initial priming of Th2 cells to IL-4 production in lymph node (LN) is followed by the gain of capacity to produce additional cytokines on secondary exposure to antigen in nonlymphoid tissue ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- These antigens are found in secretions throughout the body and on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells. (dadamo.com)
- There is no O antigen: group O cells contain the H antigen, but the designation group H has been maintained for historical reasons. (dadamo.com)
- MHC class I-related molecule MR1 presents riboflavin- and folate-related metabolites to mucosal-associated invariant T cells, but it is unknown whether MR1 can present alternative antigens to other T cell lineages. (elifesciences.org)
- These data extend the role of MR1 beyond microbial antigen presentation and indicate MR1T cells are a normal part of the human T cell repertoire. (elifesciences.org)
- The observed pro-inflammatory properties might reflect a recent response of the cells due to contact with a pathogen, whereas the anti-inflammatory properties might contribute to helminth-induced protection against inflammatory diseases. (dovepress.com)
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a O-glycosylated, four alpha -helix bundle cytokine that has potent stimulatory activity for antigen-activated T cells. (rndsystems.com)
- An antigen is a foreign or "non-self" macromolecule that reacts with cells of the immune system. (oercommons.org)
- The innate immune system contains cells that detect potentially harmful antigens, and then inform the adaptive immune response about the presence of these antigens. (oercommons.org)
- Antigen fragments will then be transported to the surface of the APC, where they will serve as an indicator to other immune cells. (oercommons.org)
- The three antigens were uniquely associated with penetration gland cells. (asm.org)
- The cytoplasm and secretory granules of both penetration gland type 1 and type 2 cells exhibited statistically significant levels of staining for each of the three antigens. (asm.org)
-  They have also recently been implicated in antigen presentation to T cells . (bionity.com)
- However, NKT cell based-immunotherapy has been limited by the use of autologous antigen presenting cells and the quantity and quality of these stimulator cells can vary substantially. (jove.com)
- Thus, a standardized system that relies on artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (aAPC) could produce the stimulating effects of DC without the pitfalls of allo- or xenogeneic cells 12, 13 . (jove.com)
- It is even possible to show that cultured cord blood cells from neonates born to parasitised mothers will produce IgE when stimulated with parasite antigens. (bmj.com)
- Previous studies have shown that the intestinal helminth coinfection is accompanied by lowered in vitro production of interferon-gamma and elevated production of interleukin 10 in individuals with active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In the present study, using our in vivo coinfection model as well as in vitro approaches, we test the hypothesis that the phenotypic and functional alterations in macrophages induced by the helminth-driven T cell response may contribute to the observed alterations in the response to C. rodentium . (jimmunol.org)
- Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces arginase-1-expressing type 2 granulomas, thereby increasing inflammation and TB disease severity. (jci.org)
Response to helminth1
- what is the response to helminth infections? (brainscape.com)
Immunity to helminth1
- Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. (uni-kiel.de)
- Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings. (nih.gov)
- A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% were determined for the diagnosis of active NCC using antigen ELISA. (nih.gov)
- 2001)22 and percentage antigen ELISA positivity.Shaded boxes indicate the "Del Brutto diagnoses" (except for *), non-shaded boxes indicate the number and percentage of antigen positive cases. (nih.gov)
- NCC = neurocysticercosis, Ag pos = antigen ELISA positivity, CSF = cerebrospinal fluid, PWE = people with epilepsy. (nih.gov)
- In the group of people with NCC, 100% of active NCC cases (6/6) had a positive Ag-ELISA result in serum, which was significantly higher compared to people with inactive lesions, in whom 33.3% (8/24) were positive on antigen detection (p = 0.005, Fisher's exact test) (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
- Indirect ELISA (iELISA) using recombinant protein as the antigen has the advantages of high reproducibility and antigen source stability. (biomedcentral.com)
- Removal of helminths from our environment and their powerful effects on host immunity may have contributed to this increase. (jimmunol.org)
- Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to examine if the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus and its excretory/secretory products (HES) are able to suppress inflammatory disease. (medworm.com)
Exposure to an antigen1
- Adaptive immunity is an immunity that occurs after exposure to an antigen either from a pathogen or a vaccination. (oercommons.org)
Infections caused by helminths2
- These receptors actually have one recognition site which is the area where the determinant of an antigen binds. (infobarrel.com)
- However, when it comes to the antigen, it is entirely different because yes, the receptors for the antigen can be a part of the body or is considered as self but then the antigen itself is known by the body as non self. (infobarrel.com)
- 1. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity: Immunity: Antigens are introduced in vaccines (immunization). (scribd.com)
- Methods: Using a multiplexed protein array for 94 antigens, we compared the serum autoAb profiles of 69 NPSLE patients, 203 SLE patients without NP involvement (non-NPSLE) and 51 healthy controls. (bireme.br)
- The protein concentration of E/S antigens of C. cotylophorum and G. crumenifer ranged from 0.4 to 7.1 mg/ml and 3.3 to 5.9 mg/ml, respectively. (springer.com)
- The foreign substance, usually a protein, is called an antigen , that is, one which generates the production of an antagonist. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2 These findings support previous data in African refugees resettling to the United States, showing a similar decrease in soil-transmitted helminths following implementation of pre-departure albendazole treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Although helminth infections can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and atopic diseases remains uncertain. (nih.gov)
- Although the life cycles of most helminths of zoonotic importance are well known, there are still major gaps in our knowledge especially in the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis and treat- ment The International Colloquium on Helminth Zoonoses held at the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, 11-12 December 1986, laid emphasis on more recent advances made in the control and epidemiology of these zoonotic diseases. (booktopia.com.au)
- The distribution of several pathogenic helminth infections coincides geographically with many devastating microbial diseases, including enteric bacterial infections. (jimmunol.org)
- At the same time, it seems that the ability of helminths to reduce immune response could be made use of in therapies of diseases caused by an overactive immune system. (termedia.pl)
- For several decades researchers have investigated the applicability of helminths to treat autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, allergy, asthma, and - most recently - diabetes. (termedia.pl)
- Diseases caused by helminths (e.g., nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes) are a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in developing countries because of poor hygiene, lack of public health education, and limited medical resources ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Loss of helminth exposures also occurred in Western Europe corresponding with the spread of immune mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease. (worldgastroenterology.org)
- Helminth infections are neglected diseases that cause enormous morbidity to populations predominantly in the developing world. (nyu.edu)
- We characterized the response of an individual who self infected with helminths to treat his symptoms of ulcerative colitis in order to better understand how helminths could suppress inflammatory bowel diseases. (nyu.edu)
- Infections with geohelminths including A. lumbricoides , the most prevalent geohelminth, may influence both the development of allergy, 1 and susceptibility to helminth and non-parasitic infectious diseases of childhood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The distribution of several pathogenic helminth infections coincides geographically with many devastating microbial diseases, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis. (massgeneral.org)
- It is clear that there is virtually universal priming to environmental antigens which has occurred before birth, but in those infants destined to be allergic and develop diseases such as asthma, the responsiveness is altered. (bmj.com)
- IgG titers against the endemic helminth Ascaris lumbricoides increased from baseline to QFT re-testing in all infants. (frontiersin.org)
- Effects of lactoferrin on elicitation of the antigen-specific cellular and humoral cutaneous response in mice. (semanticscholar.org)
- In mice, MGL + CD103 − dermal DCs efficiently captured and processed glycosylated Tn antigen in vivo, inducing a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T-cell response. (bloodjournal.org)
Hydatid cyst fluid1
- However, these assays use natural E. granulosus hydatid cyst fluid antigens, which are difficult and expensive to prepare, and cannot be commercialized. (biomedcentral.com)
- After discovery of the host-protective To45W antigen, two further host-protective recombinant antigens (To16 and To18) were also identified ( 4 ). (asm.org)
Cestodes and trematodes1
- Helminths, including nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, are complex parasitic organisms that infect at least one billion people globally living in extreme poverty. (frontiersin.org)
Association between helminth1
- To review the findings of recent human studies of the association between helminth parasite infections and allergy and discuss their potential relevance to public health. (nih.gov)
- The intestinal immune system - gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) - is responsible for recognising a given antigen, direct defence against it, and the generation of the immune response. (termedia.pl)
- What are tissue specific antigens called? (brainscape.com)
- Direct immunofluorescence staining for detection of herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus antigens in vesicular lesions and certain tissue specimens. (asm.org)
- Therefore, we recommend a revision of the "Del Brutto diagnostic criteria" for use in resource poor areas and suggest the inclusion of serum antigen detection as a major criterion. (nih.gov)
- There was also no evidence of killing the helminth or its larval stages, when they were kept in vitro in pool of hyperimmune serum. (springer.com)
- Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung damage correlated with increased serum activity of arginase-1, which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. (jci.org)
- The MHV were stimulated in vitro with S. mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA) or soluble worm antigens (SWA). (dovepress.com)
Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis1
- Are Alternative Sources of Parasitic (Cysticercal) Antigens Necessary for Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis? (asm.org)
- Helminths activate regulatory circuits that limit inflammation in IBD. (jimmunol.org)
Inflammatory bowel d1
- Several helminth species can abrogate disease in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions. (jimmunol.org)
- This study aimed at evaluating the addition of antigen detection as a major diagnostic criterion, especially in areas where neuroimaging is absent. (nih.gov)
- Taking into account its limitations for diagnosis of inactive NCC, antigen detection can be of added value for diagnosing NCC in PWE by supporting diagnostic and treatment decisions. (nih.gov)
- Detection of circulating antigen in experimental Candida albicans endocarditis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
- Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design. (smith.edu)
- The capacity of Tn-glycosylated antigens-and the multiple antigenic glycopeptide Tn3 therapeutic candidate vaccine-to target mouse and human MGL + DCs are demonstrated, especially regarding dermal DCs. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cantor H and Boyse EA (1975) Functional subclasses of T‐lymphocytes bearing different Ly antigens. (els.net)
- For some human helminth infections, such as paragonomiasis, the adult stage of the parasite takes up its final residence in the lung ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Stool and urine samples were subjected to diagnose helminthiases using Kato-Katz, Baermann, urine filtration, and circulating cathodic antigen tests. (springer.com)
- Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test. (biomedcentral.com)
- This is especially remarkable considering the vast array of luminal antigens and other immune stimulatory factors that daily encounter the mucosal surface. (worldgastroenterology.org)
- Meshgi EA, Eslami A, Halajian A (2009) Determination of diagnostic antigens in cattle amphistomiasis using western blotting. (springer.com)
- If the immunogen causes the entire Immune System to react, there are also substances that can cause parts or specific segments of the said system to react aggressively and these are known as antigens. (infobarrel.com)
- Antigens are substances that can stimulate one part of the Immune System which can in turn alert other segments eventually leading to the activation of the entire system or the creation of an immune response. (infobarrel.com)
- 5 These studies show that the entrenched paradigm that early antigen exposure induces tolerance is not consistently the case. (bmj.com)
- Helminth induced morbidity is largely due to the direct impact of the helminth on host tissues and indirectly from the host inflammatory response reflecting the complex helminth-host interface. (frontiersin.org)