Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Cell SeparationCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Mice, Inbred C3HCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mice, Inbred CBANuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Cell-mediated immunity: dealing a direct blow to pathogens. (1/2954)

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are essential for defence against viral infections. Recent data demonstrating direct killing of intracellular bacteria by granulysin, a protein released from the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, emphasize the contribution of these lymphocytes to the control of tuberculosis.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (2/2954)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (3/2954)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

CD5 negatively regulates the T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction pathway: involvement of SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. (4/2954)

The negative regulation of T- or B-cell antigen receptor signaling by CD5 was proposed based on studies of thymocytes and peritoneal B-1a cells from CD5-deficient mice. Here, we show that CD5 is constitutively associated with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity in Jurkat T cells. CD5 was found associated with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain containing hematopoietic phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in both Jurkat cells and normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts. This interaction was increased upon T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 cell stimulation. CD5 co-cross-linking with the TCR-CD3 complex down-regulated the TCR-CD3-increased Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat cells. In addition, stimulation of Jurkat cells or normal phytohemagglutinin-expanded T lymphoblasts through TCR-CD3 induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein substrates, which was substantially diminished after CD5 cross-linking. The CD5-regulated substrates included CD3zeta, ZAP-70, Syk, and phospholipase Cgammal but not the Src family tyrosine kinase p56(lck). By mutation of all four CD5 intracellular tyrosine residues to phenylalanine, we found the membrane-proximal tyrosine at position 378, which is located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM)-like motif, crucial for SHP-1 association. The F378 point mutation ablated both SHP-1 binding and the down-regulating activity of CD5 during TCR-CD3 stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of the CD5 ITIM-like motif, which by binding to SHP-1 mediates the down-regulatory activity of this receptor.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (5/2954)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Cutting edge: negative selection of immature thymocytes by a few peptide-MHC complexes: differential sensitivity of immature and mature T cells. (6/2954)

We quantitated the number of peptide-class II MHC complexes required to affect the deletion or activation of 3A9 TCR transgenic thymocytes. Deletion of immature double positive thymocytes was very sensitive, taking place with approximately three peptide-MHC complexes per APC. However, the activation of mature CD4+ thymocytes required 100-fold more complexes per APC. Therefore, a "biochemical margin of safety" exists at the level of the APC. To be activated, autoreactive T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissues require a relatively high level of peptide-MHC complexes.  (+info)

Anti-viral strategies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes are manifested through a variety of granule-bound pathways of apoptosis induction. (7/2954)

Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells together constitute a major defence against virus infection, through their ability to induce apoptotic death in infected cells. These cytolytic lymphocytes kill their targets through two principal mechanisms, and one of these, granule exocytosis, is essential for an effective in vivo immune response against many viruses. In recent years, the authors and other investigators have identified several distinct mechanisms that can induce death in a targeted cell. In the present article, it is postulated that the reason for this redundancy of lethal mechanisms is to deal with the array of anti-apoptotic molecules elaborated by viruses to extend the life of infected cells. The fate of such a cell therefore reflects the balance of pro-apoptotic (immune) and anti-apoptotic (viral) strategies that have developed over eons of evolutionary time.  (+info)

CD69 expression discriminates MHC-dependent and -independent stages of thymocyte positive selection. (8/2954)

In the thymus, phenotypically and functionally mature single positive cells are generated from immature CD4+8+ precursors by a process known as positive selection. Although this event is known to involve alphabetaTCR ligation by peptide/MHC complexes expressed on thymic stromal cells, it is clear that positive selection is a multistage process involving transition through an intermediate CD4+8+69+ phase as well as subsequent postselection phases. By analyzing the development of preselection CD4+8+69- and intermediate CD4+8+69+ thymocytes in the presence of MHC class I-deficient, MHC class II-deficient, and MHC double-deficient thymic stromal cells, we investigated the role of MHC molecules at three distinct points during positive selection. Although the initiation of positive selection is critically dependent upon MHC interactions, we find the that later stages of maturation, involving the differentiation of CD4+8- and CD4-8+ cells from CD4+8+69+ thymocytes, occur in the absence of MHC molecules. Moreover, an analysis of the postselection proliferation of newly generated CD4+8- and CD4-8+ thymocytes shows that this also occurs independently of MHC molecules. Thus, our data provide direct evidence that, although positive selection is a multistage process initiated by TCR-MHC interactions, continuation of this process and subsequent postselection events are independent of ongoing engagement of the TCR.  (+info)

*CTL-mediated cytotoxicity

This results in proliferation and differentiation of the antigen-activated precursor cell into a functional effector CTL. In ... Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are generated by immune activation of cytotoxic T cells (Tc cells). They are generally CD8+, ... In the second phase, affector CTLs destroy target cells by recognizing the antigen-MHC class I complex. In phase one, effector ... This step allows the cell to become licensed to an antigen presenting cell. Second, a costimulatory signal is transmitted by ...

*CD20

"Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...

*NT5E

... and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored lymphocyte differentiation antigen ... The enzyme is used as a marker of lymphocyte differentiation. Consequently, a deficiency of NT5 occurs in a variety of ... 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135318 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Alan Williams (immunologist)

... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... The success linked to this work on Thy1 prompted Williams to expand the search for surface molecules on lymphocytes that could ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ... "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) spans the lipid bilayer and contains a cytoplasmic ...

*LSP1

... a phosphorylated human lymphocyte differentiation and activation antigen". Eur J Immunol. 20 (11): 2417-23. doi:10.1002/eji. ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... "Entrez Gene: LSP1 lymphocyte-specific protein 1". Jongstra-Bilen J, Young AJ, Chong R, Jongstra J (1990). "Human and mouse LSP1 ... 1993). "Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family". Genomics. 15 (3): 515-20. doi: ...

*Sir William Dunn School of Pathology

Differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes. Alan F. Williams, Giovanni Galfrè and Cesar Milstein [1][dead link] [2][dead link ... The recirculation of lymphocytes from blood to lymph in the rat. GOWANS JL. Cell, Vol 12, 663-673, (1977)Analysis of cell ... During the 1950s Gowans pioneering work sorted out the life cycle of that cell, He showed that the small lymphocyte ... Florey suggested he should investigate the lymphocyte, a cell whose life history was at that time completely obscure. ...

*CD1

"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. doi ... CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...

*MLANA

"A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas". J. Exp. ... The same name is also used to refer to the gene which codes for the antigen. The MART-1/melan-A antigen is specific for the ... of Belgium called the gene melan-A, presumably an abbreviation for "melanocyte antigen." MART-1/melan-A is a protein antigen ... Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...

*Chang Yi Wang

Human lymphocyte bearing 1a-like antigens [now termed HLA-DK or class 1 MHC antigen]: Absence in patients with infantile ... Activation of autologous reactive helpter T lymphocytes for differentiation of human B lymphocytes. J Immunol 1981: 126:2483. ... Expression of a 1a-like antigen on human granulocytes during early stages of differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1977; 74: ... A new human B lymphocyte surface antigen (BL2) detected by a monoclonal antibodies: Distribution of benign and malignant ...

*CD226

... is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation ... CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX ... Cluster of differentiation Nectin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150637 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes". Immunity. 4 (6): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613 ...

*CD19

B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. The ability of the B ... As on T cells, several surface molecules form the antigen receptor and form a complex on B lymphocytes. The (almost) B cell- ... Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Omori SA, Tedder TF (1992). "Structure of the genes encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes ...

*T independent antigen (TI)

It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. TI-2 antigens can activate only ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. However ...

*Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1

... leading to further T cell differentiation. LFA-1 is part of the family of leukocyte integrins that are recognised by their ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK ... It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to ...

*40S ribosomal protein S19

... and human lymphocyte antigen class I messenger RNAs associated with colon carcinoma progression and differentiation". Cancer ... This suggests a possible extra-ribosomal function for this gene in erythropoietic differentiation and proliferation, in ...

*Visna virus

... will continuously present VMV antigens inducing T-lymphocytes to produce cytokines that in turn induce the differentiation of ... This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and ... MR is involved in recognizing the surface of pathogens and is involved in phago- and endocytosis and mediating antigen ... of maturity/differentiation of the monocytes. Infected differentiated monocytes, also known as macrophages, ...

*Uterine serpin

... cluster differentiation antigen-26) by the uterine endometrium of the ewe and cow that costimulates lymphocyte proliferation". ... In particular, sheep uterine serpin can inhibit lymphocyte and natural killer cell function in vitro and reduce natural-killer ...

*Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia

CFU-stimulating T cells indicated that they expressed the CD4 but not CD8 cell surface Cluster of differentiation antigen, ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, also termed lymphocyte variant eosinophilia, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or ... a antibody that binds to the CD52 antigen on mature lymphocytes thereby marking them for destruction by the body). The few ... is caused by aberrant population of lymphocytes. These aberrant lymphocytes function abnormally by stimulating the ...

*CD48

... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... CD48 was the first B-cell-specific cellular differentiation antigen identified in transformed B lymphoblasts. The gene for CD48 ... "Epstein-Barr virus superinduces a new human B cell differentiation antigen (B-LAST 1) expressed on transformed lymphoblasts". ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ...

*LY75

Lymphocyte antigen 75 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY75 gene. LY75 has also recently been designated CD205 ( ... cluster of differentiation 205). CD205 is also known as DEC-205. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000054219 - Ensembl, May ... "Entrez Gene: LY75 lymphocyte antigen 75". Tungekar MF, Gatter KC, Ritter MA (1996). "Bladder carcinomas and normal urothelium ... 1999). "Intrathymic function of the human cortical epithelial cell surface antigen gp200-MR6: single-chain antibodies to ...

*CD8A

The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen ... CD8a (Cluster of Differentiation 8a), is a human gene. The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T ... Sukhatme VP, Sizer KC, Vollmer AC, Hunkapiller T, Parnes JR (1985). "The T cell differentiation antigen Leu-2/T8 is homologous ... a human T-cell differentiation antigen CD8 (Leu2) cDNA mapped to 2p12". Nucleic Acids Res. 14 (19): 7817. doi:10.1093/nar/14.19 ...

*LY9

T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... CD229 (cluster of differentiation 229). LY9 has been shown to interact with SH2D1A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122224 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological ...

*Prolymphocyte

... that the differentiation of cells in the lymphocyte line is not always simply chronologic but rather depends on antigen ... A prolymphocyte is a white blood cell with a certain state of cellular differentiation in lymphocytopoiesis. In the 20th ... it was believed that a sequence of general maturation changed cells from lymphoblasts to prolymphocytes and then to lymphocytes ... exposure, such that, for example, lymphocytes can become lymphoblasts. The size is between 10 and 18 μm. Pluripotential ...

*Lutzner cells

When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers ... This rearrangement occurs early in the differentiation process and creates novel T-cell receptors that mimic the structure of ... They are a form of T-lymphocytes that has been mutated This atypical form of T-lymphocytes contains T-cell receptors on the ... It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells ...

*CD79B

It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 10: 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy.10.040192.000525. PMID 1591006. ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ...

*Alfred Singer

He is best known for his work regarding lymphocyte development, particularly the differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double ... Singer's work is foundational in the understanding of T cells and MHC-restricted antigen recognition. Singer's work explores ...

*PSMD7

Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. To meet such complicated demands in biological ... the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen ...

*B-cell activating factor

CD257 antigen; cluster of differentiation 257). BAFF is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand ... Tian RY, Han W, Yu Y, Chen Y, Yu GS, Yang SL, Gong Y (December 2003). "[The immunopotentiation of human B lymphocyte stimulator ... It has been also shown to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. BAFF is a 285-amino acid ... BAFF is also known as B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) and TNF- and APOL-related leukocyte expressed ligand (TALL-1) and the ...
Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. for the forecast year up to 2029. The global t lymphocyte activation antigen cd80 market ...
Despite strong evidence supporting a pathway of human T cell differentiation characterized by changes in the expression of CCR7, CD28, CD27 and CD62L, few studies have addressed the mechanisms of pathway regulation. Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)-positive skin-homing CD8(+) T cells expressed significantly elevated levels of activation markers compared with CLA(-) CD8(+) T cells in individuals (n = 27) with cutaneous atopic disease. Despite such an activated phenotype, CLA(+) T cells expressed significantly higher levels of CCR7 than a CLA(-) T cell subset. Interleukin (IL)-4 was found to dramatically promote CCR7 expression by antigen-specific CD8(+) cells. Furthermore, skin-homing CD8(+) T cells from individuals with severe disease produced significantly less IL-10 than those derived from mildly affected atopic subjects. Thus in a T-helper 2 dominated disease, tissue-specific CD8(+) T cells show altered CCR7 expression and cytokine production, which may contribute to continued lymph node
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Independently of Cutaneous Lymphocyte of Skin-Homing Properties Occurs E-Selectin Binding CD4 T Cells: Acquisition In Vitro Differentiation from Naive to Mature by Tetsuo Shiohara et al.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Clemente Associates Inc \ MOUSE CELL SURFACE MOLECULES cd 19 \ cd19m50 for more molecular products just contact us
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
It has been 16 years since the United States have won a World Championship in Basketball. Kevin Durant, Chancey Billups and Derrick Rose, members of this years US squad, are being compared to the 2008 US Olympic team which brought home a gold medal. Durant and Rose are no Kobe and LeBron but they are much better for this team and selling the sport at the this level. Dont get me wrong, I respect Bryant and James but I dont think Kevin Durant is given enough credit for his leadership skills. During this tournament, Durant has been given a chance to play aggressively and put points up on the scoreboard- in some very close games, I might add. I think it is good the US are not dealing Brazil and other clubs blow-outs. It shows there is more talent out there beyond the NBA which will only help the game grow. Right now, Durant and company have 4 days off before meeting the number 4 seed from Group A on September 6th. As for Canada, they sit at number 5 in Group D and are taking on France later today ...
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is accounting for over one million deaths annually due to immune-mediated chronic liver damage. Natural killer (NK) cells are abundant in the liver and contribute in HBV persistence. NK cytotoxic effects are controlled by signals from activating and inhibitory receptors. HBV may circumvent host antiviral immunity via the regulation of NK receptors and their ligands. We investigated the effect of viral replication and HBeAg mutations on NK mediators expression in the livers of chronic HBV (CHB) patients and in cell cultures.. Methods HBV monomers bearing hotspot mutations in the basal core promoter and precore region were transfected into HepG2 cells using a plasmid-free assay. Serum viremia and liver HBV RNA were measured in 19 CHB patients. The expression of HBV RNA and of NKG2D ligands, B7H6, DNAX accessory molecule-1, lectin-like transcript 1 (LLT1), LFA-1 and TRAIL was measured in the livers of CHB patients and transfected cells.. Results In general, high ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Clemente Associates Inc \ HUMAN CELL SURFACE MOLECULES cd 45 all human leukocytes \ cd45 50 for more molecular products just contact us
Anti-CD90 / Thy1 antibody [MRC OX-7] (ab225) has been cited in 35 publications. References for Mouse, Rat, Rabbit in Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IF, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB
pep:putative chromosome:VEGA66:1:60977927:60995797:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000002307 transcript:OTTMUST00000004596 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Icos description:inducible T-cell co-stimulator ...
cdna:putative chromosome:VEGA66:1:60977927:60995797:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000002307 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Icos description:inducible T-cell co-stimulator ...
In advanced human atherosclerotic plaques infiltrating T cells congregate at sites of plaque rupture. However, little is known about the systemic activation of circulating T-cells in acute coronary syndromes as a prerequisite for recruitment to atherosclerotic lesions. As a measure for specific lymphocyte activation we analyzed IFN-gamma production of T cells after stimulation with a superantigen and expression of CXCR-3 and CCR-3 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina (uAP) or stable angina (sAP). Furthermore, concentrations of the circulating cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-12 p70 and RANTES that modify T cell function were measured. In uAP an increased Th1 and a decreased Th2 response was identified by enhanced interferon-gamma generation of T lymphocytes, increased levels of IL-1ß, IL-12 p70 and RANTES and decreased expression of CCR3. In AMI a systemic inflammatory reaction predominates with enhanced expression of the early activation marker CD69 ...
Anti-ICOS antibody conjugated to Biotin [7E.17G9] validated for Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to fusion protein
Buy our Recombinant Human GNLY protein. Ab117675 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free…
B7-H2, 0.1 mg. B7-H2, a member of the B7 family and the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a 40 kD protein also known as B7RP-1, B7h, B7-H2, GL50 and ICOS Ligand.
In this paper, we provide evidence that Bcl11b is a critical transcription factor for CD8+ T cell immune response by controlling two critical aspects of the CD8 immunity: Ag-specific expansion in response to infection, and cytolysis. Specifically, we demonstrate that Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to efficiently expand in response to infection with L. monocytogenes or influenza and produced less perforin and granzyme B. Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells presented reduced Ag-specific proliferation, but not increased apoptosis, during the course of the immune response. TCR signaling after Ag-specific activation is required for naive CD8+ T lymphocytes to enter cell cycle and expand. After infection, the majority of Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T lymphocytes were found blocked in G0/G1 (unpublished data). Furthermore, Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T lymphocytes presented reduced up-regulation of the early activation marker CD69 after TCR activation, which is suggestive of altered TCR signaling. In terms of the ...
Anti-epileptic drugs (AED) are known to cause cutaneous adverse drug-induced reactions. The pathogenesis of these drug-induced reactions remains poorly understood. In our previous multicenter prospective study, we evidenced reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) and/or Human Herpes Virus 7 (HHV-7) in 76% of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom (DRESS) patients. As a consequence of this increased viral antigen exposure, EBV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes that expressed high levels of Cutaneous Lymphocyte-associated Antigen (CLA) homing markers of skin were found both in blood and in involved organs including skin ...
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) can be broadly categorised as either on-target or off-target. On-target ADRs arise as a direct consequence of the pharmacological properties of the drug and are therefore predictable and dose dependant. On-target ADRs comprise the majority (,80%) of ADRs, relate to the drugs interaction with its known pharmacological target and are a result of a complex interplay of genetic and ecologic factors. In contrast off-target ADRs, including immune mediated ADRs (IM-ADRs), are due to unintended pharmacological interactions such as inadvertent ligation of host cell receptors or non-pharmacological interactions mediated through an adaptive immune response ...
Rat T cells and thymocytes were induced to proliferate by a pair of mAbs, MRC OX-54 and MRC OX-55, directed against rat CD2. Accessory cells were required but their role was not simply for crosslinking of the two mAbs, as neither MRC OX-54 nor MRC OX-55 alone, in the presence of a crosslinking second antibody, caused T cell mitogenesis. Nor could the phorbol ester PMA replace either antibody. The two mAbs recognized distinct epitopes on rat CD2; however, MRC OX-54 could partially block MRC OX-55 binding whereas the reverse situation was not seen. A further CD2 epitope was recognized by two mutually competitive mAbs, MRC OX-34 and MRC OX-53, which were not mitogenic. Neither MRC OX-34 nor MRC OX-53 affected the binding of MRC OX-54 or MRC OX-55, yet they prevented the mitogenic effect induced by these mAbs. The presence of mAbs against CD4 and the IL-2-R also abrogated this mitogenesis, whereas an anti-CD5 mAb augmented the CD2-induced proliferation. ...
Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
A trapped bead (right) decorated with a foreign antigen is actively placed on a T cell (left) and force is applied to facilitate recognition by the T cell receptor complex.
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, Sports, Science and more, Sign up and share your playlists.
The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins include signal-transducing heterotrimeric G proteins (for example, Gs, Gi), smaller GTP-binding proteins that function in protein sorting, and the oncogenic protein p21ras. The T cell receptor complexes CD4-p56lck and CD8-p56lck were found to include a 32- to 33-kilodalton phosphoprotein (p32) that was recognized by an antiserum to a consensus GTP-binding region in G proteins. Immunoprecipitated CD4 and CD8 complexes bound GTP and hydrolyzed it to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). The p32 protein was covalently linked to [alpha-32P]GTP by ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling. These results demonstrate an interaction between T cell receptor complexes and an intracellular GTP-binding protein. ...
Background: Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) is a major complication of allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Targeting costimulatory molecules with antagonist antibodies could dampen the excessive immune response that occurs, while preserving the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) of the allogeneic response. Previous studies using a mouse model of GVHD have shown that targeting the T cell inducible costimulatory (ICOS, CD278) receptor is beneficial but it is unclear whether the same applies to human cells. Methods: Here, we assessed whether a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to human ICOS was able to antagonize the costimulatory signal delivered in vivo to human T cells. To test this hypothesis, we used a xenogeneic model of GVHD where human PBMCs were adoptively transferred in immunocompromised NOD.SCID.gc-null mice (NSG). Results: In this model, control mice invariably lost weight and died by day 50. In contrast, 65% of the mice receiving a single injection of the anti-hICOS mAb survived beyond
Our project is directly responsive to the program objectives by applying high throughput technologies to isolate small molecules capable of disrupting or modify...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
In this study, we describe broad defects in T cell function in two siblings with a novel deficiency of human ICOS. Most of the abnormalities presented in this study have not been reported in humans, and some have not been reported in the murine model of ICOS deficiency.. The marked decline in two T cell subpopulations, memory CD4 T cells and CTLA-4+CD45RO+ Tregs, can be explained, at least in part, by a recent observation that the ICOS-ICOS-L interaction plays an important role in the expansion and survival of these effector T cells (23, 60).. With regard to CD4 memory T cells, we observed significant reductions in the numbers of both TCMs and TEMs in the steady state, which were not observed in the previously reported cases of human ICOS deficiency (31, 32, 33). A reduction in the number of TEMs, but not of TCMs, was demonstrated in ICOS knockout mice by Burmeister et al. (23). TEMs were decreased up to 4-fold in the steady state; the decrease was more pronounced in older mice. TEMs and TCMs ...
OBJECTIVE: The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs763361 of the CD226 gene, which encodes DNAX accessory molecule 1, which is involved in T cell costimulation pathways, has recently been identified as a genetic risk factor for autoimmunity. The purpose of this study was to test for association of the CD226 rs763361 polymorphism with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in European Caucasian populations. METHODS: CD226 rs763361 was genotyped in 3,632 individuals, consisting of a discovery sample (991 SSc patients and 1,008 controls) and a replication sample (999 SSc patients and 634 controls). All study subjects were of European Caucasian origin. Expression of CD226 was assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 21 healthy donors genotyped for CD226 rs763361. RESULTS: The CD226 rs763361 T allele was found to be associated with SSc in both the discovery and the replication samples, showing the following results in the combined populations: odds ratio (OR) 1.22 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] ...
Intralesional immunostimulatory therapy is a rational approach for in transit metastatic melanoma, as lesions are accessible and provide a source of matched tumor antigen to facilitate local and systemic immune responses. Moreover, the lesions are accessible for evaluation of the local immune response at the site of disease. To examine the immunological status at the site of disease during the course of intralesional therapy, T cells were extracted from lesions, cultured to preserve their in vivo phenotype, and expanded for functional analysis. T cells isolated from the skin lesions two weeks after initiation of intralesional therapy produced elevated Th1 cytokines relative to pre-therapy lesions. In contrast, T cells isolated at nine weeks produced decreased Th1 cytokines, but elevated Th2 cytokines, soluble IL-2Ra and IL-6, mediators associated with tumor progression. Expression of skin homing receptor cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) on lesion derived T cells correlated with Th1 cytokine ...
T cells carrying the surface molecule CD4 are responsible for directing the behaviour of other immune cells. The Th1 and Th2 cells within this class activate the immune response. Inhibitory influences on the immune response come from the regulatory T cells, also known as Treg cells. These carry CD4. It has been recognized that a…
cdw210a rat anti mouse cdw210a azide free | order cdw210a rat anti mouse cdw210a azide free | How to use: cdw210a rat anti mouse cdw210a azide free | support help for
cdw210a rat anti human cdw210a azide free | order cdw210a rat anti human cdw210a azide free | How to use: cdw210a rat anti human cdw210a azide free | support help for
We made the drug popular and led to lower prices. How does it work? Is it effective? What are the side effects. Buy Cialis From Icos. 24h Customer Support. Support 24/7.
BACKGROUND: Activated T cells play a key role in allograft rejection. T cell activation requires signaling via the T cell receptor as well as costimulatory signals. Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), with its ligand B7RP-1, is a recently discovered costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family. The role of this signaling pathway during the early phases of kidney allograft rejection is not clear so far. METHODS: Kidneys were orthotopically transplanted from BALB/c to C57BL/6 mice. Animals were assigned to five experimental groups: blocking anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody, ICOS fusion protein, anti-B7RP1 monoclonal antibody, B7RP-1 fusion protein, and control immunoglobulin G. RESULTS: Survival was significantly reduced in animals treated with ICOS monoclonal antibody (mAb) and B7RP-1 Fc as compared with controls. These animals had also a lower number of apoptotic graft infiltrating T cells, whereas the expression of intracellular interferon-gamma in CD3CD4 T cells was increased. Animals treated ...
Project:The suppressive role of sCD83 in a mouse model of diabetes; phenotype and mechanism of action studies. The hypothesis being addressed in this proposal is that a soluble form of the cell surface molecule CD83 will prevent or treat ongoing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice based upon preliminary findings as well as previous The role of GRAIL in the induction of anergic and regulatory CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment. GRAIL (RNF128) is a type 1 transmembrane RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that localizes to the transferrin-recycling endocytic pathway. While very little expression in resting CD4+ T cells is observed, GRAIL mRNA and protein becomes upregulated in T cells exposed to antigen in the absence of appropriate costimulation or following peptide administration in a tolerazing fashion in vivo. CD4+ T cells infiltrating tumor masses seem to become tolerant to the tumor and in certain cases may differentiate into Tregs, which may block the anti-tumor immune response. In most cases the ...
2002년 AECG 분류 기준에 포함되었던 주관적인 건조 증상은 새로운 분류 기준에서 제외되었다. 그러나 AECG 분류 기준의 항목에 있는 건조 증상에 관한 질문을 이용하여 안구건조나 구강 건조 중 하나만 동반되어 있는 환자에도 2016년 ACR/EULAR 분류 기준을 적용할 수 있게 되었다. 또한 2016년 ACR/EULAR 분류 기준에서는 쇼그렌증후군이 전신 질환임을 고려하여, 건조 증상이 없는 환자에서도 EULAR Sjögrens Syndrome Disease Activity Index의 도메인 중에서 한 개 이상이라도 양성이 확인되면 쇼그렌증후군의 분류 기준을 적용할 수 있다. 특히 전신 증상이나 B세포 활성화 지표들(B cell activation markers)은 특히 건조 증상은 거의 없는 젊은 환자들에서 흔하게 발생한다. 2016년 ACR/EULAR 분류 기준이 임상 연구에 포함될 환자를 모집하기 위한 연구 목적으로 만들어진 점을 고려하였을 때, ...
Role of γ/δ T cell surface molecules and soluble mediators in DC maturation. (A) CD40 ligand cell surface expression by JR.2. γ/δ T cells. CD40 ligand expre
Purified Anti-human CD275 B7-H2 ICOSL Antibody Anti-CD275 - B7-H2, a member of the B7 family and the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a 40 kD protein also known as B7RP-1, B7h, B7-H2, GL50 and ICOS Ligand.
Results: Streptococcal infections were more frequent among psoriasis patients, in particular infections by group C streptococci. No difference was observed in the expression of antimicrobial peptide LL-37. However, we observed that LL-37 had a number of immunomodulatory effects and that its expression within the tonsils was restricted to infiltrated leukocytes and GC-DCs. Tonsil T cells from psoriasis tonsils had a higher expression of the skin-homing molecule cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA) and their frequency in tonsil correlated with their levels in blood. Furthermore, these cells expressed various Th1/Th17-associated molecules. These skin-homing T cells responded to the keratin/streptococcal peptides in a Th1/Th17 manner. Finally, a clear histological difference was observed between the tonsils of psoriatic and non-psoriatic individuals. Conclusion: It can be concluded that palatine tonsils are important for the pathogenesis of psoriasis in a subset of patients and that the ...
Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (CD3E) ELISA Kit can measure Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
Nash, L; Good, R A.; Goldstein, G; and Incefy, G S., "In vitro differentiation of two surface markers for immature t cells by the synthetic pentapeptide, thymopoietin32-36 (tp-5). Abstr." (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 2217 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Discussion and Commentary. The first observation well note is that there has been a substantial amount of healthcare ICO activity.. However, we would label the overall performance of the healthcare ICOs as "disappointing". Only 5 reported positive returns since the date of their listing and 2 in 2018 to-date.. The overall ICO market has been declining since January 2018. Monthly funds raised by ICOs are down, and funding has shifted towards a few mega projects (like EOS and Telegram), big private sales, and smart contract platforms.. During the bull market of 2017, healthcare ICOs greatly benefited from burgeoning prices and market euphoria. It gave them access to easy capital (often non-dilutive as well), created a buzz around the industry, drove consumer interest in their products, made it is easier to hire top talent, and resulted in happy investors.. The bear markets of 2018 have hit healthcare ICOs hard. It has become extremely difficult to raise capital, ICOs dont have organic user ...
First immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of rat MRC OX-2 antigen (also known as CD200) and similar proteins. Ig1_ MRC-OX-2_like: domain similar to the first immunoglobulin (Ig) domain of rat MRC OX-2 antigen (also known as CD200). MRC OX-2 is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in a variety of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in rats. It has a similar broad distribution pattern in humans. MRC OX-2 may regulate myeloid cell activity. The protein has an extracellular portion containing two Ig-like domains, a transmembrane portion, and a cytoplasmic portion. ...
Creative Biostructure can provide customized Mempro™ cell-based protein production services for T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain
Wikia is not accessible if youve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected ...
Furthermore, human cells but not rodent cells are killed by poliovirus in vitro. Monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell and in human spinal cord poliovirus receptor site (PVR locus* 19q13.2-q13.3) the human receptor for polio virus CD155 additional refinments or modifinments are required to permit attachment of PVR and nectin that localize in the cell-matrix adhesions and binding of a soluble DNAM-1-Fc molecule [DNAX accessory molecule 1] was detected at the apical surface of the endothelium above the endothelial cell junctions, DANM cooperated with NKp30 in the NK-mediated nectin-1 Mabs killing of both immature and mature dendritic cells mediated by UL141 Merlin blocking surface expression of CD155 (natural cytotoxicity receptors) to lysis of NK-mediated killing in the degree of autolysis in the probabilities of the two lytic enzymes exotoxin and endotoxin nectins and not the lysogenic lifecycle before induction by the daughter cell considerations are at the cell junctions during ...
Animals. C57BL/6 (H-2b) and BALB/c (H-2d) mice were purchased from Taconic Farms (Germantown, New York, USA). WT 129S1/SvImJ (H-2b) and B10.D2 (H-2d) mice were from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, Maine, USA). ICOS-deficient (ICOS-/-) 129S4/SvJae (H-2b) mice (14, 29) were maintained in accordance with the institutional guidelines of the Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. BALB/c background signal transducer and activator of transcription-4-/- (STAT4-/-) or STAT6-/- mice were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Animals were used at 6-10 weeks of age.. Reagents and antibodies. The anti-ICOS mAb 7E.17G9 (rat IgG2b isotype)(18), anti-B7h mAb HK5.3 (rat IgG2a isotype) (36), and anti-CTLA-4 mAb 4F10 (a kind gift of J. Bluestone) (37) have all been described previously. These antibodies were produced by Bioexpress Cell Culture Services (West Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA). Anti-CD8-depleting mAbs were prepared from hybridoma 2.43 (rat anti-mouse CD8) obtained from American ...
vanDongen JJL, Langerak AW, Bruggemann M, et al. Design and standardization of PCR primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of conserved regions within the T Cell Receptor Gamma protocols for detection of clonal immunoglobulin and t-cell receptor gene recombinations in suspect lymphoproliferations: report of the BIOMED-2 concerted Action BMH4-CT98-3936. Leukemia 2003;17:2257-2317.. ...
Complete information for ICOSLG gene (Protein Coding), Inducible T-Cell Costimulator Ligand, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ICOSLG gene (Protein Coding), Inducible T-Cell Costimulator Ligand, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
With the ebola scare making headlines around the world and threatening the lives of many, more than 134 nations came together to pass a resolution pledging to tackle the deadly outbreak with urgency and vigor.

Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigens-differentiation-t-lymphocyte.html

Association of endogenous viral loci with genes encoding murine histocompatibility and lymphocyte differentiation antigensAssociation of endogenous viral loci with genes encoding murine histocompatibility and lymphocyte differentiation antigens

... ... antigen-encoding loci. Viral DNA restriction fragments are associated with Ly-17 on chromosome 1, H-30, H-3, and H-13 on ... hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) ...
more infohttps://vivo.scripps.edu/display/endnote59689

Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40...Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40...

... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/152/9/4282

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | JEMA new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | JEM

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/180/1/35?ijkey=2c99292aff4daae9eb2d802c5c126817c7b9b47e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic se by R A. Schlegel, H Von boehmer et al."Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic se" by R A. Schlegel, H Von boehmer et al.

Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors ... Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, "Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1975/1320/

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | Journal...A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | Journal...

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. J Exp ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/180/1/35/58268/A-new-gene-coding-for-a-differentiation-antigen

Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy...Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy...

Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/10/3/1047

CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface...CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface...

The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/cd20-cluster-of-differentiation-20-membrane-spanning-4-domains-subfamily-a-member-1-ms4a1-cvid5-b-lymphocyte-surface-antigen-b1

Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for...Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for...

Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Chimeric antibody with specificity to human b cell surface antigen.. Int Genetic Eng, Oncogen, July 13, 1988: EP0274394-A2 (49 ...
more infohttp://patent.ipexl.com/US/06682734.html

Recombinant Human CD38 protein (ab114253) | AbcamRecombinant Human CD38 protein (ab114253) | Abcam

Lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD38. *NAD(+) nucleosidase. *NIM-R5 antigen. *NIMR5 antigen (mouse) ... where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cd38-protein-ab114253.html

Anti-CD38 antibody (FITC) [90] | AbcamAnti-CD38 antibody (FITC) [90] | Abcam

Lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD38 antibody. *NAD(+) nucleosidase antibody. *NIM-R5 antigen antibody ... Cellular activation [Induction of B lymphocyte proliferation]: Use at an assay dependent dilution. Flow Cyt: Use 1µg for 106 ... where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd38-antibody-90-fitc-ab24978.html

Table of Contents - July 01, 1975, 115 (1) | The Journal of ImmunologyTable of Contents - July 01, 1975, 115 (1) | The Journal of Immunology

Antigen-Initiated B Lymphocyte Differentiation Robert A. Schlegel and Ken Shortman. J Immunol July 1, 1975, 115 (1) 94-99; ... Induction of T Lymphocyte Responses to a Small Molecular Weight Antigen Wesley W. Bullock, David H. Katz and Baruj Benacerraf ... The Expression of ϑ-Like Antigen by Rat Peripheral Lymphocytes: Serologic and Functional Studies Tommy C. Douglas and Andrew P ... Kinetic Study of T Lymphocytes After Sensitization Against Soluble Antigen Helen G. Durkin and Byron H. Waksman ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/115/1

CD8 alpha Antibody (C8/468) [DyLight 650] (NBP2-34589C): Novus BiologicalsCD8 alpha Antibody (C8/468) [DyLight 650] (NBP2-34589C): Novus Biologicals

T-cell antigen Leu2. *T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain. *T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen T8/Leu-2 ... CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The T-cell co-receptor CD8 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that bridges the ... It is a useful marker for distinguishing helper/inducer T-lymphocytes, and most peripheral T-cell lymphomas are CD4+/CD8-. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd8-alpha-antibody-c8-468_nbp2-34589c

CD20 - WikipediaCD20 - Wikipedia

"Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD20

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory MedicineClinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

Influence of Pregnancy on Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Activity (CD 26 Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen) of Circulating Lymphocytes ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/cclm.1991.29.issue-8/issue-files/cclm.1991.29.issue-8.xml

Frontiers | Precise Delineation and Transcriptional Characterization of Bovine Blood Dendritic-Cell and Monocyte Subsets |...Frontiers | Precise Delineation and Transcriptional Characterization of Bovine Blood Dendritic-Cell and Monocyte Subsets |...

The transcriptomic data also revealed differential gene transcription for molecules involved in antigen presentation, pathogen ... The transcriptomic data also revealed differential gene transcription for molecules involved in antigen presentation, pathogen ... Studies of monoclonal antibodies identifying two novel bovine lymphocyte antigen differentiation clusters: workshop clusters ( ... Monocyte differentiation and antigen-presenting functions. Nat Rev Immunol. (2017) 17:349-62. doi: 10.1038/nri.2017.28 ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02505/full

CD8a Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)
                
                
		        
	CD8a Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)

Protein Aliases: CD8; CD8a; Leu-2; Lyt-2.1 lymphocyte differentiation antigen (AA at 100); MAL; T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 ... The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an ... CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient ... N neutrophil, B B-lymphocyte, T T-lymphocyte, C bone cortex. Scale bar = 100 um for immunohistochemical staining and 25 um for ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD8a-Antibody-clone-53-6-7-Monoclonal/53-0081-82

CD8a Antibody, Super Bright 702 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)
                
                
		        
	CD8a Antibody, Super Bright 702 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)

Protein Aliases: CD8a; Lyt-2.1 lymphocyte differentiation antigen (AA at 100); T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain; T- ... The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an ... CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD8a-Antibody-clone-53-6-7-Monoclonal/67-0081-82

CD74 | Cancer Genetics WebCD74 | Cancer Genetics Web

Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte. *B-Lymphocytes. *Proto-Oncogene Proteins. *Messenger RNA. *Western Blotting ... antigen processing and presentation - antigen processing and presentation of endogenous antigen - antigen processing and ... Antigen Processing and Presentation BIOCARTA. - Antigen processing and presentation KEGG. Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA ... The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa- ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CD74.htm

Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.

This process is highly dependent on functional interactions between B and T lymphocytes. In vitro activation of CD40 present on ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Productive-infection-normal-CD40-activated/7531456.html

Exercise stress alters the percentage of splenic lymphocyte subsets in response to mitogen but not in response to interleukin-1.Exercise stress alters the percentage of splenic lymphocyte subsets in response to mitogen but not in response to interleukin-1.

Results of previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that reduced murine splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / metabolism*. Concanavalin A / pharmacology*. Interleukin-1 / pharmacology*. ... 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0/Interleukin-1; 0/Mitogens; 11028-71-0/Concanavalin A ... Lymphocytes / drug effects, immunology, physiology*. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Mitogens / pharmacology*. Physical Exertion* ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Exercise-stress-alters-percentage-splenic/2790228.html

Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Immunobiology | Yale School of...Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Immunobiology | Yale School of...

Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Immunity; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Investigative ... Bouzahzah F, Jung S, Craft J: CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone mice avoid antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo. J Immunol ... B cells in T follicular helper cell development and function: Separable roles in delivery of ICOS ligand and antigen. Weinstein ... Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation. Johnson RJ*, Poholek ...
more infohttps://medicine.yale.edu/immuno/people/joseph_craft-2.profile

Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...

Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Immunity; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Investigative ... Bouzahzah F, Jung S, Craft J: CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone mice avoid antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo. J Immunol ... B cells in T follicular helper cell development and function: Separable roles in delivery of ICOS ligand and antigen. Weinstein ... Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation. Johnson RJ*, Poholek ...
more infohttp://medicine.yale.edu/intmed/people/specialtypeople/joseph_craft-2.profile

Program Members | Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of MedicineProgram Members | Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of Medicine

Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Cytokines; Immunity; Investigative Techniques; Lupus ...
more infohttps://www.yalecancercenter.org/research/programs/immunology/people/index.aspx
  • A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature alpha beta TCR T cells express CD8 alpha beta while gamma delta TCR T cells, a subpopulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and dendritic cells express CD8 alpha alpha. (thermofisher.com)
  • Dr. Craft investigates CD4 T helper cells in conventional and autoimmune responses in mice and in humans, with a primary focus upon the differentiation and function of follicular helper (Tfh) cells that promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GC). (yale.edu)
  • Single-platform technology (SPT) is designed to enable de- system and managing the health care of persons infected with terminations of both absolute and percentage lymphocyte sub- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ( 1-4 ). (cdc.gov)