Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (1/1360)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (2/1360)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Detection of cell wall mannoprotein Mp1p in culture supernatants of Penicillium marneffei and in sera of penicilliosis patients. (3/1360)

Mannoproteins are important and abundant structural components of fungal cell walls. The MP1 gene encodes a cell wall mannoprotein of the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei. In the present study, we show that Mp1p is secreted into the cell culture supernatant at a level that can be detected by Western blotting. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed with antibodies against Mp1p was capable of detecting this protein from the cell culture supernatant of P. marneffei at 10(4) cells/ml. The anti-Mp1p antibody is specific since it fails to react with any protein-form lysates of Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, or Cryptococcus neoformans by Western blotting. In addition, this Mp1p antigen-based ELISA is also specific for P. marneffei since the cell culture supernatants of the other three fungi gave negative results. Finally, a clinical evaluation of sera from penicilliosis patients indicates that 17 of 26 (65%) patients are Mp1p antigen test positive. Furthermore, a Mp1p antibody test was performed with these serum specimens. The combined antibody and antigen tests for P. marneffei carry a sensitive of 88% (23 of 26), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The specificities of the tests are high since none of the 85 control sera was positive by either test.  (+info)

Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management. (4/1360)

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galactomannan was detected in the CSF 45 days before a culture became positive, and Aspergillus DNA was detected 4 days prior to culture. Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (5/1360)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of the M antigen of Histoplasma capsulatum. (6/1360)

The major diagnostic antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum are the H and M antigens, pluripotent glycoproteins that elicit both humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses. These antigens may play a role in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. M antigen is considered immunodominant because antibodies against it are the first precipitins to arise in acute histoplasmosis and are commonly present during all phases of infection. The biological activity of monomolecular M antigen and its ability to elicit a protective immune response to H. capsulatum are largely unknown. A molecular approach was used to identify the biological nature of M antigen, including its purification from histoplasmin, partial digestion with proteinases, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to separate the released peptides. The amino acid sequences of the purified peptides were obtained by Edman degradation, and using degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR, a 321-bp fragment of the gene encoding the M antigen was amplified from genomic H. capsulatum DNA. This fragment was used to screen an H. capsulatum genomic DNA library, leading to the isolation, cloning, and sequencing of the full-length gene. The M gene consists of 2, 187-bp DNA encoding a protein of 80,719 Da, which has significant homology to catalases from Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Eimericella nidulans. A cDNA was generated by reverse transcription-PCR and cloned into the expression vector pQE40. The identity of the cloned, expressed protein was confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant fusion protein was immunoreactive with monoclonal antibodies raised against M antigen, with polyclonal mouse anti-M antiserum, and with a serum sample from a patient with histoplasmosis. The gene encoding the major immunodominant M antigen of H. capsulatum is a presumptive catalase, and the recombinant protein retains serodiagnostic activity.  (+info)

Two-dimensional electrophoresis of Malassezia allergens for atopic dermatitis and isolation of Mal f 4 homologs with mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. (7/1360)

The yeast Malassezia furfur is a natural inhabitant of the human skin microflora that induces an allergic reaction in atopic dermatitis. To identify allergens of M. furfur, we separated a crude preparation of M. furfur antigens as discrete spots by 2-D PAGE and detected IgE-binding proteins using sera of atopic dermatitis patients. We identified the known allergens, Mal f 2 and Mal f 3, and determined N-terminal amino acid sequences of six new IgE-binding proteins including Mal f 4. The cDNA and genomic DNA encoding Mal f 4 were cloned and sequenced. The gene was mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and encoded Mal f 4 composed of 315 amino acids and a signal sequence of 27 amino acids. We purified Mal f 4, which had a molecular mass of 35 kDa from a membrane fraction of a lysate of cultured cells. Thirty of 36 M. furfur-allergic atopic dermatitis patients (83.3%) had elevated serum levels of IgE to purified Mal f 4, indicating that Mal f 4 is a major allergen. There was a significant correlation of the Phadebas RAST unit values of Mal f 4 and the crude antigen, but not between Mal f 4 and the known allergen Mal f 2.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (8/1360)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

BackgroundAn experimental approach for improving vaccine efficacy involves targeting antigens to mannose receptors (MRs) on dendritic cells (DCs) and other professional antigen presenting cells. Previously, we demonstrated that mannosylated Pichia pastoris-derived recombinant proteins exhibited increased immunogenicity compared to proteins lacking mannosylation. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this observation, the present study examined the cellular uptake of the mannosylated and deglycosylated recombinant proteins.Methodology/Principal FindingsUtilizing transfected cell lines, roles for the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) in the recognition of the mannosylated, but not deglycosylated, antigens were demonstrated. The uptake of mannosylated antigens into murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) was inhibited by yeast mannans (YMs), suggesting a mannose-specific C-type lectin receptor-dependent process, while the uptake of deglycosylated antigens
Background. Fungal antigens sensibilization is a known cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Nevertheless, the role of fungal colonization in respiratory tract on clinics and prognosis of HP is still unclear.. Aim. To assess the influense of fungal colonization on excercise tolerance in HP.. Methods. 79 pts with morphologically proven HP were enrolled. Mean age 48,8 yrs, males 33. In all cases during work-up BAL was performed with PCR test on DNA of Aspergillus and Candida fungi, as also as PFT and 6MWT. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.. Results. Fungi were detected in 21/79 (27%) pts. The were no difference between PCR-positive and negative groups for Aspergillus in PFT, but there was significant difference for sPO2 before and after 6MWT (94,1 and 90 %; 91 and 88% respectively, p,0.05), as also as more prominent fatigue on Borg scale (2,9 and 3,9; 5,3 and 6,5 points, respectively p,0.05). There was a trend to lower walking distance in PCR-positive patients vs controls (380 and ...
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Using them is embarrassing in addition to painful while obtaining pimples is a normal skin ailment which affects us all at one time or another. However, before you explore techniques to eliminate pimples, it is important that you be aware of the physiology. For many people, pimples are not anything more than a manifestation of skin irritation that results in a disease of the oil.. The glands begin to produce and become irritated. This oil seals bacteria found on the skin and results in the pus production and the disease. This is exactly what causes the actual area on the skin.. Although the majority of folks feel that using vigorous cleansing, chemicals and physician supervised skin peels and laser treatments would be the ideal approach to treat pimples the issue aggravate and make things worse. So below are a few great remedies which could help you to get rid of pimples and painlessly. ...
Learn the best cures for pimples. Step by step guide for treating and preventing pimples. Find the best pimple cure for you. Information on acne and skin problems. Pimple cures and pimple treatment
Candidiasis is a fungal infection that may cause localized or systemic disease. The severity of infection is broad extending to life threatening. Acute and convalescent titers should be compared.
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
FCAND : Draw blood in a plain red-top tube(s), serum gel tube(s) is acceptable. Spin down and send 0.5 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
What are Vaginal Pimples? Vaginal pimples are similar to face pimples or pimples anywhere else on the body. However, they are quite painful and stinging.
16 yrs old Male asked about Pimples pimples, 1 doctor answered this and 73 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
Changing your linens on your bed can have amazing effects on your zits problems. When you are in bed, these oils are transferred onto your bed linen. This is a way for them to get back on your skin. Wash your bed sheets regularly to break this cycle.. In order to treat zits, you may want to consider taking zinc, since it reduces the chances of free radicals from forming under the skin. Cystic zits sufferers interested in lessening facial lumpiness should take zinc everyday.. You might want to scratch yourself or pick at pimples, but doing so can make things worse because you are adding more oils and dirt to your face. When pores get filled with dirt and clogged up, pimples can result.. Have you given up trying to do anything about your pimples problem? Skin problems can also be caused by allergens, including mites and hay fever. Stay far away from stress! Stress hormones can create irritation.. To reduce breakouts of zits, you must ensure that your body is always hydrated. Drink a lot of water ...
Pimple Patrol. Youve had em growing up. Youve probably had one or two last week.. A pimple, zit, blemish, whitehead, blackhead, cyst, or other piece of acne on your face, shoulders, back, or butt. Sometimes its due to a nasty ingrown hair, sometimes its just because your skin is a zit factory.. But did you know that some doctors say that POPPING YOUR ZITS CAN BE GOOD FOR YOU?. Laura Cooksey, an aesthetician at a California acne clinic says that pimple popping offers instant gratification. People find it pleasurable the way that having your legs waxed is pleasurable. It can be uncomfortable and sort of nasty - weve all been grossed out when the pus hits the mirror - but youre doing something that can help you toward your goal of clearer skin. And Dr. James Fulton from the American Academy of Dermatology says that popping zits …definitely can be helpful… as long as you know the right way to do it.. Which is why Web Watch would like to share these FIVE TIPS ON THE PROPER WAY TO POP A ...
Bid farewell to pimples with the best Korean pimple cream. Read on to find the full reviews of the top Korean pimple creams that work like magic!
If you get pimples do you know what causes them? Have you any idea how to get rid of pimples? In most general terms a pimple is simply a raised red bump on your skin caused by a bacterial infection. It is the most noticeable symptom...
Popping a pimple? Do you know the risks? How it can harm your skin and turn to a permanent scar? There are multiple ways other than popping to treat a pimple safely. You can also treat a pus filled pimple instantly in a safe way, without popping it.
How to Pop a Pimple. It is rarely a good idea to pop pimples, since doing so can cause scars or worsen your breakout. If you must pop a pimple, the best way to prevent damage is to use a needle. Alternatively, applying a wet rag can gently...
How to get rid of pimples? Pimples suck. Having pimples and living with them can be a critical problem as it can strongly influence your self-confidence.
If you cannot, simply cannot resist the urge to pop a pimple (which is a common dilemma of most victims), then wash your hands first; gently squeeze the top of pimple using a swab of cotton or tissue. Clean the area properly after you are done. If the pus does not come out while squeezing, leave the pimple alone. It is not ready to pop ...
The terms zit and pimple are used interchangeably and have the same meaning, which means there is not a difference between the two terms. According to Teen Health, the word pimple is used to describe...
Prevent Stress Pimples Stress pimples usually appear on the face, back, chest, and neck but can also appear anywhere. What causes them is a mixture of hormones and chemicals in the body. This can be the result of many different things from work and school, to relationships and worrying...
every morning when i wake-up. i see my oily face i dont like pimples. so, my question is that how to get rid of pimple. is any health advisor is available here to help me. beacause i am very hassle from this problem. | Ask questions on any topic, get real answers from real people. Have a question? Ask it. Know an answer? Share it.
Are pimples(acne) robbing your peace? Well, that will not happen anymore. Know how to get rid of pimples overnight by following these best natural remedies
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An eye pimple is a pus-filled bump on the eyelid. The most important thing to remember when treating an eye pimple is to never...
This is my favorite product out of the 4. It has changed my skin! I have not broken out in a single pimple since after the first week of using this product. I did get 2 small pimples after the first few days but were gone 3 days after they appeared and that was that. They may have already been below my skin before my treatment started. So anyways, before I would always have at least 1 pimple on my face at all times, usually 2 or 3. If I was super lucky, I could go a week pimple free, tops. As I type up this review, I have used these products for 4 full weeks and I have not had a pimple for 3. Even my most problematic areas are acne free. My skin now is very smooth ...
Do you have pimples, blackheads and congested skin? Is this just a way of life for you? Are you used to looking a little bumpy? Have you considered trying an extraction facial?
Blind pimples refer to acne that develops beneath the skins surface. Its typically caused by a cyst or nodule. Heres how to speed up the healing process.
Wondering how to get rid of bind pimples naturally and fast? Here are some very simple and effective ways to deal with these little lurking monsters.
Im 18 and male and i get chafe quite often and ive found that right on the spot where i get chafe on one side, there is a large underskin pimple and when i tried to pop it a bit of puss came out but now it is still the same size and quite
Pimples can be formed at the hands of not only the child, is considered by many people: suffering from this and adults. Most often they occur in representatives
No More Pimple (NMP) was brought to life as a result of 5 years of research and process of elimination. It is based on the Natural and Organic ingredients which were powerful but gentle and with no side effects.
While its best to leave extraction to pros, all hope is not lost if you picket at a pimple. Use these scar revisions that pros recommend.
They Never Fail!: A great temporary solution to get rid of a pimple quickly is to camouflage it by minimizing its appearance to avoid making it noticeable. Here are tips to cleverly hide it.
i am 18 years old and 18 weeks pregnate i have pimples around my niples and white clumpy discharge coming out of my niples when i squeze them what is it and what can i do to prevent it?
How do I know if a pimple is infected? Answered by Dr. Linda Gromko: Look for these clues: Infection usually shows up with redness, warmth,...
26 yrs old Male asked about Pimple eruptionon back, 1 doctor answered this and 75 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
I used all three of these products altogether, and I felt like they did help my pimples, as while I was using the products, I did notice an improvement in my skin, and my pimple flare-ups lessened. But then again, as previously mentioned, Im quite partial to Eucerin for skincare. I do think that the Eucerin DemoPurifyer range is good as a basic, no-frills, and no-nonsense selection of products to use on a daily basis if you have skin thats suscceptible to spots and oiliness ...
Your bodys biggest organ can predict all kinds of scary diseases months before youd spot them otherwise. Find out when a pimples just a pimple, and when...
Your bodys biggest organ can predict all kinds of scary diseases months before youd spot them otherwise. Find out when a pimples just a pimple, and when...
Cathy Davey Health. Are Breakouts Getting You Down? These Tips Can Help. Some people struggle from random pimples breakouts, while other suffer from persistent pimples problems for years. There are new methods available for
Brief Answer: need some details to guide you better Detailed Answer: Hello Thank You for contacting HCM. My name is Dr Muhammad Ali Rauf & i will look into your problem. I have gone through your query and would try to help you in the best possible way. There could be a number of causes for your...
There is nothing more annoying than a stubborn pimple that wont go away. What if this pimple decided to appear on your butt for some reason; that would
What is it? The aging eye can be affected in many different ways. One of them being the formation of a cataract or clouding of the normal human crystalline lens. The other common age related change affecting the eye is called age related macular degeneration (AMD). This condition usually affects people in the 6th or 7th decade of life, but may occur in the younger population.. This condition affects the area at the back of the eye, responsible for the central part of the vision, the macula (see Eye anatomy). Degeneration, or breakdown of this part of the retina causes loss of central vision, and is one of the most common causes of legal blindness in South Africa, and the world. Most patients retain some form of peripheral vision, but overall prognosis in late / advanced AMD can be very poor.. What is DRY and WET AMD? Dry AMD is the more common form and is also referred to as atrophic or non-exudative AMD. There is formation of drusen beneath the macula that build up and eventually causes ...
Guinea pigs infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes developed a cutaneous fungal lesion and became skin test positive to fungal antigen (trichophytin). The cutaneous fungal lesion, while thought to be a cell-mediated response, differed histologically from the skin test site. Basophils were not demonstrated in biopsies of cutaneous fungal lesions, whereas basophils were numerous in biopsies of trichophytin skin test sites. When sensitization to trichophytin was accomplished by injection of hypha in complete Freunds adjuvant instead of infecting with live fungus, basophils could not be demonstrated in skin test sites. This report demonstrated that guinea pigs could be primed for cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity (CBH) responses by infection with live fungus.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical applications of non-culture based methods for the diagnosis and management of opportunistic and endemic mycoses. AU - Verweij, P. E.. AU - Figueroa, J.. AU - Van Burik, J.. AU - Holdom, M. D.. AU - Dei-Cas, E.. AU - Gómez, B. L.. AU - Mendes-Giannini, M. J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Nonculture based methods for the detection of infections caused by fungal pathogens are becoming more important tools in the management of infected patients. Detection of fungal antigens and DNA appear to be the most promising in this respect for both opportunistic and endemic mycoses. In this article we present an overview of the most recent developments in nonculture based methods and examine their value in clinical practice.. AB - Nonculture based methods for the detection of infections caused by fungal pathogens are becoming more important tools in the management of infected patients. Detection of fungal antigens and ...
The Candida antigen CR3-RP (complement receptor 3-related protein) is supposed to be a mimicry protein because of its ability to bind antibody directed against the α subunit of the mammalian CR3 (CD11b/CD18). This study aimed to (i) investigate the specific humoral isotypic response to immunization with CR3-RP in vivo in a rabbit animal model, and (ii) determine the role of CR3-RP in the adherence of Candida albicans in vitro using the model systems of buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and biofilm formation. The synthetic C. albicans peptide DINGGGATLPQ corresponding to 11 amino-acids of the CR3-RP sequence DINGGGATLPQALXQITGVIT, determined by N-terminal sequencing, was used for immunization of rabbits to obtain polyclonal anti-CR3-PR serum and for subsequent characterization of the humoral isotypic response of rabbits. A significant increase of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-CR3-RP specific antibodies was observed after the third (P<0.01) and the fourth (P<0.001) immunization doses. The elevation of IgA
As a leading supplier of innovative life science research tools, Creative Diagnostics continues to expand its products portfolio by offering of unique antigens for researchers globally, which is supported by extensive research, development, and validation for superior quality. The addition of antigen products and services will enable scientists to work on more specific projects, and also provide leading researchers and diagnostic manufacturers with a more diverse antigen selection, which facilitates the development of assays with greater specificity and sensitivity.. These newly released antigens are rigorously tested to meet the demand in research and development and are featured with excellent quality, including Viral Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, Fungal Antigens, Parasitic Antigens, Immunoglobulin, Hapten, Cardiac Biomarkers and so on. With this expanded offering of antigens products, Creative Diagnostics enables scientists to achieve more complete analysis experiments. These products along ...
2. Plasma (1→3)-ß-D-glucan and fungal antigenemia in patients with candidemia, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis.. T Miyazaki, S Kohno, K Mitsutake, S Maesaki, K Tanaka, N Ishikawa, and K Hara. Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan. (1→3)-ß-D-Glucan is one of the major structural components of fungi, and it seems that it can be detected by the fractionated (1→3)-ß-D-glucan-sensitive component from a Limulus lysate, factor G. We evaluated the concentration of (1→3)-ß-D-glucan by using factor G and other fungal antigens in 24 patients with clinical evidence of mycosis and 36 healthy subjects. The mean concentration of (1→3)-ß-D-glucan in the plasma of the healthy subjects was found to be 2.7 +/- 1.9 pg/mL (range, < 6.9 pg/mL), and it was found to be substantially higher in all 11 patients with candidemia (mean, 2,207.4 pg/mL; range, 325.4 to 8,449.0 pg/mL). Eight of those 11 patients with candidemia (73%) were positive for the Cand-Tec ...
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The system was evaluated in clinical samples from patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus with and without previous cryptococcosis diagnosis. The evaluated system is highly sensitive and specific, and when it was compared with latex agglutination there were not significant differences. A standard curve with purified Cryptococcus neoformans antigen was settled down for the antigen quantification in positive samples ...
Mold Clean Up and Repair. Inning conformity with American University of Occupational and Ecological Medication (ACOEM), an estimated 10 percent of the countrys population has delicate antibodies to deal with fungal antigens. A great deal of allergic responses as well as hay high temperatures are reported to have really caused as an outcome of the development of molds in the ins. Mold and mildews are sporophytic fungi - duplicates with the aid of spores. These air-borne spores might trigger allergic reactions, breathing illness, migraine headaches, as well as pains. Consequently, you must take certain safeguard to respond to the growth of molds in the insides. The most important action that you could consume is cleaning up every traces of dampness from the residence. For doing this you need to work with water cleansing specialists that could help you to cleanse every trace of water from the insides, which would stop mold and mildew and also mold development.. Mold and mildew needs moisture as ...
In vitro studies as well as clinical trials indicate that the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhance the ability of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) to eliminate microbial organisms. Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins, homologs of the Drosophila protein Toll, have been found on the surface of mammalian cells and are important in the responses of macrophages to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens. TLR4 is critical for the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria, while TLR2 is important for response to gram-positive bacteria, bacterial peptides, and yeast zymosan. We demonstrate that TLR2, but very little TLR4, is present on the surface of human neutrophils. In addition we demonstrate that GM-CSF and G-CSF dramatically up-regulate TLR2 and CD14 surface expression. GM-CSF treatment also up-regulates TLR2 and CD14 mRNA levels in neutrophils. In addition to increasing receptor expression,
The baking soda will eliminate bacteria and absorb as folliculitis, as is infection with bacteria, yeast or a fungus. Instructions Photo: Rocio De Maio/Demand Media Mix together a massage or creative alternatives like painting or writing.. Fortunately, for guys and girls who have problem skin, there are some remedies the skin in the places where the pimples previously were. The oils in your fingertips can create more obat jerawat sehat pimples to attack, which causes inflammation and redness a pimple .. Colonic Irrigation and Colon Hydrotherapy for Acne Treatment Yes I know this may seem a little invasive, but Colonics excess oil, helping to counteract pimples under the skin. How to Treat Pimples All Over My Face How to Treat Pimples All Over My becomes even worse when temporary breakouts leave long-lasting scars.. Puberty and Maturation - imbalance of hormones results in acne Stress - alters the balance of hormones leading to acne Period - hormones eHow Contributor The best way to pop a pimple ...
Now coming to the kitchen recipes, these help you tremendously to get rid of your unwanted pimples or in a way control them or reduce them to a large extent.. Toothpaste for pimples! Surprised! Yes, this really sounds different but it works very well. All you need to do is just apply some toothpaste over the pimples and leave it overnight. You will find your pimples reduced to half their size the next morning!. Unripe Papaya! Take the milky unripe papaya and apply on to the face on the pimple affected area. See the difference! You will notice that this combination not only treats your pimples but also makes your facial skin soft and subtle.. Egg for Health and Skin! Apply egg white over your face and leave it overnight. This will help you in reducing your pimples and makes your skin glow and your skin will feel tight helping it control wrinkles too.. Oil Treatment! Take ground nut oil with equal amount of lime juice in it apply daily and notice your skin reforming into its new look. This makes ...
Quick for precise removal! product is so effective Ive seen it really make a difference on fading age spots and clearing up blackheads and blemishes. Extractor needle+Brush+ Blackhead Remove Acne Mask Extractor Remover.Extractor + Remove Blackhead Whitehead Mask Pimples Comedone Acne. Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium hALF AN Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium HOUR I WASHED IT OFF THE REDNESS OF MY PIMPLES HAD.. Lemon Juice: Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium Lemon acts as a natural bleaching agent. This oil has the ability to treat dark spots pimples acne fine lines age spots moles wrinkles etc. but it can be also used in the treatment of. I stopped using medicated washes and lotions when i got pregnant to avoid any possibility of harming my baby. Remove blackheads with baking soda The best part is everyone has some baking soda around the house and it is much cheaper than the pore So I still cant get all ...
When you get a pimple on the breast, it is advisable you go for a physical examination to rule out other possibilities of similar looking lesions.. A pimple looking thing may be a montgomery tubercle, as mentioned above. Many cases of breast carcinomas may present over the surface as a discharging pimple, which is painless and without any other sign.. So, a thorough physical exam is essential. Once you are sure its a pimple, you may start treating it.. The most important precaution is that never pop or squeeze a pimple. Any such action can potentially infect it and worsen the situation. An infected pimple on the breast may infect the inner breast tissue, leading to abscess formation there.. If the pimple is small, or appears as a white head, try gentle warm compress over it. This would soften it, and help draining out the collected sebum from inside it. ...
Lots of people are affected with persistent, extreme pimples, though nearly all of individuals have suffered with pimples at a while in life. Advances in dermatology, nonetheless, have uncovered a number of easy-to-implement methods for sustaining a particular, glowing complexion. This data is stuffed with useful recommendation for a more healthy pores and skin.. How to get rid of spots, pimples and pimples?. For clear, acne-free pores and skin, take into account making use of tea tree oil in direction of the spots your location acne-prone. In the event you discover it matches your wants, it may scale back total oil buildup along with your pores in the identical means successfully as chemical pimples cures, tea tree oil would not dry pores and skin and.. Those who have issues with pimples usually have the will to pop their contaminated pores. Everytime you merely can not resist, be sure each your arms are clear, along with your fingernails, in order that youll often dont introduce new micro ...
Pimples are small hard inflamed spots on your skin caused by a bacterium that reside on the surface of your skin. When this bacterium finds its way into the pores of the skin, it will grow into pimples which will cause irritation of the affected parts. However, a lot of people with pimples resort to bursting them which will do more damage than good. How then can you get rid of these dreadful inflamed spots without allowing them to spread uncontrollably? You only need to read on to get the full gist.. Application of ice cubes on the pimples will reduce the swelling and make them less visible to people. The ice cubes must be properly rubbed on them in order to achieve the desired result. Furthermore, you should endeavor to take many cups of water everyday so that numerous bad toxins in the body will be eliminated. You should drink a minimum of ten cups of water everyday because it will also prevent your skin from dehydration.. Face washing is another effective way of getting rid of your pimples. ...
Someone said: It has happened to me several times. It probably means that you have a piece of hardened infected oil that is deeper than what you are popping. After the area around the pimple is disinfected you must try again but this time place your fingers farther from the pimple. Then push down harder and slowly push toward the pimple but at a deeper level. This is to push the bad stuff up and out, not down. Think of milking a cow keep moving toward the pimple until you get another bunch of pus that is pushed out. That should make it heal up without leaving a scar or hurting anymore. I have had several of these and never had a scar. ...
Clear liquid pimple - Had protected sex with a sex worker. Developed simple painless non-itchy pimple with hair in it 16 days after exposure. Pimple popped and a thick white pus came out followed by some clear liquid. Pimple scabbed with hair still visible. Herpes? Unlikely. There are some contagious things this could be, it however, does not sound like herpes. On the other hand this can be anything from an ingrown hair to syphilis based on the description. It may be embarrassing, but this is something you need to get checked. If you dont want to see your doctor Im sure you can find a walk in clinic you dont normally use. Just be open and honest.
Pimples are a common, usually harmless, type of skin lesion.. They happen when your skins oil glands make too much oil called sebum.. This can lead to clogged pores and cause pimples.. Pimples can take as long as six weeks to go away, but smaller, single pimples may take only a few days to disappear... ...
Hey guys, Sandra Lee, M.D. (aka Dr. Pimple Popper), here!. I see youve found The Pretty Pimple - I hope youre enjoying the articles and learning something new! Ive heard your requests for effective, acne-fighting products, and thats why Im so excited to introduce SLMD Skincare to you guys. This line exists to provide solutions for the skincare concerns you popaholics have always asked me about. These products bring together the most effective, blemish-banishing ingredients, so you can treat your skin with clinical confidence.. xo, Sandra. ...
Acne or the pimples are a skin condition, an infected sebaceous gland in the skin which occurs when the hair follicles or the pores on the surface are plugged with oil, dirt, bacteria, or dead skin cells. The pimples can range from uninflamed blackheads or whiteheads to pus-filled large, red bumps, which can be sometimes tender and painful. And can pop up anywhere on the body, especially face, neck, back, armpits, and sometimes on the genitals. Though getting acne or pimples at a young age is very common, due to hormonal changes and lifestyle, few other reasons may include; ...
Pimples on forehead are simply irritating. The good news is that there is a possibility of getting rid of them as well. First off, it is very important to understand the anatomy of the face. Doing so can help you trace the reasons of the appearance of these pimples. The forehead is included in the so-called T-zone in the face. This part of the face is well exposed to more oil, which is the cause of pimple breakouts. Therefore, the appearance can simply be a result of your forehead being oilier compared to the rest of the face.. Continue reading ...
Forehead is one of the common areas, where pimples can appear. The main reason of appearing pimples is clogging between dead cells of skin.
The teen popped a pimple on the part of her face called the Triangle of Death. A 19-year-old from China has suffered a severe brain infection after popping a pimple on her nose with her bare hands. According to the DailyMail, the teen (known as Yang) began to feel pain under her right eye after squeezing the pimple ...
You have noticed a pimple on nose and try to find out a reason? Causes of pimples on nose may be the most unexpected. But most often this phenomenon is
When the sebaceous glands, located at the base of hair follicles, become overactive, pimples breakout. And those sensitive and vulnerable parts of the body, such as the face, back, chest and shoulders, have the likelihood of growing pimples. The most common pimple is pimple vulgaris which happens mainly at puberty. Youths need to learn how…
Hey guys, Sandra Lee, M.D. (aka Dr. Pimple Popper), here!. I see youve found The Pretty Pimple - I hope youre enjoying the articles and learning something new! Ive heard your requests for effective, acne-fighting products, and thats why Im so excited to introduce SLMD Skincare to you guys. This line exists to provide solutions for the skincare concerns you popaholics have always asked me about. These products bring together the most effective, blemish-banishing ingredients, so you can treat your skin with clinical confidence.. xo, Sandra. ...
Apply Visine to a pimple to reduce the redness of a pimple. You can also use hydrocortisone to reduce redness and inflammation ...
To stave off pimples and consequently boost confidence, Céleteque DERMOSCIENCE™ has come up with its ACNE SOLUTIONS line that specifically targets pimples.
// Its a form of continuous pimples. Speaking of pimples. Spoiled eggplant will definitely cause them to pop up. Thats
There is never a good time for a pimple to appear. However, a pimple always seems to show up right before a big date, special occasion, or noteworthy event. ...
How to get rid of zits on your scalp? How to remove scalp acne or scalp pimples using best home remedies. How to treat scalp pimples naturally.
Hi I have pimples on my pennies. Actually I had sex with one aunt when i was 22 years old. After that i found pimples on pennies. Could you please let me know what is the problem. is it STD or what ...
I keep getting very bad pimples on my forehead anytime I start working lots. Is it true that pimples can be caused due to being stressed out..meaning working too many long hours.
The best pimples to pop are small whiteheads, blackheads, and pustules (looks like a whitehead, but the skin around is red and inflamed). Whiteheads appear when dead skin cells, oil, and bacteria are trapped in your pores. Blackheads are similar in that they are caused by a clogged pore, but the fundamental difference is that with whiteheads, the pore remains closed as compared to blackheads in which the pore is open. Pustules are small bumps on the skin that contain pus or fluid. The safest type to extract at home are the ones which have collected a small amount of pus or keratin in the middle and are very close to the surface of skin, and those that are not very red or deep: these are usually simple blackheads, whiteheads, or pustules, says Dr. Nazarian. Its also important to note that you should never touch deep cysts. While it may be very tempting to pop deep cysts, these should ideally be reserved to professionals as they can be difficult to treat due to the depth of the active lesion, ...
I have been sexually active with the same person for over a year now and she was a virgin. I just noticed a hard spot on the side of my penis, I squeezed it and it came out like a blackhead. However now it is very swullen like a pimple looking like it could be popped but I tried to pop it and it wont go away. It has been there the past 2 days. What is it and why would it happen now? I have never had to deal with anything like this b4 ...
COSRX One Step Original Clear Pad, aka One Step Pimple Clear Pad, are exfoliating pads that keep the complexion clear, refined, and well-balanced.
Why do I get pimples on my lower, upper, inside, around, on lip edges (lip line) or near my lip? Are they cold sore or something else? What can I…. ...
This is typically known as a boil, it means that you have a bacterial infection in your thigh area. I had the same problem when i was about 12. You can burn the tip of a needle and pop it yourself, but if it reforms you should go to the hospital. Theyll have to cut it open, drain it pack it with these little gause strips to keep it from closing and youll have to go to the doctors once a week for a couple of weeks to get them taken out and replaced. They will prescribe you pain meds and an antibiotic for it as well ...
This is many step that is not to do for treath your acne and pimples. Simple things must be avoid for your skin. Wanna pretty face.
Pimples,black acne पिंपल्स का इलाज जानने से पहले इनके होने के कारणों को जानना बहुत जरूरी होता है, क्योंकि यदि किसी रोग की वजह पता है
Hi 16yo Dd has suddenly developed lots of little pimples on her forehead. The rest of her skin is clear. Shes been exfoliating but theyre still the
Dr. Pimple Popper just took the NOPE to a whole new level with her 2016 Best Of compilation video. No way you make it through it all.
In just the last several weeks Im getting pimples on my armpits, they are sore, red and hard. The only thing Ive done differently is change razers. Any ideas?
Diphtheria Toxoid antigen is suitable for detection of IgG antibodies against the causative agent of diphtheria. ... SERION antigens Our antigen portfolio for your application and assay development. The viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and ... The antigen is suitable for detection of IgG antibodies against the causative agent of diphtheria. ... SERION customized Our service for the development of antigens, antibodies, reagents and IVD related components. ...
Antigens. Cases. 2019. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis of a bagpipe player: Fungal antigens as trigger?. Ziegler, K., et al. ... Fungal antigens as trigger?. Ziegler, K., et al. Medical Mycology Case Reports.. Antigens: E. phaeomuriformis. Cases: 1. ... Musical instruments, fungal spores and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Davidson, J., et al. Qjm.. Antigens: P. lilacinum, A. ... Antigens: F. oxysporum, Penicillium spp., T. mucoides, E. dermatitidis, R. mucilaginosa, P. variotti. Cases: 1. ...
Fungal spores are inhaled or ingested and cause infection in many sites including the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, ... Diagnosis includes routine bloodwork, urinalysis, X-rays, antigen testing, and cytology or histopathology. Treatment requires ... long term anti-fungal medication such as itraconazole. Prognosis is guarded depending on how ill the patient is. This disease ...
This will avoid fungal growth caused. by the antigens deposited on the vegetables before keeping inside the bag. Do not wash ... harmful antigens on the vegetables. These antigens are favored by closed environment and hence. multiply and spoil the ... the growth of harmful antigens on the vegetables. These antigens are favored by closed environment. and hence multiply and ... in a closed environment, they support the growth of harmful antigens on the vegetables. But this does. not happen in the case ...
Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. Empiric anti-fungal ... Patients with histoplasmosis or other invasive fungal infections may present with disseminated, rather than localized, disease ... Invasive fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, blastomycosis and ... where there is an increased chance for getting certain kinds of fungal infections (histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, ...
Consider empiric anti‑fungal therapy in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness. ... Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. Consider empiric anti‑ ... fungal therapy in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness. ... Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. ...
... both native and recombinant antigens crucial for diagnostics and therapeutics. ... Therefore, kbDNA has assembled a comprehensive selection of recombinant and native antigens for various diseases. Our library ... selections include viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic disease proteins from multiple strains and are validated via our QC ...
Mild perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate was present in the superficial dermis [Physique 5]. There were no fungal ... Although the precise mechanism isnt known, hypersensitivity to bacterial antigens and dysregulated immune system response have ... ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and HLA (human leukocyte antigen) B27 assessments were not done. Histopathological ...
Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion. *Anti-Coccidioides "TP" Control Serum (Goat or Human or Rabbit) for Fungal Immunodiffusion ... Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (5 ml). *Coccidioides "TP" ... Anti-Coccidioides "F" Control Serum (Goat or Human or Rabbit) for Fungal Immunodiffusion ... Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (1 ml). * ... Anti-Histoplasma Control Serum (Goat) for Fungal ...
Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus ... Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R.; Oellerich, ...
OspA is a toxic, fungal-type (TLR2/1 agonist) antigen that causes sepsis and subsequent post-sepsis immunosuppression in 85% of ... Vaccine efficacy is never assessed with the very same antigen as the vaccine antigen. Otherwise, it would not be known if the ... Once LYMErix was on the market, a strain of borrelia that did not have the vaccine antigens in it would have to be used. ... Dave Persing (Mayo) owns a patent (6,045,804) for testing based on Steeres research in which the OspA-B antigens were left out ...
OspA is a toxic, fungal-type (TLR2/1 agonist) antigen that causes sepsis and subsequent post-sepsis immunosuppression in 85% of ... Vaccine efficacy is never assessed with the very same antigen as the vaccine antigen. Otherwise, it would not be known if the ... Once LYMErix was on the market, a strain of borrelia that did not have the vaccine antigens in it would have to be used. ... Dave Persing (Mayo) owns a patent (6,045,804) for testing based on Steeres research in which the OspA-B antigens were left out ...
Immunizations are prepared with highly experimental types of antigens using rogue scientific applications of "inactivation" and ... These vaccine preparations also include stabilizer compounds used to prevent bacterial and fungal growth and to reduce ...
T cell vaccination overcomes defective cross-presentation of fungal antigens in a mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease ... Keywords: Fungal Disease ▪ Host Genetics ▪ Immunity ▪ Host-Pathogen Interaction ▪ Stem-Cell Transplantation ▪ Personalized ... These aims are being addressed in the lab by resorting to advanced cellular and animal models of fungal infection and by ... His PhD work focussed on interpreting the contribution of genetic variation in innate immunity to susceptibility to fungal ...
Its about fungal-viral synergy and injecting live virus vaccines into immunocompromised hosts. Somebody stop the presses, ... fungal antigens suppress the immune system and reactivate latent herpesviruses like Epstein Barr, which is proven to lead to ... Its about fungal-viral synergy and injecting live virus vaccines into immunocompromised hosts. Somebody stop the presses, ... What does this tell us? Inhibiting the growth of fungal contaminants in vaccines requires costly and extensive networks of cold ...
If it was known that borreliosis and other fungal-antigen-laden tick-borne infections were mostly antibody-negative, everyone ... Tags: AIDS, antigens, Bioweapons, CDC, charge sheets, dearborn, FDA, Lyme, Lyme disease, LYMErix, OspA ... You never test for a disease with the same antigens as the vaccine. If 85% of cases could no longer be detected, the vaccine ... Unfortunately, OspA is the very antigen that is responsible for the AIDS-like illness in 85% of its victims. But, no worries: ...
If it was known that borreliosis and other fungal-antigen-laden tick-borne infections were mostly antibody-negative, everyone ... Tags: AIDS, antigens, Bioweapons, CDC, charge sheets, dearborn, FDA, Lyme, Lyme disease, LYMErix, OspA ... You never test for a disease with the same antigens as the vaccine. If 85% of cases could no longer be detected, the vaccine ... Unfortunately, OspA is the very antigen that is responsible for the AIDS-like illness in 85% of its victims. But, no worries: ...
If it was known that borreliosis and other fungal-antigen-laden tick-borne infections were mostly antibody-negative, everyone ... Tags: AIDS, antigens, Bioweapons, CDC, charge sheets, dearborn, FDA, Lyme, Lyme disease, LYMErix, OspA ... You never test for a disease with the same antigens as the vaccine. If 85% of cases could no longer be detected, the vaccine ... Unfortunately, OspA is the very antigen that is responsible for the AIDS-like illness in 85% of its victims. But, no worries: ...
"Impact of the microbial derived short chain fatty acid propionate on host susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections in ... "Silver nanoparticles for the detection of cell surface antigens in mass cytometry." Cytometry Part A 91.1 (2017): 25-33. ...
Finally we demonstrate that zinc-scavenging locus arose within an historic fungal lineage and continues to be conserved in lots ... was essential for binding of soluble Pra1 to the L1CAM cell surface of utilises a secreted protein the pH-regulated antigen 1 ( ... is among the few fungal species of the normal human microbiome. Although typically a commensal of the oral cavity ... Furthermore we show that syntenic zinc acquisition loci are conserved in many fungal species with functional similarities to ...
The LYMErix vaccine caused the same disease with just one antigen, OspA, from borrelia, so the disease is not about persistent ... Immunosuppression, reactivated herpesviruses leading to the "Great Imitators," opportunistic infections of all kinds, fungal- ...
... burdens of serious fungal disease has been estimated, for 260 ... cases of cryptococcal meningitis based on cryptococcal antigen ... ICCAC 2014 - Burden of serious fungal infections in Tanzania. View Posters:Argentina, Australia, Belgium;Mexico Saudi Arabia, ... Burden of fungal infection in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Mexico, Saudi Arabia & Tanzania presented at ICAAC. Posted ... ICCAC 2014 - Burden of fungal disease in Tanzania and Mexico. Rates of ABPA were calculated at 2.5% of the adult clinical ...
Manufacture kits for Invasive Fungal Disease diagnosis, kits of 1-3-β-D Glucan Assay, Aspergillus Galactomannan Elisa Assay, ... blood collection tubes.Plus cryptococcal antigen, Aspergillus Galactomannan Detection K-set, Candida Mannan IgG/IgM Antibody ... Manufacture kits for Invasive Fungal Disease diagnosis, kits of 1-3-β-D Glucan Assay, Aspergillus Galactomannan Elisa Assay, ...
... and we are excited to share our recent experiences with antigen-loaded fungal particles." ... The researchers developed a new vaccine called 4X-SA-GP, which consists of fungal ?-glucan particles loaded with four S. aureus ... Immunization of mice with a new vaccine consisting of fungal particles loaded with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) proteins ... and they are also at increased risk of developing fungal infections. Based on this evidence, Underhill and colleagues tested ...
The doctor will listen to your history and do his/her digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen test, abdominal ultrasound ... external beam radiation and use of anti-fungal. ... trans-rectal ultrasound and prostate specific antigen.. So as ...
Breakdowns in this process can leave people susceptible to deadly fungal infections. The study, published Feb. 5 in Cell, ... major causes of fungal disease in immunosuppressed patients and the elderly.Common fungi, often present in the gut, teach the ... Instead, the animals immune cells appeared to transport fungal antigens to the spleen, stimulating the production of ... In patients with suppressed immunity, the anti-fungal antibodies may decline, leaving them vulnerable to fungal infection. New ...
To reduce the risk of fungal infections: However, if you have never had such an infection, you may be mistaken about what it is ... Candida antigens and anti-candida antibody detection, take high quality probiotic supplements, including beneficial yeast ... if your vaginal fungal infection comes back within 2 months, this could be a sign of pregnancy, diabetes, or even HIV/AIDS. The ...
... more monitored for narrowing of the latter tract have hid liver function have a blood test called PSA Prostate-specific antigen ... the finasteride price online the underlying of hypertension may help with this medication tinea is the former word for fungal ...
In addition to the serum cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination test, which was positive, the results of other laboratory ... which revealed a nonnecrotizing granuloma comprising giant cells that phagocytosed round fungal structures, which were shown to ... together with the inability to remove foreign antigens, the process is followed by immune restoration leading to a cytokine ... and demonstration of capsular antigen in the supernatant of fluids, including serum and cerebrospinal fluid, by latex ...
... such as an anti-fungal diet or an anti-fungal supplement routine, in addition to detoxing exercise and adequate sleep. ... When an antigen is presented correctly to a T-cell receptor, for example, the appropriate immune response is given and foreign ... Fungal triggers of the HLA-DR are often the most devastating to health. Over 36 different diseases can result from an HLA-DR ... The Human Leukocyte Antigen is a protein-or marker-that is found on most cells in your body. Your immune system uses these ...
  • So fungal antigens test can be used in early diagnosis of deep candida infections. (
  • It is meaningful to early diagnosis of deep fungal infections for the fungal antigens test can get continuous monitoring of high-risk patients. (
  • The antigen detected in these infections is identical. (
  • However, as there is an obvious and urgent need for novel approaches to treat infectious diseases, RIT can provide us with a powerful approach to combat serious diseases, including invasive fungal infections. (
  • The diagnosis of fungal infections of the respiratory tract is often difficult and may require invasive diagnostic procedures. (
  • We review current techniques used for the detection of fungal antigens, including their sensitivity and specificity, and their use in diagnosing human infections. (
  • Opportunistic fungal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with single or multiple defects in their immunity. (
  • Antifungal agents targeting the pathogen remain the treatment of choice for fungal infections. (
  • In this regard, immunomodulating therapeutic agents that turn up the immune response in the fight against fungal infections hold promise for enhancing the efficacy and safety of conventional antifungal therapy. (
  • In this review, therefore, clinical evidences supporting the opportunities and challenges of immunomodulation therapies in the treatment of invasive fungal infections are included. (
  • Antifungal agents targeting the pathogen such as polyenes, azoles, flucytosine, and echinocandins are the treatment of choice for most fungal infections. (
  • The lower burden of fungal infections in people with intact immune response has been taken as strong evidence that normal immunity mediates effective resistance to fungal infections ( Casadevall and Pirofski, 2001 ). (
  • As mentioned below and summarized in Table 1 , several immunomodulating approaches have been clinically tested for the treatment of fungal infections. (
  • Clinical benefits and challenges of immunomodulating agents used in patients with fungal infections. (
  • Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are serious and often life-threatening complications in patients with haematological malignancies. (
  • The diagnosis of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is a problem due to the absence of significant signs and symptoms and because of the lack of specificity of the available non-invasive diagnostic tools. (
  • It is often difficult to diagnose systemic fungal infections. (
  • Because so many systemic fungal infections go undetected and untreated, antifungal therapy has mixed success. (
  • Superficial infections These fungal infections affect the skin or mucous membranes. (
  • Superficial fungal infections (e.g., yeast vaginitis, oral thrush, and athletes foot) affect millions of people worldwide. (
  • Most superficial fungal infections are easily diagnosed and can be treated effectively. (
  • Systemic fungal infections may be caused either by an opportunistic organism that attacks a person with a weakened immune system, or by an invasive organism that is common in a specific geographic area, such as cocci and histoplasma. (
  • Unlike superficial infections, systemic fungal infections can be life-threatening. (
  • Several kinds of fungal infections are described in the following sections. (
  • Fungal meningitis, an infection that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, is one of the most common life-threatening opportunistic infections of HIV patients. (
  • Infections in people are acquired by inhalation of small fungal cells spread on air currents. (
  • Effective serodiagnosis of systemic fungal infections is of increasing importance, particularly with regard to the identification of infection with Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Penicillium marneffei. (
  • which are also fungal agents of deadly infections. (
  • Many yeast infections get better after a few days or weeks of treatment, but certain fungal infections may need to be treated for several months or longer before they clear up. (
  • To study the effectiveness, safety, and tolerance of fluconazole versus clotrimazole troches (lozenges) as prophylaxis (preventive treatment) against fungal infections in patients enrolled in ACTG 081 (a study of prophylaxis against pneumocystosis, toxoplasmosis, and serious bacterial infection). (
  • To compare the mortality rates due to fungal infections between two antifungal prophylactic treatments. (
  • Secondarily, to assess the effect of prophylaxis on the incidence of severe fungal infections, defined as invasive infections and esophageal candidiasis and less severe mucocutaneous infection. (
  • Serious fungal infections are significant complicating and life-threatening occurrences in patients with advanced HIV infection. (
  • Once established, fungal infections in AIDS patients generally require continuous suppressive therapy because attempts at curing these infections are usually unsuccessful. (
  • Solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are vulnerable to a wide variety of infections: bacterial, fungal, viral or parasitic. (
  • See also Overview of Fungal Infections . (
  • Fungal infections are emerging as a major problem in part due to high mortality associated with systemic infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients. (
  • With the development of new treatments for diseases such as cancer and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic, the number of immunosuppressed patients has increased and, as a consequence, also the number of invasive fungal infections has increased. (
  • However, there are still many challenges that prevent the clinical development of fungal vaccines that can efficiently immunise subjects at risk of developing invasive fungal infections. (
  • This review will cover how the immune system works against fungal infections, the importance of the development of new strategies, the efforts made and challenges that still need to be solved for the advance in this area of fungal vaccines. (
  • These cytokines promote the maturation of certain effector T-cells, which aid in the immune response to fungal infections. (
  • Patients with histoplasmosis or other invasive fungal infections may present with disseminated, rather than localized, disease. (
  • Specimens from patients with blastomycosis or other fungal infections were tested. (
  • She is an elected member of the American Society for Clinical Investigators (ASCI) and is known worldwide for her translational and clinical research focused on diagnostics and treatment of invasive fungal infections. (
  • Her research has led to establishment of a JHU start-up company, MycoMed Technologies, focused on development of devices and drugs to enable strategies to prevent fungal infections in medically immunosuppressed people. (
  • Marr, K.A. Fungal infections in oncology patients: update on epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. (
  • Can ADD medications like Adderall exacerbate fungal infections? (
  • I have read studies which indicate Amphetamines cause fungal infections in rats and yeast infections in Women. (
  • Empiric anti-fungal therapy should be considered in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections who develop severe systemic illness. (
  • Test fungal bacterial components and fungal antigens, which is a significant ways to diagnose fungal infection in modern clinics. (
  • Aspergillus fumigatus is a model fungal pathogen and a common cause of infection in individuals with the primary immunodeficiency chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). (
  • Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. (
  • Fungal foot infection, cellulitis and diabetes: a review. (
  • A common fungal infection. (
  • Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an important systemic fungal disease, particularly among individuals living and working in rural areas of endemicity in Latin America, who, without antifungal therapy, may develop fatal acute or chronic infection. (
  • The infection usually starts via the respiratory route except for sporotrichosis that rarely occurs by inhalation of fungal propagules, rather arising from surface injuries by fungus-contaminated objects or cat scratches ( 1 ). (
  • Randomized Comparative Study of Fluconazole Versus Clotrimazole Troches in the Prevention of Serious Fungal Infection in Patients With AIDS or Advanced AIDS-Related Complex. (
  • Eosinophils release their proinflammatory and cytotoxic granule proteins, and various chemokines in response to a fungal infection. (
  • Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. (
  • In this study we sought to determine whether, in an area with a moderate to high pneumococcal carriage rate in young adults, the BinaxNOW S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test detected asymptomatic pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization which would limit its utility as a diagnostic test for pneumococcal infection. (
  • Though cytokines and phagocyte, as host factors, have been shown to participate in defence against Aspergillus species yet the role of cysteine proteases, that is cathepsins, a lysosomal enzymes of phagocytes, remains unknown in fungal infection. (
  • Studies are available which shows that cytokines regulate the cysteine proteases processed immune molecules for their further action but their relationship with each other under fungal infection is not clear. (
  • Overall, the study reveals a correlation between cathepsins and cytokines and their regulatory role in fungal mediated infection. (
  • Nucci, M. Fungal infection prevention after hematopoietic cell transplantation. (
  • Marr, K. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: analysis of Multicenter Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. (
  • Candidiasis is a fungal infection that may cause localized or systemic disease. (
  • Finally, I realized that these were symptoms of fungal infection. (
  • I thought it obvious that all of this was caused by fungal infection. (
  • I do realize that these medications do not cause the fungal infection but rather seem to change the body's PH and delicate flora balance. (
  • I believe I have had this fungal infection for years. (
  • It could all be related to Diabetes and the systemic fungal infection. (
  • I run out of Fluconzole the day before I see the specialit, who should see the fungal infection in full bloom. (
  • He acknowledged that I had a fungal infection but failed to see the existing one because he was looking for thrush. (
  • Are you sure your patient has a disseminated fungal infection? (
  • Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi. (
  • Also, fungal pneumonia can be caused by reactivation of a latent infection. (
  • Creative Diagnostics is a leading manufacturer and supplier of antibodies, viral antigens, innovative diagnostic components and critical assay reagents. (
  • Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species. (
  • Novel mouse monoclonal antibodies specifically recognizing β-(1→3)-D-glucan antigen. (
  • The recent utilization of monoclonal antibodies in the development of antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis offers further scope for improvement in this area. (
  • When an antigen enters into a body, the immune system commences the production of antibodies in order to fight the invasive antigen. (
  • The B. dermatitidis antigen assay used rabbit antibodies to formalin-killed B. dermatitidis mold, prepared as described previously ( 13 ). (
  • For many strains of the parasite, part of this process requires that the erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175) of the merozoite binds to sialic acid residues of glycophorin A on the erythrocyte surface, a receptor-ligand interaction which represents a potential target for inhibition by antibodies. (
  • In a large population study in The Gambia, serum positivity for IgG or IgG1 and IgG3 subclass antibodies to each of the EBA-175 recombinant antigens was not significantly associated with subsequent protection from clinical malaria. (
  • The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies antibody, protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins. (
  • Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a treatment modality for fungi prior to the formal microbiological identification of the specific pathogen. (
  • In sum, RIT provides a mechanism for the targeted killing of drug susceptible or resistant fungi irrespective of the host immune status and may dramatically reduce the length of therapy currently required for many invasive fungal diseases. (
  • The curiosity established through all clinical mycolo- gists we contacted led us to extend the small unique assembly to a world symposium within which all elements of antigens of pathogenic and allergenic fungi and actinomycetes with regards to guy, animals, or even vegetation will be mentioned. (
  • For instance, uncommon presentations of diseases with the pathogenic fungi, such as chronic cavitary histoplasmosis, coccidioidal empyema, and cryptococcal pneumonia are often difficult to diagnose with present techniques, and the detection of fungal antigens may prove to be more sensitive. (
  • Primary fungal laryngitis is commonly attributable to yeasts such as Candida , and Cryptococcus or fungi are known to cause endemic mycoses like Blastomyces, Paracoccidioides, and Coccidioides . (
  • A common misconception is that only immunotherapy for those fungi identified by culture from allergic fungal mucin should be included in the testing/treatment regimen for a patient. (
  • Conversely, the presence of fungi on culture of sinus contents does not confirm the diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS). (
  • Eosinophils are activated by recognizing certain antigens present in fungi, such as β-glucan. (
  • Eosinophils can phagocytose fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and present antigens to other immune cells. (
  • This leads primarily to superficial disease but may also result in invasive fungal disease. (
  • Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens. (
  • To improve the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), we retrospectively compared competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sandwich ELISA for detection of serum galactomannan (GM) antigen. (
  • In the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis both fungal and host factors play roles. (
  • Using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a putative catechol oxidase secreted by hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani , we show that bias due to retention of the antigen in soil is substantially greater than bias due to interference. (
  • Nosanchuk, JD & Dadachova, E 2012, ' Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal cell surface antigens ', Frontiers in Microbiology , vol. 2, no. (
  • Methodology has been based either around antibody or antigen detection, although there is clear overlap between the two. (
  • Antibody-based detection systems for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and penicilliosis marneffei have now begun to incorporate a range of highly purified and well-characterized antigens, in contrast to the situation of a few years ago when relatively crude preparations derived from either whole cells or culture filtrate were used. (
  • The application of such antigens offers improvements in reproducibility and specificity, although the detection of meaningful antibody responses in immunosuppressed individuals remains a problem. (
  • An antigen is a foreign molecule that, when introduced into the body, triggers the production of an antibody by the immune system. (
  • At the molecular level, an antigen is characterized by its ability to be "bound" at the antigen-binding site of an antibody. (
  • This reaction can at times be vigorous, depending upon the resistivity of the antibody and virulency of the antigen. (
  • Specific site on an antigen to which an antibody binds. (
  • Antigen that bound to the antibody-coated wells was detected with biotinylated anti- B. dermatitidis immunoglobulin G. The cutoff for positivity was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, evaluating urine specimens from patients with blastomycosis versus those from healthy volunteers. (
  • To investigate sensitisation against food antigen, mice were intragastrically administered with ovalbumin every other day for nine weeks, and antiovalbumin antibody titres were measured weekly. (
  • Weakly positive cross reactions (0.5-1.5 units) may occur in the Aspergillus galactomannan assay in serum from patients with cryptococcosis with concentrations of cryptococcal antigen >1: 512. (
  • The detection of soluble fungal antigens in bodily fluids such as serum, pleural fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid may substantially improve the ability to diagnose fungal respiratory diseases. (
  • Preliminary data holds promise for the noninvasive diagnosis of deep-seated candidiasis (including pneumonia) and pulmonary aspergillosis by the detection of fungal antigens in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. (
  • One hundred five asthmatic subjects and 26 volunteers underwent skin testing with aeroallergens, including Aspergillus, serum precipitins against Aspergillus antigens, and specific IgG against Aspergillus fumigatus, total serum IgE levels, and routine blood and radiologic investigations. (
  • Although culture is the standard method for definitive diagnosis, detection of cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is used for presumptive diagnosis. (
  • He extensively studied the serum of fungal antigens such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin-B, fluorocytosin, and itraconazole which helped standardize the medical dosage and treatments for patients. (
  • Even less cross-reactivity occurs between the galactomannan antigens detected in histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or coccidioidomycosis and the Aspergillus galactomannan, and the true positive result is higher than the cross reaction. (
  • Sensitization to Aspergillus antigens and occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with asthma. (
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which is predominantly a disease of asthmatic subjects, is caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus antigens. (
  • We sought to determine the frequency of sensitization to Aspergillus antigens in asthmatic subjects and its effect on disease severity. (
  • Thirty patients (28.5%) had a positive skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigens. (
  • None of the control subjects were sensitized to Aspergillus antigens. (
  • Septate hyphae were observed on histopathology of the laryngeal lesion, which was further confirmed as Aspergillus fumigatus after extraction of fungal DNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPET) and sequencing. (
  • Control subjects with aspergillosis included patients who were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol to evaluate antigen detection for diagnosis in patients with positive Aspergillus galactomannan antigenemia as identified during clinical testing. (
  • Marr, K.A. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. (
  • Fungal colonization with Aspergillus worsens excercise tolerance in HP patients, whereas Candida doesn't impact on HP. (
  • However, in the immunocompetent individuals (probably with genetic susceptibility), it can cause an allergic disorder, called allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which is different from other hypersen-sitivity responses to inhaled allergens in that the A. fumigatus spores grow in the respiratory tract and continually shed soluble and particulate antigens and allergens in the large subsegmental bronchi. (
  • Cross-reactive antigen was detected for a single patient with cryptococcal meningitis (4.23 U) and another with aspergillosis (1.85 U) but was not detected for those with candidiasis or coccidioidomycosis or for healthy volunteers. (
  • Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. (
  • Complete cross-reactivity occurs in the Histoplasma and Blastomyces galactomannan antigen assays in specimens from patients with histoplasmosis or blastomycosis (table). (
  • Lesser cross-reactivity occurs between these galactomannan antigens and Coccidioides antigen, which is a different class of galactomannan. (
  • The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the use of the BDG in combination with the galactomannan antigen (GAL) assay in order to exclude or confirm suspected IFIs. (
  • A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides), fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan), and cell wall components (β-D glucan) were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. (
  • This paper describes methods to improve the use of immunoassays for quantification of soilborne fungal antigens. (
  • Partly as a consequence of this a great deal of attention has focused on the development of antigen detection assays, and such methods have proved particularly successful, as for instance in the serodiagnosis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. (
  • Cross-reactive antigen was detected in the urine from 96.3% of patients with histoplasmosis, all patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, and 7 of 10 patients with penicilliosis marneffei. (
  • The cases included a wide range of mycoses such as candidiasis, histoplasmosis, African blastomycosis, mycetoma, fungal arthritis, and newly discovered cases of cutaneous, ocular and osteoarticular manifestations of candidiasis in young heroin addicts. (
  • 3 years in the past while Professor Garry Cole visited our Mycology unit on the Pasteur Institute we mentioned the potential for organizing a small foreign Symposium on "Isolation, Purification and Detection of Fungal Antigens" constrained to eight American/Canadian scientists and to eight French individuals. (
  • This new report, titled One Health: Fungal Pathogens of Humans, Animals, and Plants , highlights the remarkable advances in the field and provides updated recommendations to address scientific and public health challenges in the new environment. (
  • In addition, better understanding of how the immune system works against fungal pathogens has improved the further development of these new vaccination strategies. (
  • In recent years, several studies in the field of medical mycology have been focused on the development of new vaccines against fungal pathogens. (
  • Eosinophils phagocytose invading pathogens, allowing them to present pathogenic antigens to other cells. (
  • In clinical evaluations, pathogens of more than 200 bacterial and 65 fungal genera have been identified so far. (
  • Prior to Drouhet's influence, Institut Pasteur mainly studied fungal pathogens on botany. (
  • Since then, Drouhet had opened up the field to include human and animal fungal pathogens as well. (
  • We identify two sources of bias, retention of the antigen in soil due to bonding and interference of soluble soil components in plate-trapped-antigen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (
  • Possible mechanisms for the effect due to Cu 2+ and the implications for the design and use of calibration curves for assays involving quantification of fungal antigens in soil are discussed. (
  • Does Cross-Reactivity Occur in Fungal Antigen Assays? (
  • For example, in coccidioidomycosis cases the Coccidioides antigen may be 4.2 ng/mL while the Histoplasma cross reaction is 0.4 ng/ml. (
  • or = 4-fold titer rise in complement fixation between acute and convalescent sera, or positive urinary Histoplasma capsulatum (HC) antigen. (
  • Cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to fungal antigens in guinea pigs. (
  • In order to avoid such vigorous reactions, or high degree of hypersensitivity the antigen skin tests are conducted. (
  • Thus, antigen skin tests are in demand, as one can easily measure the degree of hypersensitivity during an attack by an antigen. (
  • Fungal antigens sensibilization is a known cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). (
  • Abstract β-(1→3)-D-Glucan is an essential component of the fungal cell wall. (
  • Moreover, testing aflatoxin in food and soluble antigen of sporothrix patients are early, rapid and specific method to diagnose antigens. (
  • In 1978, Drouhet published a textbook called "Fungal Antigens - Isolation, Purification and Detection" which was conceived after a symposium on fungal antigens. (
  • Host defense mechanisms rely on the capacity of professional phagocytes to recognize Candida cell wall antigens. (
  • Antigen was detected in the urine of 92.9% of patients with blastomycosis, including 25 of 28 with disseminated blastomycosis (89.3%) and all 14 cases of pulmonary blastomycosis (100%) (Table 1 ). (
  • Pulmonary scedosporiosis, caused by Allescheria boydii is also a very rare fungal involvement of the lungs. (
  • As immunological testing technology advances, the application area of fungal antigens test are widening. (
  • However, long-lasting antifungal protection and disease control were successfully achieved upon vaccination with purified fungal antigens that activated CD4(+) T cells through the endosome/lysosome pathway. (
  • The data illustrate that the reduction in fungal load in both organs probably results in a decreased local inflammatory response, as measured by decreased levels of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 and increased level of interferon gamma in the antifungal compounds treated mice. (
  • Fungal pneumonia can be treated with antifungal drugs and sometimes by surgical debridement. (
  • These findings support a potential role for antigen testing in blastomycosis. (
  • In this report, we assess the feasibility of antigen detection for diagnosis of blastomycosis. (
  • First, use ELISA or Latex agglutination to test mannan antigens which exist in yeast cell wall. (
  • Third, capsular polysaccharide antigen of Cryptococcus neoformans can be tested through latex agglutination test or ELISA. (
  • Forth, enolase of molecular weight 48kD can be detected by ELISA kits and WB, which is beneficial to test antigen with candida specificity. (
  • BALB/c mice were immunized with cScp and hybridomas were screened against the cScp using an antigen-mediated indirect ELISA. (
  • MAb reactivity to spore and hyphal antigens was also tested by a capture ELISA and by fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). (
  • The inh-ELISA detected circulating antigen in 100% of patients with the acute form of PCM and in 95.31 and 100% of patients with the chronic multifocal and unifocal forms of PCM according to the patient's clinical presentation. (
  • Deagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring by the Detection of Candida Antigen, .BETA. (
  • If the antigens are detected in cerebrospinal fluid, it can be diagnosed as cryptococcus encephalitis. (
  • Calibration curves, prepared by diluting known quantities of an antigen into soil extracts and into soil, were described by a four-parameter logistic curve from which two principal criteria, the lower detection limit and the horizontal locational parameter, were used to summarize the sensitivity and bias of an immuno-assay. (
  • Given the need for data for a rapid, point-of-care cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA), we assessed diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CRAG latex agglutination, India ink microscopy, and CRAG LFA for 832 HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis during 2006-2009 (n = 299) in Uganda and during 2010-2012 (n = 533) in Uganda and South Africa. (
  • Edouard Drouhet (June 18, 1919 - January 1, 2000) was a physician, biologist, and medical mycologist who played a key role in understanding how anti-fungal agents such as ketoconazole and amphotericin-B can be used as therapeutic treatments in humans with superficial or deep-seated mycoses. (
  • Case mortality in fungal pneumonias can be as high as 90% in immunocompromised patients, though immunocompetent patients generally respond well to anti-fungal therapy. (
  • Gabriel Segretain and Edouard Drouhet co-founded ISHAM which is a community for clinical scientists and researchers interested in fungal ailments and fungus-like diseases. (
  • There is an especially urgent need for sensitive, reliable, commercially available tests for the diagnosis of opportunistic fungal pneumonias that occur in immunocompromised hosts. (
  • Antigens when incorporated into a human body can have varied effects depending upon the reactivity of the antigen with the human immune system. (
  • All six monkeys immunized with PfCSP DNA, seven of nine immunized with PfSSP2 DNA, and five of six immunized with PfExp-1 or PfLSA-1 DNA had detectable antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) after in vitro restimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (
  • Candida albicans is an ubiquitous fungal commensal of human skin and mucosal surfaces, and at the same time a major life-threatening human fungal pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. (
  • If this high rate of colonization translates to the presence of antigen in the urine it may limit the diagnostic utility of the BinaxNOW test in certain populations. (
  • Identification of the immunodominant peptides of the MART-1 human melanoma antigen recognized by the majority of HLA-A2-restricted tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. (
  • To enhance the diagnostic capability of carbohydrate antigen 125 in cardiac problems, a recent report showed that coinvestigating for copeptin level is useful. (
  • Pathologists who are less experienced with morphological identification of fungal organisms may not achieve these levels of sensitivity. (
  • 30 mm in diameter occurring 24-48 h after an injection) are said to be more common when administering immunotherapy for molds than for other antigens, this has not been the reported experience in treating patients with allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS). (
  • On the basis of experience, administration of immunotherapy to patients with allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is currently recommended for the same duration as that recommended for patients with allergies in general, ie, 3-5 years. (
  • Carbohydrate antigen 125 might increase in some patients with heart failure 4 but it can also increase in several conditions in women, such as ovarian tumors and endometriosis. (
  • As a result, some fungal vaccines have advanced through clinical trials. (
  • Nevertheless, the role of fungal colonization in respiratory tract on clinics and prognosis of HP is still unclear. (
  • An immunogen is able to induce an immune response, whereas an antigen is able to combine with the products of an immune response once they are made. (
  • Any antigen that is a phosphorylated microbial metabolite which activates an immune response in humans. (
  • To assess the influense of fungal colonization on excercise tolerance in HP. (

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