White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/2954)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (2/2954)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/2954)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. (4/2954)

The negative regulation of T- or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5-deficient mice. Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. This interaction was increased upon T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 cell stimulation. CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat cells. In addition, stimulation of Jurkat cells or normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts through TCR-CD3 induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein substrates, which was substantially diminished after CD5 cross-linking. The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3zeta, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cgammal but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(lck). By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. The F378 point mutation ablated both SHP-1 binding and the down-regulating activity of CD5 during TCR-CD3 stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (5/2954)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Cutting edge: negative selection of immature thymocytes by a few peptide-MHC complexes: differential sensitivity of immature and mature T cells. (6/2954)

We quantitated the number of peptide-class II MHC complexes required to affect the deletion or activation of 3A9 TCR transgenic thymocytes. Deletion of immature double positive thymocytes was very sensitive, taking place with approximately three peptide-MHC complexes per APC. However, the activation of mature CD4+ thymocytes required 100-fold more complexes per APC. Therefore, a "biochemical margin of safety" exists at the level of the APC. To be activated, autoreactive T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues require a relatively high level of peptide-MHC complexes.  (+info)

Anti-viral strategies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes are manifested through a variety of granule-bound pathways of apoptosis induction. (7/2954)

Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells together constitute a major defence against virus infection, through their ability to induce apoptotic death in infected cells. These cytolytic lymphocytes kill their targets through two principal mechanisms, and one of these, granule exocytosis, is essential for an effective in vivo immune response against many viruses. In recent years, the authors and other investigators have identified several distinct mechanisms that can induce death in a targeted cell. In the present article, it is postulated that the reason for this redundancy of lethal mechanisms is to deal with the array of anti-apoptotic molecules elaborated by viruses to extend the life of infected cells. The fate of such a cell therefore reflects the balance of pro-apoptotic (immune) and anti-apoptotic (viral) strategies that have developed over eons of evolutionary time.  (+info)

CD69 expression discriminates MHC-dependent and -independent stages of thymocyte positive selection. (8/2954)

In the thymus, phenotypically and functionally mature single positive cells are generated from immature CD4+8+ precursors by a process known as positive selection. Although this event is known to involve alphabetaTCR ligation by peptide/MHC complexes expressed on thymic stromal cells, it is clear that positive selection is a multistage process involving transition through an intermediate CD4+8+69+ phase as well as subsequent postselection phases. By analyzing the development of preselection CD4+8+69- and intermediate CD4+8+69+ thymocytes in the presence of MHC class I-deficient, MHC class II-deficient, and MHC double-deficient thymic stromal cells, we investigated the role of MHC molecules at three distinct points during positive selection. Although the initiation of positive selection is critically dependent upon MHC interactions, we find the that later stages of maturation, involving the differentiation of CD4+8- and CD4-8+ cells from CD4+8+69+ thymocytes, occur in the absence of MHC molecules. Moreover, an analysis of the postselection proliferation of newly generated CD4+8- and CD4-8+ thymocytes shows that this also occurs independently of MHC molecules. Thus, our data provide direct evidence that, although positive selection is a multistage process initiated by TCR-MHC interactions, continuation of this process and subsequent postselection events are independent of ongoing engagement of the TCR.  (+info)

Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. for the forecast year up to 2029. The global t lymphocyte activation antigen cd80 market ...
PBMCs from donor 4196 were gated for lymphocyte size and scatter, high CD8α expression, and binding of tetramer B7-RPR, which is specific for VP22 a.a. 49-57. Expression of CD28, CD62L, and CCR7 is displayed in the indicated histograms ...
Despite strong evidence supporting a pathway of human T cell differentiation characterized by changes in the expression of CCR7, CD28, CD27 and CD62L, few studies have addressed the mechanisms of pathway regulation. Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)-positive skin-homing CD8(+) T cells expressed significantly elevated levels of activation markers compared with CLA(-) CD8(+) T cells in individuals (n = 27) with cutaneous atopic disease. Despite such an activated phenotype, CLA(+) T cells expressed significantly higher levels of CCR7 than a CLA(-) T cell subset. Interleukin (IL)-4 was found to dramatically promote CCR7 expression by antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. Furthermore, skin-homing CD8(+) T cells from individuals with severe disease produced significantly less IL-10 than those derived from mildly affected atopic subjects. Thus in a T-helper 2 dominated disease, tissue-specific CD8(+) T cells show altered CCR7 expression and cytokine production, which may contribute to continued lymph node
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Independently of Cutaneous Lymphocyte of Skin-Homing Properties Occurs E-Selectin Binding CD4 T Cells: Acquisition In Vitro Differentiation from Naive to Mature by Tetsuo Shiohara et al.
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David M. Koelle, Zhi Liu, Christopher M. McClurkan, Max S. Topp, Stanley R. Riddell, Eric G. Pamer, Andrew S. Johnson, Anna Wald, Lawrence Corey. ...
It has been 16 years since the United States have won a World Championship in Basketball. Kevin Durant, Chancey Billups and Derrick Rose, members of this years US squad, are being compared to the 2008 US Olympic team which brought home a gold medal. Durant and Rose are no Kobe and LeBron but they are much better for this team and selling the sport at the this level. Dont get me wrong, I respect Bryant and James but I dont think Kevin Durant is given enough credit for his leadership skills. During this tournament, Durant has been given a chance to play aggressively and put points up on the scoreboard- in some very close games, I might add. I think it is good the US are not dealing Brazil and other clubs blow-outs. It shows there is more talent out there beyond the NBA which will only help the game grow. Right now, Durant and company have 4 days off before meeting the number 4 seed from Group A on September 6th. As for Canada, they sit at number 5 in Group D and are taking on France later today ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Early pediatric atopic dermatitis shows only a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ TH2/TH1 cell imbalance, whereas adults acquire CLA+ TH22/TC22 cell subsets. AU - Czarnowicki, Tali. AU - Esaki, Hitokazu. AU - Gonzalez, Juana. AU - Malajian, Dana. AU - Shemer, Avner. AU - Noda, Shinji. AU - Talasila, Sreya. AU - Berry, Adam. AU - Gray, Jayla. AU - Becker, Lauren. AU - Estrada, Yeriel. AU - Xu, Hui. AU - Zheng, Xiuzhong. AU - Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte. AU - Krueger, James G.. AU - Paller, Amy S.. AU - Guttman-Yassky, Emma. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/10. Y1 - 2015/10. N2 - Background Identifying differences and similarities between cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ polarized T-cell subsets in children versus adults with atopic dermatitis (AD) is critical for directing new treatments toward children. Objective We sought to compare activation markers and ...
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is accounting for over one million deaths annually due to immune-mediated chronic liver damage. Natural killer (NK) cells are abundant in the liver and contribute in HBV persistence. NK cytotoxic effects are controlled by signals from activating and inhibitory receptors. HBV may circumvent host antiviral immunity via the regulation of NK receptors and their ligands. We investigated the effect of viral replication and HBeAg mutations on NK mediators expression in the livers of chronic HBV (CHB) patients and in cell cultures.. Methods HBV monomers bearing hotspot mutations in the basal core promoter and precore region were transfected into HepG2 cells using a plasmid-free assay. Serum viremia and liver HBV RNA were measured in 19 CHB patients. The expression of HBV RNA and of NKG2D ligands, B7H6, DNAX accessory molecule-1, lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1), LFA-1 and TRAIL was measured in the livers of CHB patients and transfected cells.. Results In general, high ...
Buy Anti-ICOS (Inducible T-cell Costimulator, Inducible T-cell Co-stimulator, Activation-inducible Lymph, item number: I0650-01A2.120 from United States Biological at Biomol!
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Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
pep:putative chromosome:VEGA66:1:60977927:60995797:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000002307 transcript:OTTMUST00000004596 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Icos description:inducible T-cell co-stimulator ...
cdna:putative chromosome:VEGA66:1:60977927:60995797:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000002307 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Icos description:inducible T-cell co-stimulator ...
In advanced human atherosclerotic plaques infiltrating T cells congregate at sites of plaque rupture. However, little is known about the systemic activation of circulating T-cells in acute coronary syndromes as a prerequisite for recruitment to atherosclerotic lesions. As a measure for specific lymphocyte activation we analyzed IFN-gamma production of T cells after stimulation with a superantigen and expression of CXCR-3 and CCR-3 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina (uAP) or stable angina (sAP). Furthermore, concentrations of the circulating cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-12 p70 and RANTES that modify T cell function were measured. In uAP an increased Th1 and a decreased Th2 response was identified by enhanced interferon-gamma generation of T lymphocytes, increased levels of IL-1ß, IL-12 p70 and RANTES and decreased expression of CCR3. In AMI a systemic inflammatory reaction predominates with enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 ...
To determine whether ICOS-L on maturing pDCs is involved in the polarization of naive T cells, we tested the ability of primed T cells to secrete cytokines in response to a polyclonal restimulation. T cells primed by CpG-pDCs produced large amounts of IL-10 (800-6,400 pg/ml; n = 6), moderate levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α, but no IL-4, -5, or -13 (Fig. 4 A). This cytokine profile is consistent with a Th1-like response as previously reported (25). The blocking of ICOS costimulation by neutralizing anti-ICOS-L mAbs significantly inhibited the production of IL-10 (mean reduction of 74 ± 14%; P , 0.01) but not of IFN-γ or TNF-α (Fig. 4 A). In contrast, blocking CD28 costimulation by neutralizing anti-CD80 and -CD86 mAbs led to an increased production of IL-10 (mean increase of 40 ± 17%; P , 0.01) but not of IFN-γ or TNF-α (Fig. 4 A). T cells primed with IL-3/CD40L-pDCs produced large amounts of IL-10 (900-7,500 pg/ml; n = 6), substantial levels of IL-4, -5, and -13, and moderate levels of IFN-γ ...
Anti-ICOS antibody conjugated to Biotin [7E.17G9] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to fusion protein
Dalazatide treatment reduced the plasma levels of multiple inflammation markers and reduced the expression of T cell activation markers.
B7-H2, 0.1 mg. B7-H2, a member of the B7 family and the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a 40 kD protein also known as B7RP-1, B7h, B7-H2, GL50 and ICOS Ligand.
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) can be broadly categorised as either on-target or off-target. On-target ADRs arise as a direct consequence of the pharmacological properties of the drug and are therefore predictable and dose dependant. On-target ADRs comprise the majority (,80%) of ADRs, relate to the drugs interaction with its known pharmacological target and are a result of a complex interplay of genetic and ecologic factors. In contrast off-target ADRs, including immune mediated ADRs (IM-ADRs), are due to unintended pharmacological interactions such as inadvertent ligation of host cell receptors or non-pharmacological interactions mediated through an adaptive immune response ...
Rat T cells and thymocytes were induced to proliferate by a pair of mAbs, MRC OX-54 and MRC OX-55, directed against rat CD2. Accessory cells were required but their role was not simply for crosslinking of the two mAbs, as neither MRC OX-54 nor MRC OX-55 alone, in the presence of a crosslinking second antibody, caused T cell mitogenesis. Nor could the phorbol ester PMA replace either antibody. The two mAbs recognized distinct epitopes on rat CD2; however, MRC OX-54 could partially block MRC OX-55 binding whereas the reverse situation was not seen. A further CD2 epitope was recognized by two mutually competitive mAbs, MRC OX-34 and MRC OX-53, which were not mitogenic. Neither MRC OX-34 nor MRC OX-53 affected the binding of MRC OX-54 or MRC OX-55, yet they prevented the mitogenic effect induced by these mAbs. The presence of mAbs against CD4 and the IL-2-R also abrogated this mitogenesis, whereas an anti-CD5 mAb augmented the CD2-induced proliferation. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human ICOS Ligand protein. Ab169903 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
A trapped bead (right) decorated with a foreign antigen is actively placed on a T cell (left) and force is applied to facilitate recognition by the T cell receptor complex.
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The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins include signal-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi), smaller GTP-binding proteins that function in protein sorting, and the oncogenic protein p21ras. The T cell receptor complexes CD4-p56lck and CD8-p56lck were found to include a 32- to 33-kilodalton phosphoprotein (p32) that was recognized by an antiserum to a consensus GTP-binding region in G proteins. Immunoprecipitated CD4 and CD8 complexes bound GTP and hydrolyzed it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The p32 protein was covalently linked to [alpha-32P]GTP by ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling. These results demonstrate an interaction between T cell receptor complexes and an intracellular GTP-binding protein. ...
Background: Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Targeting costimulatory molecules with antagonist antibodies could dampen the excessive immune response that occurs, while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) of the allogeneic response. Previous studies using a mouse model of GVHD have shown that targeting the T cell inducible costimulatory (ICOS, CD278) receptor is beneficial but it is unclear whether the same applies to human cells. Methods: Here, we assessed whether a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to human ICOS was able to antagonize the costimulatory signal delivered in vivo to human T cells. To test this hypothesis, we used a xenogeneic model of GVHD where human PBMCs were adoptively transferred in immunocompromised NOD.SCID.gc-null mice (NSG). Results: In this model, control mice invariably lost weight and died by day 50. In contrast, 65% of the mice receiving a single injection of the anti-hICOS mAb survived beyond
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In this study, we describe broad defects in T cell function in two siblings with a novel deficiency of human ICOS. Most of the abnormalities presented in this study have not been reported in humans, and some have not been reported in the murine model of ICOS deficiency.. The marked decline in two T cell subpopulations, memory CD4 T cells and CTLA-4+CD45RO+ Tregs, can be explained, at least in part, by a recent observation that the ICOS-ICOS-L interaction plays an important role in the expansion and survival of these effector T cells (23, 60).. With regard to CD4 memory T cells, we observed significant reductions in the numbers of both TCMs and TEMs in the steady state, which were not observed in the previously reported cases of human ICOS deficiency (31, 32, 33). A reduction in the number of TEMs, but not of TCMs, was demonstrated in ICOS knockout mice by Burmeister et al. (23). TEMs were decreased up to 4-fold in the steady state; the decrease was more pronounced in older mice. TEMs and TCMs ...
We examined the developmental profile of TCR-gamma/delta+ cells with respect to CD45RO expression. Although total TCR-gamma/delta+ cells were negligible in the neonatal blood and increased with advancing age, most blood TCR-gamma/delta+ cells markedly expressed CD45RO without a distinction of age, probably reflecting a different CD45RO expression of two subsets defined by BB3 and delta TCS1 mAbs. The vast majority of BB3+ cells expressed CD45RO, whereas expression of CD45RO was virtually absent in the delta TCS1+ population. Functional studies revealed that, while both TCR-gamma/delta+ cell subsets showed CD3-mediated activation, only BB3+ (or Ti gamma A+) cells, but not delta TCS1+ cells, appeared to proliferate in response to PPD in PPD-reactive individuals. The results suggested that the CD45RO+ (BB3+ or Ti gamma A+) subset among blood TCR-gamma/delta+ cells may be mainly involved in the memory or primed component of the immune system responding to some foreign antigens. ...
OBJECTIVE: The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs763361 of the CD226 gene, which encodes DNAX accessory molecule 1, which is involved in T cell costimulation pathways, has recently been identified as a genetic risk factor for autoimmunity. The purpose of this study was to test for association of the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in European Caucasian populations. METHODS: CD226 rs763361 was genotyped in 3,632 individuals, consisting of a discovery sample (991 SSc patients and 1,008 controls) and a replication sample (999 SSc patients and 634 controls). All study subjects were of European Caucasian origin. Expression of CD226 was assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 21 healthy donors genotyped for CD226 rs763361. RESULTS: The CD226 rs763361 T allele was found to be associated with SSc in both the discovery and the replication samples, showing the following results in the combined populations: odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] ...
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Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is a cytokine produced by the T(H)-17 lineage of helper T cells and NK-22 subset of natural killer cells that acts on epithelial cells and keratinocytes and has been linked to skin homeostasis and inflammation. Here we characterize a population of human skin-homing memory CD4( …
T cells carrying the surface molecule CD4 are responsible for directing the behaviour of other immune cells. The Th1 and Th2 cells within this class activate the immune response. Inhibitory influences on the immune response come from the regulatory T cells, also known as Treg cells. These carry CD4. It has been recognized that a…
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BACKGROUND: Activated T cells play a key role in allograft rejection. T cell activation requires signaling via the T cell receptor as well as costimulatory signals. Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), with its ligand B7RP-1, is a recently discovered costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family. The role of this signaling pathway during the early phases of kidney allograft rejection is not clear so far. METHODS: Kidneys were orthotopically transplanted from BALB/c to C57BL/6 mice. Animals were assigned to five experimental groups: blocking anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody, ICOS fusion protein, anti-B7RP1 monoclonal antibody, B7RP-1 fusion protein, and control immunoglobulin G. RESULTS: Survival was significantly reduced in animals treated with ICOS monoclonal antibody (mAb) and B7RP-1 Fc as compared with controls. These animals had also a lower number of apoptotic graft infiltrating T cells, whereas the expression of intracellular interferon-gamma in CD3CD4 T cells was increased. Animals treated ...
2002년 AECG 분류 기준에 포함되었던 주관적인 건조 증상은 새로운 분류 기준에서 제외되었다. 그러나 AECG 분류 기준의 항목에 있는 건조 증상에 관한 질문을 이용하여 안구건조나 구강 건조 중 하나만 동반되어 있는 환자에도 2016년 ACR/EULAR 분류 기준을 적용할 수 있게 되었다. 또한 2016년 ACR/EULAR 분류 기준에서는 쇼그렌증후군이 전신 질환임을 고려하여, 건조 증상이 없는 환자에서도 EULAR Sjögrens Syndrome Disease Activity Index의 도메인 중에서 한 개 이상이라도 양성이 확인되면 쇼그렌증후군의 분류 기준을 적용할 수 있다. 특히 전신 증상이나 B세포 활성화 지표들(B cell activation markers)은 특히 건조 증상은 거의 없는 젊은 환자들에서 흔하게 발생한다. 2016년 ACR/EULAR 분류 기준이 임상 연구에 포함될 환자를 모집하기 위한 연구 목적으로 만들어진 점을 고려하였을 때, ...
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
Purified Anti-human CD275 B7-H2 ICOSL Antibody Anti-CD275 - B7-H2, a member of the B7 family and the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a 40 kD protein also known as B7RP-1, B7h, B7-H2, GL50 and ICOS Ligand.
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Age and HIV status independently altered the immune system, but we found no conclusive evidence that HIV infection and advancing age synergistically result in accelerated changes in age-associated T-cell markers among virally suppressed individuals.
Results: Streptococcal infections were more frequent among psoriasis patients, in particular infections by group C streptococci. No difference was observed in the expression of antimicrobial peptide LL-37. However, we observed that LL-37 had a number of immunomodulatory effects and that its expression within the tonsils was restricted to infiltrated leukocytes and GC-DCs. Tonsil T cells from psoriasis tonsils had a higher expression of the skin-homing molecule cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) and their frequency in tonsil correlated with their levels in blood. Furthermore, these cells expressed various Th1/Th17-associated molecules. These skin-homing T cells responded to the keratin/streptococcal peptides in a Th1/Th17 manner. Finally, a clear histological difference was observed between the tonsils of psoriatic and non-psoriatic individuals. Conclusion: It can be concluded that palatine tonsils are important for the pathogenesis of psoriasis in a subset of patients and that the ...
Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (CD3E) ELISA Kit can measure Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
DNAM-1 is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and T cells and plays an important role in cytotoxicity of these cells against target cells. Although the role of DNAM-1 in the function of T cells and NK cells has been well studied, the expression and function of DNAM-1 on myeloid cells have been incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated expression of DNAM-1 on monocyte subsets in mouse peripheral blood and found that only inflammatory monocytes (iMos), but not patrolling monocytes (pMos), expressed high levels of DNAM-1. In addition, we found that DNAM-1 was highly expressed on iMos, rather than pMos, also in human. Furthermore, we found that DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes was involved in cell adhesion to CD155-expressing cells. Therefore, we propose that expression of DNAM-1 on inflammatory monocytes are evolutionally conserved and act as an adhesion molecule on blood inflammatory monocytes.. ...
Nash, L; Good, R A.; Goldstein, G; and Incefy, G S., In vitro differentiation of two surface markers for immature t cells by the synthetic pentapeptide, thymopoietin32-36 (tp-5). Abstr. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2217 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Discussion and Commentary. The first observation well note is that there has been a substantial amount of healthcare ICO activity.. However, we would label the overall performance of the healthcare ICOs as disappointing. Only 5 reported positive returns since the date of their listing and 2 in 2018 to-date.. The overall ICO market has been declining since January 2018. Monthly funds raised by ICOs are down, and funding has shifted towards a few mega projects (like EOS and Telegram), big private sales, and smart contract platforms.. During the bull market of 2017, healthcare ICOs greatly benefited from burgeoning prices and market euphoria. It gave them access to easy capital (often non-dilutive as well), created a buzz around the industry, drove consumer interest in their products, made it is easier to hire top talent, and resulted in happy investors.. The bear markets of 2018 have hit healthcare ICOs hard. It has become extremely difficult to raise capital, ICOs dont have organic user ...
First immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of rat MRC OX-2 antigen (also known as CD200) and similar proteins. Ig1_ MRC-OX-2_like: domain similar to the first immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of rat MRC OX-2 antigen (also known as CD200). MRC OX-2 is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in rats. It has a similar broad distribution pattern in humans. MRC OX-2 may regulate myeloid cell activity. The protein has an extracellular portion containing two Ig-like domains, a transmembrane portion, and a cytoplasmic portion. ...
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1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope". ... Relationship to lymphoid differentiation". J. Clin. Invest. 84 (2): 506-16. doi:10.1172/JCI114193. PMC 548910. PMID 2547833. ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is ...
... a phosphorylated human lymphocyte differentiation and activation antigen". Eur J Immunol. 20 (11): 2417-23. doi:10.1002/eji. ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... "Entrez Gene: LSP1 lymphocyte-specific protein 1". Jongstra-Bilen J, Young AJ, Chong R, Jongstra J (1990). "Human and mouse LSP1 ... 1993). "Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family". Genomics. 15 (3): 515-20. doi: ...
"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...
... stimulate the differentiation and proliferation of, and present foreign antigens to B-cells. The FD cells in FDCS may derive ... lymphocyte rich (LRHD), and lymphocyte depleted (LDHD) subtypes. EBV is found in 30% to 50% of HL cases, but occurs in ~90% of ... The lymphocytes are primarily B cells (e.g., express CD20 and CD10 markers) with rare T cells evident only in the background. ... While EBV preferentially infects B cells, it may also infect other lymphocyte types viz., CD4+ T cells (i..e T helper cells), ...
"Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...
It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ...
... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... Thomas ML, Barclay AN, Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) ... The success linked to this work on Thy1 prompted Williams to expand the search for surface molecules on lymphocytes that could ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ...
In addition, PGE2 limits the immune response by preventing B-lymphocyte differentiation and their ability to present antigens. ... In terms of immunity, prostaglandins have the ability to regulate lymphocyte function. PGE2 affect T-lymphocyte formation by ... PGE2 also has roles in inhibition of cytotoxic T-cell function, cell division of T-lymphocytes, and the development of TH1 ... In addition, it can suppress an immune response by inhibiting B lymphocytes from forming into antibody-secreting plasma cells. ...
Differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes. Alan F. Williams, Giovanni Galfrè and Cesar Milstein "Archived copy". Archived ... The recirculation of lymphocytes from blood to lymph in the rat. GOWANS JL. Cell, Vol 12, 663-673, (1977)Analysis of cell ... During the 1950s Gowans pioneering work sorted out the life cycle of that cell, He showed that the small lymphocyte ... Florey suggested he should investigate the lymphocyte, a cell whose life history was at that time completely obscure. ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... CD229 (cluster of differentiation 229). LY9 has been shown to interact with SH2D1A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122224 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological ...
... and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored lymphocyte differentiation antigen ... The enzyme is used as a marker of lymphocyte differentiation. Consequently, a deficiency of NT5 occurs in a variety of ... 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NT), also known as ecto-5′-nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in ... Cluster of differentiation Arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135318 - Ensembl ...
"A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas". J. Exp. ... The same name is also used to refer to the gene which codes for the antigen. The MART-1/melan-A antigen is specific for the ... of Belgium called the gene melan-A, presumably an abbreviation for "melanocyte antigen." MART-1/melan-A is a protein antigen ... Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY6E gene. Increased expression of Ly6E is associated with ... is induced by retinoic acid during the differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cell". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 93 (12 ... "Entrez Gene: LY6E lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E". Luo, Linlin; McGarvey, Peter; Madhavan, Subha; Kumar, Rakesh; Gusev, ... "Distinct lymphocyte antigens 6 (Ly6) family members Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6K and Ly6H drive tumorigenesis and clinical outcome". ...
CAMPATH-1 antigen, also known as cluster of differentiation 52 (CD52), is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the CD52 ... CD52 is present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes were derived. It ... CD52+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD52 genome location and CD52 gene ... Since it is highly negatively charged and present on sperm cells and lymphocytes, it has been conjectured that its function is ...
... is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation ... CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX ... Cluster of differentiation Nectin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150637 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes". Immunity. 4 (6): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613 ...
... thus promoting TRM differentiation in a manner similar to Treg differentiation. Most lymphocytes express sphingosine-1- ... Bezouska K, Nepovím A, Horváth O, Pospísil M, Hamann J, Feizi T (March 1995). "CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium- ... It is also implicated in T cell differentiation as well as lymphocyte retention in lymphoid organs. The activation of T ... This in turn results in temporary lymphocyte retention in the lymph organs. It is thought that retention of lymphocytes in the ...
He is best known for his work regarding lymphocyte development, particularly the differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double ... Singer's work is foundational in the understanding of T cells and MHC-restricted antigen recognition. Singer's work explores ...
T lymphocytes regulate the growth and differentiation of T cells and certain B cells through the release of secreted protein ... IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators ... They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on ... lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation ...
Integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide), also known as ITGAL, is ... CD11a has been shown to interact with ICAM-1. CD11c integrin leukocyte adhesion deficiency Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: ... CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an ... ". "Entrez Gene: ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)". ...
... (Cluster of Differentiation 300A) is a human gene. The CMRF35 antigen (CMRF35A; MIM 606786), which was identified by ... reactivity with a monoclonal antibody, is present on monocytes, neutrophils, and some T and B lymphocytes. CMRF35H is ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 101-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550201.x. PMID 10746781. Cantoni C, Bottino C, Augugliaro R, et al ... recognized by the same antibody and is distinct from CMRF35 (Green et al., 1998).[supplied by OMIM] Cluster of differentiation ...
As an immune response, this homodimer is released by natural killer T lymphocytes (NK). When the antigen-specific immunity ... The expression of IFNGR2 chain depends on the state of cellular differentiation or activation. For instance, there are some CD4 ... Frucht DM, Fukao T, Bogdan C, Schindler H, O'Shea JJ, Koyasu S (October 2001). "IFN-gamma production by antigen-presenting ... Therefore, there is a positive feedback loop which suppress Th2 cell differentiation. The defense against an infection is led ...
"Phenotypic Analysis of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes". Science. 274 (5284): 94-96. Bibcode:1996Sci...274...94A. doi:10.1126/ ... Programmed DNA rearrangements during differentiation : immunoglobulin class switching (PhD thesis). California Institute of ... Davis is well known for identifying the first T-cell receptor genes, which are responsible for T lymphocytes ability to "see" ... He also developed a novel way of labeling specific T lymphocytes according to the molecules that they recognize, and this ...
It mediates adhesive interactions important for antigen-specific immune response, NK-cell mediated clearance, lymphocyte ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000108622 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Lalor PF, Shields P, Grant A, Adams DH (February 2002). "Recruitment of lymphocytes to the human liver". Immunology and Cell ... Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2), also known as CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102), is a human gene, and the ...
... need to enter secondary lymph nodes to encounter their antigen. Central memory T-lymphocytes, which have encountered antigen, ... of L-selectin on human bone marrow progenitor cells is an early sign of cells becoming committed to lymphoid differentiation. L ... Here they reside ready to proliferate upon re-encountering antigen. Effector memory T-lymphocytes do not express L-selectin, as ... Naive T-lymphocytes, which have not yet encountered their specific antigen, ...
Murine embryonic Sema7A expression is highest on day 7, which is indicative of its role on the differentiation of germ layer ... SEMA7A is also known as the John-Milton-Hagen (JMH) blood group antigen, an 80-kD glycoprotein expressed on activated ... lymphocytes and erythrocytes.[supplied by OMIM] SEMA7A is expressed in various adult tissues such as adipose, colon, esophagus ... Semaphorin 7A, GPI membrane anchor (John Milton Hagen blood group) (SEMA7A) also known as CD108 (Cluster of Differentiation 108 ...
Many methods are used to identify cell lines, including isoenzyme analysis, human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing, chromosomal ... Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cellular differentiation. Genetic and epigenetic alterations, with a natural selection of ... In brief, lymphocytes isolated from the spleen (or possibly blood) of an immunised animal are combined with an immortal myeloma ... As the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in the survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells, ...
... growth and differentiation, migration, or apoptosis. They are produced by wide range of cell types upon antigen-specific and ... Also, natural infection with varicella zoster virus has been found to stimulate tonsillar lymphocytes better than lymphocytes ... Indeed, human tonsils persistently harbor microbial antigens even when the subject is asymptomatic of ongoing infection. It ... Furthermore, when incubated in vitro with either mitogens or specific antigens, they produce specific antibodies against ...
They prevent differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells. Tumor microvesicles also carry tumor antigen, so they can be an ... regulatory T-lymphocytes have a limited capability to control these cells. In the late stage, the extent of inflammation ... CD154 knockout mice are incapable of producing IgG, IgE, or IgA as a response to antigens. Microvesicles can also transfer ... This mechanism of action can be used in processes such as antigen presentation, where MHC molecules on the surface of ...
The assay required, in addition to the thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, also "macrophages" or antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ... including those borne by the individual in which the differentiation takes place (the self-molecules). The cells with receptors ... The receptors of the T lymphocytes recognize an antigen in association with their own Mhc molecules. The different ... concluded that the class II antigens they demonstrated on the surfaces of lymphocytes were the product of the Ir-1 locus. Later ...
... cluster differentiation antigen-26) by the uterine endometrium of the ewe and cow that costimulates lymphocyte proliferation". ... In particular, sheep uterine serpin can inhibit lymphocyte and natural killer cell function in vitro and reduce natural-killer ...
... received from the T cell during differentiation.[6] Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation ( ... Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
T细胞(英語:T cell、T lymphocyte)是淋巴细胞的一种,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T是胸腺(thymus)而不是甲狀腺(thyroid)的英文缩写。T细胞在骨髓被製造出來之後,在胸腺内進行「新兵訓練」分化成熟為不同亚型的效应T細胞,成 ... Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] ...
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] This also includes ...
... including lymphocytes, antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. This is due ... "Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... As age advances, there is decline in both the production of new naive lymphocytes and the functional competence of memory cell ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ...
... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ...
Another example occurs in activated T cell lymphocytes, i.e., when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC ... altering the behavior or differentiation of nearby cells. Intracrine Local hormone Endocrine system Pandit, Nikita K. (2007). ... complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" IL-2 ...
It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. TI-2 antigens can activate only ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. However ...
Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... 1984). "Natural killer-like function of activated T lymphocytes: differential blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
1995). "A p16INK4a-insensitive CDK4 mutant targeted by cytolytic T lymphocytes in a human melanoma". Science. 269 (5228): 1281- ... "Direct inhibition of G(1) cdk kinase activity by MyoD promotes myoblast cell cycle withdrawal and terminal differentiation" ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ...
"Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med. ... negative regulation of fat cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myoblast differentiation. • positive regulation of ... regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • defense response to bacterium. • positive regulation of interleukin-6 production. • ... osteoclast differentiation. • regulation of tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytokine ...
A wide range of studies has been conducted investigating the role in cell proliferation, differentiation, death, and survival.[ ... PrP immune cells include hematopoietic stem cells, mature lymphoid and myeloid compartments, and certain lymphocytes; also, it ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ... cluster of differentiation 230).[5][6][7][8] Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in ...
Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ... CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) adalah glikoprotein transmembran yang berfungsi sebagai ko-reseptor untuk reseptor sel T. ... "CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2015-09-21.. ...
The B lymphocyte differentiation and maturation pathway that eventually generate IgE-secreting plasma cells go through the ... Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, ... "Soy isoflavone supplementation in healthy men prevents NF-kappa B activation by TNF-alpha in blood lymphocytes". Free Radic. ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... This determines differences in gene expression and cell differentiation. It has been shown that at least some nucleosomes are ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... PSGL-1 is situated on various hematopoietic cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, in which it ...
Many cells of the immune system are required for this process, including lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells) and antigen ... large protein complexes in the nucleus that may have a role in cell growth and differentiation.[46] ... Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... This self-tolerance means that lymphocytes should not incite an immune response against human cellular antigens. Sometimes, ...
positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation. • regulation of T cell differentiation. • positive regulation of ... In rodent lymphocytes, IL-15 prevents apoptosis by inducing BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), an inhibitor of the apoptosis pathway.[10] In ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... natural killer cell differentiation. • positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation. • cell-cell signaling. • ...
The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into granulocytes is termed granulopoiesis. ... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... Multiple intermediate cell types exist in this differentiation process, including myeloblasts and promyelocytes. ...
B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes). Cytogenetic testing on the marrow samples can help classify disease and predict how aggressive ... Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... These genes play important roles in cellular development, proliferation, and differentiation.[6][4][2] Individually, most of ... on the cell surface can help differentiate malignant lymphocyte cells from reactive lymphocytes, white blood cells that are ...
It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and ... not absolute and a definitive diagnoses relies on antibody immunostaining for the presence of unique cluster of differentiation ... "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being stimulated by an antigen. Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were ... Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] Normally ...
Dendritic cell apoptosis - immune system cells called dendritic cells present antigens to active lymphocytes. Dendritic cells ... A normal immune system requires the activation of B-cells by T-cells before the former can undergo differentiation into plasma ... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ...
"Differentiation. 87 (1-2): 44-51. doi:10.1016/j.diff.2014.02.001. PMC 3995830. PMID 24560767.. ... Lamprey leukocytes express surface variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) generated from somatic recombination of leucine-rich ... "Antigen-receptor genes of the agnathan lamprey are assembled by a process involving copy choice". Nature Immunology. 8 (2): ... "Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey" (PDF). Nature. 430 (6996): 174-180. doi ...
In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding.[33] Diversity is ... the peripheral lymphoid organs contain a mixture of B and T cells in at least three stages of differentiation: *Naive B and ... LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... of the total lymphocytes are able to bind to a particular antigen, which suggests that only a few cells respond to each antigen ...
Goding J (1978). "Allotypes of IgM and IgD receptors in the mouse: a probe for lymphocyte differentiation". Contemp Top ... Antibody-antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... The B lymphocyte, in this ready-to-respond form, is known as a "naive B lymphocyte." The naive B lymphocyte expresses both ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 6 (4): 377-86. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400504. PMID 10381631.. ... cluster of differentiation 324). It is a tumor suppressor gene.[6][7] ...
lymphocyte migration. • T cell migration. • thymocyte migration. • DN2 thymocyte differentiation. • DN3 thymocyte ... Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ...
Antigen-specific peripheral shaping of the natural regulatory T cell population. „J Exp Med". 205 (13), s. 3105-3117, grudzień ... A new I subregion (I-J) marked by a locus (Ia-4) controlling surface determinants on suppressor T lymphocytes. „J Exp Med". 144 ... All-trans retinoic acid mediates enhanced T reg cell growth, differentiation, and gut homing in the face of high levels of co- ... De novo production of antigen-specific suppressor cells in vivo. „Nat Protoc". 1 (2), s. 653-661, 2006. PMID: 17802642. ...
... cluster of differentiation 223) after the Seventh Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop in 2000,[7] is a cell ... "Entrez Gene: LAG3 lymphocyte-activation gene 3".. *^ a b c Triebel F, Jitsukawa S, Baixeras E, Roman-Roman S, Genevee C, Viegas ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ...
Lymphocyte development, veebiversioon (vaadatud 27.02.2014) (inglise keeles). *The Development and Survival of Lymphocytes, ... Pinnavalkudeks võivad olla immuunglobuliinid või CD-valgud (cluster of differentiation).[3] Lümfotsüütide tüübi määramiseks ... Aimee L. Edinger ja Craig B. Thompson, Antigen-presenting cells control T cell proliferation by regulating amino acid ... Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al., Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of Adaptive Immunity, Molecular Biology of the Cell, ...
Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
CD69 Association with Jak3/Stat5 Proteins Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation Pilar Martín, Manuel Gómez, Amalia Lamana, ...
... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ...
A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface ...
Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20." CD20 is ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION OF CHIMERIC AND RADIOLABELLED ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN B LYMPHOCYTE RESTRICTED DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGEN FOR ... typically designated as the human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, commonly referred to as CD20. As used ...
Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4−CD8,− cytolytic T lymphocyte *Steven Porcelli ... Rights & permissionsfor article Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4,sup,−,/sup,CD8,sup,,−,/sup, ...
1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope". ... Relationship to lymphoid differentiation". J. Clin. Invest. 84 (2): 506-16. doi:10.1172/JCI114193. PMC 548910. PMID 2547833. ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is ...
It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ...
The discovery of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) … ... Antigens, CD / immunology* * Antigens, Differentiation / ... Targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4): a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma and other malignancies ... The discovery of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and its role as a key negative regulator for T cells has prompted ... Signal 1 requires tumor-associated antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor, while signal 2 occurs through binding of CD80 or ...
Apart from T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells (including cells positive for the terminal transferase marker, myeloid colony- ... This IgM antibody, MBG6, bound to human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and to medullary thymocytes. It was unreactive with ... MBG6 did not have any direct mitogenic action on T lymphocytes. Double immunofluorescence studies using IgM MBG6 and OKT3, and ... Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Antigens, Ly, Binding, Competitive, Fluorescent ...
... ... antigen-encoding loci. Viral DNA restriction fragments are associated with Ly-17 on chromosome 1, H-30, H-3, and H-13 on ... hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) ...
Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A : its differentiation from ...
Antigens, CD * Antigens, Differentiation / therapeutic use* * Autoimmunity * CTLA-4 Antigen * Drug Therapy, Combination ... Background: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 can inhibit T-cell responses and is involved in tolerance ... Tumor regression and autoimmunity in patients treated with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 blockade and interleukin ... against self antigens. We previously reported autoimmune manifestations and objective cancer regressions in patients with ...
Linear differentiation of cytotoxic effectors into memory T lymphocytes. Science 283: 1745-1748. ... Memory CD8+ T cell differentiation: initial antigen encounter triggers a developmental program in naive cells. Nat. Immunol. 2 ... Antigen persistence is required throughout the expansion phase of a CD4+ T cell response. J. Exp. Med. 201: 1555-1565. ... Rapid differentiation of CD8+ T cells into memory cells after early elimination of Ag. Mice were immunized with DNA-gp120 and 5 ...
Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors ... Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, "Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation ...
T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression ... lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. ... Antigen presenting cell. CD:. Cluster of differentiation. CTL:. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte. FBS:. Fetal bovine serum. ... lymphocytes along with an increase in disease activity. That indicates importance of lymphocytes in the inflammatory process ...
0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, Differentiation / immunology. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. ... T-Lymphocyte; 0/BTLA protein, human; 0/Receptors, Immunologic; 0/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; 0/inducible T-cell co- ...
This process is highly dependent on functional interactions between B and T lymphocytes. In vitro activation of CD40 present on ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ...
1999) The role of CTLA-4 in regulating Th2 differentiation. J. Immunol. 163:2634-2639, pmid:10453003. ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Plays an Essential Role in the Function of Cd25+Cd4+ Regulatory Cells That Control ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Plays an Essential Role in the Function of Cd25+Cd4+ Regulatory Cells That Control ... 1998) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) regulates the unfolding of autoimmune diabetes. J. Exp. Med. 187:427 ...
... antigen recognition; lymphokines; tolerance; lymphocyte differentiation; genetic regulation; viral immunity; autoimmunity; ... BIOL 405d Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis Mr. Fulton. BIOL 406d Neurophysiology Ms. Marder. BIOL 407d Structural ... Cell differentiation and selective gene expression in eucaryotic cells. Morphogenesis of cell shape and assembly of cell ... Topics include determination of the neuronal precursors, pattern formation in the nervous system, neuronal differentiation, and ...
Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the ... ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. ... Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory T cell marker involved in ...
... and Human Lymphocyte Antigen Class I Messenger RNAs Associated with Colon Carcinoma Progression and Differentiation. Nobuo ... and Human Lymphocyte Antigen Class I Messenger RNAs Associated with Colon Carcinoma Progression and Differentiation ... and Human Lymphocyte Antigen Class I Messenger RNAs Associated with Colon Carcinoma Progression and Differentiation ... and Human Lymphocyte Antigen Class I Messenger RNAs Associated with Colon Carcinoma Progression and Differentiation ...
Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 45 Antigen Expression on Lymphocyte Subsets / 대한진단검사의학회지 ... Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/ ... NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by ... Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 45 Antigen Expression on L ...
Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. Comparison with CD21 (complement ... Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. Comparison with CD21 (complement ...
Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Chimeric antibody with specificity to human b cell surface antigen.. Int Genetic Eng, Oncogen, July 13, 1988: EP0274394-A2 (49 ...
Abbreviations: CD, cluster of differentiation; CTLA, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, ... Single-antigen varicella vaccine should be con-sidered for HIV-infected children aged 1-8 years who have CD4 percentages ≥15%. ... For lymphocyte-depleting (alemtuzumab and rituximab) agents, the waiting period is ≥6 months, although some experts believe the ... In particular, lymphocyte-depleting agents (thymoglobulin or alemtuzumab) and B cell-depleting agents (rituximab) are more ...
... whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. Thus, in TI-2 immune responses ... However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and ... Antigens varying in affinity for the B cell receptor induce differential B lymphocyte responses. J. Exp. Med. 188, 1453-1464 ( ...
B lymphocytes secrete antigen-presenting vesicles. J Exp Med (1996) 183(3):1161-72. doi:10.1084/jem.183.3.1161 ... Effects of human mesenchymal stem cells on the differentiation of dendritic cells from CD34+ cells. Stem Cells Dev (2007) 16(5 ... Human leukocyte antigen-G5 secretion by human mesenchymal stem cells is required to suppress T lymphocyte and natural killer ... Antigen-presenting cells (APC) phagocytose, process, and present the antigen as peptides on MHC molecules. Virus-specific T ...
  • It functions as a B-cell activation receptor and B-lymphocyte development and differentiation agent, presumably through modulating intracellular calcium levels. (novusbio.com)
  • CD19 is a signal-transduction molecule and CD20 is part of a multimeric receptor complex regulating cell cycle progression and B-cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte responsiveness to S1P. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7), surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4), transcription factors B lymphocyte maturation protein 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling, and repressor miR 146a. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three unique processes - variable, diversity and joining region (V(D)J) recombination, somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination - diversify antigen receptor genes. (nih.gov)
  • After encounter with antigen, B cells further recombine the receptor by somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. (nih.gov)
  • CD19 is a cell surface molecule which assembles with the antigen receptor of B lymphocytes in order to decrease the threshold for antigen receptor-dependent stimulation. (fishersci.com)
  • The present invention is concerned with a series of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against CD22, a B lineage-restricted member of the Ig-superfamily which serves as an adhesion receptor expressed by mature B lymphocytes and is believed to function in the regulation of B cell activation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is largely attributable to the decrease in T-lymphocytes bearing the CD4 receptor (CD4+) (1-5). (cdc.gov)
  • The CD79a molecule (MB-1, Igα) is part of the MB-1/B29 (CD79a/CD79b) disulfide-linked heterodimer which is non-covalently associated with membrane immunoglobulins (Igs) to build the B Cell antigen Receptor (BCR) complex. (beckman.com)
  • The Mac-1 antigen is a macrophage differentiation antigen associated with type three complement receptor (CR3). (atcc.org)
  • The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell (APC) in the context of class I MHC molecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • T lymphocytes that constitutively express the IL-2 receptor a-chain, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3, comprising approximately 10% of the [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Firstly, natural or thymic Tregs (nTregs or tTregs) develop in the thymus through intermediate strength interactions between a self-reacting T cell receptor (TCR) and their cognate antigens, presented by medullary thymic epithelial cells and hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells, leading to upregulation of CD25 [7, 8]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1995. The role of short homology repeats and TdT in generation of the invariant gd antigen receptor repertoire in the fetal thymus. (berkeley.edu)
  • Studies performed on animal models and in vitro on factors involved in activation of certain dendritic cell (DC) populations in autoimmune diseases point to a significant role of recently discovered lectin receptors such as C-type lectin domain family 4, member C receptor (CLEC4C) and lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75) [2, 3]. (termedia.pl)
  • SYK is a positive effector of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulated responses [ PMID: 19670961 , PMID: 19592646 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional cloning of Src-like adapter protein-2 (SLAP-2), a novel inhibitor of antigen receptor signaling. (nih.gov)
  • In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of SLAP-2 in B and T cell lines specifically impaired antigen receptor-mediated signaling events, including CD69 surface marker upregulation, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation and calcium influx. (nih.gov)
  • Signaling induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin was not significantly reduced, suggesting SLAP-2 functions proximally in the antigen receptor signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In antigen receptor-stimulated cells, SLAP-2 associated with several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. (nih.gov)
  • Non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation and signaling. (uniprot.org)
  • Binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) triggers signaling that ultimately leads to B-cell activation. (uniprot.org)
  • By expressing in appropriate time and location, these pathways have different regulatory functions through independent receptors or on different subsets of lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we will discuss the recent scientific findings, clinical experiences, and technological advances for cell processing toward the application of mesenchymal stromal cells as a therapy for treatment of severe GvHD, virus-specific T cells for targeting life-threating infections, and of chimeric antigen receptors-engineered T cells to treat relapsed leukemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of antigen-binding receptors under evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of the B cell to respond in a specific, yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. (fishersci.com)
  • TI-1 antigen , which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen , which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors , which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a critical number of B cell receptors, which leads to accumulation of BCRs and cross activation of these receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLAM receptors triggered by homo- or heterotypic cell-cell interactions are modulating the activation and differentiation of a wide variety of immune cells and thus are involved in the regulation and interconnection of both innate and adaptive immune response. (genecards.org)
  • Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells and BCR in the case of B cells. (els.net)
  • A mature B lymphocyte can be activated by the binding of an antigen to cell surface receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cytotoxic T l's differentiated T lymphocytes, marked by CD4 and CD8 antigens , able to recognize and lyse target cells bearing specific antigens recognized by their antigen receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At the lymphocyte-lymphocyte junction, viral materials and adhesion molecules concentrate in donor cells, in a process involving raft microdomains, whereas on the other side, in target cells, viral receptors (CD4 and CXCR4 or CCR5) and cognate adhesion molecules accumulate in a cytoskeleton- and actin-dependent mechanism ( 24 , 25 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Cellular receptors for BLyS are detected on mature immunoglobulin (Ig) expressing B-lymphocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, the CD20 surface antigen has the potential of serving as a candidate for "targeting" of B cell lymphomas. (justia.com)
  • In essence, such targeting can be generalized as follows: antibodies specific to the CD20 surface antigen of B cells are, eg injected into a patient. (justia.com)
  • the anti-CD20 antibody bound to the CD20 surface antigen may lead to the destruction and depletion of neoplastic B cells. (justia.com)
  • Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (5E9) which defines a human cell surface surface antigen of cell activation, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, the comprehension about lymphocytes and their contribution to the immune response will favor their application in developmental hematology and immunology. (intechopen.com)
  • It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of HLA-A2 melanoma patients, after stimulation in vitro with autologous tumor cells, and that some of these CTL clones lyse most HLA-A2 melanomas. (rupress.org)
  • Under chronic antigen stimulation, repeated cycles of activation occur and lead to progressive and irreversible reduction in CD28 molecule expression on the lymphocyte surface. (hindawi.com)
  • Functional analysis of CD25 + CD4 + T cells in vitro showed that this population failed to proliferate or secrete cytokines in response to polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation, but rather inhibited the activation of normally responsive T cells ( 17 )( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Differential expression of cell activation markers following stimulation of resting human B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte stimulation leads to the activation of selected transcription factors depending on the type of signals. (els.net)
  • Lymphocytes are produced in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow (adult) and represent about 30% of the total white blood cells present in the circulatory system of humans (adult). (justia.com)
  • What type of cell finishes differentiation in thymus? (brainscape.com)
  • The non-protein microbial antigens cannot stimulate classical T cell response by themselves, but they are able to elicit the production of antibodies, so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens . (wikipedia.org)
  • CD8 T cells and B cells also differentiate into cytotoxic thymus‐derived lymphocytes and plasma cells, respectively, driven by specific activation in the context of CD4 T H cells (helper) and the cytokine microenvironment. (els.net)
  • Doherty PC, Effros RB, Bennink J (1977) Heterogeneity of the cytotoxic response of thymus-derived lymphocytes after immunization with influenza viruses. (springer.com)
  • If the thymus is removed or becomes nonfunctional during fetal life, the lymphoid tissue fails to become seeded with the sensitized lymphocytes and the body's cell-mediated arm of immunity fails to develop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). (novusbio.com)
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD19 and CD20 play an important role in the development, differentiation, and activation of B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are two major sub-populations of lymphocytes: T cells and B cells. (justia.com)
  • such activation causes release of biological mediators ("interleukins") which, in essence, stimulate B cells to differentiate and produce antibody ("immunoglobulins") against the antigen. (justia.com)
  • T cells and B cells both comprise cell surface proteins which can be utilized as "markers" for differentiation and identification. (justia.com)
  • Specifically, the CD20 molecule may regulate a step in the activation process which is required for cell cycle initiation and differentiation and is usually expressed at very high levels on neoplastic ("tumor") B cells. (justia.com)
  • Apart from T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells (including cells positive for the terminal transferase marker, myeloid colony-forming cells, myeloblasts, and differentiating myeloid and erythroid cells) were negative. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We aimed to study the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on alloreactivity and effects of T-cell activation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the addition of fewer MSCs (10-1000 cells) led to a less consistent suppression or a marked lymphocyte proliferation in several experiments, ranging from 40 to 190% of the maximal lymphocyte proliferation in control MLCs. (nih.gov)
  • High numbers of MSCs suppress alloreactive T cells, whereas very low numbers clearly stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in some experiments. (nih.gov)
  • NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. (nature.com)
  • Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
  • The leading cause of non-relapse mortality is graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), an inflammatory immune reaction against healthy tissue of the patient, induced by donor-derived T cells and triggered by major and minor histocompatibility antigen differences between HSCT recipient and donor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Subsequent error-prone repair results in individual point mutations (yellow dot in the gene and yellow bar in the immunoglobulin molecules), and B cells with higher affinity for the original antigen are selected. (nih.gov)
  • Differentiation of distinct long-lived memory CD4 T cells in intestinal tissues after oral Listeria monocytogenes infection. (nih.gov)
  • Biological Basis: Tumour Associated Antigens, the Immune Machinery and Its Behaviour Concerning Cancer Cells 5 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Using established bone marrow irradiation chimeras across the multiple minor histocompatibility antigen-disparate, C57BL/6→BALB.B combination, we studied the occurrence of lethal GVHD mediated by CD4 + T cells in recipient mice expressing only hematopoietically derived alloantigens. (jci.org)
  • GVHD occurs when mature T cells in the donor bone marrow (BM) graft respond to host tissues expressing incompatible histocompatibility antigens, represented by either MHC antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens (miHAs). (jci.org)
  • However, in tumor-invaded lymph nodes of most patients, CD8 + T cells directed to melanocyte differentiation antigens or to tumor-restricted antigens (MAGE-3 and NY-ESO-1 epitopes), showed a CCR7 + CD45RA + CD27 + CD28 + perforin − "precursor" phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only in 7 of 23 cases antigen-specific CD8 + T cells in invaded lymph nodes showed a predominant CCR7 − CD45RA − CD27 + CD28 − perforin + "preterminally differentiated" phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, perforin and granzyme B were expressed on a higher fraction of the CD8 + cells surrounding the invading tumor compared with the lymphocytes infiltrating the neoplastic tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the paucity of terminally differentiated CD8 + T cells at tumor site suggests that immunotherapy strategies may require not only the boosting of tumor immunity, but also effective means to promote CD8 + T-cell differentiation in the neoplastic tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is now clear that functionally specialized regulatory T (Treg) cells exist as part of the normal immune repertoire, preventing the development of pathogenic responses to both self- and intestinal antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Our studies reveal that the immune-suppressive function of these cells in vivo is dependent on signaling via the negative regulator of T cell activation cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), as well as secretion of the immune-suppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β. (rupress.org)
  • Subpopulations of peripheral CD4 + T cells have also been shown in several different model systems to be essential for the maintenance of tolerance to tissue-specific self-antigens ( 11 )( 12 )( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • The histologic features were: spongiosis, neutrophilic exocytosis, massive keratinocyte necrosis, shadow cells in the upper epidermis, vacuolization of basal cells, necrotic cells in follicles and sweat glands, dense superficial dermal infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, and strong granulysin expression. (bireme.br)
  • Dr. Craft investigates CD4 T helper cells in conventional and autoimmune responses in mice and in humans, with a primary focus upon the differentiation and function of follicular helper (Tfh) cells that promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GC). (yale.edu)
  • I. Effect of anti-immunoglobulin and enhancing soluble factor on differentiation and proliferation of B cells. (springer.com)
  • CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group 1 CD1 molecules have been shown to present foreign lipid antigens, and specifically a number of mycobacterial cell wall components, to CD1-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are activated by CD1d-presented antigens, and rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically represented by interferon-gamma and IL-4 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often remains true in neoplastic cells from these populations, so that the presence of CD1 antigens can be used in diagnostic immunohistochemistry to identify some thymomas and malignancies arising from T cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. (intechopen.com)
  • However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells , necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • E5039-E5048 ) that c-Myc constitutive expression and Dnmt1 ablation disrupt the differentiation-coupled emergence of the clock from mouse ES cells (ESCs). (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that the programmed gene expression network regulates the differentiation-coupled circadian clock development in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • T cells that survive the selection processes eventually become mature cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + or CD8 + single positive T cells ( Fig. 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antigen distribution across activated B cells influences B-T lymphocyte interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • and the percentage of lymphocytes that are CD4+ T-cells. (cdc.gov)
  • May participate in adhesion reactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells by homophilic interaction. (genecards.org)
  • that is, at early stages or differentiation, all CD4 T cells can be switched to other lineage. (els.net)
  • T H 1 cells collaborate with CD8 T cells for their differentiation into CTLs whereas T H 2 cells provide help to B cells that differentiate into plasma cells. (els.net)
  • it is followed by proliferation and differentiation of various effector and memory cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • amplifier T l's a T lymphocyte of the CD8 cell type that modifies a developing immune response by releasing nonspecific signals to which other T lymphocytes (either effector or suppressor cells) respond. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This induces proliferation of the cell, resulting in a clone of cells specific for that antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All the cells of a clone secrete Ig with identical antigen binding sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These lymphocytes are important in graft rejection and killing of tumor cells and virus-infected host cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lymphocyte proliferation test a functional test of the ability of lymphocytes to respond to mitogens, specific antigens, or allogenic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although evidence for B-cell memory is abundant (K atz 1977), it is not clear whether it is maintained by means of (a) persistence of antigen, (b) continuous exposure to cross-reactive "natural" environmental antigen, or (c) the existence of true memory B cells. (springer.com)
  • Primed CBY lymphocytes, which reject H2-DMα−/− grafts, do not respond to H2-DMα−/− stimulator cells in a secondary MLR. (nih.gov)
  • thy·mus/ ( thi´mus ) a bilaterally symmetrical lymphoid organ consisting of two pyramidal lobules situated in the anterior superior mediastinum, each lobule consisting of an outer cortex, rich in lymphocytes (thymocytes) and an inner medulla, rich in epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bone marrow houses Stem cells that develop into lymphocytes and provide immunity. (scribd.com)
  • T lymphocytes rupture foreign cells or produce toxins while B lymphocytes differentiate in to plasma cells that secrete antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • These cells intercept foreign antigens and then travel to lymph nodes to undergo differentiation and proliferation. (scribd.com)
  • In the BM, MSCs fulfill a supportive function for hematopoietic cells and participate in the control of their renewal and differentiation [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated severe depletion of CD4 + CD8 − single-positive T cells and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) during primary SIV infection which persisted through the entire course of SIV infection. (asm.org)
  • Probably plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation of early B-lineage cells. (genecards.org)
  • These data, along with previous immunophenotypic evidence, unequivocally define that PEL cells represent a preterminal stage of B-cell differentiation and may bear implications for the peculiar growth pattern of this lymphoma. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Further refinement of the detailed B-cell origin of PEL cells may be provided by the study of phenotypic markers specifically associated with late stages of B-cell differentiation, such as the plasma cell-specific CD138 antigen recognized by the B-B4 monoclonal antibody (MoAb). (bloodjournal.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 stimulated extensive tumor necrosis with lymphocyte and granulocyte infiltrates in three of three metastatic melanoma patients and the reduction or stabilization of CA-125 levels in two of two metastatic ovarian carcinoma patients previously vaccinated with irradiated, autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Cancer-associated gene products may stimulate T, B, and natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and phagocytes ( 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cancer cells typically lack the expression of costimulatory molecules necessary to prime potent T lymphocyte responses directly, and dendritic cells infiltrating established tumors generally display limited maturation ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • One strategy to ameliorate this defect in antigen presentation involves vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • These recruited cells efficiently phagocytose and process dying tumor cells, migrate to regional lymph nodes, and stimulate tumor-specific lymphocytes ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • A second therapeutic strategy to improve tumor antigen presentation involves the loading of cancer antigens, in a variety of formulations, onto ex vivo- expanded dendritic cells ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature alpha beta TCR T cells express CD8 alpha beta while gamma delta TCR T cells, a subpopulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and dendritic cells express CD8 alpha alpha. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD8 is found on a T cell subset of normal cytotoxic/suppressor cells which make up approximately 20-35 % of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of peripheral blood null cells, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • iTregs are mostly present in the mucosal interface, by the action of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells [12]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 1997. Events that regulate differentiation of ab TCR+ and gd TCR+ cells from a common precursor. (berkeley.edu)
  • According to some authors, ingestion of apoptotic bodies by DC manifesting CD205+ phenotype initiates production of transforming growth factor  (TGF-) by the cells, which promotes differentiation of Tregs [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • IL-17A increases the production of cytokines enhancing the tissue remodelling process, affects apoptosis of endothelial cells and promotes proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells [6, 7]. (termedia.pl)
  • Acutely infected donor cells were mixed with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled lymphocytes as targets, and viral production was followed by measuring HIV Gag expression at different time points by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • Virological or "infectious" synapses are also formed between dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to HIV particles and target lymphocytes through the same principle ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbohydrate differentiation antigens of murine T cells: Expression on intestinal lymphocytes and intestinal epithelium. (currentprotocols.com)
  • B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS (Trademark)) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines that is expressed on peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Cellular activation [Induction of B lymphocyte proliferation]: Use at an assay dependent dilution. (abcam.com)
  • Efforts to evaluate normal human B cell physiology have resulted in the development of a model in which a resting B cell must progress through stages of activation, proliferation, and differentiation before becoming an immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cell (1-4). (springer.com)
  • B lymphocyte activation by insoluble anti-immunoglobulin: induction of immunoglobulin secretion by a T cell dependent soluble factor. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of B cell activation and differentiation with factors generated by human T cell hybridomas. (springer.com)
  • Amplification of Human B Cell Activation by a Monoclonal Antibody to the B Cell-Specific Antigen CD22, Bp 130/140," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Lymphocyte activation triggers multiple signalling cascades that converge in the cell nucleus to cause significant changes in the pattern of gene expression that determine the phenotype of activated lymphocytes and, ultimately, the type of immune response. (els.net)
  • Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. (els.net)
  • The attenuation of T cell activation by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) further limits the potency of tumor immunity. (pnas.org)
  • CLEC4C or cluster of differentiation 303 (CD303), also known as blood dendritic cell antigen (BDCA-2), is a type II C-type lectin specifically expressed by human plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and plays a significant role in activation of pDC and in development of antigen-specific T lymphocytes [3, 4]. (termedia.pl)
  • ZAP-70 plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Foreign circRNAs are potent adjuvants to induce antigen-specific Tcell activation, antibody production, and anti-tumor immunity invivo, and m6A modification abrogates immune gene activation and adjuvant activity. (stanford.edu)
  • This activation induces their proliferation, differentiation and cytokine production. (intechopen.com)
  • Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. (bvsalud.org)
  • In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and leads to production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunophenotyping relies on detecting specific antigenic determinants on the surface of WBCs by antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies that have been labeled with a fluorescent dye or fluorochrome, such as phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). (cdc.gov)
  • Fazekas de St. Groth S (1981) The joint evolution of antigens and antibodies in the immune system. (springer.com)
  • In murine systems, the administration of antibodies that block CTLA-4 function inhibits the growth of moderately immunogenic tumors and, in combination with cancer vaccines, increases the rejection of poorly immunogenic tumors, albeit with a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens. (pnas.org)
  • Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with cellular antigens," Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. (novusbio.com)
  • In this study we set out to determine whether cytotoxic CD8 + T-cell responses specific for peptides derived from CD19 and CD20 antigens occur in healthy individuals and patients with B-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20. (justia.com)
  • CD20 is expressed during early pre-B cell development and remains until plasma cell differentiation. (justia.com)
  • Radionuclide (B-lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen [CD20] inhibitor). (empr.com)
  • In contrast, in 74 American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IV melanoma patients, we found that development of lymph node metastases is a key event triggering CD8 + T-cell-mediated immunity to self-epitopes encoded by melanocyte differentiation antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, if the immune system is expected to play a role in controlling tumor growth, then immunity to tumor antigens should evolve as a function of tumor progression, possibly despite concurrent development of tumor escape mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are divided on the basis of ontogeny and function into two classes, B and T lymphocytes, responsible for humoral and cellular immunity, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Origin of B- and T-lymphocytes responsible for cellular and humoral immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ability of T lymphocytes to produce cytokines in response to pathogenic organisms is crucial in inducing and maintaining effective innate as well as acquired immunity. (asm.org)
  • Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens. (currentprotocols.com)
  • CD19 deficiency increased the affinity threshold of TI-2 responses, whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Leukemia phenotype studies have demonstrated that the earliest and broadest B cell restricted antigen is the CD19 antigen. (fishersci.com)
  • In this study, we have analyzed PEL for the expression status of CD138/syndecan-1, a molecule selectively associated with late stages of B-cell differentiation and implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix interactions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this and the fact that cows are a natural host of Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen in humans as well, it is hoped that studying cows will yield insights into the group 1 CD1 antigen-presenting system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each B call within the host expresses a different antibody on its surface-thus, one B cell will express antibody specific for one antigen, while another B cell will express antibody specific for a different antigen. (justia.com)
  • Such antibody production most typically ceases (or substantially decreases) when the foreign antigen has been neutralized. (justia.com)
  • Recognition of a human T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen by an IgM monoclonal antibody. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This IgM antibody, MBG6, bound to human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and to medullary thymocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (4F2) which binds to human monocytes and to a subset of activated lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been known for more than 100 years that the persistence of high antibody titers (Fig. 1) can be lifelong after viral infections and that delayed-type hypersensitivity can be demonstrated for a long time by challenging with a protein antigen after prior infection with tubercle bacilli. (springer.com)
  • B lymphocytes secrete antibody, present antigen and regulate immune responses. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD) from CD1 to CD166 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (thermofisher.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene associates with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and is an important chaperone that regulates antigen presentation for immune response. (cancerindex.org)
  • The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • LY9 (Lymphocyte Antigen 9) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CD79a protein is specifically and strictly expressed throughout B lymphocyte differentiation. (beckman.com)
  • Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [ PMID: 12368087 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dynamic changes in intestinal T lymphocytes were not adequately represented in peripheral lymph nodes or blood. (asm.org)
  • peripheral blood, in contrast, represents only 2 to 5% of total lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • T lymphocytes at the periphery, named induced or peripheral Tregs (iTregs or pTregs). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2) Protecting against invasion: Lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues are the site for production of immunocompetent lymphocytes and macrophages in the specific immune response. (scribd.com)
  • Antigenactivated lymphocytes differentiate and proliferate by cloning in the lymph nodes. (scribd.com)
  • Intestinal CD4 + T-cell depletion and the potential for cytokine responses were examined during SIV infection and compared with results for lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. (fishersci.com)
  • the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Schematic representation of B cell maturation in bone marrow and their differentiation in the lymph node [19, 35]. (intechopen.com)
  • We will discuss B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and the later stages of maturation in secondary lymphoid tissues, besides the B cell profiles in interfollicular, perifollicular, and follicular areas. (intechopen.com)
  • PD-L1), the inhibition of antigen-presenting cell maturation, and cytolysis [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This document contains revised guidelines developed by CDC for laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • This document has been developed by CDC to give guidance to laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • We report here the identification of another gene that also directs the expression of an antigen recognized on most melanomas by CTL clones that are restricted by HLA-A2. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, miR-17-92 and FOXO1 act as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigens with expression restricted to the recipient hematopoietic compartment represent prospective immunological targets for graft-versus-leukemia therapy. (jci.org)
  • These data suggest that severe acute CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD across this minor histocompatibility antigen barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloantigens for maximal target-tissue infiltration and injury. (jci.org)
  • It is also detected on erythroid and myeloid progenitors in bone marrow, where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming unit E. (abcam.com)
  • To evaluate this mRNA expression, surgically removed colon tumors as well as matched normal tissue and human colon carcinoma cell lines showing various differentiation states, anchorage dependence, and proliferation states were examined by Northern blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HD39 (B3), A B Lineage-Restricted Antigen Whose Cell Surface Expression is Limited to Resting and Activated Human B Lymphocytes," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and changes in gene expression that characterise activated lymphocytes. (els.net)
  • 1-11 However, the overwhelming majority of cases exhibit a non-B, non-T (ie, indeterminate) phenotype, lacking expression of surface Igs and B-cell-associated antigens. (bloodjournal.org)
  • At the terminal stage of differentiation, the transcription factor Foxp3 is upregulated by the action of IL-2 through CD25, whose signalization induces further CD25 production and high expression of suppressor genes, rendering regulatory functions [7]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Expression of the CD6 T lymphocyte differentiation antigen in normal human brain. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We will provide flow cytometry plots showing strategies to identify and characterize NK, T and B lymphocytes and their subsets in circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • Several polymorphic DNA restriction endonuclease fragments hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) antigen-encoding loci. (scripps.edu)
  • It remains unclear, however, whether donor T cell recognition of these hematopoietically derived minor histocompatibility antigens will induce significant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, the importance of minor histocompatibility antigens derived from nonhematopoietic tissues was demonstrated by the finding that [C57BL/6→BALB.B] chimeric mice succumbed to C57BL/6 CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. (jci.org)
  • Role of the CD22 Human B Cell Antigen in B Cell Triggering by Anti-Immunoglobulin," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the latter subset of patients, by immunohistochemistry in lymph node lesions, we found that CD8 + T lymphocytes intermingling with the neoplastic tissue expressed a CCR7 − CD45RO + /RA − phenotype, whereas CD4 + lymphocytes did not infiltrate the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphoid hematopoiesis is not trivial, because although lymphocytes are found in the bloodstream and their precursor originates in the bone marrow, they mainly belong to the separate lymphatic system, which interacts with the blood circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • see the Perspective by Dustin and Meyer-Hermann) used multiphoton microscopy and imaging flow cytometry to visualize the localization of antigen in B lymphocytes during an immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • The process of measuring the percentage of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the whole blood sample is referred to as ``immunophenotyping by flow cytometry'' (9-14). (cdc.gov)
  • These include antigens, mitogens, soluble factors produced by various cell types, and various pharmacologic agents. (springer.com)
  • TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens , because they induce numerous cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunomodulatory properties of MSCs were first demonstrated by Di Nicola and coauthors, who showed that BM-MSCs inhibited T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One of these is cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which after reaching maturity and fulfilling their effector function undergo apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during the immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have studied the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the growth and differentiation of human tonsillar B lymphocytes cultured in the CD40 system with or without IL-4 or IL-10. (jimmunol.org)
  • Altogether, the present data indicate that PGE2 stimulates human CD40-activated B cell growth, but differently modulates cytokine-induced differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. (umn.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. (umn.edu)
  • Proliferative responses of normal human B - lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels are also used as prognostic indicators in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (8). (cdc.gov)
  • Complete RPMI medium ( appendix 2A ) containing 5% to 10% human AB serum (heat‐inactivated 30 to 60 min at 56°C) or platelet‐poor plasma ( protocol 8 ) or , alternatively, a commercially available serum‐free medium designed for human lymphocytes (e.g. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Schematic representation of T lymphocytes thymic selection [54, 59-63]. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, as melanoma progresses to metastatic disease, T-cell-mediated immune response to tumor antigens could be promoted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therapeutic vaccines that enhance dendritic cell presentation of cancer antigens increase specific cellular and humoral responses, thereby effectuating tumor destruction in some cases. (pnas.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 did not elicit tumor necrosis in four of four metastatic melanoma patients previously immunized with defined melanosomal antigens. (pnas.org)
  • The formulation of genetic and biochemical strategies to identify cancer antigens yielded the unexpected discovery that tumor development frequently evokes immune recognition ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • One mechanism that may contribute to the failure of host defense is inadequate tumor antigen presentation ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • In 28-day toxicology studies in mice, pharmacological effects were restricted to B lymphoid tissues including B lymphocyte hyperplasia, increased splenic weight without significant increase in spleen size, and increased immunoglobulin production. (bioportfolio.com)
  • T- and B-Lymphocyte and Monocyte Differen- tiation 22 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Transcriptional networks (not depicted) are crucial for the differentiation and maintenance of cellular identity. (nih.gov)
  • The emergence of the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator is coupled with cellular differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular differentiation, as well as reprogramming, results in global alterations of the transcriptional program via epigenetic modification such as DNA methylation. (pnas.org)
  • The cytotoxic activity requires firm binding of the lymphocyte to the target cell to produce holes in its plasma membrane with loss of its cellular contents and osmotic lysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since intestinal T lymphocytes are localized at functionally distinct sites, including intestinal epithelium and lamina propria, it will be important to examine isolated cell populations for their cytokine responses. (asm.org)
  • In vitro studies show that BLyS increases B cell number, Ig production, antigen-specific immunoglobulin response, and induces production of secretory IgA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Lymphocytes, amongst others, are critical to the immune system. (justia.com)
  • Debate continues as to whether sarcoidosis results from a dysfunctional immune system or a secondary response to environmental antigens. (medscape.com)
  • We used simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as an animal model for HIV to determine pathogenic effects of SIV on intestinal T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • It is not known whether intestinal T lymphocytes exhibit similar functional defects. (asm.org)
  • Local concentrations of lymphocytes in these systems and other areas are called lymphatic nodules. (scribd.com)