Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic: A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute: A pediatric acute myeloid leukemia involving both myeloid and monocytoid precursors. At least 20% of non-erythroid cells are of monocytic origin.Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile: A leukemia affecting young children characterized by SPLENOMEGALY, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Traditionally classed as a myeloproliferative disease, it is now considered a mixed myeloproliferative-mylelodysplastic disorder.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oncogene Proteins v-myb: Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell SeparationMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases: Clonal myeloid disorders that possess both dysplastic and proliferative features but are not properly classified as either MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES or MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Proto-Oncogenes: Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Granulocyte Precursor Cells: The cells in the granulocytic series that give rise to mature granulocytes (NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS). These precursor cells include myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes and metamyelocytes.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Neurofibromin 1: A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.

Expression and cellular localization of the CC chemokines PARC and ELC in human atherosclerotic plaques. (1/1497)

Local immune responses are thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Histological studies have shown that human atherosclerotic lesions contain T lymphocytes throughout all stages of development, many of which are in an activated state. A number of novel CC chemokines have been described recently, which are potent chemoattractants for lymphocytes: PARC (pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine), ELC (EBI1-ligand chemokine), LARC (liver and activation-regulated chemokine), and SLC (secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine). Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization, we have found gene expression for PARC and ELC but not for LARC or SLC in human atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial plaque sections with specific cell markers revealed highly different expression patterns of PARC and ELC. PARC mRNA was restricted to CD68+ macrophages (n = 14 of 18), whereas ELC mRNA was widely expressed by macrophages and intimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) in nearly all of the lesions examined (n = 12 of 14). ELC mRNA was also found to be expressed in the medial SMC wall of highly calcified plaques (n = 4). Very low levels of ELC mRNA expression could also be detected in normal mammary arteries but no mRNA expression for PARC was detected in these vessels (n = 4). In vitro, ELC mRNA was found to be up-regulated in aortic SMC stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-a and interferon-gamma but not in SMC stimulated with serum. Both PARC and ELC mRNA were expressed by monocyte-derived macrophages but not monocytes. The expression patterns of PARC and ELC mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions suggest a potential role for these two recently described CC chemokines in attracting T lymphocytes into atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Phagocytosis stimulates alternative glycosylation of macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific endosomal protein. (2/1497)

Macrosialin (mouse CD68), a macrophage-specific member of the lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, displays N-linked glycosylation and a heavily sialylated, mucin-like domain. We show that phagocytosis of zymosan by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages potently alters glycan processing of macrosialin in vitro. The phagocytic glycoform is not induced by other forms of endocytosis and depends on particle internalization. Zymosan uptake does not influence macrosialin protein synthesis, but increases the specific incorporation of D-[2-3H]mannose, D-[6-3H]galactose, N-acetyl-D-[1-3H]glucosamine and L-[5,6-3H]fucose by 2-15-fold. The phagocytic glycoform displays increased binding of agglutinins from peanut, Amaranthus caudatus and Galanthus nivalis, whereas binding of the sialic-acid-specific Maakia amurensis agglutinin is slightly reduced. Digestion by N-Glycanase abolishes the incorporation of [3H]mannose label and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin binding activity, but preserves the incorporation of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine and specific lectin binding. We also show that phagocytosis increases the complexity and length of O-linked chains. The data presented highlight the importance of differential glycosylation in the biology of macrosialin, phagosomes and macrophages in general.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical analysis of arterial wall cellular infiltration in Buerger's disease (endarteritis obliterans). (3/1497)

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Buerger's disease has depended on clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, whereas pathologic findings are considered to be of secondary importance. Arteries from patients with Buerger's tissue were analyzed histologically, including immunophenotyping of the infiltrating cells, to elucidate the nature of Buerger's disease as a vasculitis. METHODS: Thirty-three specimens from nine patients, in whom Buerger's disease was diagnosed on the basis of our clinical and angiographic criteria between 1980 and 1995 at Nagoya University Hospital, were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue with a labeled streptoavidin-biotin method. RESULTS: The general architecture of vessel walls was well preserved regardless of the stage of disease, and cell infiltration was observed mainly in the thrombus and the intima. Among infiltrating cells, CD3(+) T cells greatly outnumbered CD20(+) B cells. CD68(+) macrophages or S-100(+) dendritic cells were detected, especially in the intima during acute and subacute stages. All cases except one showed infiltration by the human leukocyte antigen-D region (HLA-DR) antigen-bearing macrophages and dendritic cells in the intima. Immunoglobulins G, A, and M (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement factors 3d and 4c (C3d, C4c) were deposited along the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: Buerger's disease is strictly an endarteritis that is introduced by T-cell mediated cellular immunity and by B-cell mediated humoral immunity associated with activation of macrophages or dendritic cells in the intima.  (+info)

Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease. (4/1497)

Experimental studies indicate that overactivation of the DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in response to oxidative damage to DNA can cause cell death due to depletion of NAD+. Oxidative damage to DNA and other macromolecules has been reported to be increased in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In the present study we sought evidence of PARP activation in Alzheimer's disease by immunostaining sections of frontal and temporal lobe from autopsy material of 20 patients and 10 controls, both for PARP itself and for its end-product, poly(ADP-ribose). All of the brains had previously been subjected to detailed neuropathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or, in the controls, to exclude Alzheimer's disease-type pathology. Double immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), glial fibrillary-acidic protein (GFAP), CD68, A beta-protein or tau was used to assess the identity of the cells with poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation and their relationship to plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Both PARP- and poly(ADP-ribose)-immunolabelled cells were detected in a much higher proportion of Alzheimer's disease (20 out of 20) brains than of control brains (5 out of 10) (P = 0.0018). Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and markers of neuronal, astrocytic and microglial differentiation (MAP2, GFAP and CD68, respectively) showed many of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) to be neurons. Most of these were small pyramidal neurons in cortical laminae 3 and 5. A few of the cells containing poly(ADP-ribose) were astrocytes. No poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was detected in microglia. Double-immunolabelling for poly(ADP-ribose) and tau or A beta-protein indicated that the cells with accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) did not contain tangles and relatively few occurred within plaques. Our findings indicate that there is enhanced PARP activity in Alzheimer's disease and suggest that pharmacological interventions aimed at inhibiting PARP may have a role in slowing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Identification of the block in targeted retroviral-mediated gene transfer. (5/1497)

A chimeric retroviral vector (33E67) containing a CD33-specific single-chain antibody was generated in an attempt to target cells displaying the CD33 surface antigen. The chimeric envelope protein was translated, processed, and incorporated into viral particles as efficiently as wild-type envelope protein. The viral particles carrying the 33E67 envelope protein could bind efficiently to the CD33 receptor on target cells and were internalized, but no gene transfer occurred. A unique experimental approach was used to examine the basis for this postbinding block. Our data indicate that the chimeric envelope protein itself cannot participate in the fusion process, the most reasonable explanation being that this chimeric protein cannot undergo the appropriate conformational change that is thought to be triggered by receptor binding, a suggested prerequisite to subsequent fusion and core entry. These results indicate that the block to gene transfer in this system, and probably in most of the current chimeric retroviral vectors to date, is the inability of the chimeric envelope protein to undergo this obligatory conformational change.  (+info)

CD40 expression on graft infiltrates and parenchymal CD154 (CD40L) induction in human chronic renal allograft rejection. (6/1497)

BACKGROUND: CD40-CD154 (CD40L) costimulatory signaling plays a pivotal role in the effector mechanisms of transplant graft rejection. In animal models, CD40-CD154 blockade induces long-term graft acceptance concurrent with an absence of chronic rejection (CR) lesions. Given the critical importance of CD40-CD154 interactions in the development of chronic transplant allograft rejection, the relevance of in situ CD40 and CD154 expression was assessed in human chronic renal allograft rejection. METHODS: The expression of CD40, CD154, CD68, and T-cell receptor (TCR)alpha/beta was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serial cryostat sections of snap-frozen core renal allograft biopsies were obtained from 30 renal transplant patients. Biopsy specimens received diagnoses of CR (N = 23) according to the Banff classification and were compared with controls (N = 7) consisting of stable allografts and normal kidney tissue. RESULTS: Striking CD40 staining of graft cellular infiltrates (P = 0.016) was observed in renal allografts with CR compared with controls. The CD40+ cellular infiltrates in CR were predominantly TCR alpha/beta + T cells and some CD68+ macrophages. These findings were contrasted by the low-level CD40 expression detected in glomeruli and tubules of CR and controls. However, glomerular induction of CD154 was observed in CR allografts (P = 0.028) as compared with controls. CD154 immunoreactivity was demonstrated on glomerular endothelial, epithelial, and mesangial cells. Moderate CD154 expression was detected on tubular epithelial cells, and only weak CD154 immunoreactivity was observed on the infiltrates in isolated CR cases. CONCLUSION: In human chronic renal allograft rejection, CD40 is expressed on graft-infiltrating cells of the T cell and macrophage compartments. CD154 expression is induced on glomerular and tubular epithelial cells during CR, demonstrating another novel source of CD154 expression. The data substantiate the potential contributory role of an interaction between CD40+ graft-destructive effector T cells and macrophages with CD154+ renal allograft parenchymal cells in the development of chronic renal allograft rejection.  (+info)

The myeloid-specific sialic acid-binding receptor, CD33, associates with the protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2. (7/1497)

The myeloid restricted membrane glycoprotein, CD33, is a member of the recently characterized "sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-related lectin" family. Although CD33 can mediate sialic acid-dependent cell interactions as a recombinant protein, its function in myeloid cells has yet to be determined. Since CD33 contains two potential immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs in its cytoplasmic tail, we investigated whether it might act as a signaling receptor in myeloid cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CD33 in myeloid cell lines was stimulated by cell surface cross-linking or by pervanadate, and inhibited by PP2, a specific inhibitor of Src family tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylated CD33 recruited both the protein-tyrosine phosphatases, SHP-1 and SHP-2. CD33 was dephosphorylated in vitro by the co-immunoprecipitated tyrosine phosphatases, suggesting that it might also be an in vivo substrate. The first CD33 phosphotyrosine motif is dominant in CD33-SHP-1/SHP-2 interactions, since mutating tyrosine 340 in a CD33-cytoplasmic tail fusion protein significantly reduced binding to SHP-1 and SHP-2 in THP-1 lysates, while mutation of tyrosine 358 had no effect. Furthermore, the NH2-terminal Src homology 2 domain of SHP-1 and SHP-2, believed to be essential for phosphatase activation, selectively bound a CD33 phosphopeptide containing tyrosine 340 but not one containing tyrosine 358. Finally, mutation of tyrosine 340 increased red blood cell binding by CD33 expressed in COS cells. Hence, CD33 signaling through selective recruitment of SHP-1/SHP-2 may modulate its ligand(s) binding activity.  (+info)

Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and its ligand CD55 in rheumatoid synovial tissue. (8/1497)

OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) express decay-accelerating factor (CD55) at high levels. Recently, it was found that CD55 is a specific cellular ligand for the 7-span transmembrane receptor CD97. The objective of this study was to define the expression of this receptor-ligand pair in synovial tissue (ST) to provide more insight into the interaction between FLS and surrounding cells. METHODS: Antibodies against CD97 and CD55 were used for immunohistologic analysis of synovial biopsy specimens from 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 15 patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was used to determine the expression of soluble CD97 (sCD97) in synovial fluid (SF) from 30 patients with RA, 13 with OA, and 10 with reactive arthritis (ReA). RESULTS: In both RA and OA ST sections, strong expression of CD55 was confirmed on FLS in the intimal lining layer, where it was also found that all macrophages expressed CD97. The percentage of macrophages that expressed CD97 was lower in the synovial sublining (P = 0.005). The mean levels of sCD97 in SF were significantly higher in RA patients than in patients with OA or ReA (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that FLS are able to interact with macrophages via the CD97/CD55 receptor-ligand system. In this respect, the CD97/CD55 pair may account for the specific architecture of the intimal lining layer and may be of primary importance in maintaining and amplifying synovial inflammation. The specific increase in sCD97 levels in RA SF might be related to the presence of activated proteolytic systems or to the increase in synovial mass, rather than a consequence of local receptor-ligand interaction.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.101.100.894.157 --- antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.101.100.900 --- antigens, differentiation, myelomonocytic ... antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900 --- antigens, differentiation, myelomonocytic MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.045 --- antigens ... antigens, cd29 MeSH D23.101.100.150 --- antigens, differentiation, b-lymphocyte MeSH D23.101.100.150.101 --- antigens, cd5 MeSH ... antigens, cd40 MeSH D23.101.100.894 --- antigens, differentiation, t-lymphocyte MeSH D23.101.100.894.080 --- antigens, cd1 MeSH ...

*Interleukin

T lymphocytes regulate the growth and differentiation of T cells and certain B cells through the release of secreted protein ... IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators ... However, IL3 is constitutively expressed in the myelomonocytic leukaemia cell line WEHI-3B. It is thought that the genetic ... It plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells, as well as inducing ...

*Guo Mei

2011 Expression of NOV and BNIP3 gene in mouse myelomonocytic leukemia and its significance 2011 Relationship between WT1- ... differentiation and cell cycle distribution of mouse thymocytes after acute radiation 2011 "CM-DiI labeled mesenchymal stem ... tumor antigen 1-specific T lymphocyte generation soon after nonmyeloablative allergenic stem-cell transplantation in acute and ...

*LILRB1

Hirohashi N, Nakao M, Kubo K, Yamada A, Shichijo S, Hara A, Sagawa K, Itoh K (Dec 1993). "A novel antigen (H47 Ag) on human ... Cluster of differentiation ENSG00000276452, ENSG00000277134, ENSG00000274669, ENSG00000277807 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ... The receptor is expressed on immune cells where it binds to MHC class I molecules on antigen-presenting cells and transduces a ...

*LILRB3

Cluster of differentiation ENSG00000274587, ENSG00000277816, ENSG00000204577 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000275019, ... 1997). "A novel inhibitory receptor (ILT3) expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells involved in antigen ... "A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ... The receptor is expressed on immune cells where it binds to MHC class I molecules on antigen-presenting cells and transduces a ...

*SPECC1

"Entrez Gene: SPECC1 sperm antigen with calponin homology and coiled-coil domains 1". Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006 ... 2005). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". ... "HCMOGT-1 is a novel fusion partner to PDGFRB in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia with t(5;17)(q33;p11.2)". Cancer Res. 64 (8): ...

*LILRB2

1999). "Tetrameric complexes of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G bind to peripheral blood myelomonocytic ... Cluster of differentiation ENSG00000275463, ENSG00000131042, ENSG00000276146, ENSG00000277751 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1998). "Human myelomonocytic cells express an inhibitory receptor for classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules". J. ... The receptor is expressed on immune cells where it binds to MHC class I molecules on antigen-presenting cells and transduces a ...

*TLR4

Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... TLR4 has also been designated as CD284 (cluster of differentiation 284). The molecular weight of TLR4 is approximately 95 kDa. ... This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta, and in myelomonocytic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It cooperates ... TLR4 has been shown to interact with: Lymphocyte antigen 96, Myd88, and TOLLIP. Nickel, Intracellular trafficking of TLR4 is ...

*LILRA3

however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted ... Cluster of differentiation "Human PubMed Reference:". Torkar M, Haude A, Milne S, Beck S, Trowsdale J, Wilson MJ (December 2000 ... "A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ... Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), ...

*Index of oncology articles

... antigen - antigen-presenting cell - antigen-presenting cell vaccine - antiglobulin test - antihormone therapy - antimetabolite ... chronic myelomonocytic leukemia - chronic phase - chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia - CHS 828 - CI-1033 - CI-958 - CI- ... cell differentiation - cell motility - cell proliferation - cell respiration - cell adhesion - cellular adoptive immunotherapy ... human leukocyte antigen - human lymphocyte antigen - human papillomavirus - human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 - Hürthle cell ...

*NCR3

2005). "Ligands for natural killer cell-activating receptors are expressed upon the maturation of normal myelomonocytic cells ... NCR3 has also been designated as CD337 (cluster of differentiation 337) and as NKp30. ENSG00000236979, ENSG00000206430, ... Tissue Antigens. 58 (4): 255-8. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.580406.x. PMID 11782277. "Entrez Gene: NCR3 natural cytotoxicity ...

*Neurofibromin 1

Five regions of the 3' UTR that appear to bind proteins were found, one of which is HuR, a tumor antigen. HuR binds to AU-rich ... In addition to neurofibromatosis type I, mutations in NF1 can also lead to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, Watson syndrome, ... cell differentiation or migration. Neurofibromin is also known to interact with CASK through syndecan, a protein which is ... Haeussler J, Haeusler J, Striebel AM, Assum G, Vogel W, Furneaux H, Krone W (January 2000). "Tumor antigen HuR binds ...

*Clonal hypereosinophilia

The FLT3 gene codes for the cluster of differentiation antigen 135 (i.e. CD135) protein or FLT3 protein. This protein is a ... or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with involvement of tonsils. Some of these patients may present with little or no ... It mediates at least in part the cell proliferating signaling stimulated by PDGF receptors as well as by antigen receptors on T ... PDGFRA, through its tyrosine kinase activity, contributes to the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of cells. ...

*GAB2

... also plays a role in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Studies have shown the protein's involvement in the disease ... and B-cell antigen receptors". Blood. 93 (6): 1809-16. PMID 10068651. "Entrez Gene: GAB2 GRB2-associated binding protein 2". ... "A novel role for Gab2 in bFGF-mediated cell survival during retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation". The Journal of ... "Regulation of the Erk2-Elk1 signaling pathway and megakaryocytic differentiation of Bcr-Abl(+) K562 leukemic cells by Gab2". ...

*PTPN6

PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, ... "Human myelomonocytic cells express an inhibitory receptor for classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules". J. Immunol. ... "SHP-1 requires inhibitory co-receptors to down-modulate B cell antigen receptor-mediated phosphorylation of cellular substrates ...

*PDGFRB

... atypical chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myelogenous ... CD140B Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... Similarly, differentiation of adipose from pericytes and mesenchymal cells is suppressed. Misregulation of the PDGFRβ's kinase ... Mice harboring a single activated allele of pdgfrb show a number of postnatal phenotypes including reduced differentiation of ...

*CBL (gene)

"Requirement of tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav for morphological differentiation of all-trans-retinoic acid-treated HL-60 cells". ... of the c-cbl protooncogene is the 120-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in Jurkat cells activated via the T cell antigen ... article describing CBL function at PDBe OMIM enteries on NOONAN SYNDROME-LIKE DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT JUVENILE MYELOMONOCYTIC ...

*Ubiquitin

Antigen processing Apoptosis Biogenesis of organelles Cell cycle and division DNA transcription and repair Differentiation and ... "Germline CBL mutations cause developmental abnormalities and predispose to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia". Nature Genetics. ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ...
The Anti-Siglec-H antibody reacts with the 34 kDa mouse sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) H. Siglec-H is specifically expressed on mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells1 - a subset of CD11c+ dendritic cells detected at low frequency in all lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood, and some non-lymphoid tissues. Binding of antibodies to Siglec-H inhibits type I interferon production, which can be induced in plasmacytoid dendritic cells by DNA and RNA viruses.2,3 - USA
One hundred and ninety-four adult patients admitted to a Department of Internal Medicine at a tertiary hospital with suspected community acquired infections. Daily blood sampling for sCD163 analysis was performed for up to 5 days. Laboratory analyses were performed with a sandwich ELISA using polyclonal rabbit anti-CD163 as the catching antibody and monoclonal anti-CD163 as the secondary antibody. The patients were classified according to SIRS criteria. The patients were divided in the following groups: patients with no proven infection (n = 67, control group), patients with possible infection (n = 21, not included in analysis), patients with proven infection without SIRS (n = 25), patients with sepsis (n = 52), patients with severe sepsis (n = 29). Only one patient had septic shock. Twelve patients had bacteraemia. Demographic data, comorbidity, microbiological aetiology, biochemical parameters, focus of infection, severity score and mortality on day 28 were recorded. ...
PARIS, Oct. 17 -- Alcatel said it has received a contract to provide equipment to Taiwans Chunghwa Telecom Co. Ltd. in a deal worth over $52 million.
CD33 is a transmembrane protein of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family. It belongs to the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing molecules able of recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 to signal assemblies; these ITIMs are also used for ubiquitin-mediated removal of the receptor from the cell surface. CD33 is expressed on cells of myelomonocytic lineage, binds sialic acid residues in N- and O-glycans on cell surfaces, and is a therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia ...
Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (SIGLECs) are a family of cell surface proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. They…
Clone REA812 recognizes the human CD163 antigen, a single-chain transmembrane protein also known as hemoglobin scavenger receptor or M130. It is expressed by mature tissue macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. The expression of CD163 is up-regulated in vitro and in vivo by anti-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) and (gluco)corticosteroid and is shed to blood upon inflammatory activation of macrophages. CD163 functions as a high affinity scavenger receptor for the complex of haemoglobin and haptoglobin. Depending on the ligand, crosslinking of CD163 initiates signal transduction leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines Il-1ß, IL-6, and GM-CSF or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Additional information: Clone REA812 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Latvija
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of MNDA. A synthetic peptide corresponding to MNDA. (PAB25135) - Products - Abnova
Macrophage Marker Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Macrophage Marker Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
F4/80 -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]]On Behalf Of GT Hebert Sent: 11 July 2005 17:30 To: [email protected] Subject: [Histonet] Macrophage marker mouse tissue Hello, I am in need of a good macrophage marker on FFPE tissue. I will be using it on mouse tissue... mainly the heart (but other tissues may be included). So far I have looked into a number of antibodies (CD68, Mac-2) but can never be certain which one to choose. Thank you in advance for your help. Sincerely, Gustave Gustave Hebert, HT (ASCP) Scientist II Wyeth Research Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Cambridge MA --------------------------------- Sell on Yahoo! Auctions - No fees. Bid on great items. _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing ...
Macrophage Marker products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Macrophage Marker product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
爱必信(上海)生物科技有限公司专业生产(供应)销售Siglec-3/CD33 (C-6His),欢迎您来电咨询Siglec-3/CD33 (C-6His)的详细信息!
爱必信(上海)生物科技有限公司专业生产(供应)销售Siglec-3/CD33 (C-6His),欢迎您来电咨询Siglec-3/CD33 (C-6His)的详细信息!
High-quality Siglec-6 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of Siglec-6 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
This gene encodes a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family. These cell surface lectins are characterized by structural motifs in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains and sialic acid recognition sites in the first Ig V set domain. The encoded protein is a member of the CD33-related subset of Siglecs and inhibits the activation of several cell types including monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Binding of group B Streptococcus (GBS) to the encoded protein plays a role in GBS immune evasion. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012 ...
Sepsis is the most frequent cause of death in hospitalized patients, and severe sepsis is a leading contributory factor to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). At present, there is no effective treatment for these conditions, and care is primarily supportive. Murine sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-E (Siglec-E) and its human orthologs Siglec-7 and Siglec-9 are immunomodulatory receptors found predominantly on hematopoietic cells. These receptors are important negative regulators of acute inflammatory responses and are potential targets for the treatment of sepsis and ARDS. We describe a Siglec-targeting platform consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles decorated with a natural Siglec ligand, di(α2→8) N-acetylneuraminic acid (α2,8 NANA-NP). This nanoparticle induced enhanced oligomerization of the murine Siglec-E receptor on the surface of macrophages, unlike the free α2,8 NANA ligand. Furthermore, treatment of murine macrophages with these nanoparticles ...
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are a hallmark of most solid tumors, and the presence of varied immune populations significantly affects clinical outcomes for patients with cancer (1, 2). Historically, tumor-infiltrating immune cells have been viewed as restraining tumor progression (3), but in recent years, it has become more widely appreciated that chronic immune responses play critical roles in promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to cytotoxic therapies (1). Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells derail antitumor immune responses to favor disease progression is critical to identify potential therapeutic targets. Recently, we reported that selective depletion of tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAM) by neutralizing colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1) or inhibiting CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) activity improves the efficacy of chemotherapy in mammary tumors, in part by instigating antitumor responses by CD8+ T cells (4). Similarly, deficiency in the ...
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Kit Component:- KN208582G1, SIGLEC8 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN208582G2, SIGLEC8 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN208582D, donor…
쥐 Siglec-2 / CD22 단백질 (ECD, Fc 태그), expressed in Human Cells. Produced and quality controlled in house. High quality guaranteed. Save up to 60%. Bulk in stock.
The primary objectives are a) to establish the maximum tolerated dose of gemtuzumab ozogamicin in combination with cytarabine and b) to assess the safet
Prospective, multicenter, uncontrolled cohort study to analyze the efficacy of a risk adapted treatment strategy, including gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) d
Siglec-15 serves as a paradigm for several siglecs, including Siglec-14[1], Siglec-16[2] and Siglec-H[3][4], that contain a basic amino acid within the transmembrane domain[5]. This leads to association of these siglecs with a transmembrane adaptor protein containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM). Siglec-15 is unusual compared to other siglecs that share this paradigm in two respects. Firstly it can associate with two ITAM containing adaptors, DAP12 and DAP10, whereas Siglec-14, Siglec-16, and Siglec-H show a restricted association with DAP12. Siglec-15 is also unusual in having four cysteine residues in the V-set domain predicted to result in an inter-sheet disulfide that is absent from all other known siglecs. These potentially activating siglecs are expressed on myeloid cells and dendritic cells and may be involved in innate responses to pathogen challenge. ...
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
A delicate balance between inducers and inhibitors of apoptosis exists in any given cell (37). In cancer cells, including melanoma, this equilibrium is often skewed in favor of survival, with IAPs being predominant (38, 39). Committing melanoma cells to apoptosis, which would be an ideal outcome for most therapies, therefore requires additional stimuli. Inhibition of IAPs for one can restore the balance between survival and death signals, thereby facilitating programmed cell death in melanoma.. Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment of melanoma lesions often leads to elevated levels of TNF-α, at least in part, provided by the tumor-infiltrating immune cells such as macrophages (23-25). Levels of tumor-infiltrating macrophages have been shown to be associated with aggressive disease (40). All melanoma cell lines tested were resistant to treatment with exogenous TNF-α as a single agent. This was in line with previous clinical experiences, where minimal antitumor effect and ...
Siglec-H, 0.5 mg. Siglec-H, or sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectin H, is a CD33 related protein expressed specifically by plasmacytoid dendritic cells or pDCs (1, 2).
Background: EBUS-TBNA is performed to harvest cytologic and core-biopsy specimens in patients with mediastinal lesions. Rapid cytologic examinations of the sample are expected to increase the diagnostic rates. We studied the value of USB microscope as Rapid On-site Microscopic Evaluation (ROME) of core-biopsy specimens.. Methods: We performed ROME in 20 core-biopsy specimens sampled by EBUS-TBNA. The specimens were divided into five groups according to the microscopic findings. The group I was classified when whitish tumor islets were not found. The group II has one or several tiny suspicious tumor islets. The group III has less than 5 visible tumor islets, the group IV 5 - 10, and the group V more than 10 tumor islets. The ROME was compared with the final pathologic examination. Results: Among 20 specimens, 3 (15%) were in group I, 2 (10%) in group II, 5 (25%) in group III, 7 (35%) in group IV, and 3 (15%) in group V, respectively. When compared with the pathologic examination, clinical ...
Polyclonal antibody for Siglec 2/CD22 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. Siglec 2/CD22 information: Molecular Weight: 95348 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membran
Varje måndag, klockan 14:15 till 16:00, ges seminarier om aktuell forskning på Vi2 i rum 4307, hus 4, Polacksbacken, Uppsala. Ibland ges även extra seminarier vid andra tillfällen än den ovan nämnda tiden. Seminarierna är öppna för alla som är intresserade av ämnet.. ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To study safety and efficacy single agent Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (Mylotarg®) as induction therapy for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) who have relapsed after standard treatments or who are not candidates for standard consolidation treatment after Daunorubicin and cytosine arabinoside.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To correlate morbidity and mortality with the use of gemtuzumab (gemtuzumab ozogamicin) to specific subtypes of leukemia.. II. To correlate gemtuzumab response to degree of cluster of differentiation (CD) 33 positivity.. III. To correlate FMS-Related Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT 3)/nucleophosmin (NPM) status and CD 33 positivity to gemtuzumab response.. IV. To document incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome with the use of gemtuzumab.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive gemtuzumab ozogamicin intravenously (IV) over 2 hours on days 1 and 15. Treatment continues for 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. After completion of study ...
Trade Name: Mylotarg®. For which conditions is this drug approved? Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is FDA-approved for the treatment of patients who are 60 years or older, are not suitable candidates for chemotherapy, and have CD 33-positive acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. It is important for patients to remember that physicians have the ability to prescribe medication for conditions other than those for which the drug has been approved by the FDA. Patients who have received a prescription of this drug for a condition other than which it is approved may wish to discuss this issue with their physician.. What is the mechanism of action? Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is classified as a monoclonal antibody. Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is comprised of two separate components, a monoclonal antibody and a toxin from the bacteria Micromonospora echinospora. The monoclonal antibody portion of gemtuzumab ozogamicin binds to a receptor, called the CD 33 receptor, on myeloid cells. Once gemtuzumab ozogamicin is bound, ...
Sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the Ig superfamily that bind sialic acids in different linkages in a wide variety of glycoconjugates. These membrane receptors are expressed in a highly specific manner, predominantly within the haematopoietic system. The CD33- …
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the multifarious group of cells that originate mainly from the peritumoral tissue or bone marrow and can be divided into two main types: M1 and M2. Among them are the infiltrating M1 tumor-associated macrophages present in the early stages of tumorigenesis, which can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and in turn inhibit tumor growth. On the contrary, M2 tumor-associated macrophages are predominant in the late stage of tumor formation. Type II cytokines, which are secreted by them, can promote anti-inflammatory reaction and thus promote tumor growth. However, it remains unclear when M1 tumor-associated macrophages are transformed to M2 tumor-associated macrophages, but tumor hypoxia is currently thought to be associated with such a shift. M2 tumor-associated macrophages secrete many proteases such as cathepsin, cytokines, and an epidermal growth factor. The presence of M2 TAMs make the tumor prone to growth and angiogenesis, which in turn damages other ...
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of myeloid antigen expression on complete remission (CR), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) treated with intensive chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients diagnosed with T-ALL and treated in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Royal Hospital in Oman between 2004 and 2010. The diagnosis of T-ALL was established using French-American-British classification or World Health Organization criteria. Patients were considered having myeloid antigen expression if they expressed CD13, CD33, or both (My+ and My-). Results: Of the 39 patients, 38 were included in the study (25 patients with My- and median age of 18.4 years, 13 patients with My+ and median age of 22.0 years). Median follow-up was 12 months. Thirty-two out of the total cohort were eligible for response-rate assessment. Twenty-nine patients (90.6%) achieved CR with one or two courses of ...
Amino Acid Sequence; Antigens, CD; Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; Binding Sites; Calcium; HEK293 Cells; Haptoglobins; Hemoglobins; Hemolysis; Humans; Ions; Ligands; Metals; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed; Protein Binding; Receptors, Cell Surface; Recombinant Proteins; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Static Electricity; Surface Plasmon Resonance ...
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SAN DIEGO -- Oncologists are re-evaluating gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) in acute myeloid leukemia, with new results presented here suggesting its 2010 withdrawal from the market may have been prem
ALS researchers from around the world gathered in Berlin, Germany, Dec. 8-10, to report on and discuss the latest research advances in this disease. Daily updates from the symposium are available online at the Web sites of the Motor Neurone Disease Association (MNDA Symposium reports) and ALS Therapy Development Institute (ALS TDI Symposium reports). ...
Siglecs (sialic acid-binding lg-like lectins) are mainly expressed in the immune system. Sn (sialoadhesin) (siglec-1), CD22 (siglec-2) and siglec-15 are well ...
Polyclonal antibody for SIGLEC 4A/MAG detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. SIGLEC 4A/MAG information: Molecular Weight: 69069 MW; Subcellular Localization: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protei
Abcams Siglec 9 ELISA Kit suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Serum, Plasma in human. Reliably quantify 130 pg/ml of Siglec 9.
In this study we immunophenotypically differentiate subpopulations of brain macrophages into perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia and demonstrate that perivascular macrophages are the major cell productively infected by SIV in the CNS of macaques. Preferential infection of perivascular macrophages in the CNS may account for several important observations concerning infection of the CNS, viral dynamics in the CNS, and the role of the CNS as a viral sanctuary or reservoir.. Although it has not been directly demonstrated, it is generally assumed that lentiviruses enter the CNS by the traffic of infected monocyte/macrophages (64). Our data showing that perivascular macrophages are the major cell type, infected in the brain, support this hypothesis. Studies in chimeric rodents and humans receiving bone marrow indicate that perivascular macrophages are continuously replaced from the circulation (15)(16)(17)(43). The immunophenotype described for perivascular macrophages, ...
R01 AI072265, NIH/NIAID - Bochner (PI). Studies in this grant will explore whether Siglec-8, a molecule selectively expressed by eosinophils and mast cells, can be targeted for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in allergic, gastrointestinal and malignant diseases.. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins) are cell surface proteins found predominantly on leukocytes. Siglec-8 was discovered by us about a decade ago and is selectively expressed on eosinophils and mast cells. Its closest functional paralog in the mouse is Siglec-F, which is also selectively expressed by eosinophils but unfortunately not on mast cells. Both Siglec-8 and Siglec-F preferentially and uniquely recognize the glycan 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis X (6-sulfo-sLeX) and its non-fucosylated form. Engagement of Siglec-8/-F with antibodies (Abs) and/or artificial ligands causes eosinophil death. Administration of Siglec-F Abs in mouse models of chronic allergic asthma and eosinophilia normalizes eosinophilic ...
Gustave We use F4/80 as a macrophage marker in mice. We have also tried MAC-2. Both work fine on FFPE tissue. Most of our clients ask for the F4/80 marker. We purchase ours from serotec. Liz Elizabeth A. Chlipala, BS, HTL(ASCP)QIHC Manager Premier Laboratory, LLC P.O. Box 18592 Boulder, Colorado 80308 Office: (303) 735-5001 Fax: (303) 735-3540 [email protected] www.premierlab.com Ship to Address: Premier Laboratory University of Colorado MCDB, Room A3B40 Boulder, Colorado 80309 -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]] On Behalf Of GT Hebert Sent: Monday, July 11, 2005 9:30 AM To: [email protected] Subject: [Histonet] Macrophage marker mouse tissue Hello, I am in need of a good macrophage marker on FFPE tissue. I will be using it on mouse tissue... mainly the heart (but other tissues may be included). So far I have looked into a number of antibodies (CD68, Mac-2) but can never be certain which ...
1O9Z: The Fimbrial Adhesin F17-G of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Has an Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin Domain that Binds N-Acetylglucosamine
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Metcalfe, H J and Best, A and Kanellos, T and La Radione, R M and Werling, D (2010) Flagellin expression enhances Salmonella accumulation in TLR5-positive macrophages. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 34 (8). pp. 797-804. ...
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The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved gemtuzumab ozogamicin (Mylotarg) for the treatment of patients 60 years of age and older who are in first relapse with CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are not considered 1
In this study, we tried to reveal the molecular and cellular mechanisms of activation of anti-tumor immunity by CD169-positive macrophages located in lymph node sinus. We generated CD169-Cre-YFP mice, in which CD169-positive macrophages were specifically labeled with YFP, and examined the character of these cells using the mice. We also identified CD169 macrophages-producing molecules that may be able to activate anti-tumor immunity. We established an experimental model to induce cell death of tumor cells in tumor-bearing mice, found the drastic changes in tumor-associated macrophages after tumor cell death. We also reveal the roles of CD169 macrophages in the immune regulation in non-immune tissues. ...
Large populations of macrophages are a prominent feature of tuberculous granulomas, yet there are many unanswered questions surrounding the spatial organization of macrophage subsets in granulomas and whether macrophages have microenvironment-specific homeostatic or bactericidal functions. Much of what we know about granuloma macrophages comes from animal models that may not represent the spectrum of pathology seen in humans or has been derived from cells removed from the context of the granuloma. To address these questions, we used immunohistochemistry to clarify the interplay of microenvironment and macrophage biology by identifying macrophage subsets and arginase and NOS expression in granulomas from cynomolgus macaques, a nonhuman primate that recapitulates human TB (4). We found that granulomas have macrophage subsets that are stratified into pro- and anti-inflammatory regions with the implication that this organization may limit immunopathogenic antimicrobial activity to bacteria-rich ...
It is widely known that macrophages can be activated to kill tumor cells. It is also known that tumor-infiltrating macrophages can be immunosuppressed. The mechanisms of both tumor killing by activated macrophages and tumor-induced macrophage suppression are not entirely clear. To better understand the mechanisms that macrophages use to kill tumor cells, a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, was fixed with paraformaldehyde, subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and co-cultured with tumor cells. Macrophage activity was assessed by nitric oxide (NO) production and tumor cell growth inhibition in the 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. It was found that fixed macrophages were still able to suppress the proliferation of tumor cells while the production of NO was abrogated. Additionally, a model of tumor-induced suppression of macrophages was developed by co-culturing them with tumor cell conditioned media before adding LPS. Inhibition of macrophage activity by tumor cell products ...
Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-7 (Siglec-7) expression is strongly reduced on natural killer (NK) cells from HIV-1 infected viremic patients. To investigate the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, we hypothesized that Siglec-7 could contribute to the infection of CD4pos target cells following its interaction with HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein 120 (gp120). The ability of Siglec-7 to bind gp120 Env in a sialic acid-dependent manner facilitates the infection of both T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Indeed, pre-incubation of HIV-1 with soluble Siglec-7 (sSiglec-7) increases the infection rate of CD4pos T cells, which do not constitutively express Siglec-7. Conversely, selective blockade of Siglec-7 markedly reduces the degree of HIV-1 infection in Siglec-7pos MDMs. Finally, the sSiglec-7 amount is increased in the serum of AIDS patients with high levels of HIV-1 viremia and inversely correlates with CD4pos T cell counts. Our results show that Siglec-7 binds HIV-1 and contributes
Detoxification and clearance of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) have been attributed to its removal by the CD163 scavenger receptor pathway. However, even low-level hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) exposure irreversibly modifies Hb and severely impairs Hb endocytosis by CD163. We show here that when Hb is bound to the high-affinity Hb scavenger protein haptoglobin (Hp), the complex protects Hb from structural modification by preventing alpha-globin cross-links and oxidations of amino acids in critical regions of the beta-globin chain (eg, Trp15, Cys93, and Cys112). As a result of this structural stabilization, H(2)O(2)-exposed Hb-Hp binds to CD163 with the same affinity as nonoxidized complex. Endocytosis and lysosomal translocation of oxidized Hb-Hp by CD163-expressing cells were found to be as efficient as with nonoxidized complex. Hp complex formation did not alter Hbs ability to consume added H(2)O(2) by redox cycling, suggesting that within the complex the oxidative radical burden is shifted to ...
Nelson et al provided evidence that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), a primary metabolite of cholesterol promotes ER-dependent tumor growth via ER and liver X receptor (LXR), respectively, in mouse models of breast cancer. Statins or inhibitors against the cytochrome P450 oxidase CYP27A1, the enzyme that coverts cholesterol to 27HC, attenuated the enhanced tumor proliferation by cholesterol. The authors further demonstrated that CYP27A1 is expressed in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages and high levels of CYP27A1 expression correlated with high-grade tumors in human breast cancer specimens.. The tumor growth-promoting effect of 27HC was independently demonstrated by Wu et al using xenograft models of various ER+ breast cancer cell lines. In addition, Wu et al demonstrated that local production of 27HC in the normal breast tissue and cancer tissue is significantly increased in cancer patients compared with cancer-free controls. The increased tumor 27HC was correlated with diminished ...
1O9W: The Fimbrial Adhesin F17-G of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Has an Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin Domain that Binds N-Acetylglucosamine
The Food and Drug Administration said Monday Pfizer Inc. is withdrawing its cancer drug Mylotarg from the U.S. market after a clinical study showed the drug wasnt effective and had...
Human SIGLEC12 partial ORF ( NP_443729.1, 503 a.a. - 595 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00089858-Q02) - Products - Abnova
SPR reveals ColN‐R is responsible for LPS binding. Histidine‐tagged ColN domain combinations (500 nM) were injected for 60 s at a flow rate of 5 μl m
A. Mantovani and P. Allavena are at the IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Center and Humanitas University, 20089 Rozzano, Milano, Italy ...
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is lysed by apolipoprotein L-I, a component of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are also characterized by the presence of haptoglobin-related protein. We report that this process is mediated by a parasite glycoprotein receptor, which binds the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex with high affinity for the uptake and incorporation of heme into intracellular hemoproteins. In mice, this receptor was required for optimal parasite growth and the resistance of parasites to the oxidative burst by host macrophages. In humans, the trypanosome receptor also recognized the complex between hemoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein, which explains its ability to capture trypanolytic HDLs. Thus, in humans the presence of haptoglobin-related protein has diverted the function of the trypanosome haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor to elicit innate host immunity against the parasite ...
The expression and function of Sn have been investigated in a number of inflammatory conditions in animal models and in humans [10, 13-17, 23-29]. The majority of these studies suggested a pro-inflammatory role for the molecule. Indeed, Sn deficiency in mice has been reported to be associated with disease amelioration in several autoimmune conditions [14-17]. Although increased Sn levels were found to be representative of disease activity in human SLE [12], it has remained unclear whether Sn plays a direct role in the disease pathogenesis. In this study, we found abundant Sn expression at the mRNA and protein levels in the kidneys of nephritic mice. In addition, a number of cytokines that have been implicated previously in the induction of Sn under inflammatory conditions were also upregulated [30]. As there was a parallel increase in gene expression of the pan macrophage markers CD68 and F4/80 in the nephritic mice, it is difficult to differentiate between an enhanced induction of Sn on renal ...
Based on their ontogeny, tissue localization and functional specialization, monocyte-derived cells exhibit diverse phenotypic and functional properties. Monocyte-derived macrophages (moMAC) and dendritic cells (moDC) differentiate from common precursors in situ but carry out different regulatory functions in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Under pathological conditions both moMACs and moDCs are known to be involved in inflammatory processes of the brain. The primary role of moDCs is to maintain self tolerance in the periphery as well as in the CNS and their subtypes and subsets are specialized for unique functional activities thus playing a pivotal role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity, orchestrating strictly controlled immune responses, and ensure restoration of the resting state or support the generation of regulatory, effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Depending on environmental cues, macrophages can be polarized to inflammatory and tissue regenerative/restorative
We conducted an experimental study to assess the effect of a novel anti-inflammatory agent on vascular inflammation, over 3 months, in stable atherosclerotic patients receiving statin therapy. Despite a negative primary endpoint, we demonstrated that losmapimod reduced arterial inflammation, as measured by FDG-PET/CT imaging in the most active discrete segments (pre-defined as a TBR of ≥1.6) of selected arteries, suggesting influence predominantly in the most inflamed areas. Complementing this finding, there was a shift in the distribution of active segments using our frequency analysis. The modest vascular effects were accompanied by significant reductions in circulating inflammatory biomarkers, in line with previous results using this compound (8), and in visceral fat FDG uptake.. A linear correlation in a previous small study between TBR vessel average (which ranged from approximately 1.0 to 4.0) and the tissue level of macrophage marker CD68 (11) drove the decision on our primary endpoint. ...
Macrophages exhibit dynamic plasticity in their function in response to the accumulating genetic alterations that occur during tumorigenesis, resulting in the establishment of an immune tolerized tumor microenvironment. However, depending on their environmental cues, they can switch between two functional phenotypes: pro-inflammatory/anti-tumorigenic (M1) or anti-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic (M2). The importance of these two macrophage subsets is well-recognized; however, identifying and distinguishing M1 from M2 macrophages in patient tumors still remains a challenge. Prior studies have utilized transcriptome profiling of artificially skewed M1 and M2 macrophages from healthy donors to identify individual genes or gene clusters unique to each macrophage subset. However, these studies are limited to surface marker expression and gene expression profiles alone to distinguish subsets and lack functional validation of M1 and M2 macrophages. Surface marker and gene expression profiling of human M1 ...
SIGLEC8 - SIGLEC8 (untagged)-Human sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 8 (cDNA clone MGC:59785 IMAGE:6302572), complete cds available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
[QUOTE=pjarpi]loved your post...but if bhabho change...what will be left in DABH...she is the one who is making the stroy interesting for viewers...[/QUOTE] True indeed...but after a while the intense level of emotional attyachar becomes a bit overwhelming. Maybe the CVs can focus on developing ... | Page: 2 | 3403798 | Diya Aur Baati Hum Forum
I posted basically the same question last year (with no feedback), at the beginning of the humid season. Same thing happened this year, my Max 18 hums...
Mactifen capsul hume kahen se nhe milrha aap kya hume sindh k zile dadu me puhcha skte hen plz humare mriz ko zrort he iski hum preshan he 03003711755. ...
The hallmark of the human atherosclerotic plaque is the presence of lipid-laden macrophages, or foam cells. However, many macrophage subsets are found within atherosclerotic lesions and it is not well understood how monocytes differentiate into these subsets. We focused on characterizing macrophages derived in vitro from human peripheral blood monocytes treated with IL-15, IL-4 or IL-10. We show these macrophages to have differing phenotypes: CD209+CD64+, CD209+CD23+, or CD209+CD163+ for macrophages derived from IL-15, IL-4, or IL-10 respectively. To characterize the macrophage subsets ability to become foam cells we measured their uptake of fluorescently-labeled oxidized LDL (oxLDL). IL-10 derived macrophages had the greatest amount of oxLDL uptake. We then investigated the mechanism of uptake and found that fucoidan, a class-A scavenger receptor competitor, significantly inhibited uptake of oxLDL in IL-10 cells. On the other hand a blocking antibody against the class B scavenger receptor, ...
Shop Soluble scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain-containing protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Soluble scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain-containing protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIGLEC8 gene. This gene is located on chromosome 19q13.4, about 330 kb downstream of the SIGLEC9 gene. Within the siglec family of transmembrane proteins, Siglec-8 belongs to the CD33-related siglec subfamily, a subfamily that has undergone rapid evolution. Siglec-8 was first identified by CD33 homology screening of ESTs from a cDNA library generated from a patient diagnosed with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome and was originally termed SAF-2 (sialoadhesin family 2). At the tissue level, Siglec-8 mRNA was found to be most highly expressed in lung, PBMCs, spleen, and kidney. Siglec-8 is expressed by human eosinophils, mast cells, and, to a lesser extent, basophils. It has thus garnered attention as a molecule that is uniquely expressed by immune effector cells involved in asthma and allergy. In both eosinophils and mast cells, Siglec-8 is expressed late in development. Siglec-8 transcript and protein are ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) transcript levels has been observed in many types of tumors including osteosarcoma. Molecular pathways regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs may contribute to the heterogeneous tumor behaviors observed in naturally occurring cancers. Thus, tumor-associated miRNA expression may provide informative biomarkers for disease outcome and metastatic potential in osteosarcoma patients. We showed previously that clusters of miRNAs at the 14q32 locus are downregulated in human osteosarcoma. Human and canine osteosarcoma patients samples with clinical follow-up data were used in this study. We used bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches to identify miRNA based prognostic biomarkers in osteosarcoma. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Whitney Mann U tests were conducted for validating the statistical significance. Here we show that an inverse correlation exists between aggressive tumor behavior (increased metastatic potential and accelerated time to death) and the
Publications, Research Topics, Scientific Experts, Species, Genomes and Genes about AML Stem Cell Heterogeneity: Implications for Gemtuzumab Ozogomicin-based Therapy
Det är idag allmänt känt att flertalet förvärv misslyckas. Därför har det gjorts ett flertal studier av riskförändring vid förvärv. Rörelserisken och den finansiella risken har dock ej beaktats i tidigare studier. Därav följer uppsatsens syfte att undersöka hur rörelserisken och den finansiella risken förändras vid förvärv i fastighetsbranschen. Syftet är även att studera hur nämnda risker skiljer sig mellan olika uppsättningar av lokaler och bostäder. En distinktion mellan fastighetstyperna är av betydelse eftersom dessa antas påverkas av risktyperna i olika grad. I studien ingår åtta förvärv som genomförts under perioden 1994-2002, samt där endast horisontella förvärv har studerats. För varje bolag har rörelserisken och den finansiella risken studerats två år före och två år efter förvärv. Rörelserisken definieras som standardavvikelsen i direktavkastning på totalt kapital, och den finansiella risken som standardavvikelsen av produkten mellan ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) is a prognostic factor for survival in follicular lymphoma (FL). Overexpression and/or activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in these TAM have also been observed. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which macrophages are present in FL and to investigate the expression of STAT1 in these cells. DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 211 patients with distinct stages and grades of FL. Expression of the CD68 proteins, chosen as a marker for macrophages, and STAT1 was quantified by immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Automated determinations revealed the presence of CD68-positive macrophages in all FL tissues studied (mean 57.6+/-45.1 cells/field), while STAT1 protein was expressed in 29.94% of cases. Double-fluorescence staining confirmed that STAT1 protein co-localized exclusively with CD68, indicating the presence of a subset of ...
A serious complication of childhood systemic inflammatory disorders that is thought to be caused by excessive activation and proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES. It is seen predominantly in children with systemic onset JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS ...
PubMedID: 24489399 | Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog. | The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne | 2/1/2014
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Discover the best homework help resource for HUM at Seminole State College of Florida. Find HUM study guides, notes, and practice tests for Seminole State

HCV-infected cells and differentiation increase monocyte immunoregulatory galectin-9 production.HCV-infected cells and differentiation increase monocyte immunoregulatory galectin-9 production.

Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte ... series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in ... Differentiation of monocytes to macrophages increased galectin-9, and nonclassic monocytes from hepatitis C virus patients had ... Differentiation of monocytes to macrophages increased galectin-9. Nonclassic monocytes from hepatitis C virus patients express ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/1350166/HCV-infected-cells-and-differentiation-increase-monocyte-immunoregulatory-galectin-9-production.html

Targeted inhibition of activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling attenuates cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction.Targeted inhibition of activin receptor-like kinase 5 signaling attenuates cardiac dysfunction following myocardial infarction.

Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Benzamides / pharmacology*. Blotting, ... 0/Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0/Benzamides; 0/CD68 antigen, human; 0/Enzyme Inhibitors; 0/Madh2 protein, rat; 0/ ... 0/4-(4-(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)benzamide; 0/Actins; 0/Antigens, CD; ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Targeted-inhibition-activin-receptor-like/20154262.html

Histological analysis of synovium by treatment of etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis.Histological analysis of synovium by treatment of etanercept for rheumatoid arthritis.

0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0/Antirheumatic Agents; 0/Biological Markers; 0/CD68 antigen, ... Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use*. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Histological-analysis-synovium-by-treatment/20374310.html

CD33-related Sialic-Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectins in Health and Disease - PubMedCD33-related Sialic-Acid-Binding Immunoglobulin-Like Lectins in Health and Disease - PubMed

Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / immunology *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Next generation chimeric antigen receptor T cells: safety strategies to overcome toxicity. Yu S, Yi M, Qin S, Wu K. Yu S, et al ... Building upon the success of CART19: chimeric antigen receptor T cells for hematologic malignancies. Rotolo A, Karadimitris A, ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18279844/

Antigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystAntigens, CD14 | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Antigens, CD14 [D23.050.301.264.035.114]. *Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic [D23.050.301.264.900]. *Antigens, CD14 [ ... "Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD14" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Antigens,%20CD14

Granulocytic functionality. Phagoburst results are show | Open-iGranulocytic functionality. Phagoburst results are show | Open-i

Antigens, CD/analysis. *Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis. *Cell Differentiation. *Cell Proliferation. *Cells ... Conclusion: IL-1beta and IL-3 stimulated endothelium induces proliferation and differentiation of myeloid precursors, while IL- ... Conclusion: IL-1beta and IL-3 stimulated endothelium induces proliferation and differentiation of myeloid precursors, while IL- ... Hematopoietic progenitor cells and interleukin-stimulated endothelium: expansion and differentiation of myeloid precursors. ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2570655_1471-2172-9-56-4&req=4

CD68 expression in the NFL-GCL after 15 days of unilate | Open-iCD68 expression in the NFL-GCL after 15 days of unilate | Open-i

Antigens, CD/metabolism. *Antigens, CD86/metabolism. *Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism. *Calcium-Binding ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4128533_1742-2094-11-133-5&req=4

Expression of Hyaluronan Synthase Genes in Umbilical Cord Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells - PubMedExpression of Hyaluronan Synthase Genes in Umbilical Cord Blood Stem/Progenitor Cells - PubMed

Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / immunology Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... HAS2 is expressed only in freshly isolated CD133+ cells and quickly diminishes during differentiation. Because of this, HAS2 ... cells by RT-PCR was performed immediately after isolation as well as after cultivation towards myelomonocytic lineage. In ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16564133/

benign deep fibrous histiocytoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginebenign deep fibrous histiocytoma 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD163 antigen; 0 / CD68 antigen, ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; EC 2.3.2.13 ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Desmin ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=benign+deep+fibrous+histiocytoma+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

adenosquamous cell carcinoma of cervix uteri 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadenosquamous cell carcinoma of cervix uteri 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervix Uteri ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD68 ... MeSH-minor] Antigens, Differentiation / biosynthesis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Differentiation; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans- ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenosquamous+cell+carcinoma+of+cervix+uteri+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Biphasic expression of CD4 in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) cells: AML of monocyte origin and hematopoietic precursor cell...Biphasic expression of CD4 in acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) cells: AML of monocyte origin and hematopoietic precursor cell...

AML cases appear to have unique immature characteristics including low expression of myelomonocytic differentiation antigens ( ... The typical expression pattern of myelomonocytic differentiation antigens and cytokine receptors in CD4+ AML was ... The typical expression pattern of myelomonocytic differentiation antigens and cytokine receptors in CD4+ AML was CD34lowCD33 ... AML cases appear to have unique immature characteristics including low expression of myelomonocytic differentiation antigens ( ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/2400877?error=cookies_not_supported&code=00a868c5-0f69-49ae-a17f-9705ceba3c19

An sLex-Deficient Variant of HL60 Cells Exhibits High Levels of Adhesion to Vascular Selectins: Further Evidence That HECA-452...An sLex-Deficient Variant of HL60 Cells Exhibits High Levels of Adhesion to Vascular Selectins: Further Evidence That HECA-452...

A monoclonal antibody (MMA) that identifies a differentiation antigen on human myelomonocytic cells. Clin. Immunol. ... Monoclonal antibodies to human myelomonocyte differentiation antigens in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Med. Oncol. ... The cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is a skin lymphocyte homing receptor for the vascular lectin endothelial cell-leukocyte ... A distinct type of sialyl Lewis X antigen defined by a novel monoclonal antibody is selectively expressed on helper memory T ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/160/10/5122?ijkey=68c68fa596c1885816d5332add9addadf10b2b09&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology - Research Output
     - Taipei Medical UniversityDivision of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology - Research Output - Taipei Medical University

Human Leukocyte Antigens in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis. Liao, H. T., Lin, K. C., Chen, C. H., Liang, T. H., Lin, M. W ... Intra-articular injection of hyaluronate and indomethacin in rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis. Lo, Y. J., Sheu, M. T., ... Human leukocyte antigen and clinical and demographic characteristics in psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis in Chinese patients. ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/division-of-allergy-immunology-and-rheumatology-2/publications/?page=1

Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology - Research Output
     - Taipei Medical UniversityDivision of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology - Research Output - Taipei Medical University

Human Leukocyte Antigens in Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis. Liao, H. T., Lin, K. C., Chen, C. H., Liang, T. H., Lin, M. W ... Intra-articular injection of hyaluronate and indomethacin in rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis. Lo, Y. J., Sheu, M. T., ... Human leukocyte antigen and clinical and demographic characteristics in psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis in Chinese patients. ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/division-of-allergy-immunology-and-rheumatology-2/publications/?ordering=type&descending=false

Functionally active macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the skin of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. - Paquet PhilippeFunctionally active macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the skin of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis. - Paquet Philippe

en] Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Antigens, CD/analysis ; Antigens, CD15/analysis ; Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/ ...
more infohttps://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/68257

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic 骨髄性単球分化抗原 ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=2162&taxonomy=human

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic 骨髄性単球分化抗原 ... Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute 白血病-急性骨髄単
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=3239&taxonomy=human

sg:pub.10.1007/s10157-014-0984-z - Springer Nature SciGraphsg:pub.10.1007/s10157-014-0984-z - Springer Nature SciGraph

": "Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic", "type": "DefinedTerm" }, { "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh ... ": "Antigens, CD", "type": "DefinedTerm" }, { "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", "name ... Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic 102. ″ rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm 103. N38288538278e437f9d2110937add4a41 schema: ...
more infohttps://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/s10157-014-0984-z

Browsing Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy: Faculty Research and
Presentations by SubjectsBrowsing Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy: Faculty Research and Presentations by Subjects

Antigens, CD [1]. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic [1]. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols [1]. ...
more infohttps://augusta.openrepository.com/handle/10675.2/862/browse?type=subject

Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Protects against Mammary Tumor Emergence and Is Associated with Monocyte Infiltration in...Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Protects against Mammary Tumor Emergence and Is Associated with Monocyte Infiltration in...

Antigens, CD (MeSH) * Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic (MeSH) * Breast Neoplasms (MeSH) * Carcinoma, Intraductal, ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication85405

Identification of distinct prognostic subgroups in low- and intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes by flow cytometry |...Identification of distinct prognostic subgroups in low- and intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes by flow cytometry |...

... of bone marrow samples from 50 patients with MDS showed aberrant expression of differentiation antigens in the myelomonocytic ... In 49 patients with MDS defined by current morphology criteria, aberrant expression of differentiation antigens was ... aberrant expression of differentiation antigens was demonstrated in one or more subpopulations. Multiple aberrancies in ... Highly consistent differentiation patterns were seen in control samples in concordance with previous reports.5,6,8⇓⇓⇓⇓-13,15⇓- ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/111/3/1067?ijkey=c419c6bda096ca8f924538fa842d49e306107b18&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | ScienceThe CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | Science

CD14 is a myelomonocytic differentiation antigen expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and activated granulocytes and is ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/239/4839/497?ijkey=676a6eeaec7ace359919ddfd23e4377b83b5db96&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Human Macrophage-derived Chemokine (MDC), a Novel Chemoattractant for Monocytes, Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells, and Natural...Human Macrophage-derived Chemokine (MDC), a Novel Chemoattractant for Monocytes, Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells, and Natural...

1981) Terminal differentiation surface antigens of myelomonocytic cells are expressed in human promyelocytic leukemia cells ( ... 1992) Antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic leukocytes. Semin Immunol 4:227-236, pmid:1391797.. ... Cells were treated with PMA to induce differentiation to monocytic cells or with DMSO to induce granulocytic cells. MDC ... During this process of maturation, they lose their ability to process and present soluble antigen and become extemely potent ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/185/9/1595?ijkey=ea07bfe15458b85eb696732c9cf4f3c6e8624e2c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Phagoburst results are shown in response to PMA, fMLP and E. coli of HPC expanded in IL1-stimulated EC and following further differentiation by G-CSF in comparison to granulocytes differentiated by cytokines alone. (nih.gov)
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), immunoglobulin-like transcript 6 (ILT-6), and leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor 4 (LIR-4) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRA3 gene located within the eukocyte receptor complex on chromosome 19q13.4. (wikipedia.org)
  • however it is highly homologous to other LILR genes, and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane-bound LILRs (such as LILRB1, an inhibitory receptor expressed on effector and memory CD8 T cells) with their HLA ligands, thus modulating immune reactions and influencing susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name "interleukin" was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 (lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, etc. (wikipedia.org)