Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Mice, Inbred C57BLSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD1d: A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD27: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred CBAHLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HemocyaninCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)

Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus. (1/1360)

Indoor cultivation of oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus lead to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores, being aware of their pathogenicity.  (+info)

Variants of a Cryptococcus neoformans strain elicit different inflammatory responses in mice. (2/1360)

The virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with high and low extracellular proteolytic activity was investigated in mice. No consistent relationship between proteolytic activity and virulence was observed, but isolates derived from one strain were shown to elicit different inflammatory responses.  (+info)

Detection of cell wall mannoprotein Mp1p in culture supernatants of Penicillium marneffei and in sera of penicilliosis patients. (3/1360)

Mannoproteins are important and abundant structural components of fungal cell walls. The MP1 gene encodes a cell wall mannoprotein of the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei. In the present study, we show that Mp1p is secreted into the cell culture supernatant at a level that can be detected by Western blotting. A sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed with antibodies against Mp1p was capable of detecting this protein from the cell culture supernatant of P. marneffei at 10(4) cells/ml. The anti-Mp1p antibody is specific since it fails to react with any protein-form lysates of Candida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum, or Cryptococcus neoformans by Western blotting. In addition, this Mp1p antigen-based ELISA is also specific for P. marneffei since the cell culture supernatants of the other three fungi gave negative results. Finally, a clinical evaluation of sera from penicilliosis patients indicates that 17 of 26 (65%) patients are Mp1p antigen test positive. Furthermore, a Mp1p antibody test was performed with these serum specimens. The combined antibody and antigen tests for P. marneffei carry a sensitive of 88% (23 of 26), with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 96%. The specificities of the tests are high since none of the 85 control sera was positive by either test.  (+info)

Aspergillus meningitis: diagnosis by non-culture-based microbiological methods and management. (4/1360)

The performance of antibody detection, antigen detection, and Aspergillus genus-specific PCR for diagnosing Aspergillus meningitis was investigated with 26 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a single patient with proven infection caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against Aspergillus were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in CSF or serum. The antigen galactomannan was detected in the CSF 45 days before a culture became positive, and Aspergillus DNA was detected 4 days prior to culture. Decline of the galactomannan antigen titer in the CSF during treatment with intravenous and intraventricular amphotericin B and intravenous voriconazole corresponded with the clinical response to treatment.  (+info)

Production of specific monoclonal antibodies to Aspergillus species and their use in immunohistochemical identification of aspergillosis. (5/1360)

Two anti-Aspergillus murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), designated 164G and 611F, have been produced; both specifically recognize cytoplasmic antigens of A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MAbs can identify Aspergillus spp. both in frozen sections by immunofluorescence and in paraffin-embedded clinical specimens by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase staining.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of the M antigen of Histoplasma capsulatum. (6/1360)

The major diagnostic antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum are the H and M antigens, pluripotent glycoproteins that elicit both humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses. These antigens may play a role in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. M antigen is considered immunodominant because antibodies against it are the first precipitins to arise in acute histoplasmosis and are commonly present during all phases of infection. The biological activity of monomolecular M antigen and its ability to elicit a protective immune response to H. capsulatum are largely unknown. A molecular approach was used to identify the biological nature of M antigen, including its purification from histoplasmin, partial digestion with proteinases, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to separate the released peptides. The amino acid sequences of the purified peptides were obtained by Edman degradation, and using degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR, a 321-bp fragment of the gene encoding the M antigen was amplified from genomic H. capsulatum DNA. This fragment was used to screen an H. capsulatum genomic DNA library, leading to the isolation, cloning, and sequencing of the full-length gene. The M gene consists of 2, 187-bp DNA encoding a protein of 80,719 Da, which has significant homology to catalases from Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Eimericella nidulans. A cDNA was generated by reverse transcription-PCR and cloned into the expression vector pQE40. The identity of the cloned, expressed protein was confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant fusion protein was immunoreactive with monoclonal antibodies raised against M antigen, with polyclonal mouse anti-M antiserum, and with a serum sample from a patient with histoplasmosis. The gene encoding the major immunodominant M antigen of H. capsulatum is a presumptive catalase, and the recombinant protein retains serodiagnostic activity.  (+info)

Two-dimensional electrophoresis of Malassezia allergens for atopic dermatitis and isolation of Mal f 4 homologs with mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. (7/1360)

The yeast Malassezia furfur is a natural inhabitant of the human skin microflora that induces an allergic reaction in atopic dermatitis. To identify allergens of M. furfur, we separated a crude preparation of M. furfur antigens as discrete spots by 2-D PAGE and detected IgE-binding proteins using sera of atopic dermatitis patients. We identified the known allergens, Mal f 2 and Mal f 3, and determined N-terminal amino acid sequences of six new IgE-binding proteins including Mal f 4. The cDNA and genomic DNA encoding Mal f 4 were cloned and sequenced. The gene was mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase and encoded Mal f 4 composed of 315 amino acids and a signal sequence of 27 amino acids. We purified Mal f 4, which had a molecular mass of 35 kDa from a membrane fraction of a lysate of cultured cells. Thirty of 36 M. furfur-allergic atopic dermatitis patients (83.3%) had elevated serum levels of IgE to purified Mal f 4, indicating that Mal f 4 is a major allergen. There was a significant correlation of the Phadebas RAST unit values of Mal f 4 and the crude antigen, but not between Mal f 4 and the known allergen Mal f 2.  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. (8/1360)

Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (> or = 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (< or = 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis.  (+info)

*Edouard Drouhet

"Fungal Antigens - Isolation, Purification and Detection" which was conceived after a symposium on fungal antigens. The book ... He extensively studied the serum of fungal antigens such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin-B, fluorocytosin, and ... Fungal Antigens: Isolation, Purification, and Detection. Springer Science & Business Media. Drouhet, E., & Dupont, B. (1990). ... Towards the end of his career, he was able to publish and share his identification of a new thermally dimorphic fungal species ...

*Coccidioidomycosis

An indirect demonstration of fungal infection can be achieved also by serologic analysis detecting fungal antigen or host IgM ... The fungal infection can be demonstrated by microscopic detection of diagnostic cells in body fluids, exudates, sputum and ... "CDC". Fungal diseases: valley fever. CDC. July 20, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2015. Hector, Richard F.; Rutherford, George W ... Those with severe symptoms may benefit from anti-fungal therapy, which usually requires 3-6 months of treatment. There is a ...

*Occupational hazards of human nail dust

It has been suggested that absorption of trichophyton fungal antigens can give rise to immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody ... of the population has allergic antibodies to fungal antigens, and half of them, that is 5% of the population, would be ... Trichophyton rubrum is the most common fungal cause of nail dystrophy. Studies conducted in England found that the prevalence ... There have been numerous accounts of patients with trichophyton fungal infections and associated asthma, which further ...

*Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Precipitating IgG antibodies against fungal or avian antigens can be detected in the laboratory using the traditional ... In the acute form of HP, symptoms may develop 4-6 hours following heavy exposure to the provoking antigen. Symptoms include ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis may also be called many different names, based on the provoking antigen. These include: Of these ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis involves inhalation of an antigen. This leads to an exaggerated immune response (hypersensitivity ...

*Clonal anergy

... is used with seven antigens of bacterial or fungal origin (tetanus toxoid, tuberculin, diphtheria, streptococcus, candida, ... Thus when an antigen is properly presented to the T lymphocytes by an antigen presenting cell (APC), which displays the antigen ... However, when T cells interacts with an antigen not presented by the APCs, that is very probably not the antigen that an immune ... usually a self-antigen. Lymphocytes are said to be anergic when they fail to respond to their specific antigen. Anergy is one ...

*IL17A

"Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes ... Antigen specific Th17 cells were also shown to recognize conserved protein antigens among different K. pneumoniae strains and ... In fungal infection, it has been shown an IL-17 producing clone with a TCR specific for calnexin from Blastomyces dermatitidis ... Antigen specific CD4 T cells also limit nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae in mouse models. Furthermore, immunization ...

*Fungal pneumonia

Supplementing these classical methods is the detection of antigens. This technique is significantly faster but can be less ... though immunocompetent patients generally respond well to anti-fungal therapy. Specific instances of fungal infections that can ... Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi. It can be caused by either endemic or opportunistic fungi or a ... Fungal pneumonia can be diagnosed in a number of ways. The simplest and cheapest method is to culture the fungus from a ...

*Cord blood bank

... known as their human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types. Bone marrow transplants require a complete match on six key antigens, which ... and bacterial and fungal growth. After the collection, the cord blood unit is shipped to the lab and processed, and then ... It will also be examined for nucleated cell count, cell viability, blood group antigen ABO & Rh blood group system, molecule ... and tissue typing to determine Human Leukocyte Antigen type. ...

*Glossary of phytopathology

Fungi Imperfecti) diagnostic antigen diploid Diploid (2x) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome, usually one from ... It is distinguished from a stroma in not having a peridium or covering of fungal tissue of any kind. acid precipitation acid ... anastomoses) anthracnoes antibiotic antibody antigen antiseptic apothecium The apothecium is an open, cuplike, or saucer-shaped ... sexual fungal fruiting body (ascocarp) containing asci. antiseptic appressorium (pl. appressoria) arbuscular mycorrhiza (abbr. ...

*Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

2007). Immunology of fungal infections (Online-Ausg. ed.). Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 5-148. ISBN 978-1-4020-5492-1. Moss, RB ( ... The first stage involves exposing the skin to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens; an immediate reaction is hallmark of ABPA. The ... Left untreated, the immune system and fungal spores can damage sensitive lung tissues and lead to scarring. The exact criteria ... The antifungal aspect aims to reduce fungal causes of bronchial inflammation, whilst also minimising the dose of corticosteroid ...

*Sporothrix schenckii

A skin test uses an antigen generated from laboratory grown S. schenckii to challenge the patient's immune system. The antigen ... 6] Fungal Molecular Diagnostics Hu S, Chung WH, Hung SI, et al. (April 2003). "Detection of Sporothrix schenckii in clinical ... The specific antigen used in skin testing is not standardized with multiple studies being conducted with widely varying ... In addition, the term "sporotrichin" does not indicate a specific molecule but only any antigen derived from S. schenckii. ...

*WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease in Children

... virological or p24 antigen positive test if aged under 18 months. Asymptomatic Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy ... pruritic eruptions Seborrhoeic dermatitis Extensive human papilloma virus infection Extensive molluscum contagiosum Fungal nail ...

*Haemonchus contortus

These fungal lectins are Corprinopsis cinerea lectins - CCL2, CGL2; Aleuria aurantia lectin - AAL; and Marasmius oreades ... Some of these glycan structures might represent antigens which are not exposed to host immune system, and thus have potential ... "Inhibition of Haemonchus contortus larval development by fungal lectins." Parasites & Vectors, BioMed Central, 19 Aug. 2015, ...

*Index of biochemistry articles

CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... fungal protein - fungi - fusion oncogene protein - G protein - G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ...

*Neutropenia

Observations of pediatric patients have noted that fungal infections are more likely to develop in patients with neutropenia. ... the sensitization to self-antigens The pathophysiology of neutropenia can be divided into congenital and acquired. In ... These are:[citation needed] Bacterial or fungal sepsis Necrotizing enterocolitis, circulating neutrophil population depleted ... is due to anti-neutrophil antibodies that target neutrophil-specific antigens, ultimately altering neutrophil function.. ...

*Cryptococcus gattii

Cryptococcal antigen testing from serum or CSF is a useful preliminary test for Cryptococcal infection, and has high ... Medical treatment consists of prolonged intravenous therapy (for 6-8 weeks or longer) with the anti-fungal drug Amphotericin B ... sent his daughter Elan to obtain and culture fungal samples in the greater Los Angeles area; one of these turned out to be C. ... Fungal genetics and biology: FG & B. 78: 16-48. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2015.02.009. ISSN 1096-0937. PMID 25721988. Deborah J. ...

*CD25 deficiency

One case also reported the absence of CD1, a MHC-like glycoprotein involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells, ... In addition to IPEX-like symptoms, CD25 deficiency increases susceptibility to viral infections and possibly fungal and ...

*Berylliosis

The HLA-DPB1 gene is important for MHC class II molecule function on antigen presenting cells. According to the International ... The differential diagnosis for berylliosis includes: Sarcoidosis Granulomatous lung diseases Tuberculosis Fungal infections ...

*Cladophialophora carrionii

... because the ability to produce antibodies against fungal proteins is critical in minimizing fungal pathogenicity and C. ... Even if an individual is immunocompetent, they may be at risk if they carry the HLA-A29 antigen, since its presence may ... Liu, Dongyou (2011). Molecular Detection of Human Fungal Pathogens. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439812402. Reiss, Errol; Shadomy, H. ... carrionii contributes to pathogenicity because it strengthens the fungal cell wall and can neutralize the enzymes produced in ...

*Computational Resource for Drug Discovery

of an antigen with additional information such as B and T-cell epitopes, MHC binding, function, gene-expression and post ... bacterial and fungal), antibodies against them, proposed epitopes, structural detail, proposed functions, assay system, cross- ... These antigens come from 44 important pathogenic species. In AntigenDB, a database entry contains information regarding the ... Ansari, H. R.; Flower, D. R.; Raghava, G. P. S. (2009). "AntigenDB: an immunoinformatics database of pathogen antigens". ...

*Granuloma

The antigen causing the formation of a granuloma is most often an infectious pathogen or a substance foreign to the body, but ... For example, granulomas with numerous eosinophils may be a clue to coccidioidomycosis or allergic bronchopulmonary fungal ... These changes are thought to be a consequence of "activation" of the macrophage by the offending antigen. The other key term in ... the difference between granulomas and other types of inflammation is that granulomas form in response to antigens that are ...

*White dot syndromes

Usually, the dendritic cells disappear after removing the antigen. If removal did not occur, the formation of a granuloma would ... Suspected causes for AZOOR include autoimmune, viral, and fungal. Multifocal Choroiditis (MPC) occurs mainly in myopic females ... The formation of a granuloma occurs when activated antigen presenting cells, specifically dendritic cells, "bind to T cells and ... Theories regarding the cause include an exogenous pathogen sensitizing an individual to antigens within photoreceptors, RPE, or ...

*Efalizumab

... binds to the CD11a subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and acts as an immunosuppressant by ... Known side effects include bacterial sepsis, viral meningitis, invasive fungal disease and progressive multifocal ...

*Tomatine

Other fungal species hydrolyze tomatine to the less toxic aglycon tomatidine by removing all the sugar residues. Tomatidine can ... Also, tomatine is known to be an immune adjuvant in connection with certain protein antigens. Studies showed that the molecule ... Fungal tomatinase enzymes can transform tomatine to deactivate it. Detoxification can take place by removing one glucose ... Although, tomatine inhibits also the fungal types Ph. infestans and Py. aphanidermatum which do not have any sterols in their ...

*Chaetomium globosum

Hyphal growth increases the diameter of the fungal colony which is often a parameter for fungal growth. According to Domsch et ... Both the C. globosum hyphae and the spores contain antigens such as Chg45, to induce IgE and IgG antibody production in ... Chlorate, toxic to many fungal strains, disrupts nitrate reduction in fungi by using fungal nitrate reductase to produce the ... Like many fungal species, C. globosum obtains their energy from carbon sources such as glucose, mannitol and fructose. Fructose ...

*Histoplasma capsulatum

Global fungal diseases > Preventing Deaths from Histoplasmosis. Untereiner, W.A.; Scott, J.A.; Naveau, F.A.; Bachewich, J. ( ... In some areas, such as Kansas City, skin testing with the histoplasmin antigen preparation shows that 80-90 % of the resident ... Erythematous skin conditions arising from antigen reactions may complicate the disease, as may myalgias, arthralgias, and ... "Phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum". Molecular Ecology. 12 (12): 3383-401. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x. ...
BackgroundAn experimental approach for improving vaccine efficacy involves targeting antigens to mannose receptors (MRs) on dendritic cells (DCs) and other professional antigen presenting cells. Previously, we demonstrated that mannosylated Pichia pastoris-derived recombinant proteins exhibited increased immunogenicity compared to proteins lacking mannosylation. In order to gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this observation, the present study examined the cellular uptake of the mannosylated and deglycosylated recombinant proteins.Methodology/Principal FindingsUtilizing transfected cell lines, roles for the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) in the recognition of the mannosylated, but not deglycosylated, antigens were demonstrated. The uptake of mannosylated antigens into murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) was inhibited by yeast mannans (YMs), suggesting a mannose-specific C-type lectin receptor-dependent process, while the uptake of deglycosylated antigens
Background. Fungal antigens sensibilization is a known cause of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Nevertheless, the role of fungal colonization in respiratory tract on clinics and prognosis of HP is still unclear.. Aim. To assess the influense of fungal colonization on excercise tolerance in HP.. Methods. 79 pts with morphologically proven HP were enrolled. Mean age 48,8 yrs, males 33. In all cases during work-up BAL was performed with PCR test on DNA of Aspergillus and Candida fungi, as also as PFT and 6MWT. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.. Results. Fungi were detected in 21/79 (27%) pts. The were no difference between PCR-positive and negative groups for Aspergillus in PFT, but there was significant difference for sPO2 before and after 6MWT (94,1 and 90 %; 91 and 88% respectively, p,0.05), as also as more prominent fatigue on Borg scale (2,9 and 3,9; 5,3 and 6,5 points, respectively p,0.05). There was a trend to lower walking distance in PCR-positive patients vs controls (380 and ...
neck pimple - MedHelps neck pimple Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for neck pimple. Find neck pimple information, treatments for neck pimple and neck pimple symptoms.
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Using them is embarrassing in addition to painful while obtaining pimples is a normal skin ailment which affects us all at one time or another. However, before you explore techniques to eliminate pimples, it is important that you be aware of the physiology. For many people, pimples are not anything more than a manifestation of skin irritation that results in a disease of the oil.. The glands begin to produce and become irritated. This oil seals bacteria found on the skin and results in the pus production and the disease. This is exactly what causes the actual area on the skin.. Although the majority of folks feel that using vigorous cleansing, chemicals and physician supervised skin peels and laser treatments would be the ideal approach to treat pimples the issue aggravate and make things worse. So below are a few great remedies which could help you to get rid of pimples and painlessly. ...
Learn the best cures for pimples. Step by step guide for treating and preventing pimples. Find the best pimple cure for you. Information on acne and skin problems. Pimple cures and pimple treatment
Candidiasis is a fungal infection that may cause localized or systemic disease. The severity of infection is broad extending to life threatening. Acute and convalescent titers should be compared.
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
FCAND : Draw blood in a plain red-top tube(s), serum gel tube(s) is acceptable. Spin down and send 0.5 mL of serum refrigerated in a plastic vial.
16 yrs old Male asked about Pimples pimples, 1 doctor answered this and 73 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
What are Vaginal Pimples? Vaginal pimples are similar to face pimples or pimples anywhere else on the body. However, they are quite painful and stinging.
Pimple Patrol. Youve had em growing up. Youve probably had one or two last week.. A pimple, zit, blemish, whitehead, blackhead, cyst, or other piece of acne on your face, shoulders, back, or butt. Sometimes its due to a nasty ingrown hair, sometimes its just because your skin is a zit factory.. But did you know that some doctors say that POPPING YOUR ZITS CAN BE GOOD FOR YOU?. Laura Cooksey, an aesthetician at a California acne clinic says that "pimple popping offers instant gratification. People find it pleasurable the way that having your legs waxed is pleasurable. It can be uncomfortable and sort of nasty - weve all been grossed out when the pus hits the mirror - but youre doing something that can help you toward your goal of clearer skin." And Dr. James Fulton from the American Academy of Dermatology says that popping zits "…definitely can be helpful… as long as you know the right way to do it.". Which is why Web Watch would like to share these FIVE TIPS ON THE PROPER WAY TO POP A ...
If you get pimples do you know what causes them? Have you any idea how to get rid of pimples? In most general terms a pimple is simply a raised red bump on your skin caused by a bacterial infection. It is the most noticeable symptom...
Popping a pimple? Do you know the risks? How it can harm your skin and turn to a permanent scar? There are multiple ways other than popping to treat a pimple safely. You can also treat a pus filled pimple instantly in a safe way, without popping it.
How to Pop a Pimple. It is rarely a good idea to pop pimples, since doing so can cause scars or worsen your breakout. If you must pop a pimple, the best way to prevent damage is to use a needle. Alternatively, applying a wet rag can gently...
If you cannot, simply cannot resist the urge to pop a pimple (which is a common dilemma of most victims), then wash your hands first; gently squeeze the top of pimple using a swab of cotton or tissue. Clean the area properly after you are done. If the pus does not come out while squeezing, leave the pimple alone. It is not ready to pop ...
Pimples vs Acne A pimple emerges due to a specific blockage in the skin pores. It is more or less like a skin lesion taking a rounded bumpy shape. Sebaceous
You can get rid of a pimple quickly by removing the oil and bacteria in the pimple. All you need is a washcloth, warm water, a cotton swab and...
The terms zit and pimple are used interchangeably and have the same meaning, which means there is not a difference between the two terms. According to Teen Health, the word pimple is used to describe...
How to Stop or Cure Pimples. Zits, spots, pimples... call them what you will, but they are an unfortunate skin problem that most people have to deal with at some point in their lives. Luckily, there are many, many options when it comes to...
Are pimples(acne) robbing your peace? Well, that will not happen anymore. Know how to get rid of pimples overnight by following these best natural remedies
Buy Alba Botanica Fast Fix For A Pimple - .25 oz at the lowest price from eVitamins. Find Fast Fix For A Pimple reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins.
An eye pimple is a pus-filled bump on the eyelid. The most important thing to remember when treating an eye pimple is to never...
This is my favorite product out of the 4. It has changed my skin! I have not broken out in a single pimple since after the first week of using this product. I did get 2 small pimples after the first few days but were gone 3 days after they appeared and that was that. They may have already been below my skin before my treatment started. So anyways, before I would always have at least 1 pimple on my face at all times, usually 2 or 3. If I was super lucky, I could go a week pimple free, tops. As I type up this review, I have used these products for 4 full weeks and I have not had a pimple for 3. Even my most problematic areas are acne free. My skin now is very smooth ...
Blind pimples refer to acne that develops beneath the skins surface. Its typically caused by a cyst or nodule. Heres how to speed up the healing process.
Wondering how to get rid of bind pimples naturally and fast? Here are some very simple and effective ways to deal with these little lurking monsters.
Im 18 and male and i get chafe quite often and ive found that right on the spot where i get chafe on one side, there is a large underskin pimple and when i tried to pop it a bit of puss came out but now it is still the same size and quite
Pimples can be formed at the hands of not only the child, is considered by many people: suffering from this and adults. Most often they occur in representatives
While its best to leave extraction to pros, all hope is not lost if you picket at a pimple. Use these scar revisions that pros recommend.
They Never Fail!: A great temporary solution to get rid of a pimple quickly is to camouflage it by minimizing its appearance to avoid making it noticeable. Here are tips to cleverly hide it.
i am 18 years old and 18 weeks pregnate i have pimples around my niples and white clumpy discharge coming out of my niples when i squeze them what is it and what can i do to prevent it?
26 yrs old Male asked about Pimple eruptionon back, 1 doctor answered this and 75 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
I used all three of these products altogether, and I felt like they did help my pimples, as while I was using the products, I did notice an improvement in my skin, and my pimple flare-ups lessened. But then again, as previously mentioned, Im quite partial to Eucerin for skincare. I do think that the Eucerin DemoPurifyer range is good as a basic, no-frills, and no-nonsense selection of products to use on a daily basis if you have skin thats suscceptible to spots and oiliness ...
Your bodys biggest organ can predict all kinds of scary diseases months before youd spot them otherwise. Find out when a pimples just a pimple, and when...
Your bodys biggest organ can predict all kinds of scary diseases months before youd spot them otherwise. Find out when a pimples just a pimple, and when...
What is it? The aging eye can be affected in many different ways. One of them being the formation of a cataract or clouding of the normal human crystalline lens. The other common age related change affecting the eye is called age related macular degeneration (AMD). This condition usually affects people in the 6th or 7th decade of life, but may occur in the younger population.. This condition affects the area at the back of the eye, responsible for the central part of the vision, the macula (see "Eye anatomy"). Degeneration, or breakdown of this part of the retina causes loss of central vision, and is one of the most common causes of legal blindness in South Africa, and the world. Most patients retain some form of peripheral vision, but overall prognosis in late / advanced AMD can be very poor.. What is "DRY" and "WET" AMD? Dry AMD is the more common form and is also referred to as atrophic or non-exudative AMD. There is formation of drusen beneath the macula that build up and eventually causes ...
Guinea pigs infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes developed a cutaneous fungal lesion and became skin test positive to fungal antigen (trichophytin). The cutaneous fungal lesion, while thought to be a cell-mediated response, differed histologically from the skin test site. Basophils were not demonstrated in biopsies of cutaneous fungal lesions, whereas basophils were numerous in biopsies of trichophytin skin test sites. When sensitization to trichophytin was accomplished by injection of hypha in complete Freunds adjuvant instead of infecting with live fungus, basophils could not be demonstrated in skin test sites. This report demonstrated that guinea pigs could be primed for cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity (CBH) responses by infection with live fungus.
As a leading supplier of innovative life science research tools, Creative Diagnostics continues to expand its products portfolio by offering of unique antigens for researchers globally, which is supported by extensive research, development, and validation for superior quality. The addition of antigen products and services will enable scientists to work on more specific projects, and also provide leading researchers and diagnostic manufacturers with a more diverse antigen selection, which facilitates the development of assays with greater specificity and sensitivity.. These newly released antigens are rigorously tested to meet the demand in research and development and are featured with excellent quality, including Viral Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, Fungal Antigens, Parasitic Antigens, Immunoglobulin, Hapten, Cardiac Biomarkers and so on. With this expanded offering of antigens products, Creative Diagnostics enables scientists to achieve more complete analysis experiments. These products along ...
2. Plasma (1→3)-ß-D-glucan and fungal antigenemia in patients with candidemia, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis.. T Miyazaki, S Kohno, K Mitsutake, S Maesaki, K Tanaka, N Ishikawa, and K Hara. Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Japan. (1→3)-ß-D-Glucan is one of the major structural components of fungi, and it seems that it can be detected by the fractionated (1→3)-ß-D-glucan-sensitive component from a Limulus lysate, factor G. We evaluated the concentration of (1→3)-ß-D-glucan by using factor G and other fungal antigens in 24 patients with clinical evidence of mycosis and 36 healthy subjects. The mean concentration of (1→3)-ß-D-glucan in the plasma of the healthy subjects was found to be 2.7 +/- 1.9 pg/mL (range, < 6.9 pg/mL), and it was found to be substantially higher in all 11 patients with candidemia (mean, 2,207.4 pg/mL; range, 325.4 to 8,449.0 pg/mL). Eight of those 11 patients with candidemia (73%) were positive for the Cand-Tec ...
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized for the detection of cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The system was evaluated in clinical samples from patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus with and without previous cryptococcosis diagnosis. The evaluated system is highly sensitive and specific, and when it was compared with latex agglutination there were not significant differences. A standard curve with purified Cryptococcus neoformans antigen was settled down for the antigen quantification in positive samples ...
Mold Clean Up and Repair. Inning conformity with American University of Occupational and Ecological Medication (ACOEM), an estimated 10 percent of the countrys population has delicate antibodies to deal with fungal antigens. A great deal of allergic responses as well as hay high temperatures are reported to have really caused as an outcome of the development of molds in the ins. Mold and mildews are sporophytic fungi - duplicates with the aid of spores. These air-borne spores might trigger allergic reactions, breathing illness, migraine headaches, as well as pains. Consequently, you must take certain safeguard to respond to the growth of molds in the insides. The most important action that you could consume is cleaning up every traces of dampness from the residence. For doing this you need to work with water cleansing specialists that could help you to cleanse every trace of water from the insides, which would stop mold and mildew and also mold development.. Mold and mildew needs moisture as ...
In vitro studies as well as clinical trials indicate that the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhance the ability of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) to eliminate microbial organisms. Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins, homologs of the Drosophila protein Toll, have been found on the surface of mammalian cells and are important in the responses of macrophages to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens. TLR4 is critical for the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria, while TLR2 is important for response to gram-positive bacteria, bacterial peptides, and yeast zymosan. We demonstrate that TLR2, but very little TLR4, is present on the surface of human neutrophils. In addition we demonstrate that GM-CSF and G-CSF dramatically up-regulate TLR2 and CD14 surface expression. GM-CSF treatment also up-regulates TLR2 and CD14 mRNA levels in neutrophils. In addition to increasing receptor expression,
The baking soda will eliminate bacteria and absorb as folliculitis, as is infection with bacteria, yeast or a fungus. Instructions Photo: Rocio De Maio/Demand Media Mix together a massage or creative alternatives like painting or writing.. Fortunately, for guys and girls who have problem skin, there are some remedies the skin in the places where the pimples previously were. The oils in your fingertips can create more obat jerawat sehat pimples to attack, which causes inflammation and redness a pimple .. Colonic Irrigation and Colon Hydrotherapy for Acne Treatment Yes I know this may seem a little invasive, but Colonics excess oil, helping to counteract pimples under the skin. How to Treat Pimples All Over My Face How to Treat Pimples All Over My becomes even worse when temporary breakouts leave long-lasting scars.. Puberty and Maturation - imbalance of hormones results in acne Stress - alters the balance of hormones leading to acne Period - hormones eHow Contributor The best way to pop a pimple ...
Now coming to the kitchen recipes, these help you tremendously to get rid of your unwanted pimples or in a way control them or reduce them to a large extent.. Toothpaste for pimples! Surprised! Yes, this really sounds different but it works very well. All you need to do is just apply some toothpaste over the pimples and leave it overnight. You will find your pimples reduced to half their size the next morning!. Unripe Papaya! Take the milky unripe papaya and apply on to the face on the pimple affected area. See the difference! You will notice that this combination not only treats your pimples but also makes your facial skin soft and subtle.. Egg for Health and Skin! Apply egg white over your face and leave it overnight. This will help you in reducing your pimples and makes your skin glow and your skin will feel tight helping it control wrinkles too.. Oil Treatment! Take ground nut oil with equal amount of lime juice in it apply daily and notice your skin reforming into its new look. This makes ...
Quick for precise removal! product is so effective Ive seen it really make a difference on fading age spots and clearing up blackheads and blemishes. Extractor needle+Brush+ Blackhead Remove Acne Mask Extractor Remover.Extractor + Remove Blackhead Whitehead Mask Pimples Comedone Acne. Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium hALF AN Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium HOUR I WASHED IT OFF THE REDNESS OF MY PIMPLES HAD.. Lemon Juice: Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium Remove Pimples In Natural Way Treatment Lithium Lemon acts as a natural bleaching agent. This oil has the ability to treat dark spots pimples acne fine lines age spots moles wrinkles etc. but it can be also used in the treatment of. I stopped using medicated washes and lotions when i got pregnant to avoid any possibility of harming my baby. Remove blackheads with baking soda The best part is everyone has some baking soda around the house and it is much cheaper than the pore So I still cant get all ...
Pimples make bacteria in your skin that can lead to clear skin. Dont finish and buy a huge jar of fixed honey from the store. You should only start with the facial cleansing. Many important things you need to know about honey for pimples and how it can be used to help preserve those bad pimples.. The most important thing is that you should not use a processed honey for pimples. This will be a complete mess of both symbolically and literally on your face. It has been preserved in such a way that has killed most of the helpful ingredients for your face when you buy the regular processed honey at the store. For more remedies of pimples, refers Home Remedies To Get Rid Of Pimples. One step in treating is heating the honey really to kill any potential bacteria. Heating also occurs to kill the antibacterial types of the honey in case no benefit to you.. ...
When you get a pimple on the breast, it is advisable you go for a physical examination to rule out other possibilities of similar looking lesions.. A pimple looking thing may be a montgomery tubercle, as mentioned above. Many cases of breast carcinomas may present over the surface as a discharging pimple, which is painless and without any other sign.. So, a thorough physical exam is essential. Once you are sure its a pimple, you may start treating it.. The most important precaution is that never pop or squeeze a pimple. Any such action can potentially infect it and worsen the situation. An infected pimple on the breast may infect the inner breast tissue, leading to abscess formation there.. If the pimple is small, or appears as a white head, try gentle warm compress over it. This would soften it, and help draining out the collected sebum from inside it. ...
Pimples are small hard inflamed spots on your skin caused by a bacterium that reside on the surface of your skin. When this bacterium finds its way into the pores of the skin, it will grow into pimples which will cause irritation of the affected parts. However, a lot of people with pimples resort to bursting them which will do more damage than good. How then can you get rid of these dreadful inflamed spots without allowing them to spread uncontrollably? You only need to read on to get the full gist.. Application of ice cubes on the pimples will reduce the swelling and make them less visible to people. The ice cubes must be properly rubbed on them in order to achieve the desired result. Furthermore, you should endeavor to take many cups of water everyday so that numerous bad toxins in the body will be eliminated. You should drink a minimum of ten cups of water everyday because it will also prevent your skin from dehydration.. Face washing is another effective way of getting rid of your pimples. ...
Someone said: It has happened to me several times. It probably means that you have a piece of hardened infected oil that is deeper than what you are popping. After the area around the pimple is disinfected you must try again but this time place your fingers farther from the pimple. Then push down harder and slowly push toward the pimple but at a deeper level. This is to push the bad stuff up and out, not down. Think of milking a cow keep moving toward the pimple until you get another bunch of pus that is pushed out. That should make it heal up without leaving a scar or hurting anymore. I have had several of these and never had a scar. ...
Clear liquid pimple - Had protected sex with a sex worker. Developed simple painless non-itchy pimple with hair in it 16 days after exposure. Pimple popped and a thick white pus came out followed by some clear liquid. Pimple scabbed with hair still visible. Herpes? Unlikely. There are some contagious things this could be, it however, does not sound like herpes. On the other hand this can be anything from an ingrown hair to syphilis based on the description. It may be embarrassing, but this is something you need to get checked. If you dont want to see your doctor Im sure you can find a walk in clinic you dont normally use. Just be open and honest.
Pimples are one of the most common skin problems that someone will face in their life. In fact, more than a third of the population in the world will have pimple problems at least once in their lifetime and they always ask how to get rid of pimples overnight. Pimples are bad for your appearance. Not only that it will reduce your self-confidence, the irregular reddish patterns all over your face will also make you and others around you feel uncomfortable. Pimples can also attack other parts of your body like neck, back and also chest. If you want to know how to get rid of pimples overnight, we will provide you some of the best things to do.. It is important to know how to get rid of pimples fast because it will worsen if you just let it be. Having pimples means that chances for you to maintain your flawless skin will be greatly reduced. How to get rid of a pimple from forming on your face is actually quite easy if you are a disciplined person. Always wash your face regularly to prevent dirt and ...
Hey guys, Sandra Lee, M.D. (aka Dr. Pimple Popper), here!. I see youve found The Pretty Pimple - I hope youre enjoying the articles and learning something new! Ive heard your requests for effective, acne-fighting products, and thats why Im so excited to introduce SLMD Skincare to you guys. This line exists to provide solutions for the skincare concerns you popaholics have always asked me about. These products bring together the most effective, blemish-banishing ingredients, so you can treat your skin with clinical confidence.. xo, Sandra. ...
Long lasting pimples - Long lasting pimple that when tried to pop squished under skin but NO fluid came out I heard and felt it squish... Is this a problem? Do not. Squeeze a pimple. Use either of the available acne treatment and avoid comedonic creams or lotions and see a dermatologist. Gets better with age
Pimples on forehead are simply irritating. The good news is that there is a possibility of getting rid of them as well. First off, it is very important to understand the anatomy of the face. Doing so can help you trace the reasons of the appearance of these pimples. The forehead is included in the so-called "T-zone" in the face. This part of the face is well exposed to more oil, which is the cause of pimple breakouts. Therefore, the appearance can simply be a result of your forehead being oilier compared to the rest of the face.. Continue reading ...
Forehead is one of the common areas, where pimples can appear. The main reason of appearing pimples is clogging between dead cells of skin.
You have noticed a pimple on nose and try to find out a reason? Causes of pimples on nose may be the most unexpected. But most often this phenomenon is
When the sebaceous glands, located at the base of hair follicles, become overactive, pimples breakout. And those sensitive and vulnerable parts of the body, such as the face, back, chest and shoulders, have the likelihood of growing pimples. The most common pimple is pimple vulgaris which happens mainly at puberty. Youths need to learn how…
Hey guys, Sandra Lee, M.D. (aka Dr. Pimple Popper), here!. I see youve found The Pretty Pimple - I hope youre enjoying the articles and learning something new! Ive heard your requests for effective, acne-fighting products, and thats why Im so excited to introduce SLMD Skincare to you guys. This line exists to provide solutions for the skincare concerns you popaholics have always asked me about. These products bring together the most effective, blemish-banishing ingredients, so you can treat your skin with clinical confidence.. xo, Sandra. ...
Apply Visine to a pimple to reduce the redness of a pimple. You can also use hydrocortisone to reduce redness and inflammation ...
To stave off pimples and consequently boost confidence, Céleteque DERMOSCIENCE™ has come up with its ACNE SOLUTIONS line that specifically targets pimples.
How to get rid of zits on your scalp? How to remove scalp acne or scalp pimples using best home remedies. How to treat scalp pimples naturally.
Hi I have pimples on my pennies. Actually I had sex with one aunt when i was 22 years old. After that i found pimples on pennies. Could you please let me know what is the problem. is it STD or what ...
I keep getting very bad pimples on my forehead anytime I start working lots. Is it true that pimples can be caused due to being stressed out..meaning working too many long hours.
The best pimples to pop are small whiteheads, blackheads, and pustules (looks like a whitehead, but the skin around is red and inflamed). Whiteheads appear when dead skin cells, oil, and bacteria are trapped in your pores. Blackheads are similar in that they are caused by a clogged pore, but the fundamental difference is that with whiteheads, the pore remains closed as compared to blackheads in which the pore is open. Pustules are small bumps on the skin that contain pus or fluid. "The safest type to extract at home are the ones which have collected a small amount of pus or keratin in the middle and are very close to the surface of skin, and those that are not very red or deep: these are usually simple blackheads, whiteheads, or pustules," says Dr. Nazarian. Its also important to note that you should never touch deep cysts. "While it may be very tempting to pop deep cysts, these should ideally be reserved to professionals as they can be difficult to treat due to the depth of the active lesion," ...
Question - 23 year old married female, suffering with pimples and scars ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Acne, Ask a Dermatologist
I have been sexually active with the same person for over a year now and she was a virgin. I just noticed a hard spot on the side of my penis, I squeezed it and it came out like a blackhead. However now it is very swullen like a pimple looking like it could be popped but I tried to pop it and it wont go away. It has been there the past 2 days. What is it and why would it happen now? I have never had to deal with anything like this b4 ...
COSRX One Step Original Clear Pad, aka One Step Pimple Clear Pad, are exfoliating pads that keep the complexion clear, refined, and well-balanced.
Why do I get pimples on my lower, upper, inside, around, on lip edges (lip line) or near my lip? Are they cold sore or something else? What can I…. ...
This is typically known as a boil, it means that you have a bacterial infection in your thigh area. I had the same problem when i was about 12. You can burn the tip of a needle and pop it yourself, but if it reforms you should go to the hospital. Theyll have to cut it open, drain it pack it with these little gause strips to keep it from closing and youll have to go to the doctors once a week for a couple of weeks to get them taken out and replaced. They will prescribe you pain meds and an antibiotic for it as well ...
This is many step that is not to do for treath your acne and pimples. Simple things must be avoid for your skin. Wanna pretty face.
Hi 16yo Dd has suddenly developed lots of little pimples on her forehead. The rest of her skin is clear. Shes been exfoliating but theyre still the
Dr. Pimple Popper just took the NOPE to a whole new level with her 2016 Best Of compilation video. No way you make it through it all.
In just the last several weeks Im getting pimples on my armpits, they are sore, red and hard. The only thing Ive done differently is change razers. Any ideas?
Pimple causes vary from stress, spicy foods to digestive problems, etc. No matter what causes it, remedies like tomato mask can provide quick relief.
Even those of us who are well past adolescence can still get the occasional spot. Crush an aspirin and moisten it with a little water. Apply the paste to the pimple and let it sit for a couple of minutes before washing off with soap and water ...
//www.youtube.com/embed/FSjRe8uzrLY Pimple: A staph infection (MRSA) will cause increased redness spreading from the initial lesion, swelling, and a
Pimple marks or Acne scars do fade over a period of time. But it depends on how old they are. If the marks are new then they fade quickly if you follow the below treatment. But if they are older and if it has been over many years then it make take longer time sometimes years to see results. This is because the marks are usually darkened by pigments when exposed to sun. If you have taken good sun care then it will easier to treat them with the following creams.Read more about Sun Care with Sunscreen and Diet here ...
www.myzeno.com This a a new inovation in pimple technology which applies direct heat to a pimple in the begining of the life of the zip- It is $225
People in this day in age would call this photo a selfie. Basically...what that means is, that I took a close up picture of myself posing! In this particular picture, Im not trying to lure you into reading my blog by using these bedroom eyes, like I usually do. This time I want you to…
For the treatment of acne. Reduces the number of acne pimples and blackheads and allows skin to heal. Helps prevent new acne pimples from forming. Each pad...
Clear skin is just a step away with Generic Renova! Generic Renova (Tretinoin) is a topical form of vitamin A. It reduces the formation of pimples and promotes quick healing of pimples that develop...
Clear skin is just a step away with Retin-A! Generic Retin-A (Tretinoin) is a topical form of vitamin A. It reduces the formation of pimples and promotes quick healing of pimples ...
Clear skin is just a step away with Retin-A! Generic Retin-A (Tretinoin) is a topical form of vitamin A. It reduces the formation of pimples and promotes quick healing of pimples that develop, espe...
Lesions on and around your vagina are usually not a serious health issue. In most cases they cause mild discomfort and are not cosmetically pleasing....
While you may find pimples annoying or unsightly, most of them arent painful -- unless youve picked or scratched. Painful pimples are most likely...
Chances are youve experience a pimple or acne here and there. Knowing the type of pimple you have can be important for treating it. We explain what a
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Learn how to get rid of acne with advice from former acne sufferers. We share our secrets to clearing skin, minimizing pores, and preventing pimples.
Thanks for your advice DLD, I suffer from pimples on my shaft, and when I jelq they hurt, tried the heating pad routine, put it on the Hot setting, all it did was swell it up,
Lacaz, C. da S.; Duarte, M.I.S.; Laurenti, M.D.; Lombardi, A.C.G. de M.; Costa, C.B. de A.; Negro, G.M.B. del; Rodrigues, E.G.; Lirio, V. des; Garcia, N.M., 1990: Intratesticular inoculation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen containing 43 kDa glycoprotein into hamsters
As a leading supplier of innovative life science research tools, Creative Diagnostics continues to expand its products portfolio by offering of unique antigens for researchers globally, which is supported by extensive research, development, and validation for superior quality. The addition of antigen products and services will enable scientists to work on more specific projects, and also provide leading researchers and diagnostic manufacturers with a more diverse antigen selection, which facilitates the development of assays with greater specificity and sensitivity.. These newly released antigens are rigorously tested to meet the demand in research and development and are featured with excellent quality, including Viral Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, Fungal Antigens, Parasitic Antigens, Immunoglobulin, Hapten, Cardiac Biomarkers and so on. With this expanded offering of antigens products, Creative Diagnostics enables scientists to achieve more complete analysis experiments. These products along ...
INTRODUCTION. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most prevalent endemic mycoses in Latin America; it is produced by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The disease affects mainly the lungs but also the mucous membranes and the skin9. Adrenal involvement is also relatively frequent but varies according to the report and the methods employed for its diagnosis; in most cases, such diagnosis is established by indirect means such as demonstrating adrenal hypofunction after ACTH challenge or by measurement of its various metabolites. Nonetheless, the presence of the causative agent in the glands parenchyma is of rare observation, unless autopsy cases are considered. Only one case has been reported with observation of P. brasiliensis in the adrenals of a PCM patient, once he had been treated with apparent satisfactory results7.. The present report describes two PCM patients with adrenal insufficiency in whom P. brasiliensis was observed in biopsies of these glands; one of these ...
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Background. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most important deep mycosis in Latin America. Only a small percentage of individuals infected by P. brasiliensis develop clinical PCM, possibly in part because of genetically determined interindividual variability of host immunity. However, no primary immunodeficiency has ever been associated with PCM.. Methods. We describe the first patient, to our knowledge, with PCM and a well-defined primary immunodeficiency in the β1 subunit of the interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23 receptor, a disorder previously shown to be specifically associated with impaired interferon (IFN)-γ production, mycobacteriosis, and salmonellosis.. Results. Our patient had a childhood history of bacille Calmette-Guùrin disease and nontyphoid salmonellosis and, at the age of 20 years, presented to our clinic with a disseminated (acute) form of PCM. He responded well to antifungal treatment and is ...
Pimples and pigmentation marks appear on the face, which takes away the beauty and charm of the face. These can appear in summer or winter season. The main reasons are consumption of fat, controlling the urge to urinate, excessive labour and exposure of heat and Sun. The following home remedies should be used for this problem:. - Take the cream from fresh milk, add few drops of lemon and apply on the face to remove pimples and acne.. - Grind 30 gm of thymol seeds (ajwain) in 25 gm of curd and apply on pimples and acne. Wash the face the next morning. This remove pimples.. - Take equal quantities of holy basil leaves and lemon juice and apply on the pigmentation marks, dark circles or pimples. This is an effective medicine.. - Add glycerin four times the quantity of lemon juice and rub the face to get rid of pimples. Massage the whole body to get the silky and soft effect.. - Soak lentil dal in sufficient water so that the entire water is absorbed. Grind it and add it in milk. Apply this paste on ...
Looking for online definition of pimple in the Medical Dictionary? pimple explanation free. What is pimple? Meaning of pimple medical term. What does pimple mean?
Don`t pop that pimple right away. Popping a pimple prematurely, before you can see the puss about to burst the skin, can cause a mild skin infection, a cyst (by pushing the infection further down into the pore), or even worse, a terrible scar. Wait until you can see the yellow puss about to break through the skin. image 2Prepare for a small surgical pimple removing procedure. You`ll need a small sewing needle, a bottle of alcohol, some gauze (or a small band-aid), and some warm water. Some people think you`ll need to run a needle through a flame. This isn`t Dr. Quinn Medicine woman. Rubbing alcohol will do. image 3Wash your face and hands before attempting to pop the pimple. Washing your face and hands ensures that all makeup, oils, germs and bacteria are no longer near the pimple you`re about to burst. Also, dip a majority of the needle in the alcohol, and for safe measure apply some of that alcohol to your fingers and the pimple--dabbing with some gauze to dry the area. image 4Prick the white ...
We asked experts for the foolproof ways to tell a cold sore from a pimple from a canker Is That a Herpes Cold Sore or yellow patch under your tongue Over time it will feel like a water-filled balloon or cyst. Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin cant be returned to its normal position after being retracted. Pimple Side Nose Hurts Skin Hot My Night Gets goosebumps Anyone?? Bumps Under Skin Near apple cider vinegar pimples on infants body type lesions in hair treatment sulfur scars pitted for Muscle.. Ryan on can you pop an abscess with a needle: Use a heat According to the Mayo Clinic Allergies Causing Acne. Picked pimple scar under lip line I popped it and it was healing but I tend to pick at my pimples. Home remedies for acne are the best way to eliminate acne.. Sores and crusts are also inside the nose; Activa is a powerful preponderance under kino phytoceramides with lipowheat biotech co. My 3 years old daughter started getting a rash on her upper buttocks area and lower back on Tuesday. ...
If you can see the acne spots growing, your natural reaction might be to try and pop it. No matter how many times you have been told since your teenage years to never pop pimples, you might still not be able to hold back. It is true that popping usually causes more infection, inflammation and skin problems, not to mention acne scars. However, popping when the acne spot is not ready yet will damage not only the surface of the skin, but the inside of the pores as well. This sill certainly result in the spot coming back at the same place over and over again, and you will never get rid of your acne problem, no matter how hard you try. Below you will find some great alternatives that might help you resist the temptation and decide to never pop pimples again.. 1. Steaming. One of the best methods to get rid of the pimples without popping is to steam the skin area. This will naturally get out the bacteria, but when you see the white stuff appear you still have to resist not to pop the acne spot. Simply ...
Pimple is one of the skin problems which can make you look and feel ugly. Pimples can appear on your cheeks, chest, neck, buttocks, and around mouth. You can
Objectives: Cryptococcus species are associated with invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed individuals. The clinical significance of low titer cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) by lateral flow assay is frequently uncertain. We investigated the correlation of low CrAg titers with disease in an immunocompromised patient population.. Methods: Patients with first-time positive CrAg results with low serum titers (≤1:10) at two medical centers (Los Angeles, CA) from April 2014-July 2018 were included. Age-matched controls with high (≥1:20) and negative titers were selected. We extracted medical records for pertinent clinical, radiologic, and laboratory data for cryptococcal disease.. Results: From 2,196 serum samples submitted for CrAg testing, 96 cases were included (32 each in low titer, high titer, and negative titer groups). One or more immunocompromising condition was identified in 95% of patients, including HIV infection (45%), solid organ transplant (26%), and cirrhosis (22%). Pulmonary ...
In most individuals, when benign antigens are inhaled, the lung responds with a tolerogenic immunological response [13-15]. However, in diseases such as ABPA, tolerance is lost or not established, and patients become sensitized to the inhaled fungal antigen Aspergillus fumigatus. We have previously shown that peripheral CD11c + DCs and TSLP-DCs from ABPA patients induce robust Th2 cytokine responses from autologous CD4+ T-cells in an OX40L-dependent manner [7]. In addition, in our CF cohort, vitamin D deficiency was associated with ABPA. In vitro treatment with 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 reduced the robust Th2 response in patients with ABPA [7]. Based on data from our observational study, we initiated a clinical trial to assess the safety and the immunological effects of supplemental vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in patients with CF and ABPA.. This Phase I trial was implemented to test the safety and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in CF patients with documented evidence of Af seinsitization. ...
In a multicenter study comparing DIFLUCAN (200 mg/day) to amphotericin B (0.3 mg/kg/day) for treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS, a multivariate analysis revealed three pretreatment factors that predicted death during the course of therapy: abnormal mental status, cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal antigen titer greater than 1:1024, and cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell count of less than 20 cells/mm3. Mortality among high risk patients was 33% and 40% for amphotericin B and DIFLUCAN patients, respectively (p=0.58), with overall deaths 14% (9 of 63 subjects) and 18% (24 of 131 subjects) for the 2 arms of the study (p=0.48). Optimal doses and regimens for patients with acute cryptococcal meningitis and at high risk for treatment failure remain to be determined. (Saag, et al. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:83-9.). ...
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA): Symptoms ❗ Workup ❗ Diagnosis ❗ Treatment ❗ Complications ❗ Causes ❗ Epidemiology ❗ Incidence ❗ Prognosis ❗ Check at SYMPTOMA.com Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a disease characterized by a hypersensitivity reaction to aspergillus fumigatus after its repeated inhalation and is most…
Review question We planned to review evidence about the effect of treatments to fight fungal infections which cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis.. Background Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic lung reaction to a type of fungus (usually Aspergillus fumigatus) in some people with cystic fibrosis. It causes cough and wheezing and sometimes fever. If left untreated ABPA can lead to chronic lung damage. It is usually treated with a high dose of corticosteroids (also known as steroids). However, it has not been proven that corticosteroids can prevent lung function deteriorating in the long term. Also, long-term use of steroids is linked to some serious side effects. Treating the fungus which causes ABPA may be an alternative to using high doses of steroids to combat the allergic reaction. This is an update of a previously published review.. Search date The evidence is current to: 29 September 2016.. Study characteristics No trials ...
Chaudhary N, Staab JF, Marr KA. PLoS One 2010;5:e9036.. Aspergillus allergens are described as proteins that are recognized in patients with hypersensitivity syndromes such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Aspergillus-induced asthma. However, findings from this study indicate that (at least) some of these proteins are not only allergens, but are also capable of inducing a T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokine response in volunteers without a history of suspected or proven fungal infection or reported allergy or atopy. This indicates that these "Asp f proteins" are able to induce both protective (Th1) and non-protective (Th2) inflammation. Depending on the hosts status, Aspergillus fumigatus is able to cause several diseases ranging from allergic (e.g. Aspergillus-induced asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) to invasive (e.g. pulmonary aspergillosis and disseminated disease). A fumigatus conidia enter the body via the air and, if they are not cleared by phagocytic cells, spores ...

Fungal Antigens | SpringerLinkFungal Antigens | SpringerLink

Techniques Available to Prepare Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Toward Fungal Polysaccharide Antigens Edouard Drouhet, Jean-Paul ... Purification and Detection of Fungal Antigens" limited to 8 American/Canadian scientists and to 8 French participants. The ... Candida Antigen and Arabinitol Levels in the Sera of Patients With Proven or Probable Invasive Candidosis ... Mannan Antigen of Candida Albicans and Cellular Immune Responses in Vitro and in Vivo ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4613-0773-0

How Important Fungal Antigens Test AreHow Important Fungal Antigens Test Are

Test fungal bacterial components and fungal antigens, which is a significant ways to diagnose fungal infection in modern ... When antigens exist in candida bacteremia, both its sensitivity and specificity are over 80%. So fungal antigens test can be ... Second, when sandwich ELISA are used to galactomannan antigen in fungal cell wall, the antigens can release into the blood. ... It is meaningful to early diagnosis of deep fungal infections for the fungal antigens test can get continuous monitoring of ...
more infohttps://selfgrowth.com/articles/how-important-fungal-antigens-test-are

Antigens, fungal - definition of Antigens, fungal by The Free DictionaryAntigens, fungal - definition of Antigens, fungal by The Free Dictionary

... fungal. Antigens, fungal synonyms, Antigens, fungal pronunciation, Antigens, fungal translation, English dictionary definition ... of Antigens, fungal. n. pl. fun·gi or fun·gus·es Any of numerous spore-producing eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Fungi, ... Antigens, fungal - definition of Antigens, fungal by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2c+fungal ... including Viral Antigens, Bacterial Antigens, Fungal Antigens, Parasitic Antigens, Immunoglobulin, Hapten, Cardiac Biomarkers ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/Antigens%2C+fungal

Histoplasma Antigen for Fungal ImmunodiffusionHistoplasma Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion

Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (1 ml) Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (5 ml) Coccidioides "TP" Antigen ... Histoplasma Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion * Other Fungal Immunodiffusion Plates, 1 Series Fungal Immunodiffusion Plates, 4 ... Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion. *Anti-Coccidioides "TP" Control Serum (Goat or Human or Rabbit) for Fungal Immunodiffusion ... Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (5 ml). *Coccidioides "TP" ...
more infohttps://www.meridianbioscience.com/human-condition/other/fungals/histoplasma-antigen-for-fungal-immunodiffusion/

Effect of Differential N-linked and O-linked Mannosylation on Recognition of Fungal Antigens by Dendritic CellsEffect of Differential N-linked and O-linked Mannosylation on Recognition of Fungal Antigens by Dendritic Cells

... antigens were demonstrated. The uptake of mannosylated antigens into murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) was inhibited by ... while the uptake of deglycosylated antigens remained unaffected. In particular, antigens with both N-linked and extensive O- ... and other professional antigen presenting cells. Previously, we demonstrated that mannosylated Pichia pastoris-derived ... BackgroundAn experimental approach for improving vaccine efficacy involves targeting antigens to mannose receptors (MRs) on ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001009

Coccidioides F Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (1 ml) | Meridian BioscienceCoccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (1 ml) | Meridian Bioscience

Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (1 ml) Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (5 ml) Coccidioides "TP" Antigen ... Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (1 ml) * Other Fungal Immunodiffusion Plates, 1 Series Fungal ... Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion. *Anti-Coccidioides "TP" Control Serum (Goat or Human or Rabbit) for Fungal Immunodiffusion ... Coccidioides "F" Antigen for Fungal Immunodiffusion (5 ml). *Coccidioides "TP" ...
more infohttps://www.meridianbioscience.com/human-condition/other/fungals/anti-coccidioides-tp-control-serum-goat-or-human-or-rabbing-for-fungal-immunodiffusion-401/

Cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to fungal antigens in guinea pigs. - Semantic ScholarCutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to fungal antigens in guinea pigs. - Semantic Scholar

Basophils were not demonstrated in biopsies of cutaneous fungal lesions, whereas basophils were numerous in biopsies of ... The cutaneous fungal lesion, while thought to be a cell-mediated response, differed histologically from the skin test site. ... Guinea pigs infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes developed a cutaneous fungal lesion and became skin test positive to ... Cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to fungal antigens in guinea pigs.. *. Joel H. Greenberg. , S B Kerbs ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Cutaneous-basophilic-hypersensitivity-response-to-Greenberg-Kerbs/139efc7af052cc785998b3bace1df1fbe7228b3b

Download E-books Fungal Antigens: Isolation, Purification, and Detection PDF - ZOOM IN Book ArchiveDownload E-books Fungal Antigens: Isolation, Purification, and Detection PDF - ZOOM IN Book Archive

Download E-books Fungal Antigens: Isolation, Purification, and Detection PDF. January 1, 2017. admin Comments Off on Download E ... Purification and Detection of Fungal Antigens" constrained to eight American/Canadian scientists and to eight French ... gists we contacted led us to extend the small unique assembly to a world symposium within which all elements of antigens of ...
more infohttp://zoomin.iol.pt/freebooks/fungal-antigens-isolation-purification-and-detection

Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal...Radioimmunotherapy of fungal diseases: The therapeutic potential of cytocidal radiation delivered by antibody targeting fungal...

Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a ... Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a ... Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a ... Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a ...
more infohttps://einstein.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/radioimmunotherapy-of-fungal-diseases-the-therapeutic-potential-o-2

Roles Of Collectins In Resisting Allergic Inflammation And Hypersensitivity Induced By Fungal Allergens And Antigens -...Roles Of Collectins In Resisting Allergic Inflammation And Hypersensitivity Induced By Fungal Allergens And Antigens -...

Roles Of Collectins In Resisting Allergic Inflammation And Hypersensitivity Induced By Fungal Allergens And Antigens. Last ... 8. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SP-A OR SP-D MICE TO FUNGAL ANTIGENS AND ALLERGENS ... The SP-D mediated binding and uptake of E. coli by bone-marrow derived mouse DCs has been shown to increase antigen ... The MBL-A levels were significantly higher in the mice after their sensitisation with fungal allergens (p , 0.05). In view of ...
more infohttps://www.78stepshealth.us/cryptococcus-neoformans/roles-of-collectins-in-resisting-allergic-inflammation-and-hypersensitivity-induced-by-fungal-allergens-and-antigens.html

Intradermal tests for the detection of delayed sensitivity to bacterial, fungal and viral antigens - Rooks Textbook of...Intradermal tests for the detection of delayed sensitivity to bacterial, fungal and viral antigens - Rooks Textbook of...

Intradermal tests for the detection of delayed sensitivity to bacterial, fungal and viral antigens. Log in to Rooks online. ... Intradermal tests for the detection of delayed sensitivity to bacterial, fungal and viral antigens. *Tuberculin test ...
more infohttp://rooks9.bw.semcs.net/manual/c04-sec-0065?view=chapter

1-3)-β-D-Glucan vs Galactomannan Antigen in Diagnosing Invasive Fungal Infections (IFIs) [Abstract]1-3)-β-D-Glucan vs Galactomannan Antigen in Diagnosing Invasive Fungal Infections (IFIs) [Abstract]

1-3)-β-D-Glucan vs Galactomannan Antigen in Diagnosing Invasive Fungal Infections (IFIs) C Fontana*, 1, 2, R Gaziano1, M Favaro ... The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the use of the BDG in combination with the galactomannan antigen (GAL) assay ... Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are serious and often life-threatening complications in patients with haematological ...
more infohttps://openmicrobiologyjournal.com/VOLUME/6/PAGE/70/ABSTRACT/

Sensitization to Aspergillus antigens and occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with asthma.  -...Sensitization to Aspergillus antigens and occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with asthma. -...

Few studies have shown that fungal sensitization could be an important risk factor for asthma severity. We sought to determine ... Sensitization to Aspergillus antigens and occurrence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with asthma.. ... None of the control subjects were sensitized to Aspergillus antigens. The patients were classified into the following four ... Thirty patients (28.5%) had a positive skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigens. Eleven patients (10.4%) had positive specific ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15821202?dopt=Abstract

Primary invasive laryngeal mycosis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and clinico-epidemiological update |...Primary invasive laryngeal mycosis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and clinico-epidemiological update |...

Fungal Antigens. Boston: Springer; 1988.Google Scholar. *. 9.. Vennewald I, Henker M, Klemm E, Seebacher C. Fungal colonization ... Sequencing and analysis of fungal rRNA operons for development of broad-range fungal PCR assays. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009; ... Primary fungal laryngitis is commonly attributable to yeasts such as Candida, and Cryptococcus or fungi are known to cause ... To avoid environmental fungal DNA (or) amplicon contamination, all steps were performed inside laminar air flow cabinets in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs12879-018-3219-1

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

0 (Antibodies, Fungal); 0 (Antigens, Fungal); 0 (Epitopes); 0 (Fungal Proteins); 0 (Hemagglutinins); 0 (Membrane Glycoproteins ... 0 (Antigens, CD34); 0 (BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, human); 0 (Biomarkers, Tumor); 0 (IL2RA protein, human); 0 (Interleukin-2 ... BACKGROUND: Rh phenotype is an extremely rare condition characterized by no expression of Rh antigens at the surface of red ... the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. Antibodies that bind to the polypeptide backbone of isolated Ywp1 show little ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D12.776.395.550

MycoKey workshop 2018 | SponsorsMycoKey workshop 2018 | Sponsors

Antibodies and immunoassays for fungal antigens. *. Fusarium spp ELISA kit for screening of cereals and soil ...
more infohttps://www.vtt.fi/sites/mycokey2018/sponsors

Preventing Deaths From Cryptococcal Meningitis: From Bench to Bedside - PubMedPreventing Deaths From Cryptococcal Meningitis: From Bench to Bedside - PubMed

Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop … ... a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading cause of death among persons ... Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading ... Integrating cryptococcal antigen screening and pre-emptive treatment into routine HIV care. Rajasingham R, Meya DB, Boulware DR ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21905781/

Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)

Categories: Antigens, Fungal Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 14 ...
more infohttps://phil.cdc.gov/AdvancedSearchResults.aspx?Search=Antigens,+Fungal&parentid=3141&catid=3149

Pulm Flashcards by Kush Sharma | BrainscapePulm Flashcards by Kush Sharma | Brainscape

Hypersensitivity of lungs to fungal antigens that colonize the bronchial tree. Hx asthma/atopic disorders ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/pulm-5201718/packs/6003229

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)

Fungal antigens - isolation, purification and detection. Paris, Plenum Publishing Co., 1989. p.111-117. [ Links ]. 11. LAEMMLI ... KAUFMAN, L. & STANDARD, P. - Fungal Exoantigens. In: DROUHET, E.; COLE, G.T.; REPENTIGNY, L. de; LATGÉ, J.P. & DUPONT, B., ed. ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0036-46651993000300003

US6306616B1 - Adsorption type confirmatory assays 
        - Google PatentsUS6306616B1 - Adsorption type confirmatory assays - Google Patents

Antibodies to fungal antigens US5573955A (en) 1995-06-05. 1996-11-12. Microgenics Corp.. Reducing tyramine interference in ... Antibodies to fungal antigens US5470997A (en) 1992-04-06. 1995-11-28. Biosite Diagnostics Incorporated. Amphetamine derivatives ... refers to the ability of an antibody to bind a specific antigen in preference to other potential antigens via the antigen ... Antigen-containing propranolol derivatives WO1994017408A1 (en) 1994-08-04. Assays and kits for detecting analytes in the ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US6306616B1/en

Articles from Thomas Schmitt | Selfgrowth.comArticles from Thomas Schmitt | Selfgrowth.com

How Important Fungal Antigens Test Are - by Thomas Schmitt. Submitted on Mar 30, 2019 from Thomas Schmitt ... Most of them are not detrimental to human body, but some will lead to fungal disease. The reason is that biological compounds ...
more infohttps://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/user/2878984

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20040472 - Bioaerosol exposure assessment in the workplace: the past, present and recent...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20040472 - Bioaerosol exposure assessment in the workplace: the past, present and recent...

... and new/improved measurement methods for fungal antigens, enzymes and allergens. Although exposure assessment of bioaerosol ... and new/improved measurement methods for fungal antigens, enzymes and allergens. These methodological advancements are expected ... A criteria document for fungal spores recently proposed a lowest observed effect level of 100,000 spores m-3 for non-pathogenic ... but proposed health-based exposure limits for endotoxins and fungal spores can be used. New developments are shortly reviewed, ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20040472.html

Data on CBT in fevered neutropenia episodes at the Univ | Open-iData on CBT in fevered neutropenia episodes at the Univ | Open-i

77 serum specimens (mean; 2.79 ± 1.89/FNE) were screened for the presence of GM antigen and 85 PCRs (mean; 3,07 ± 2.39/FNE) ... and targeting special fungal nucleic acid marker genes (facC-PCR) of prokaryotic origin. Reporting of descriptivce statistics ... 77 serum specimens (mean; 2.79 ± 1.89/FNE) were screened for the presence of GM antigen and 85 PCRs (mean; 3,07 ± 2.39/FNE) ... Bottom Line: Sera were successively screened for galactomannan antigen and for Aspergillus fumigatus specific nucleic acid ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4487853_12879_2015_995_Fig2_HTML&req=4

Edouard Drouhet - WikipediaEdouard Drouhet - Wikipedia

"Fungal Antigens - Isolation, Purification and Detection" which was conceived after a symposium on fungal antigens. The book ... He extensively studied the serum of fungal antigens such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin-B, fluorocytosin, and ... Fungal Antigens: Isolation, Purification, and Detection. Springer Science & Business Media. Drouhet, E., & Dupont, B. (1990). ... Towards the end of his career, he was able to publish and share his identification of a new thermally dimorphic fungal species ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edouard_Drouhet
  • Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop, provides an opportunity to detect infection early. (nih.gov)
  • Nonstructural protein (NS) 1 antigen detection test was requested, and the patient was treated with medications for his symptoms and prescribed abundant oral hydration and bed rest. (cdc.gov)
  • Dengue fever was ruled out because NS1 antigen detection and IgM serologic testing provided negative results 6 days after initial symptom onset. (cdc.gov)
  • A newly developed point-of-care assay for cryptococcal antigen, as well as growing evidence supporting the utility and cost-effectiveness of screening, are further reasons to consider broad implementation of cryptococcal screening in countries with a high burden of cryptococcal disease. (nih.gov)
  • He extensively studied the serum of fungal antigens such as fluconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin-B, fluorocytosin, and itraconazole which helped standardize the medical dosage and treatments for patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the guidelines presented below are intended for the evaluation and management of persons who may have tuberculous infection and HIV-induced anergy to delayed-type hypersen- sitivity (DTH) skin test antigens, including PPD-tuberculin. (cdc.gov)
  • Edouard Drouhet (June 18, 1919 - January 1, 2000) was a physician, biologist, and medical mycologist who played a key role in understanding how anti-fungal agents such as ketoconazole and amphotericin-B can be used as therapeutic treatments in humans with superficial or deep-seated mycoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gabriel Segretain and Edouard Drouhet co-founded ISHAM which is a community for clinical scientists and researchers interested in fungal ailments and fungus-like diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, Drouhet had opened up the field to include human and animal fungal pathogens as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coccidioidomycosis (/kɒkˌsɪdiɔɪdoʊmaɪˈkoʊsɪs/, kok-sid-ee-oy-doh-my-KOH-sis), commonly known as "cocci", "Valley fever", as well as "California fever", "desert rheumatism", and "San Joaquin Valley fever", is a mammalian fungal disease caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. (wikipedia.org)
  • The curiosity established through all clinical mycolo- gists we contacted led us to extend the small unique assembly to a world symposium within which all elements of antigens of pathogenic and allergenic fungi and actinomycetes with regards to guy, animals, or even vegetation will be mentioned. (iol.pt)
  • Finally, we will discuss the potential of PAN-FUNGAL RIT the targeting of conserved fungal cell surface antigens by RIT as a treatment modality for fungi prior to the formal microbiological identification of the specific pathogen. (elsevier.com)
  • However, only four are available as standardized antigens for use by a Mantoux-type procedure (0.1 ml of antigen administered intracutaneously): tuberculin, coccidioidin, histoplasmin, and mumps. (cdc.gov)
  • No other antigens intended for assessing a person's ability to elicit a DTH response have been standardized for this use by the Mantoux procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen Skin Test Market is expected to grow with a CAGR of XX% during the forecast period of 2018 to 2025. (esticastresearch.com)
  • The sedentary lifestyle of most of the populace across the globe and the surging geriatric population are fuelling the demand for antigen skin tests. (esticastresearch.com)
  • The market players involved in the antigen skin testing market are adopting collaborations and investing heavily in their R&D activities in order to emerge as a reliable brand name in the global market. (esticastresearch.com)
  • The report provides detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the antigen skin test market. (esticastresearch.com)
  • The degree of suppression may be reflected in a patient's inability to mount a DTH response to one or several skin-test antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • However, none of these products are licensed for use as DTH skin-test antigens, and none are certified for lot-to-lot reproducibility for this purpose. (cdc.gov)
  • Even though the concentration of antigen loaded onto such devices may be consistent from lot to lot, the amount of antigen deposited in the skin is unknown and may vary because of the nature of the subject's skin and the method of administration. (cdc.gov)
  • Few studies have shown that fungal sensitization could be an important risk factor for asthma severity. (nih.gov)
  • Most of them are not detrimental to human body, but some will lead to fungal disease. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Integrating cryptococcal antigen screening and pre-emptive treatment into routine HIV care. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Rh phenotype is an extremely rare condition characterized by no expression of Rh antigens at the surface of red blood cells. (bireme.br)
  • A criteria document for fungal spores recently proposed a lowest observed effect level of 100,000 spores m-3 for non-pathogenic and non-mycotoxin producing species based on inflammatory respiratory effects. (cdc.gov)