Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred C57BLFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell SeparationHLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Rosette Formation: The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Phytohemagglutinins: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Mice, Inbred CBAReceptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Mice, Inbred C3HProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Immunologic Capping: An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/1345)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

HLA-DM and invariant chain are expressed by thyroid follicular cells, enabling the expression of compact DR molecules. (2/1345)

Thyroid follicular cells (TFC) in Graves' disease (GD) hyperexpress HLA class I and express ectopic HLA class II molecules, probably as a consequence of cytokines produced by infiltrating T cells. This finding led us to postulate that TFC could act as antigen-presenting cells, and in this way be responsible for the induction and/or maintenance of the in situ autoimmune T cell response. Invariant chain (li) and HLA-DM molecules are implicated in the antigen processing and presentation by HLA class II molecules. We have investigated the expression of these molecules by TFC from GD glands. The results demonstrate that class II+ TFC from GD patients also express li and HLA-DM, and this expression is increased after IFN-gamma stimulation. The level of HLA-DM expression by TFC was low but sufficient to catalyze peptide loading into the HLA class II molecules and form stable HLA class II-peptide complexes expressed at the surface of TFC. These results have implications for the understanding of the possible role of HLA class II+ TFC in thyroid autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Cathepsin S required for normal MHC class II peptide loading and germinal center development. (3/1345)

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules acquire antigenic peptides after degradation of the invariant chain (Ii), an MHC class II-associated protein that otherwise blocks peptide binding. Antigen-presenting cells of mice that lack the protease cathepsin S fail to process Ii beyond a 10 kDa fragment, resulting in delayed peptide loading and accumulation of cell surface MHC class II/10 kDa Ii complexes. Although cathepsin S-deficient mice have normal numbers of B and T cells and normal IgE responses, they show markedly impaired antibody class switching to IgG2a and IgG3. These results indicate cathepsin S is a major Ii-processing enzyme in splenocytes and dendritic cells. Its role in humoral immunity critically depends on how antigens access the immune system.  (+info)

Impaired invariant chain degradation and antigen presentation and diminished collagen-induced arthritis in cathepsin S null mice. (4/1345)

Cathepsins have been implicated in the degradation of proteins destined for the MHC class II processing pathway and in the proteolytic removal of invariant chain (Ii), a critical regulator of MHC class II function. Mice lacking the lysosomal cysteine proteinase cathepsin S (catS) demonstrated a profound inhibition of Ii degradation in professional APC in vivo. A marked variation in the generation of MHC class II-bound Ii fragments and presentation of exogenous proteins was observed between B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages lacking catS. CatS-deficient mice showed diminished susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for regulation of immune responsiveness.  (+info)

Engagement of B cell receptor regulates the invariant chain-dependent MHC class II presentation pathway. (5/1345)

The intracellular sites in which Ags delivered by the B cell receptor (BCR) are degraded and loaded onto class II molecules remain poorly defined. To address this issue, we generated wild-type and invariant chain (Ii)-deficient H-2k mice bearing BCR specific for hen egg lysozyme. Our results show that, 1) unlike Ags taken up from the fluid phase, Ii is required for presentation of hen egg lysozyme internalized through the BCR in a manner independent of the peptide analyzed; 2) BCR ligation induces intracellular accumulation of MHC class II molecules only in Ii-positive B cells; and 3) these class II molecules reach intracellular compartments where BCR targets exogenous Ag. No differences in expression of adhesion and costimulatory molecules or in the presentation of soluble peptides were detectable between Ii-positive and -negative B cells. Therefore, the BCR delivers its ligand to compartments containing MHC class II-Ii complexes and bypasses the Ii-independent presentation pathway. The linked roles of Ag internalization and B cell activation of the BCR leads to potent Ii-dependent presentation in splenic B cells.  (+info)

The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for peptide hormone processing in vivo and provides a novel mechanism for pituitary Cushing's disease. (6/1345)

The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 has been implicated in activation of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), an important neuroendocrine precursor processing endoprotease. To test this hypothesis, we created a null mutation in 7B2 employing a novel transposon-facilitated technique and compared the phenotypes of 7B2 and PC2 nulls. 7B2 null mice have no demonstrable PC2 activity, are deficient in processing islet hormones, and display hypoglycemia, hyperproinsulinemia, and hypoglucagonemia. In contrast to the PC2 null phenotype, these mice show markedly elevated circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels, with adrenocortical expansion. They die before 9 weeks of severe Cushing's syndrome arising from pituitary intermediate lobe ACTH hypersecretion. We conclude that 7B2 is indeed required for activation of PC2 in vivo but has additional important functions in regulating pituitary hormone secretion.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (7/1345)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Phagosomes are fully competent antigen-processing organelles that mediate the formation of peptide:class II MHC complexes. (8/1345)

During the processing of particulate Ags, it is unclear whether peptide:class II MHC (MHC-II) complexes are formed within phagosomes or within endocytic compartments that receive Ag fragments from phagosomes. Murine macrophages were pulsed with latex beads conjugated with OVA. Flow or Western blot analysis of isolated phagosomes showed extensive acquisition of MHC-II, H-2M, and invariant chain within 30 min, with concurrent degradation of OVA. T hybridoma responses to isolated subcellular fractions demonstrated OVA (323-339):I-Ad complexes in phagosomes and plasma membrane but not within dense late endocytic compartments. Furthermore, when two physically separable sets of phagosomes were present within the same cells, OVA(323-339):I-Ad complexes were demonstrated in latex-OVA phagosomes but not in phagosomes containing latex beads conjugated with another protein. This implies that these complexes were formed specifically within phagosomes and were not formed elsewhere and subsequently transported to phagosomes. In addition, peptide:MHC-II complexes were shown to traffic from phagosomes to the cell surface. In conclusion, phagosomes are fully competent to process Ags and generate peptide:MHC-II complexes that are transported to the cell surface and presented to T cells.  (+info)

*CD79B

It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 10: 97-121. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy.10.040192.000525. PMID 1591006. ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ...

*CD20

"Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...

*NT5E

... and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored lymphocyte differentiation antigen ... The enzyme is used as a marker of lymphocyte differentiation. Consequently, a deficiency of NT5 occurs in a variety of ... 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135318 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*Alan Williams (immunologist)

... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... The success linked to this work on Thy1 prompted Williams to expand the search for surface molecules on lymphocytes that could ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ... "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) spans the lipid bilayer and contains a cytoplasmic ...

*LSP1

... a phosphorylated human lymphocyte differentiation and activation antigen". Eur J Immunol. 20 (11): 2417-23. doi:10.1002/eji. ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... "Entrez Gene: LSP1 lymphocyte-specific protein 1". Jongstra-Bilen J, Young AJ, Chong R, Jongstra J (1990). "Human and mouse LSP1 ... 1993). "Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family". Genomics. 15 (3): 515-20. doi: ...

*Sir William Dunn School of Pathology

Differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes. Alan F. Williams, Giovanni Galfrè and Cesar Milstein [1][dead link] [2][dead link ... The recirculation of lymphocytes from blood to lymph in the rat. GOWANS JL. Cell, Vol 12, 663-673, (1977)Analysis of cell ... During the 1950s Gowans pioneering work sorted out the life cycle of that cell, He showed that the small lymphocyte ... Florey suggested he should investigate the lymphocyte, a cell whose life history was at that time completely obscure. ...

*CD1

"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. doi ... CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...

*MLANA

"A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas". J. Exp. ... The same name is also used to refer to the gene which codes for the antigen. The MART-1/melan-A antigen is specific for the ... of Belgium called the gene melan-A, presumably an abbreviation for "melanocyte antigen." MART-1/melan-A is a protein antigen ... Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...

*Chang Yi Wang

Human lymphocyte bearing 1a-like antigens [now termed HLA-DK or class 1 MHC antigen]: Absence in patients with infantile ... Activation of autologous reactive helpter T lymphocytes for differentiation of human B lymphocytes. J Immunol 1981: 126:2483. ... Expression of a 1a-like antigen on human granulocytes during early stages of differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1977; 74: ... A new human B lymphocyte surface antigen (BL2) detected by a monoclonal antibodies: Distribution of benign and malignant ...

*CD226

... is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation ... CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX ... Cluster of differentiation Nectin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150637 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes". Immunity. 4 (6): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613 ...

*CD19

B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. The ability of the B ... As on T cells, several surface molecules form the antigen receptor and form a complex on B lymphocytes. The (almost) B cell- ... Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Omori SA, Tedder TF (1992). "Structure of the genes encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes ...

*T independent antigen (TI)

It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. TI-2 antigens can activate only ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. However ...

*Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1

... leading to further T cell differentiation. LFA-1 is part of the family of leukocyte integrins that are recognised by their ... "Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1): a surface antigen distinct from Lyt-2,3 that participates in T lymphocyte- ... Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages, neutrophils and NK ... It binds to ICAM-1 on antigen-presenting cells and functions as an adhesion molecule. LFA-1 is the first to bind T-cells to ...

*40S ribosomal protein S19

... and human lymphocyte antigen class I messenger RNAs associated with colon carcinoma progression and differentiation". Cancer ... This suggests a possible extra-ribosomal function for this gene in erythropoietic differentiation and proliferation, in ...

*Visna virus

... will continuously present VMV antigens inducing T-lymphocytes to produce cytokines that in turn induce the differentiation of ... This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and ... MR is involved in recognizing the surface of pathogens and is involved in phago- and endocytosis and mediating antigen ... of maturity/differentiation of the monocytes. Infected differentiated monocytes, also known as macrophages, ...

*Uterine serpin

... cluster differentiation antigen-26) by the uterine endometrium of the ewe and cow that costimulates lymphocyte proliferation". ... In particular, sheep uterine serpin can inhibit lymphocyte and natural killer cell function in vitro and reduce natural-killer ...

*Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia

CFU-stimulating T cells indicated that they expressed the CD4 but not CD8 cell surface Cluster of differentiation antigen, ... Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, also termed lymphocyte variant eosinophilia, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or ... a antibody that binds to the CD52 antigen on mature lymphocytes thereby marking them for destruction by the body). The few ... is caused by aberrant population of lymphocytes. These aberrant lymphocytes function abnormally by stimulating the ...

*CD48

... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... CD48 was the first B-cell-specific cellular differentiation antigen identified in transformed B lymphoblasts. The gene for CD48 ... "Epstein-Barr virus superinduces a new human B cell differentiation antigen (B-LAST 1) expressed on transformed lymphoblasts". ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ...

*LY75

Lymphocyte antigen 75 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY75 gene. LY75 has also recently been designated CD205 ( ... cluster of differentiation 205). CD205 is also known as DEC-205. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000054219 - Ensembl, May ... "Entrez Gene: LY75 lymphocyte antigen 75". Tungekar MF, Gatter KC, Ritter MA (1996). "Bladder carcinomas and normal urothelium ... 1999). "Intrathymic function of the human cortical epithelial cell surface antigen gp200-MR6: single-chain antibodies to ...

*CD8A

The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen ... CD8a (Cluster of Differentiation 8a), is a human gene. The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T ... Sukhatme VP, Sizer KC, Vollmer AC, Hunkapiller T, Parnes JR (1985). "The T cell differentiation antigen Leu-2/T8 is homologous ... a human T-cell differentiation antigen CD8 (Leu2) cDNA mapped to 2p12". Nucleic Acids Res. 14 (19): 7817. doi:10.1093/nar/14.19 ...

*LY9

T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... CD229 (cluster of differentiation 229). LY9 has been shown to interact with SH2D1A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122224 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological ...

*Prolymphocyte

... that the differentiation of cells in the lymphocyte line is not always simply chronologic but rather depends on antigen ... A prolymphocyte is a white blood cell with a certain state of cellular differentiation in lymphocytopoiesis. In the 20th ... it was believed that a sequence of general maturation changed cells from lymphoblasts to prolymphocytes and then to lymphocytes ... exposure, such that, for example, lymphocytes can become lymphoblasts. The size is between 10 and 18 μm. Pluripotential ...

*Lutzner cells

When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers ... This rearrangement occurs early in the differentiation process and creates novel T-cell receptors that mimic the structure of ... They are a form of T-lymphocytes that has been mutated This atypical form of T-lymphocytes contains T-cell receptors on the ... It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells ...

*Alfred Singer

He is best known for his work regarding lymphocyte development, particularly the differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double ... Singer's work is foundational in the understanding of T cells and MHC-restricted antigen recognition. Singer's work explores ...

*B-cell activating factor

CD257 antigen; cluster of differentiation 257). BAFF is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand ... Tian RY, Han W, Yu Y, Chen Y, Yu GS, Yang SL, Gong Y (December 2003). "[The immunopotentiation of human B lymphocyte stimulator ... It has been also shown to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. BAFF is a 285-amino acid ... BAFF is also known as B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) and TNF- and APOL-related leukocyte expressed ligand (TALL-1) and the ...

*PSMD7

Madani N, Kabat D (Dec 1998). "An endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus in human lymphocytes is overcome by the ... cell growth and differentiation, gene transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. Subsequently, a compromised proteasome ... proteins are digested into peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation. To meet such complicated demands in biological ... the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
RefSeq Summary (NM_002118): HLA-DMB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta (DMB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide) molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ...
AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine: A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)" -- from cancer.gov ...
CD74 - CD74 (untagged)-Human CD74 molecule, major histocompatibility complex, class II invariant chain (CD74), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
CD74 - Rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD74 (CD74 molecule, major histocompatibility complex, class II invariant chain) available from OriGene
Improved risk models of patients with stage III melanoma will improve the treatment of patients with this disease; however, molecular markers are lacking. Our analysis of independent cohorts (two for protein in TMA, and one for mRNA in TCGA) of patients tumors strongly implicates increased CD74 expression as a new marker of good prognosis in stage III melanoma. Previously, we had considered inflammatory markers to be associated with poor prognosis, which was the case for MIF in both cohorts, and for iNOS in the MDACC cohort. The surprising finding of higher expression of CD74 having a strong association with good prognosis is most intriguing, and elucidating the mechanism involved is likely to open new avenues for melanoma research.. The functional role of CD74 is not well understood. Historically, CD74 was known primarily as the MHC class II invariant chain and functions in the molecular processing of MHC II through the Golgi (24). It has a potential role in the antitumor immune response (25), ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Analysis of Invariant Chain Subsets as a Function of Their Association with MHC Class II Chains. AU - Nguyen, Q. V.. AU - Reyes, Victor. AU - Humphreys, R. E.. PY - 1995/2/20. Y1 - 1995/2/20. N2 - Respective subsets of human invariant chain (Ii), as identified with antibodies to two different epitopes, were characterized as a function of their associations with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II α,β chains and intracellular processing. E1 antiserum to Ii(183-193) and VIC-Y1 monoclonal antibody to an N-terminal determinant identified Ii(E1) and Ii(VIC) populations, respectively. Ii proteins comprise several species which have been defined with either genomic or post-translational processes: Ii itself; IpN and IpO, which represent the glycosylated forms on asparagine or threonine/serine, respectively; γ2 and γ3, which originate from an alternative initiation site for transcription; and p41, which has a 64-amino-acid insert which originated from an ...
The spatiotemporal regulation of the immune response remains largely unknown. Now Faure-André et al. (see the Perspective by Lukacs-Kornek and Turley) show that the invariant chain, a key regulator of antigen processing and presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, also controls the intrinsic migratory capacity of dendritic cells. In a study of the behavior of dendritic cells taken from mouse models on microfabricated surfaces using time-lapse imaging, the invariant chain caused dendritic cells to enter a discontinuous migration mode that alternated between low- and high-motility phases. This regulation of dendritic cell migration by the invariant chain results from its association with the actin-based motor protein, myosin II. This use of common regulators for antigen processing and cell motility may provide dendritic cells with a way to coordinate the two functions in time and space.. G. Faure-André, P. Vargas, M.-I. Yuseff, M. Heuzé, J. Diaz, D. Lankar, V. ...
The goal of the Phase I part of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of milatuzumab that can be given to patients with NHL or CLL. The goal of the Phase II part of this clinical research study is to learn if milatuzumab can help to control NHL or CLL. The safety of the study drug will also be studied.
Milatuzumab or placebo will be given subcutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks to determine if milatuzumab helps to control lupus (SLE). The treatment portion of the study lasts 4 weeks. Then patients are followed for disease activity for at least 12 weeks. If patients respond to the study drug, they may be eligible for one course of retreatment, again followed by 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients who showed a response will continue to be followed at timepoints up to one year after treatment to assess how long the response lasts ...
CD74, the cell-surface form of the MHC class II invariant chain, is a key inflammatory factor that is involved in various immune-mediated diseases as part of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) binding complex. However, little is known about the natural regulators of CD74 in this context. In order to study the role of the HLA-DR molecule in regulating CD74, we used the HLA-DRα1 domain, which was shown to bind to and downregulate CD74 on CD11b+ monocytes. We found that DRα1 directly inhibited binding of MIF to CD74 and blocked its downstream inflammatory effects in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Potency of the DRα1 domain could be destroyed by trypsin digestion but enhanced by addition of a peptide extension (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG]-35-55 peptide) that provided secondary structure not present in DRα1. These data suggest a conformationally sensitive determinant on DRα1-MOG that is responsible for optimal binding to ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on "tonic" signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on "tonic" signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
The invariant chain (Ii) binds nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, blocking peptide binding until the complex dissociates in the endosomes. This may serve to differentiate the MHC class I and II antigen presentation pathways and enable class II molecules to efficiently bind peptides in the endosomes. This hypothesis was addressed by probing spleen cells from a combination of knock-out and transgenic mice with a large panel of T cell hybridomas. The Ii molecule blocked the presentation of a range of endogenously synthesized epitopes, but some epitopes actually required Ii. Thus, the influence of Ii on presentation does not follow simple rules. In addition, mice expressing Ii were not tolerant to epitopes unmasked in its absence, a finding with possible implications for autoimmunity. ...
Abstract: In order to analyze whether loci in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I region may contribute to the HLA class II-associated genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS), we examined selected microsatellite markers in 177 Nordic sib-pair families, 222 British sib-pair families, 323 sporadic Norwegian MS patients and 386 Norwegian controls. All samples were, in addition, genotyped for the HLA-DR DQ haplotype, and the Norwegian case-control samples were also typed for HLA-A and -B loci. In the Norwegian sporadic MS patients association was seen with HLA-A, HLA-B, and with the D6S265 marker, located 100 kb centromeric to HLA-A. Associations with HLA-A and D6S265 loci were also suggested when restricting the analysis to HLA-DR15 haplotypes. In the sib-pair data a similar trend was seen with marker D6S265. Higher genotypic relative risk (GRR) was found for individuals who carry both HLA-DR15 and -A3 (GRR = 15), compared to those who carry only HLA-DR15 (GRR = 7), only HLA-A3 (GRR ...
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1ICF: Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S.
A big thanks to Noah Zark for providing information on this new clip. The clip was filled with 5 rounds of Nigerian Ball Ammo headstamped OFN.. ...
Newly synthesised major histocompatibility complex class II molecules associate with invariant chains (Ii) to form nonameric complexes. These complexes are transported to endosomes, where proteolytic enzymes generate alphabeta class II dimers associated with nested Ii-derived peptides. These peptides are then exchanged with antigen peptide, and mature class II molecules reach the cell surface. The role of the actin cytoskeleton in the transport and maturation of class II molecules has not been studied. We show here that upon treatment with cytochalasin D (cyto D), the rate of Ii degradation is drastically reduced in B cells. Cyto D treatment also leads to a delayed appearance of stable forms of class II molecules, and a reduced presentation efficiency of antigen determinants requiring newly synthesised class II molecules. Under such conditions, we found that invariant chain fragments and class II molecules are accumulated in early and late endosomal compartments, whereas the leupeptin protease ...
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes/macrophages express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHC II) at their surface and present exogenous antigenic peptides to CD4+ T helper cells. CD4+ T cells play a central role in immune protection. On their activation they stimulate differentiation of B cells into antibody-producing B-cell blasts and initiate adaptive immune responses. MHC class II molecules are transmembrane glycoprotein heterodimers of alpha and beta subunits. Newly synthesized MHC II molecules present in the endoplasmic reticulum bind to a chaperone protein called invariant (Ii) chain. The binding of Ii prevents the premature binding of self antigens to the nascent MHC molecules in the ER and also guides MHC molecules to endocytic compartments. In the acidic endosomal environment, Ii is degraded in a stepwise manner, ultimately to free the class II peptide-binding groove for loading of antigenic peptides. Exogenous ...
Helper T cells are stimulated to fight infections or diseases upon recognition of peptides from antigens that are processed and presented by the proteins of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II molecules. Degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments is a lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperones. Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its mouse analog H2-O, herein called DO. While DO was originally discovered decades ago, elucidating its function has proven challenging. DO was discovered in association with
Milatuzumab (or hLL1) is an anti-CD74 humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple myeloma non-Hodgkins lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The drug is the first anti-CD74 antibody that has entered into human testing and is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Milatuzumab has received orphan drug designation from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the treatment of multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Milatuzumab was developed by Immunomedics, Inc, (Morris Plains NJ USA). CD74 is present on a variety of hematological tumors and even on some solid cancers. It is present in limited amounts in normal tissues but widely found in leukemias, lymphomas and the vast majority of multiple myeloma cases.[citation needed] CD74 is involved in a cell-to-cell communication pathway that is critical for survival.[citation needed] When CD74 is blocked by milatuzumab, it can lead to cell death. CD74 is an attractive target for a ...
The endocytic pathway comprises various organelles of low pH, including early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, each with varying capacities for protein degradation and protein recycling. Certain proteins, such as transferrin receptors, are sorted for retrieval from endocytic compartments and are selectively recycled back to the PM or TGN, whereas those that are targeted for degradation are retained in late endosomes and lysosomes ( Piper and Katzmann, 2007). Upon reaching the late endosomes, proteins that are intended for destruction are sorted onto intraluminal vesicles that are derived from the inward budding of the limiting membrane of the endosome, thereby giving rise to multivesicular antigen-processing compartments termed multivesicular bodies (MVBs). The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) protein machinery, either directly through the recognition of the small molecule ubiquitin or indirectly through ubiquitin-independent targeting, sorts molecules that are ...
MO-DC generated in vitro serve as a model type of DC to unravel the complex interactions among DC maturation, MHC class II peptide loading, and endocytic transport (3, 33, 34). The emerging picture suggests that endocytic protease activity is regulated by differential activity of the lysosomal ATPase during DC maturation (3). By analyzing lysosomal MBP processing at pH 5.0 in vitro, we have here mimicked the conditions present in the lysosomal compartment of DC in the activated state in vivo.. The MHC class II-associated proteolytic machinery is characterized by a hierarchical proteolytic cascade, where the initial step controls the efficiency of Ag processing, peptide presentation, and T cell activation (14). Different types of APC as well as primary cells and immortalized cell lines contain distinct activity patterns of endocytic proteases (11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 37) which might result in different processing pathways for a given Ag and hence in different selections of peptides presented. We here ...
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RefSeq Summary (NM_006120): HLA-DMA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta chain (DMB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BC011447.1, ...
WPI has amongst the best Organic Values3, which means it yields far more usable grams of Amino Acids than other Protein nutritional supplements. Furthermore, it has quick chain peptides which enable it to be available for absorption inside fifteen minutes immediately after use. This timing is most crucial as post-training is when your muscles are primed for nutrient and Protein absorption. Whey Isolate contains little to no find out here now Fat, Lactose or Cholesterol ...
HLA-DMA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta chain (DMB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The ability of the immune system to eliminate and shape the immunogenicity of tumours defines the process of cancer immunoediting1. Immunotherapies such as those that target immune checkpoint molecules can be used to augment immune-mediated elimination of tumours and have resulted in durable responses in patients with cancer that did not respond to previous treatments. However, only a subset of patients benefit from immunotherapy and more knowledge about what is required for successful treatment is needed2-4. Although the role of tumour neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour rejection is well established5-9, the roles of other subsets of T cells have received less attention. Here we show that spontaneous and immunotherapy-induced anti-tumour responses require the activity of both tumour-antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, even in tumours that do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In addition, the expression of MHC class II-restricted antigens by tumour cells
My major interest is in antigen processing, defined as the combination of mechanisms that generate the complexes of class I and class II MHC molecules with peptides that are the targets for recognition by T lymphocytes. My colleagues and I have identified a number of proteins that collaborate in these processes. MHC class I peptide binding occurs in the context of a large complex that we have defined in the endoplasmic reticulum consisting of TAP, an ATP-dependent peptide transporter; tapasin, a protein that couples the transporter to assembling class I molecules; and two "house-keeping" chaperones, calreticulin and ERp57. How these accessory molecules combine to facilitate peptide binding is currently being intensively investigated. We have also studied MHC class II peptide binding through the mechanism of class II molecules being delivered into the endocytic pathway by an associated protein, the invariant chain. This has included study of the CLIP, a residual fragment of the invariant chain, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Val-tyr, an Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor from Sardines that have Resistance to Gastrointestinal Proteases. AU - Seki, Eiji. AU - Osajima, Katsuhiro. AU - Matsufuji, Hiroshi. AU - Matsui, Toshiro. AU - Osajima, Yutaka. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The NH2-terminal residue of a dipeptide is an important determinant of the resistance to peptidases of porcine small mucosa. NH2-terminal Val or Ile, and COOH-terminal Trp or Tyr dipeptides had higher angiotensin I converting enzyme(ACE)inhibitory activity and digestive resistance than other dipeptides. We defined Val-Tyr as a main inhibitor in alkaline protease hydrolyzates from sardines. Attempts to isolate and measurement of Val-Tyr were done from the short chain peptides that reduced blood pressure. The content of Val-Tyr was 51 mg per 100 g of the short chain peptides, represented 1.3% of the total ACE inhibitory activity of the short chain peptides. Isolated Val-Tyr was resistant to gastrointestinal proteases. ...
MHC II molecules are transmembrane heterodimeric glycoproteins that play a key role in the immune response cascade. MHC II molecules are expressed exclusively in antigen presenting cells (APC). The primary function of APCs are to ingest, process, and present protein antigens to T-cells to initiate humoral immune response. In this process antigens enter APCs via phagocytosis or endocytosis. Once in the cell they are proteolyzed by endosomes and subsequently bound by MHC II molecules. MHC II transports the antigenic peptide to the surface of the APC, where the peptide MHC II complex fuses to the receptors on CD4+ T-cells, initiating immune response to eliminate the antigen. Expression of MHC II molecules is regulated by a trans-acting multi-protein complex called the MHCII enhanceosome. The MHCII enhanceosome is comprised of four proteins RFX, NFY, CREB, and CIITA. RFX, NFY, and CREB are found in all somatic cells, however the interaction of these three proteins alone does not induce expression of ...
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Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune condition in which segments of the immune system cause the destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas, leaving individuals with an impaired ability to control blood glucose levels. Currently there is no cure for Type 1 Diabetes and the treatments involve lifelong insulin administration and careful monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long-term complications like cardiovascular disease, nerve damage, and retina damage, may result. Previous studies have shown that improvement in the control of blood glucose can reduce the risks from these long-term complications. Residual insulin production, typically within the first few years following diagnosis, helps to reduce an individuals need to supplement insulin by injection or pump. This effect helps in maintaining the bodys ability to regulate blood glucose levels and reducing the needs of external insulin.. Methyldopa, or Aldomet, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is commonly used ...
Among other features, peptides affect MHC class II molecules, causing changes in the binding of bacterial superantigens (b-Sag). Whether peptides can alter binding of viral superantigens (v-Sag) to MHC class II was not known. Here we addressed the question of whether mutations limiting the diversity of peptides bound by the MHC class II molecules influenced the presentation of v-Sag and, subsequently, the life cycle of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). T cells reactive to v-Sag were found in mice lacking DM molecules as well as in A(b)Ep-transgenic mice in which MHC class II binding grooves were predominantly occupied by an invariant chain fragment or Ealpha(52-68) peptide, respectively. APCs from the mutant mice failed to present v-Sag, as determined by the lack of Sag-specific T cell activation, Sag-induced T cell deletion, and by the aborted MMTV infection. In contrast, mice that express I-A(b) with a variety of bound peptides presented v-Sag and were susceptible to MMTV infection.
In this study, we present evidence that the class Ib molecule MR1 presents a ubiquitously expressed endogenous ligand that can activate MAIT cells via an endocytic pathway. Supporting this notion, MAIT cell activation by MR1 does not require the MHC class I peptide loading complex, but is facilitated by the MHC class II chaperone Ii for endocytic trafficking. This finding is important in the context of studies of MHCII and CD1 isoforms, because binding of ligands in different endocytic compartments allows presentation of various endogenous or microbial ligands to αβT cells that consequently mount appropriate regulatory or effector responses.. Although the nature of the MR1 ligand is not known, there is considerable evidence that presentation of an endogenous ligand is involved in MAIT cell activation. This evidence includes the following: (a) MR1 undergoes a conformational change from open to folded analogous to MHC molecules after binding a ligand (35-37), and only antibodies to the folded ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide involved in the formation and transport of MHC class II protein. The cell surface form of the invariant chain is known as CD74. The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER binds a segment of the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) in order to shape the peptide binding groove and prevent formation of a closed conformation. Binding to Ii might also prevent binding of peptides from the endogenous pathway to the groove of MHC class II. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. The signal for endosomal targeting resides in the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed proteins. It is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic ...
In human B cells, class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) accumulate in an endosomal/lysosomal compartment, the MIIC, in which they may encounter and bind peptides. An additional molecule required for MHC-II peptide binding, HLA-DM (DM), has also been localized to the MIIC. Neither the relationship of the MIIC to the endosomal system nor the mechanisms by which DM localizes to the MIIC are understood. To address these issues, DM localization was analyzed in cells that do or do not express MHC-II. DM alpha beta heterodimers were localized in transfected MHC-II-negative HeLa and NRK cells, in the absence of the MHC-II-associated invariant chain, to a prelysosomal/lysosomal compartment by immunofluorescence microscopy. To identify a potential targeting determinant, we analyzed the localization of a chimeric protein, T-T-Mb, in which the cytoplasmic tail of murine DM beta (Mb) was appended to the lumenal and transmembrane domains of a cell surface protein, Tac. Like ...
Over the last decade, our understanding and ability to predict the MHC class I pathway antigen presentation has improved substantially. This however does not hold for post-transnationally modified (PTM) antigens, where our understanding on how PTMs impact the potential for antigen presentation remains limited. Likewise, is our ability to predict MHC class II antigen presentation limited, and data suggest that properties other that MHC binding plays a critical role for the prediction of CD4 epitopes. Finally, is our understanding of the role of the T cell and the similarity of the presented peptide to the self proteome in the context of peptide immunogenicity very limited ...
|p|One of the first cytokines described, MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) was originally identified in studies of delayed hypersensitivity reactions where it was shown to inhibit macrophage migration. It is an important mediator of the innate immune response with potential roles in the pathophysiology of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The human MIF gene encodes a 115 amino acid, 12.5 kDa secreted protein. Crystallographic studies suggest that MIF exists as a homotrimer, although some reports show that it may exist as a dimer or monomer as well. Although MIF exhibits no homology with other known cytokines, it shares structural homology with several bacterial enzymes. It has been speculated that MIF is an inflammatory mediator possibly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity.|/p|
The capacity of dendritic cells to initiate T cell responses is related to their ability to redistribute MHC class II mole-cules from the intracellular MHC class II compartments to the cell surface. This redistribution occurs during dendritic cell development as they are converted from an antigen capturing, immature dendritic cell into an MHC class II-peptide presenting mature dendritic cell. During this matu-ration, antigen uptake and processing are down-regulated and peptide-loaded class II complexes become expressed in a stable manner on the cell surface. ... ...
In article ,01bc8736$e36ebb80$0b0b258a at rhgf001,, N. Sheikh ,rhgf001 at mailrelay.qmw.ac.uk, wrote: ,Hi, ,I am trying to block the class II antigen processing pathway in mice - has ,anyone tried this ? , ,I am thinking of using Chloroquine - does anybody have any ideas on doses ? I dont know if anyone has done much with this - it seems kind of tricky to do systemically. For one thing, the proteases thought to be involved in Class II processing are probably important in other cellular functions, especially normal cellular protein turnover. FWIW, chloroquine concs. of 100-200 micromolar are sufficient to block most processing in vitro, but I dont know what effect that might have on the viability of non-presenting cells. ,Or are there any alternatives - even knockout mice...which are defective in ,class II processing ? Aside from the Class II knockouts, there are two that might be useful. Both invariant chain and H-2M knockouts have presentation defects, although neither stems from problems ...
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, is considered an attractive therapeutic target in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In addition to its known biologic activities, MIF can also function as a tautomerase. Several small molecules have been reported to be effective inhibitors of MIF tautomerase activity in vitro. Herein we employed a robust activity-based assay to identify different classes of novel inhibitors of the catalytic and biological activities of MIF. Several novel chemical classes of inhibitors of the catalytic activity of MIF with IC(50) values in the range of 0.2-15.5 microm were identified and validated. The interaction site and mechanism of action of these inhibitors were defined using structure-activity studies and a battery of biochemical and biophysical methods. MIF inhibitors emerging from these studies could be divided into three categories based on their mechanism of action: 1) molecules that covalently modify the catalytic site at
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Prospecbio \ Mouse Anti Human Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor MIF \ ant-311 for more molecular products just contact us
The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER has its peptide-binding cleft blocked by the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed, degraded proteins. It is then broken down in stages, leaving only a small fragment called CLIP which still blocks the peptide binding cleft. An MHC class II-like structure, HLA-DM, removes CLIP and replaces it with a peptide from the endosome. The stable MHC class-II is then presented on the cell surface ...
Swanson B.J., Jaeck H.-M., Lyons G.E. (1998). Characterization of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) expression in B and T cells: MEF2C is a B cell-restricted transcription factor in lymphocytes.. Mol. Immunol. 35: 445 - 458. PubMed DOI:10.1016/S0161-5890(98)00058-3 ...
Has strong elastinolytic activity, even at neutral pH, and may play a role in tissue damage associated with inflammation (Kirschke et al., 1989; Shi et al., 1992). Facilitates antigen presentation in the MHC class II system by degradation of the invariant chain (Driessen et al., 1999), and may therefore by a target for attenuation of immune response ...
Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. Current computational methods trained on in vitro binding data are limited by insufficient training data and algorithmic constraints. Here we describe MARIA (major histocompatibility complex analysis with recurrent integrated architecture; https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our improved machine learning framework, MARIA (area under the curve = 0.89-0.92) outperformed existing methods
HLA-DQA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B Lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa. It is encoded by 5 exons; exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, and exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
Abstract We have recently demonstrated that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a myocardial depressant protein and that MIF mediates late, prolonged cardiac dysfunctio..
This former Russian military secret is now available to the public!. Today Professor Vladimir Khavinson is the President of the European Academy of Gerontology and Geriatrics, but in the 1980s he was a Colonel in the Soviet Union military medical corps. At the time, he and his team were approached by Kremlin officials, they wanted them to find a way to protect their troops from a myriad of problems; issues such as radiation for submariners in nuclear submarines to troops that may be blinded from known, (but thankfully unused) new weapons such as battlefield lasers.. What their secret research uncovered- that was used for two decades on many thousands of men and women- was a remarkable link between short chain peptides and DNA.. Now their published research is in the open and it identifies that each organ/ gland/ tissue uses a highly specific short chain peptide to act as a short cut to initiate protein synthesis. These peptides can be found in food and unlike proteins they can enter the blood ...
Bay-Richter et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation (2015) 12:163 DOI /s JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION RESEARCH Behavioural and neurobiological consequences of macrophage migration inhibitory
摘 要:II类反式激活因子(class II trans-activator, CIITA)为非DNA结合蛋白,在MHC II类基因的转录激活过程中以协同激活分子的形式发挥主导开关的作用。CIITA还可以调节其他与抗原递呈相关的基因,如H-2M基因、Ia相关恒定链(Ii chain)基因等。结构上,CIITA分子又是NOD样受体(NOD-like receptor, NLR)家族成员之一,其功能与固有免疫密切相关。除此之外,CIITA在T细胞分化、FasL介导的细胞死亡、胶原的合成等方面也发挥着重要的调节作用 ...
Antigen Background The CD74 molecule has several isoforms (33, 35 and 41 kD) and is the invariant chain of HLA-DR. The protein is reported to be expressed in B cell lymphomas, leukemias, Reed Sternberg cells and Hodgkins mononuclear cells. The expression of CD74 protein occurs before the pre-B cell stage and is lost before the plasma cell stage. Product Specific Information NCL ...
High-quality Siglec-6 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of Siglec-6 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
We used a hit and run gene targeting strategy to generate mice expressing only the p31 isoform of the conserved invariant (Ii) chain associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Spleen cells from these mice appear indistinguishable from wild type with respect to class II subunit assembly, transport, peptide acquisition, surface expression, and the ability to present intact protein antigens. Moreover, these mutant mice have normal numbers of thymic and peripheral CD4+ T cells, and intact CD4+ T-dependent proliferative responses towards a soluble antigen. In short, MHC class II expression and function are surprisingly unaffected in mice lacking p41 invariant chain, implying that the p31 and p41 isoforms may be functionally redundant in the intact animal.
DNA vaccines promote an immune response by providing antigen-encoding DNA to the recipient, but the efficacy of such vaccines needs improving. Many approaches have considerable potential but currently induce relatively weak immune responses despite multiple high doses of DNA vaccine. Here, we asked whether targeting vaccine antigens to DCs would increase the immunity and protection that result from DNA vaccines. To determine this, we generated a DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein comprised of the vaccine antigen and a single-chain Fv antibody (scFv) specific for the DC-restricted antigen-uptake receptor DEC205. Following vaccination of mice, the vaccine antigen was expressed selectively by DCs, which were required for the increased efficacy of MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presentation relative to a control scFv DNA vaccine. In addition, a DNA vaccine encoding an HIV gag p41-scFv DEC205 fusion protein induced 10-fold higher antibody levels and increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ ...
... , Authors: Jan-Philipp Bach, Michael Bacher, Richard Dodel. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Effect of interferon Tau on the secretion of E-cadherin and macrophage migration inhibitory factor from bovine endometrial epithelial ...
Unlike B cells, CD8-positive and CD4-positive T cells of the adaptive immune system do not recognize intact foreign proteins but instead recognize polypeptide fragments of potential antigens. These antigenic peptides are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells bound to MHC class I and MHC class II proteins. Here, we review the basics of antigen acquisition by antigen presenting cells, antigen proteolysis into polypeptide fragments, antigenic peptide binding to MHC proteins, and surface display of both MHC class I-peptide and MHC class II-peptide complexes.
MS4A2 of 244 aas and 4 TMSs. High affinity receptor that binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins epsilon. Aggregation of Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) by multivalent antigens is required for the full mast cell response, including the release of preformed mediators (such as histamine) by degranulation and de novo production of lipid mediators and cytokines (Penhallow et al. 1995). Also mediates the secretion of important lymphokines. Binding of allergen to receptor-bound IgE leads to cell activation and the release of mediators responsible for the manifestations of allergy. ...
1MFI: Crystal structure of macrophage migration inhibitory factor complexed with (E)-2-fluoro-p-hydroxycinnamate at 1.8 A resolution: implications for enzymatic catalysis and inhibition.
References for Abcams Human Desmoplakin I+II peptide (ab71689). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
HLL,HLL is setting up HINDLABS Diagnostic Centers across Maharashtra state for which the company is looking for dynamic, performance and value driven candidates for the following positions on |strong|Fixed Tenure Contract|/strong| basis.|br /|
Autoritatea Naţională pentru Protecţia Consumatorilor Tel: 021.9551 www.anpc.gov.ro , Termeni şi condiţii. Toate drepturile rezervate Synevo Romania. Orice informaţie se poate copia doar cu acordul scris Synevo şi cu menţionarea sursei prin link direct către aceasta.. ...
In order to promote even healing and minimize scarring, this application discloses a flat clip to be applied to each end of a thread drawn by a needle through the edges of the wound until the clip lies flat against the surface of the skin. The application also discloses a tool carrying a cartridge holding a supply of clips for securing the clips on the thread and severing it. In addition, there is shown a tool for removing the clips from the thread so that the sutures may be removed when the wound has healed.
Type 1 diabetes is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated autoimmune disease mediated by beta-cell-specific T-cells and characterized by circulating autoantibodies to beta-cell molecules. In the BB/Wor diabetes-prone (DP) rat, type 1 diabetes develops spontaneously with an incidence of |90%. BB diabetes can be adoptively transferred to naive syngeneic or MHC class II-compatible rats with islet cell-activated T-cell lines derived from diabetic BB/Wor rats. However, the target beta-cell autoantigen(s) in BB diabetes has not yet been defined. BB rat T-cell lines activated in vitro with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and BB islet cell crude membranes (CM), but not islet cell cytosol, adoptively transfer diabetes into young DP recipients. To determine if the target autoantigen is an integral or peripheral membrane protein, islet cell CM were treated with 0.5 mol/l KCl or 0.2 mol/l Na2CO3 (pH 11). Both treatments selectively extract peripheral proteins from the cell membrane without
Antigen presented to CD4+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHCII) plays a key role in adaptive immunity. Antigen presentation is initiated by the proteolytic cleavage of pathogenic or self proteins and loading of resultant peptides to MHCII. The loading and exchange of peptides to MHCII is catalyzed by a nonclassical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM (DM). It is well established that DM promotes peptide exchange in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of DM-catalyzed peptide association and dissociation, and how this would affect epitope selection in human responses to infectious disease remain unclear. The work presented in this thesis was directed towards the understanding of mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange and its role in epitope selection. In Chapter II, I measured the binding affinity, intrinsic dissociation half-life and DM-mediated dissociation half-life for a large set of peptides derived from vaccinia virus and compared these properties to the peptide-specific
Primary immunodeficiency diseases are inherited disorders that affect human adaptive and innate immunity. In most cases, affected individuals experience recurrent infections, but they may also suffer from autoimmune diseases and malignancies. This chapter focuses on Signal Transduction by T and B Lymphocyte Antigen Receptors, including the historic and scientific background, clinical presentations, immunologic characteristics, and the molecular/genetic underpinnings. Where appropriate, diagnostic tools and therapeutic options are outlined -- from prophylactic anti-infective measures to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapy.
The Nonconventional MHC Class II Molecule DM Governs Diabetes Susceptibility in NOD Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
HLA-DQA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain…
The newly elected Immunomedics Board of Directors has conducted a multifaceted review of the Company with initial emphasis on IMMU-132 in mTNBC, which had received Breakthrough Therapy Designation for this indication from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2016.. As part of this review, work has focused on the organizational, operational, and clinical and regulatory capabilities, with each being led by highly credentialed independent consultants with specific relevant expertise. These efforts have resulted in an updated timeline for the execution of delivering IMMU-132 to market, with the Immunomedics now targeting the submission of a BLA for IMMU-132 for approval in mTNBC between late fourth quarter 2017 and first quarter 2018, subject to FDA input on the acceptance of the CMC filing plan.. The review confirmed that the data generated in the ongoing 100-patient phase II study of IMMU-132 in 3rd line TNBC, which was fully enrolled in December 2016, can provide the basis for ...
Full game walkthrough for all 60 Achievements in Bulletstorm: Full Clip Edition. It should take between 15 and 30 hours to complete.

Palatine Tonsil | ANATOMIC.USPalatine Tonsil | ANATOMIC.US

... growth and differentiation, migration, or apoptosis. They are produced by wide range of cell types upon antigen-specific and ... Also, natural infection with varicella zoster virus has been found to stimulate tonsillar lymphocytes better than lymphocytes ... If the tonsillar lymphocytes became overwhelmed with this persistent stimulation they may be unable to respond to other ... Indeed, human tonsils persistently harbor microbial antigens even when the subject is asymptomatic of ongoing infection. It ...
more infohttp://beta.anatomic.us/atlas/palatine-tonsil-2/

Primary Immunodeficiencies - American Family PhysicianPrimary Immunodeficiencies - American Family Physician

Common primary immunodeficiencies include disorders of humoral immunity (affecting B-cell differentiation or antibody ... T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte responses are not independent of one another; for example, B cells can activate antigen-specific ... Disorders of humoral immunity (B-cell differentiation and antibody production). After 6 months of age; can present in adulthood ... The adaptive immune system includes T and B lymphocytes and can be divided into cellular and humoral responses. The cellular ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/1115/p2001.html

Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigens-differentiation-t-lymphocyte.html

Association of endogenous viral loci with genes encoding murine histocompatibility and lymphocyte differentiation antigensAssociation of endogenous viral loci with genes encoding murine histocompatibility and lymphocyte differentiation antigens

... ... antigen-encoding loci. Viral DNA restriction fragments are associated with Ly-17 on chromosome 1, H-30, H-3, and H-13 on ... hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) ...
more infohttps://vivo.scripps.edu/display/endnote59689

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | JEMA new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | JEM

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/180/1/35?ijkey=2c99292aff4daae9eb2d802c5c126817c7b9b47e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40...Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40...

... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/152/9/4282

Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic se by R A. Schlegel, H Von boehmer et al."Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic se" by R A. Schlegel, H Von boehmer et al.

Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors ... Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, "Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1975/1320/

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | Journal...A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | Journal...

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. J Exp ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/180/1/35/58268/A-new-gene-coding-for-a-differentiation-antigen

Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy...Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy...

Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/10/3/1047

Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for...Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for...

Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Chimeric antibody with specificity to human b cell surface antigen.. Int Genetic Eng, Oncogen, July 13, 1988: EP0274394-A2 (49 ...
more infohttp://patent.ipexl.com/US/06682734.html

CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface...CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface...

The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/cd20-cluster-of-differentiation-20-membrane-spanning-4-domains-subfamily-a-member-1-ms4a1-cvid5-b-lymphocyte-surface-antigen-b1

Recombinant Human CD38 protein (ab114253) | AbcamRecombinant Human CD38 protein (ab114253) | Abcam

Lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD38. *NAD(+) nucleosidase. *NIM-R5 antigen. *NIMR5 antigen (mouse) ... where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-cd38-protein-ab114253.html

Anti-CD38 antibody (FITC) [90] | AbcamAnti-CD38 antibody (FITC) [90] | Abcam

Lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD38 antibody. *NAD(+) nucleosidase antibody. *NIM-R5 antigen antibody ... Cellular activation [Induction of B lymphocyte proliferation]: Use at an assay dependent dilution. Flow Cyt: Use 1µg for 106 ... where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/cd38-antibody-90-fitc-ab24978.html

CD8 alpha Antibody (C8/468) [DyLight 650] (NBP2-34589C): Novus BiologicalsCD8 alpha Antibody (C8/468) [DyLight 650] (NBP2-34589C): Novus Biologicals

T-cell antigen Leu2. *T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain. *T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen T8/Leu-2 ... CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The T-cell co-receptor CD8 is a cell-surface glycoprotein that bridges the ... It is a useful marker for distinguishing helper/inducer T-lymphocytes, and most peripheral T-cell lymphomas are CD4+/CD8-. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/products/cd8-alpha-antibody-c8-468_nbp2-34589c

Table of Contents - July 01, 1975, 115 (1) | The Journal of ImmunologyTable of Contents - July 01, 1975, 115 (1) | The Journal of Immunology

Antigen-Initiated B Lymphocyte Differentiation Robert A. Schlegel and Ken Shortman. J Immunol July 1, 1975, 115 (1) 94-99; ... Induction of T Lymphocyte Responses to a Small Molecular Weight Antigen Wesley W. Bullock, David H. Katz and Baruj Benacerraf ... The Expression of ϑ-Like Antigen by Rat Peripheral Lymphocytes: Serologic and Functional Studies Tommy C. Douglas and Andrew P ... Kinetic Study of T Lymphocytes After Sensitization Against Soluble Antigen Helen G. Durkin and Byron H. Waksman ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/115/1

CD8a Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)
                
                
		        
	CD8a Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)

Protein Aliases: CD8; CD8a; Leu-2; Lyt-2.1 lymphocyte differentiation antigen (AA at 100); MAL; T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 ... The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an ... CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient ... N neutrophil, B B-lymphocyte, T T-lymphocyte, C bone cortex. Scale bar = 100 um for immunohistochemical staining and 25 um for ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD8a-Antibody-clone-53-6-7-Monoclonal/53-0081-82

CD8a Antibody, Super Bright 702 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)
                
                
		        
	CD8a Antibody, Super Bright 702 (Monoclonal, 53-6.7)

Protein Aliases: CD8a; Lyt-2.1 lymphocyte differentiation antigen (AA at 100); T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain; T- ... The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an ... CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient ... of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/CD8a-Antibody-clone-53-6-7-Monoclonal/67-0081-82

CD74 | Cancer Genetics WebCD74 | Cancer Genetics Web

Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte. *B-Lymphocytes. *Proto-Oncogene Proteins. *Messenger RNA. *Western Blotting ... antigen processing and presentation - antigen processing and presentation of endogenous antigen - antigen processing and ... Antigen Processing and Presentation BIOCARTA. - Antigen processing and presentation KEGG. Data from KEGG and BioCarta [BIOCARTA ... The infiltrated lymphocytes in BLOM comprise T- and B-cells. This indi-cates that the lymphoid tissue in BLOM is mucosa- ...
more infohttp://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/CD74.htm

Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.Productive infection of normal CD40-activated human B lymphocytes by HIV-1.

This process is highly dependent on functional interactions between B and T lymphocytes. In vitro activation of CD40 present on ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Productive-infection-normal-CD40-activated/7531456.html

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory MedicineClinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine

Influence of Pregnancy on Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Activity (CD 26 Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen) of Circulating Lymphocytes ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/cclm.1991.29.issue-8/issue-files/cclm.1991.29.issue-8.xml

Exercise stress alters the percentage of splenic lymphocyte subsets in response to mitogen but not in response to interleukin-1.Exercise stress alters the percentage of splenic lymphocyte subsets in response to mitogen but not in response to interleukin-1.

Results of previous work from this laboratory demonstrated that reduced murine splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / metabolism*. Concanavalin A / pharmacology*. Interleukin-1 / pharmacology*. ... 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0/Interleukin-1; 0/Mitogens; 11028-71-0/Concanavalin A ... Lymphocytes / drug effects, immunology, physiology*. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C3H. Mitogens / pharmacology*. Physical Exertion* ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Exercise-stress-alters-percentage-splenic/2790228.html

Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Immunobiology | Yale School of...Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Immunobiology | Yale School of...

Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Immunity; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Investigative ... Bouzahzah F, Jung S, Craft J: CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone mice avoid antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo. J Immunol ... B cells in T follicular helper cell development and function: Separable roles in delivery of ICOS ligand and antigen. Weinstein ... Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation. Johnson RJ*, Poholek ...
more infohttps://medicine.yale.edu/immuno/people/joseph_craft-2.profile

Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...Joseph Edgar Craft, MD > Internal Medicine | Yale School of...

Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Immunity; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Investigative ... Bouzahzah F, Jung S, Craft J: CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone mice avoid antigen-specific tolerance induction in vivo. J Immunol ... B cells in T follicular helper cell development and function: Separable roles in delivery of ICOS ligand and antigen. Weinstein ... Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of T follicular helper cell differentiation. Johnson RJ*, Poholek ...
more infohttp://medicine.yale.edu/intmed/people/specialtypeople/joseph_craft-2.profile

Program Members | Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of MedicineProgram Members | Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of Medicine

Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; Autoimmune Diseases; Biology; Cytokines; Immunity; Investigative Techniques; Lupus ...
more infohttps://www.yalecancercenter.org/research/programs/immunology/people/index.aspx
  • CD8 is found on a T cell subset of normal cytotoxic/suppressor cells which make up approximately 20-35 % of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature alpha beta TCR T cells express CD8 alpha beta while gamma delta TCR T cells, a subpopulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and dendritic cells express CD8 alpha alpha. (thermofisher.com)
  • Dr. Craft investigates CD4 T helper cells in conventional and autoimmune responses in mice and in humans, with a primary focus upon the differentiation and function of follicular helper (Tfh) cells that promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GC). (yale.edu)
  • Single-platform technology (SPT) is designed to enable de- system and managing the health care of persons infected with terminations of both absolute and percentage lymphocyte sub- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ( 1-4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The protein has no known natural ligand and its function is to enable optimal B-cell immune response, specifically against T-independent antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the importance of B cell-T cell interactions in the maintenance of a functional immune system, disruption of B-lymphocyte development could have direct implications on the course of AIDS progression. (biomedsearch.com)