White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/1345)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

HLA-DM and invariant chain are expressed by thyroid follicular cells, enabling the expression of compact DR molecules. (2/1345)

Thyroid follicular cells (TFC) in Graves' disease (GD) hyperexpress HLA class I and express ectopic HLA class II molecules, probably as a consequence of cytokines produced by infiltrating T cells. This finding led us to postulate that TFC could act as antigen-presenting cells, and in this way be responsible for the induction and/or maintenance of the in situ autoimmune T cell response. Invariant chain (li) and HLA-DM molecules are implicated in the antigen processing and presentation by HLA class II molecules. We have investigated the expression of these molecules by TFC from GD glands. The results demonstrate that class II+ TFC from GD patients also express li and HLA-DM, and this expression is increased after IFN-gamma stimulation. The level of HLA-DM expression by TFC was low but sufficient to catalyze peptide loading into the HLA class II molecules and form stable HLA class II-peptide complexes expressed at the surface of TFC. These results have implications for the understanding of the possible role of HLA class II+ TFC in thyroid autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Cathepsin S required for normal MHC class II peptide loading and germinal center development. (3/1345)

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules acquire antigenic peptides after degradation of the invariant chain (Ii), an MHC class II-associated protein that otherwise blocks peptide binding. Antigen-presenting cells of mice that lack the protease cathepsin S fail to process Ii beyond a 10 kDa fragment, resulting in delayed peptide loading and accumulation of cell surface MHC class II/10 kDa Ii complexes. Although cathepsin S-deficient mice have normal numbers of B and T cells and normal IgE responses, they show markedly impaired antibody class switching to IgG2a and IgG3. These results indicate cathepsin S is a major Ii-processing enzyme in splenocytes and dendritic cells. Its role in humoral immunity critically depends on how antigens access the immune system.  (+info)

Impaired invariant chain degradation and antigen presentation and diminished collagen-induced arthritis in cathepsin S null mice. (4/1345)

Cathepsins have been implicated in the degradation of proteins destined for the MHC class II processing pathway and in the proteolytic removal of invariant chain (Ii), a critical regulator of MHC class II function. Mice lacking the lysosomal cysteine proteinase cathepsin S (catS) demonstrated a profound inhibition of Ii degradation in professional APC in vivo. A marked variation in the generation of MHC class II-bound Ii fragments and presentation of exogenous proteins was observed between B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages lacking catS. CatS-deficient mice showed diminished susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for regulation of immune responsiveness.  (+info)

Engagement of B cell receptor regulates the invariant chain-dependent MHC class II presentation pathway. (5/1345)

The intracellular sites in which Ags delivered by the B cell receptor (BCR) are degraded and loaded onto class II molecules remain poorly defined. To address this issue, we generated wild-type and invariant chain (Ii)-deficient H-2k mice bearing BCR specific for hen egg lysozyme. Our results show that, 1) unlike Ags taken up from the fluid phase, Ii is required for presentation of hen egg lysozyme internalized through the BCR in a manner independent of the peptide analyzed; 2) BCR ligation induces intracellular accumulation of MHC class II molecules only in Ii-positive B cells; and 3) these class II molecules reach intracellular compartments where BCR targets exogenous Ag. No differences in expression of adhesion and costimulatory molecules or in the presentation of soluble peptides were detectable between Ii-positive and -negative B cells. Therefore, the BCR delivers its ligand to compartments containing MHC class II-Ii complexes and bypasses the Ii-independent presentation pathway. The linked roles of Ag internalization and B cell activation of the BCR leads to potent Ii-dependent presentation in splenic B cells.  (+info)

The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for peptide hormone processing in vivo and provides a novel mechanism for pituitary Cushing's disease. (6/1345)

The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 has been implicated in activation of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), an important neuroendocrine precursor processing endoprotease. To test this hypothesis, we created a null mutation in 7B2 employing a novel transposon-facilitated technique and compared the phenotypes of 7B2 and PC2 nulls. 7B2 null mice have no demonstrable PC2 activity, are deficient in processing islet hormones, and display hypoglycemia, hyperproinsulinemia, and hypoglucagonemia. In contrast to the PC2 null phenotype, these mice show markedly elevated circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels, with adrenocortical expansion. They die before 9 weeks of severe Cushing's syndrome arising from pituitary intermediate lobe ACTH hypersecretion. We conclude that 7B2 is indeed required for activation of PC2 in vivo but has additional important functions in regulating pituitary hormone secretion.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (7/1345)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Phagosomes are fully competent antigen-processing organelles that mediate the formation of peptide:class II MHC complexes. (8/1345)

During the processing of particulate Ags, it is unclear whether peptide:class II MHC (MHC-II) complexes are formed within phagosomes or within endocytic compartments that receive Ag fragments from phagosomes. Murine macrophages were pulsed with latex beads conjugated with OVA. Flow or Western blot analysis of isolated phagosomes showed extensive acquisition of MHC-II, H-2M, and invariant chain within 30 min, with concurrent degradation of OVA. T hybridoma responses to isolated subcellular fractions demonstrated OVA (323-339):I-Ad complexes in phagosomes and plasma membrane but not within dense late endocytic compartments. Furthermore, when two physically separable sets of phagosomes were present within the same cells, OVA(323-339):I-Ad complexes were demonstrated in latex-OVA phagosomes but not in phagosomes containing latex beads conjugated with another protein. This implies that these complexes were formed specifically within phagosomes and were not formed elsewhere and subsequently transported to phagosomes. In addition, peptide:MHC-II complexes were shown to traffic from phagosomes to the cell surface. In conclusion, phagosomes are fully competent to process Ags and generate peptide:MHC-II complexes that are transported to the cell surface and presented to T cells.  (+info)

Proteolysis of the class II-associated invariant chain generates a peptide binding site in intracellular HLA-DR molecules. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1991. 88:
RefSeq Summary (NM_002118): HLA-DMB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta (DMB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide) molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ...
AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine: A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) -- from cancer.gov ...
Improved risk models of patients with stage III melanoma will improve the treatment of patients with this disease; however, molecular markers are lacking. Our analysis of independent cohorts (two for protein in TMA, and one for mRNA in TCGA) of patients tumors strongly implicates increased CD74 expression as a new marker of good prognosis in stage III melanoma. Previously, we had considered inflammatory markers to be associated with poor prognosis, which was the case for MIF in both cohorts, and for iNOS in the MDACC cohort. The surprising finding of higher expression of CD74 having a strong association with good prognosis is most intriguing, and elucidating the mechanism involved is likely to open new avenues for melanoma research.. The functional role of CD74 is not well understood. Historically, CD74 was known primarily as the MHC class II invariant chain and functions in the molecular processing of MHC II through the Golgi (24). It has a potential role in the antitumor immune response (25), ...
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Clone REA296 recognizes MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii)-derived peptide (CLIP) complexes. MHC class II αβ heterodimers associate early during biosynthesis with a type II membrane protein, the invariant chain (Ii). The invariant chain serves as a chaperone for MHC II molecules and mediates trafficking to the endosomal pathway. In the endosomal pathway Ii is sequentially degraded, leaving a residual CLIP in the peptide-binding groove of MHC II. In presence of antigen peptide fragments, HLA-DM then binds to the MHC II molecule, releasing CLIP and allowing peptides to bind. REA296 detects HLA class II-positive cells which have impaired HLA-DM activity, and tumor cells that have escaped immuno-surveillance by CD4-positive T cells.Additional information: Clone REA296 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Analysis of Invariant Chain Subsets as a Function of Their Association with MHC Class II Chains. AU - Nguyen, Q. V.. AU - Reyes, Victor. AU - Humphreys, R. E.. PY - 1995/2/20. Y1 - 1995/2/20. N2 - Respective subsets of human invariant chain (Ii), as identified with antibodies to two different epitopes, were characterized as a function of their associations with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II α,β chains and intracellular processing. E1 antiserum to Ii(183-193) and VIC-Y1 monoclonal antibody to an N-terminal determinant identified Ii(E1) and Ii(VIC) populations, respectively. Ii proteins comprise several species which have been defined with either genomic or post-translational processes: Ii itself; IpN and IpO, which represent the glycosylated forms on asparagine or threonine/serine, respectively; γ2 and γ3, which originate from an alternative initiation site for transcription; and p41, which has a 64-amino-acid insert which originated from an ...
The spatiotemporal regulation of the immune response remains largely unknown. Now Faure-André et al. (see the Perspective by Lukacs-Kornek and Turley) show that the invariant chain, a key regulator of antigen processing and presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, also controls the intrinsic migratory capacity of dendritic cells. In a study of the behavior of dendritic cells taken from mouse models on microfabricated surfaces using time-lapse imaging, the invariant chain caused dendritic cells to enter a discontinuous migration mode that alternated between low- and high-motility phases. This regulation of dendritic cell migration by the invariant chain results from its association with the actin-based motor protein, myosin II. This use of common regulators for antigen processing and cell motility may provide dendritic cells with a way to coordinate the two functions in time and space.. G. Faure-André, P. Vargas, M.-I. Yuseff, M. Heuzé, J. Diaz, D. Lankar, V. ...
The goal of the Phase I part of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of milatuzumab that can be given to patients with NHL or CLL. The goal of the Phase II part of this clinical research study is to learn if milatuzumab can help to control NHL or CLL. The safety of the study drug will also be studied.
Milatuzumab or placebo will be given subcutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks to determine if milatuzumab helps to control lupus (SLE). The treatment portion of the study lasts 4 weeks. Then patients are followed for disease activity for at least 12 weeks. If patients respond to the study drug, they may be eligible for one course of retreatment, again followed by 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients who showed a response will continue to be followed at timepoints up to one year after treatment to assess how long the response lasts ...
Milatuzumab or placebo will be given subcutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks to determine if milatuzumab helps to control lupus (SLE). The treatment portion of the study lasts 4 weeks. Then patients are followed for disease activity for at least 12 weeks. If patients respond to the study drug, they may be eligible for one course of retreatment, again followed by 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients who showed a response will continue to be followed at timepoints up to one year after treatment to assess how long the response lasts ...
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CD74, the cell-surface form of the MHC class II invariant chain, is a key inflammatory factor that is involved in various immune-mediated diseases as part of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) binding complex. However, little is known about the natural regulators of CD74 in this context. In order to study the role of the HLA-DR molecule in regulating CD74, we used the HLA-DRα1 domain, which was shown to bind to and downregulate CD74 on CD11b+ monocytes. We found that DRα1 directly inhibited binding of MIF to CD74 and blocked its downstream inflammatory effects in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Potency of the DRα1 domain could be destroyed by trypsin digestion but enhanced by addition of a peptide extension (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG]-35-55 peptide) that provided secondary structure not present in DRα1. These data suggest a conformationally sensitive determinant on DRα1-MOG that is responsible for optimal binding to ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
The invariant chain (Ii) binds nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, blocking peptide binding until the complex dissociates in the endosomes. This may serve to differentiate the MHC class I and II antigen presentation pathways and enable class II molecules to efficiently bind peptides in the endosomes. This hypothesis was addressed by probing spleen cells from a combination of knock-out and transgenic mice with a large panel of T cell hybridomas. The Ii molecule blocked the presentation of a range of endogenously synthesized epitopes, but some epitopes actually required Ii. Thus, the influence of Ii on presentation does not follow simple rules. In addition, mice expressing Ii were not tolerant to epitopes unmasked in its absence, a finding with possible implications for autoimmunity. ...
Males from the BXSB murine strain (H-2b) spontaneously develop an autoimmune syndrome with features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which results in part from the action of a mutant gene (Yaa) located on the Y chromosome. Like other H-2b mice, the BXSB strain does not express the class II major histocompatibility complex antigen, I-E. Here we report that the expression of I-E (E alpha dE beta b) in BXSB males bearing an E alpha d transgene prevents hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibody production, and subsequent autoimmune glomerulonephritis. These transgenic mice bear on the majority of their B cells not only I-E molecules, but also an I-E alpha chain-derived peptide presented by a higher number of I-Ab molecules, as recognized by the Y-Ae monoclonal antibody. The I-E+ B cells appear less activated in vivo than the I-E- B cells, a minor population. This limited activation of the I-E+ B cells does not reflect a functional deficiency of this cell population, since it can be stimulated to ...
Mouse anti-CD23/Fc epsilon RII, Clone: EBVCS2, Cy5.5, PerCP, Novus Biologicals 100 Tests; Cy5.5, PerCP Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary Antibodies:Flow Cytometry (Flow)
A big thanks to Noah Zark for providing information on this new clip. The clip was filled with 5 rounds of Nigerian Ball Ammo headstamped OFN.. ...
Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of th …
Helper T cells are stimulated to fight infections or diseases upon recognition of peptides from antigens that are processed and presented by the proteins of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II molecules. Degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments is a lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperones. Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its mouse analog H2-O, herein called DO. While DO was originally discovered decades ago, elucidating its function has proven challenging. DO was discovered in association with
Milatuzumab (or hLL1) is an anti-CD74 humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple myeloma non-Hodgkins lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The drug is the first anti-CD74 antibody that has entered into human testing and is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Milatuzumab has received orphan drug designation from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the treatment of multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Milatuzumab was developed by Immunomedics, Inc, (Morris Plains NJ USA). CD74 is present on a variety of hematological tumors and even on some solid cancers. It is present in limited amounts in normal tissues but widely found in leukemias, lymphomas and the vast majority of multiple myeloma cases.[citation needed] CD74 is involved in a cell-to-cell communication pathway that is critical for survival.[citation needed] When CD74 is blocked by milatuzumab, it can lead to cell death. CD74 is an attractive target for a ...
The endocytic pathway comprises various organelles of low pH, including early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, each with varying capacities for protein degradation and protein recycling. Certain proteins, such as transferrin receptors, are sorted for retrieval from endocytic compartments and are selectively recycled back to the PM or TGN, whereas those that are targeted for degradation are retained in late endosomes and lysosomes ( Piper and Katzmann, 2007). Upon reaching the late endosomes, proteins that are intended for destruction are sorted onto intraluminal vesicles that are derived from the inward budding of the limiting membrane of the endosome, thereby giving rise to multivesicular antigen-processing compartments termed multivesicular bodies (MVBs). The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) protein machinery, either directly through the recognition of the small molecule ubiquitin or indirectly through ubiquitin-independent targeting, sorts molecules that are ...
MO-DC generated in vitro serve as a model type of DC to unravel the complex interactions among DC maturation, MHC class II peptide loading, and endocytic transport (3, 33, 34). The emerging picture suggests that endocytic protease activity is regulated by differential activity of the lysosomal ATPase during DC maturation (3). By analyzing lysosomal MBP processing at pH 5.0 in vitro, we have here mimicked the conditions present in the lysosomal compartment of DC in the activated state in vivo.. The MHC class II-associated proteolytic machinery is characterized by a hierarchical proteolytic cascade, where the initial step controls the efficiency of Ag processing, peptide presentation, and T cell activation (14). Different types of APC as well as primary cells and immortalized cell lines contain distinct activity patterns of endocytic proteases (11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 37) which might result in different processing pathways for a given Ag and hence in different selections of peptides presented. We here ...
Rat Monoclonal Anti-CD23/Fc epsilon RII Antibody (2G8) [Alexa Fluor® 405]. Validated: ELISA, Flow, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Mouse. 100% Guaranteed.
RefSeq Summary (NM_006120): HLA-DMA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta chain (DMB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BC011447.1, ...
De Novo drug design aims at predicting the peptide leads for anti-malarial activity from the designed set of 200 templates (Dipeptide, tripeptide, tet..
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Hi, I am super new to HF and I am trying to perform a simple linear probing using CLIP as a baseline. I see some tutorials to add a classification layer for BERT but I dont see any for CLIP so I was wondering if theres…
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The ability of the immune system to eliminate and shape the immunogenicity of tumours defines the process of cancer immunoediting1. Immunotherapies such as those that target immune checkpoint molecules can be used to augment immune-mediated elimination of tumours and have resulted in durable responses in patients with cancer that did not respond to previous treatments. However, only a subset of patients benefit from immunotherapy and more knowledge about what is required for successful treatment is needed2-4. Although the role of tumour neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour rejection is well established5-9, the roles of other subsets of T cells have received less attention. Here we show that spontaneous and immunotherapy-induced anti-tumour responses require the activity of both tumour-antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, even in tumours that do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In addition, the expression of MHC class II-restricted antigens by tumour cells
My major interest is in antigen processing, defined as the combination of mechanisms that generate the complexes of class I and class II MHC molecules with peptides that are the targets for recognition by T lymphocytes. My colleagues and I have identified a number of proteins that collaborate in these processes. MHC class I peptide binding occurs in the context of a large complex that we have defined in the endoplasmic reticulum consisting of TAP, an ATP-dependent peptide transporter; tapasin, a protein that couples the transporter to assembling class I molecules; and two house-keeping chaperones, calreticulin and ERp57. How these accessory molecules combine to facilitate peptide binding is currently being intensively investigated. We have also studied MHC class II peptide binding through the mechanism of class II molecules being delivered into the endocytic pathway by an associated protein, the invariant chain. This has included study of the CLIP, a residual fragment of the invariant chain, ...
Has a strict specificity for hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds. Can also cleave aspartyl bonds slowly, especially under acidic conditions. May be involved in the processing of proteins for MHC class II antigen presentation in the lysosomal/endosomal system. Required for normal lysosomal protein degradation in renal proximal tubules. Required for normal degradation of internalized EGFR. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation via its role in EGFR degradation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Val-tyr, an Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor from Sardines that have Resistance to Gastrointestinal Proteases. AU - Seki, Eiji. AU - Osajima, Katsuhiro. AU - Matsufuji, Hiroshi. AU - Matsui, Toshiro. AU - Osajima, Yutaka. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The NH2-terminal residue of a dipeptide is an important determinant of the resistance to peptidases of porcine small mucosa. NH2-terminal Val or Ile, and COOH-terminal Trp or Tyr dipeptides had higher angiotensin I converting enzyme(ACE)inhibitory activity and digestive resistance than other dipeptides. We defined Val-Tyr as a main inhibitor in alkaline protease hydrolyzates from sardines. Attempts to isolate and measurement of Val-Tyr were done from the short chain peptides that reduced blood pressure. The content of Val-Tyr was 51 mg per 100 g of the short chain peptides, represented 1.3% of the total ACE inhibitory activity of the short chain peptides. Isolated Val-Tyr was resistant to gastrointestinal proteases. ...
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HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide involved in the formation and transport of MHC class II protein. The cell surface form of the invariant chain is known as CD74. The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER binds a segment of the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) in order to shape the peptide binding groove and prevent formation of a closed conformation. Binding to Ii might also prevent binding of peptides from the endogenous pathway to the groove of MHC class II. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. The signal for endosomal targeting resides in the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed proteins. It is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic ...
Over the last decade, our understanding and ability to predict the MHC class I pathway antigen presentation has improved substantially. This however does not hold for post-transnationally modified (PTM) antigens, where our understanding on how PTMs impact the potential for antigen presentation remains limited. Likewise, is our ability to predict MHC class II antigen presentation limited, and data suggest that properties other that MHC binding plays a critical role for the prediction of CD4 epitopes. Finally, is our understanding of the role of the T cell and the similarity of the presented peptide to the self proteome in the context of peptide immunogenicity very limited ...
|p|One of the first cytokines described, MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) was originally identified in studies of delayed hypersensitivity reactions where it was shown to inhibit macrophage migration. It is an important mediator of the innate immune response with potential roles in the pathophysiology of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The human MIF gene encodes a 115 amino acid, 12.5 kDa secreted protein. Crystallographic studies suggest that MIF exists as a homotrimer, although some reports show that it may exist as a dimer or monomer as well. Although MIF exhibits no homology with other known cytokines, it shares structural homology with several bacterial enzymes. It has been speculated that MIF is an inflammatory mediator possibly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity.|/p|
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an evolutionary conserved 12.5-kDa protein mediator with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. Upon leaderless secretion, MIF acts as a typical inflammatory cytokine, but there is no structural homology between MIF and any of the known cy …
In article ,01bc8736$e36ebb80$0b0b258a at rhgf001,, N. Sheikh ,rhgf001 at mailrelay.qmw.ac.uk, wrote: ,Hi, ,I am trying to block the class II antigen processing pathway in mice - has ,anyone tried this ? , ,I am thinking of using Chloroquine - does anybody have any ideas on doses ? I dont know if anyone has done much with this - it seems kind of tricky to do systemically. For one thing, the proteases thought to be involved in Class II processing are probably important in other cellular functions, especially normal cellular protein turnover. FWIW, chloroquine concs. of 100-200 micromolar are sufficient to block most processing in vitro, but I dont know what effect that might have on the viability of non-presenting cells. ,Or are there any alternatives - even knockout mice...which are defective in ,class II processing ? Aside from the Class II knockouts, there are two that might be useful. Both invariant chain and H-2M knockouts have presentation defects, although neither stems from problems ...
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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, is considered an attractive therapeutic target in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In addition to its known biologic activities, MIF can also function as a tautomerase. Several small molecules have been reported to be effective inhibitors of MIF tautomerase activity in vitro. Herein we employed a robust activity-based assay to identify different classes of novel inhibitors of the catalytic and biological activities of MIF. Several novel chemical classes of inhibitors of the catalytic activity of MIF with IC(50) values in the range of 0.2-15.5 microm were identified and validated. The interaction site and mechanism of action of these inhibitors were defined using structure-activity studies and a battery of biochemical and biophysical methods. MIF inhibitors emerging from these studies could be divided into three categories based on their mechanism of action: 1) molecules that covalently modify the catalytic site at
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The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER has its peptide-binding cleft blocked by the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed, degraded proteins. It is then broken down in stages, leaving only a small fragment called CLIP which still blocks the peptide binding cleft. An MHC class II-like structure, HLA-DM, removes CLIP and replaces it with a peptide from the endosome. The stable MHC class-II is then presented on the cell surface ...
The B cell surface molecule B1 is functionally linked with B cell activation and differentiation. J Immunol. 1985 Aug; 135(2):973-9 ...
Y. Mizue, S. Ghani, L. Leng, C. McDonald, P. Kong, J. Baugh, S. J. Lane, J. Craft, J. Nishihira, S. C. Donnelly, Z. Zhu, R. Bucala ...
Swanson B.J., Jaeck H.-M., Lyons G.E. (1998). Characterization of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) expression in B and T cells: MEF2C is a B cell-restricted transcription factor in lymphocytes.. Mol. Immunol. 35: 445 - 458. PubMed DOI:10.1016/S0161-5890(98)00058-3 ...
Has strong elastinolytic activity, even at neutral pH, and may play a role in tissue damage associated with inflammation (Kirschke et al., 1989; Shi et al., 1992). Facilitates antigen presentation in the MHC class II system by degradation of the invariant chain (Driessen et al., 1999), and may therefore by a target for attenuation of immune response ...
After differentiation, memory B cells relocate to the periphery of the body where they will be more likely to encounter antigen ... In immunology, a memory B cell (MBC) is a type of B lymphocyte that forms within germinal centers in response to an initial ... In a secondary response, the memory B cells specific to the antigen or similar antigens will respond.[2] When memory B cells ... Differentiation of memory B cells into plasma cells is far faster than differentiation by naïve B cells, which allows memory B ...
Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... CD40 ligand is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes but is also found in a soluble form. While CD40L was ... B cell differentiation. • inflammatory response. • T cell costimulation. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription ...
The B lymphocyte differentiation and maturation pathway that eventually generate IgE-secreting plasma cells go through the ... Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. TI-2 antigens can activate only ... T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. There are 2 distinct ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ... For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells. However ...
... differentiate further after exposure to an antigen; they form effector and memory lymphocytes. Effector lymphocytes function to ... The differentiation of lymphocytes follows various pathways in a hierarchical fashion as well as in a more plastic fashion. The ... A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of a white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system. Lymphocytes include natural killer ... Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes[edit]. Main article: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte. In some cancers, such as melanoma and ...
1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope". ... Relationship to lymphoid differentiation". J. Clin. Invest. 84 (2): 506-16. doi:10.1172/JCI114193. PMC 548910. PMID 2547833. ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is ...
It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ...
... a phosphorylated human lymphocyte differentiation and activation antigen". Eur J Immunol. 20 (11): 2417-23. doi:10.1002/eji. ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... "Entrez Gene: LSP1 lymphocyte-specific protein 1". Jongstra-Bilen J, Young AJ, Chong R, Jongstra J (1990). "Human and mouse LSP1 ... 1993). "Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family". Genomics. 15 (3): 515-20. doi: ...
"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...
... stimulate the differentiation and proliferation of, and present foreign antigens to B-cells. The FD cells in FDCS may derive ... lymphocyte rich (LRHD), and lymphocyte depleted (LDHD) subtypes. EBV is found in 30% to 50% of HL cases, but occurs in ~90% of ... The lymphocytes are primarily B cells (e.g., express CD20 and CD10 markers) with rare T cells evident only in the background. ... While EBV preferentially infects B cells, it may also infect other lymphocyte types viz., CD4+ T cells (i..e T helper cells), ...
"Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...
... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... Thomas ML, Barclay AN, Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) ... The success linked to this work on Thy1 prompted Williams to expand the search for surface molecules on lymphocytes that could ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ...
In addition, PGE2 limits the immune response by preventing B-lymphocyte differentiation and their ability to present antigens. ... In terms of immunity, prostaglandins have the ability to regulate lymphocyte function. PGE2 affect T-lymphocyte formation by ... PGE2 also has roles in inhibition of cytotoxic T-cell function, cell division of T-lymphocytes, and the development of TH1 ... In addition, it can suppress an immune response by inhibiting B lymphocytes from forming into antibody-secreting plasma cells. ...
They prevent differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells. Tumor microvesicles also carry tumor antigen, so they can be an ... regulatory T-lymphocytes have a limited capability to control these cells. In the late stage, the extent of inflammation ... CD154 knockout mice are incapable of producing IgG, IgE, or IgA as a response to antigens. Microvesicles can also transfer ... This mechanism of action can be used in processes such as antigen presentation, where MHC molecules on the surface of ...
Differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes. Alan F. Williams, Giovanni Galfrè and Cesar Milstein "Archived copy". Archived ... The recirculation of lymphocytes from blood to lymph in the rat. GOWANS JL. Cell, Vol 12, 663-673, (1977)Analysis of cell ... During the 1950s Gowans pioneering work sorted out the life cycle of that cell, He showed that the small lymphocyte ... Florey suggested he should investigate the lymphocyte, a cell whose life history was at that time completely obscure. ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... CD229 (cluster of differentiation 229). LY9 has been shown to interact with SH2D1A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122224 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological ...
"A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas". J. Exp. ... The same name is also used to refer to the gene which codes for the antigen. The MART-1/melan-A antigen is specific for the ... of Belgium called the gene melan-A, presumably an abbreviation for "melanocyte antigen." MART-1/melan-A is a protein antigen ... Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
... and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored lymphocyte differentiation antigen ... The enzyme is used as a marker of lymphocyte differentiation. Consequently, a deficiency of NT5 occurs in a variety of ... 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NT), also known as ecto-5′-nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in ... Cluster of differentiation Arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135318 - Ensembl ...
For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... Their differentiation is triggered by IFN α/β or IL-10. Their key effector cytokine is IL-10. Their main effector cells are NK ... These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
"Phenotypic Analysis of Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes". Science. 274 (5284): 94-96. Bibcode:1996Sci...274...94A. doi:10.1126/ ... Programmed DNA rearrangements during differentiation : immunoglobulin class switching (PhD thesis). California Institute of ... Davis is well known for identifying the first T-cell receptor genes, which are responsible for T lymphocytes ability to "see" ... He also developed a novel way of labeling specific T lymphocytes according to the molecules that they recognize, and this ...
... thus promoting TRM differentiation in a manner similar to Treg differentiation. Most lymphocytes express sphingosine-1- ... Bezouska K, Nepovím A, Horváth O, Pospísil M, Hamann J, Feizi T (March 1995). "CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium- ... It is also implicated in T cell differentiation as well as lymphocyte retention in lymphoid organs. The activation of T ... This in turn results in temporary lymphocyte retention in the lymph organs. It is thought that retention of lymphocytes in the ...
Many methods are used to identify cell lines, including isoenzyme analysis, human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing, chromosomal ... Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cellular differentiation. Genetic and epigenetic alterations, with a natural selection of ... In brief, lymphocytes isolated from the spleen (or possibly blood) of an immunised animal are combined with an immortal myeloma ... As the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in the survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells, ...
CAMPATH-1 antigen, also known as cluster of differentiation 52 (CD52), is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the CD52 ... CD52 is present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes were derived. It ... CD52+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD52 genome location and CD52 gene ... Since it is highly negatively charged and present on sperm cells and lymphocytes, it has been conjectured that its function is ...
... is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation ... CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX ... Cluster of differentiation Nectin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150637 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes". Immunity. 4 (6): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613 ...
He is best known for his work regarding lymphocyte development, particularly the differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double ... Singer's work is foundational in the understanding of T cells and MHC-restricted antigen recognition. Singer's work explores ...
Lymphocyte antigen 6E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY6E gene. Increased expression of Ly6E is associated with ... is induced by retinoic acid during the differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cell". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 93 (12 ... "Entrez Gene: LY6E lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E". Luo, Linlin; McGarvey, Peter; Madhavan, Subha; Kumar, Rakesh; Gusev, ... "Distinct lymphocyte antigens 6 (Ly6) family members Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6K and Ly6H drive tumorigenesis and clinical outcome". ...
T lymphocytes regulate the growth and differentiation of T cells and certain B cells through the release of secreted protein ... IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators ... They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on ... lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation ...
... need to enter secondary lymph nodes to encounter their antigen. Central memory T-lymphocytes, which have encountered antigen, ... of L-selectin on human bone marrow progenitor cells is an early sign of cells becoming committed to lymphoid differentiation. L ... Here they reside ready to proliferate upon re-encountering antigen. Effector memory T-lymphocytes do not express L-selectin, as ... Naive T-lymphocytes, which have not yet encountered their specific antigen, ...
As an immune response, this homodimer is released by natural killer T lymphocytes (NK). When the antigen-specific immunity ... The expression of IFNGR2 chain depends on the state of cellular differentiation or activation. For instance, there are some CD4 ... Frucht DM, Fukao T, Bogdan C, Schindler H, O'Shea JJ, Koyasu S (October 2001). "IFN-gamma production by antigen-presenting ... Therefore, there is a positive feedback loop which suppress Th2 cell differentiation. The defense against an infection is led ...
... (Cluster of Differentiation 300A) is a human gene. The CMRF35 antigen (CMRF35A; MIM 606786), which was identified by ... reactivity with a monoclonal antibody, is present on monocytes, neutrophils, and some T and B lymphocytes. CMRF35H is ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 101-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550201.x. PMID 10746781. Cantoni C, Bottino C, Augugliaro R, et al ... recognized by the same antibody and is distinct from CMRF35 (Green et al., 1998).[supplied by OMIM] Cluster of differentiation ...
... received from the T cell during differentiation.[6] Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation ( ... Common variable immunodeficiency is thought to be due to a problem in the differentiation from lymphocytes to plasma cells. The ... Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ...
T细胞(英語:T cell、T lymphocyte)是淋巴细胞的一种,在免疫反應中扮演着重要的角色。T是胸腺(thymus)而不是甲狀腺(thyroid)的英文缩写。T细胞在骨髓被製造出來之後,在胸腺内進行「新兵訓練」分化成熟為不同亚型的效应T細胞,成 ... Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] ...
It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ... CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... "B-Lymphocyte Depletion in Patients With Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo ... including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphocyte predominant subtype, of Hodgkin's Lymphoma.[12] This also includes ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... the densities of lymphocytes (infection-fighting cells) and protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) typically rise to ... "Differentiation of reinfection from relapse in recurrent Lyme disease". N Engl J Med. 367 (20): 1883-90. doi:10.1056/ ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ...
... including lymphocytes, antigen-presenting dendritic cells and phagocytes) diminish in their self-renewal capacity. This is due ... "Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... As age advances, there is decline in both the production of new naive lymphocytes and the functional competence of memory cell ... The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ...
... lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage (cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Lymphocyte. Main article: Lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are much more common in the lymphatic system than in blood. Lymphocytes are ... Lymphocyte. 30%. Small lymphocytes 7-8. Large lymphocytes 12-15. *B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T ...
Another example occurs in activated T cell lymphocytes, i.e., when a T cell is induced to mature by binding to a peptide:MHC ... altering the behavior or differentiation of nearby cells. Intracrine Local hormone Endocrine system Pandit, Nikita K. (2007). ... complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" IL-2 ...
Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... 1984). "Natural killer-like function of activated T lymphocytes: differential blocking effects of monoclonal antibodies ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
... system responds to infection and how certain types of B and T lymphocytes are selected for destruction of specific antigens.[2] ... A mammalian blastula in which some differentiation of cells has occurred.. blood. A body fluid that circulates in humans and ... A type of lymphocyte that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.. taxon. (pl.) taxa ... A type of lymphocyte in the humoral immunity of the adaptive immune system.. bacteria. An enormous and diverse clade of ...
1995). "A p16INK4a-insensitive CDK4 mutant targeted by cytolytic T lymphocytes in a human melanoma". Science. 269 (5228): 1281- ... "Direct inhibition of G(1) cdk kinase activity by MyoD promotes myoblast cell cycle withdrawal and terminal differentiation" ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC *-. IκB kinase (EC *CHUK ...
"Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med. ... negative regulation of fat cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myoblast differentiation. • positive regulation of ... regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • defense response to bacterium. • positive regulation of interleukin-6 production. • ... osteoclast differentiation. • regulation of tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytokine ...
A wide range of studies has been conducted investigating the role in cell proliferation, differentiation, death, and survival.[ ... PrP immune cells include hematopoietic stem cells, mature lymphoid and myeloid compartments, and certain lymphocytes; also, it ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ... cluster of differentiation 230).[5][6][7][8] Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in ...
Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ... CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) adalah glikoprotein transmembran yang berfungsi sebagai ko-reseptor untuk reseptor sel T. ... "CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2015-09-21.. ...
One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, ... "Soy isoflavone supplementation in healthy men prevents NF-kappa B activation by TNF-alpha in blood lymphocytes". Free Radic. ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... This determines differences in gene expression and cell differentiation. It has been shown that at least some nucleosomes are ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... PSGL-1 is situated on various hematopoietic cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, in which it ...
Many cells of the immune system are required for this process, including lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells) and antigen ... large protein complexes in the nucleus that may have a role in cell growth and differentiation.[46] ... Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... This self-tolerance means that lymphocytes should not incite an immune response against human cellular antigens. Sometimes, ...
positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation. • regulation of T cell differentiation. • positive regulation of ... In rodent lymphocytes, IL-15 prevents apoptosis by inducing BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), an inhibitor of the apoptosis pathway.[10] In ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... natural killer cell differentiation. • positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation. • cell-cell signaling. • ...
The differentiation of these stem cells from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into granulocytes is termed granulopoiesis. ... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ... Multiple intermediate cell types exist in this differentiation process, including myeloblasts and promyelocytes. ...
B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes). Cytogenetic testing on the marrow samples can help classify disease and predict how aggressive ... Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... These genes play important roles in cellular development, proliferation, and differentiation.[6][4][2] Individually, most of ... on the cell surface can help differentiate malignant lymphocyte cells from reactive lymphocytes, white blood cells that are ...
It occurs when the lymphocyte is activated by an antigen (from antigen-presenting cells) and increased in volume by nucleus and ... not absolute and a definitive diagnoses relies on antibody immunostaining for the presence of unique cluster of differentiation ... "A lymphocyte that has become larger after being stimulated by an antigen. Lymphoblasts look like immature lymphocytes, and were ... Lymphoblasts can also refer to immature cells which typically differentiate to form mature lymphocytes.[2] Normally ...
Dendritic cell apoptosis - immune system cells called dendritic cells present antigens to active lymphocytes. Dendritic cells ... A normal immune system requires the activation of B-cells by T-cells before the former can undergo differentiation into plasma ... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ...
"Differentiation. 87 (1-2): 44-51. doi:10.1016/j.diff.2014.02.001. PMC 3995830. PMID 24560767.. ... Lamprey leukocytes express surface variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) generated from somatic recombination of leucine-rich ... "Antigen-receptor genes of the agnathan lamprey are assembled by a process involving copy choice". Nature Immunology. 8 (2): ... "Somatic diversification of variable lymphocyte receptors in the agnathan sea lamprey" (PDF). Nature. 430 (6996): 174-180. doi ...
In jawless fishes, two subsets of lymphocytes use variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen binding.[33] Diversity is ... the peripheral lymphoid organs contain a mixture of B and T cells in at least three stages of differentiation: *Naive B and ... LymphocytesEdit. Main article: Lymphocyte. T and B lymphocytes are the cells of the adaptive immune system. The human body has ... of the total lymphocytes are able to bind to a particular antigen, which suggests that only a few cells respond to each antigen ...
Goding J (1978). "Allotypes of IgM and IgD receptors in the mouse: a probe for lymphocyte differentiation". Contemp Top ... Antibody-antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... The B lymphocyte, in this ready-to-respond form, is known as a "naive B lymphocyte." The naive B lymphocyte expresses both ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ...
Lymphocyte homing receptor: CD44. *L-selectin. *integrin (VLA-4, LFA-1). *Carcinoembryonic antigen ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... Cell Death and Differentiation. 6 (4): 377-86. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400504. PMID 10381631.. ... cluster of differentiation 324). It is a tumor suppressor gene.[6][7] ...
lymphocyte migration. • T cell migration. • thymocyte migration. • DN2 thymocyte differentiation. • DN3 thymocyte ... Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ...
Antigen-specific peripheral shaping of the natural regulatory T cell population. „J Exp Med". 205 (13), s. 3105-3117, grudzień ... A new I subregion (I-J) marked by a locus (Ia-4) controlling surface determinants on suppressor T lymphocytes. „J Exp Med". 144 ... All-trans retinoic acid mediates enhanced T reg cell growth, differentiation, and gut homing in the face of high levels of co- ... De novo production of antigen-specific suppressor cells in vivo. „Nat Protoc". 1 (2), s. 653-661, 2006. PMID: 17802642. ...
Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
CD69 Association with Jak3/Stat5 Proteins Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation Pilar Martín, Manuel Gómez, Amalia Lamana, ...
Biochemical analysis of human T lymphocyte differentiation antigens T4 and T5. Science. 1980 Jul 25; 209(4455):520-1. ...
... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ...
A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface ...
Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20." CD20 is ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION OF CHIMERIC AND RADIOLABELLED ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN B LYMPHOCYTE RESTRICTED DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGEN FOR ... typically designated as the human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, commonly referred to as CD20. As used ...
Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4−CD8,− cytolytic T lymphocyte *Steven Porcelli ... Rights & permissionsfor article Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4,sup,−,/sup,CD8,sup,,−,/sup, ...
CHEMICALLY INDUCED LYMPHOMAS: EXPRESSION OF LYMPHOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGENS AND ENDOGENOUS RETROVIRUS GENES. ... were studied for surface expression of lymphocyte differentiation antigens by direct or indirect immunofluorescence in ... The results indicate that MCA-induced tumor cells develop in lymphocytes of the T-cell lineage and express Lyt-1, Lyt-2, H-2D, ... Thymocytes from normal RF mice display an age-associated increase in surface expression of MuLV gag and env antigens and ...
... ... antigen-encoding loci. Viral DNA restriction fragments are associated with Ly-17 on chromosome 1, H-30, H-3, and H-13 on ... hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) ...
Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A : its differentiation from ...
Apart from T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells (including cells positive for the terminal transferase marker, myeloid colony- ... This IgM antibody, MBG6, bound to human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and to medullary thymocytes. It was unreactive with ... MBG6 did not have any direct mitogenic action on T lymphocytes. Double immunofluorescence studies using IgM MBG6 and OKT3, and ... Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Antigens, Ly, Binding, Competitive, Fluorescent ...
Antigens, Differentiation / immunology* * B7-1 Antigen / metabolism * B7-2 Antigen / metabolism * CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / ... Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4-dependent down-modulation of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells in CD4+ CD25+ ... Further, we report that down-modulation was induced rapidly and was inhibited by blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 ( ... Even though Treg cells have previously been reported to kill antigen-presenting cells, the down-modulation was not due to ...
When this occurs locally it increases lymphocyte numbers in the responding lymphoid organ; when … ... Naive lymphocytes continually enter and exit lymphoid organs in a recirculation process that is essential for immune ... Antigens, CD / physiology* * Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / physiology* * Cell Line * Cell Movement ... Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte ...
Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors ... Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, "Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation ...
Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the ... ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. ... Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory T cell marker involved in ...
... antigen recognition; lymphokines; tolerance; lymphocyte differentiation; genetic regulation; viral immunity; autoimmunity; ... BIOL 405d Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis Mr. Fulton. BIOL 406d Neurophysiology Ms. Marder. BIOL 407d Structural ... Cell differentiation and selective gene expression in eucaryotic cells. Morphogenesis of cell shape and assembly of cell ... Topics include determination of the neuronal precursors, pattern formation in the nervous system, neuronal differentiation, and ...
T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression ... lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. ... Antigen presenting cell. CD:. Cluster of differentiation. CTL:. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte. FBS:. Fetal bovine serum. ... lymphocytes along with an increase in disease activity. That indicates importance of lymphocytes in the inflammatory process ...
... lymphocyte antigen; HLDA, human leukocyte differentiation antigen; KIR, killing inhibitory receptor; DC, dendritic cell. ... Cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a new mouse B lymphocyte differentiation antigen homologous to the human B1 (CD20) ... The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series as well as some ... B lymphocytes express and lose syndecan at specific stages of differentiation. Cell Regul. 1: 27. ...
0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, Differentiation / immunology. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. ... T-Lymphocyte; 0/BTLA protein, human; 0/Receptors, Immunologic; 0/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; 0/inducible T-cell co- ...
This process is highly dependent on functional interactions between B and T lymphocytes. In vitro activation of CD40 present on ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ...
In the population-based cohort, LY6D expression was higher in tumours with squamous differentiation and lower in other variant ... LY6D is a marker of urothelial and squamous differentiation that may add useful diagnostic and prognostic information to better ... Screening across a multitude of normal and malignant tissues revealed an enhanced expression of lymphocyte antigen 6 ... From: Lymphocyte antigen 6 superfamily member D is a marker of urothelial and squamous differentiation: implications for risk ...
Evaluation of the potential diagnostic value of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 in differentiation of active and ... Objective To analyze the expressions of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) in the peripheral blood of ... Evaluation of the potential diagnostic value of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen- ... and to evaluate its diagnostic value in differentiation of ATB and LTBI .Methods Forty-eight patients including 18 ATB cases ...
Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 45 Antigen Expression on Lymphocyte Subsets / 대한진단검사의학회지 ... Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/ ... NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by ... Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 45 Antigen Expression on L ...
Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. Comparison with CD21 (complement ... Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. Comparison with CD21 (complement ...
Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Chimeric antibody with specificity to human b cell surface antigen.. Int Genetic Eng, Oncogen, July 13, 1988: EP0274394-A2 (49 ...
... whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. Thus, in TI-2 immune responses ... However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and ... Antigens varying in affinity for the B cell receptor induce differential B lymphocyte responses. J. Exp. Med. 188, 1453-1464 ( ...
Abbreviations: CD, cluster of differentiation; CTLA, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, ... Single-antigen varicella vaccine should be con-sidered for HIV-infected children aged 1-8 years who have CD4 percentages ≥15%. ... For lymphocyte-depleting (alemtuzumab and rituximab) agents, the waiting period is ≥6 months, although some experts believe the ... In particular, lymphocyte-depleting agents (thymoglobulin or alemtuzumab) and B cell-depleting agents (rituximab) are more ...
Acquisition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-specific carbohydrate differentiation antigens.. Lefrancois L, Puddington L, Machamer CE ... Chronic inhaled ovalbumin exposure induces antigen-dependent but not antigen-specific inhalational tolerance in a murine model ... Shifts in lung lymphocyte profiles correlate with the sequential development of acute allergic and chronic tolerant stages in a ... Differentiation of distinct long-lived memory CD4 T cells in intestinal tissues after oral Listeria monocytogenes infection. ...
  • It functions as a B-cell activation receptor and B-lymphocyte development and differentiation agent, presumably through modulating intracellular calcium levels. (novusbio.com)
  • CD19 is a signal-transduction molecule and CD20 is part of a multimeric receptor complex regulating cell cycle progression and B-cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte responsiveness to S1P. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7), surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4), transcription factors B lymphocyte maturation protein 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling, and repressor miR 146a. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three unique processes - variable, diversity and joining region (V(D)J) recombination, somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination - diversify antigen receptor genes. (nih.gov)
  • After encounter with antigen, B cells further recombine the receptor by somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. (nih.gov)
  • CD19 is a cell surface molecule which assembles with the antigen receptor of B lymphocytes in order to decrease the threshold for antigen receptor-dependent stimulation. (fishersci.com)
  • The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is largely attributable to the decrease in T-lymphocytes bearing the CD4 receptor (CD4+) (1-5). (cdc.gov)
  • The present invention is concerned with a series of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against CD22, a B lineage-restricted member of the Ig-superfamily which serves as an adhesion receptor expressed by mature B lymphocytes and is believed to function in the regulation of B cell activation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The UCHT1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to the human CD3ε-chain, a 20-kDa subunit of the CD3/T cell antigen receptor complex. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • 1995. The role of short homology repeats and TdT in generation of the invariant gd antigen receptor repertoire in the fetal thymus. (berkeley.edu)
  • The CD79a molecule (MB-1, Igα) is part of the MB-1/B29 (CD79a/CD79b) disulfide-linked heterodimer which is non-covalently associated with membrane immunoglobulins (Igs) to build the B Cell antigen Receptor (BCR) complex. (beckman.com)
  • 23761635 ). In the context of bacterial infection, acts as a signaling receptor on epithelial cells for CD160 from intraepithelial lymphocytes, triggering the production of antimicrobial proteins and proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell (APC) in the context of class I MHC molecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • SYK is a positive effector of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulated responses [ PMID: 19670961 , PMID: 19592646 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Mac-1 antigen is a macrophage differentiation antigen associated with type three complement receptor (CR3). (atcc.org)
  • Functional cloning of Src-like adapter protein-2 (SLAP-2), a novel inhibitor of antigen receptor signaling. (nih.gov)
  • In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of SLAP-2 in B and T cell lines specifically impaired antigen receptor-mediated signaling events, including CD69 surface marker upregulation, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation and calcium influx. (nih.gov)
  • Signaling induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin was not significantly reduced, suggesting SLAP-2 functions proximally in the antigen receptor signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In antigen receptor-stimulated cells, SLAP-2 associated with several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. (nih.gov)
  • Studies performed on animal models and in vitro on factors involved in activation of certain dendritic cell (DC) populations in autoimmune diseases point to a significant role of recently discovered lectin receptors such as C-type lectin domain family 4, member C receptor (CLEC4C) and lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75) [2, 3]. (termedia.pl)
  • T lymphocytes that constitutively express the IL-2 receptor a-chain, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3, comprising approximately 10% of the [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Firstly, natural or thymic Tregs (nTregs or tTregs) develop in the thymus through intermediate strength interactions between a self-reacting T cell receptor (TCR) and their cognate antigens, presented by medullary thymic epithelial cells and hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells, leading to upregulation of CD25 [7, 8]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • By expressing in appropriate time and location, these pathways have different regulatory functions through independent receptors or on different subsets of lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the recent scientific findings, clinical experiences, and technological advances for cell processing toward the application of mesenchymal stromal cells as a therapy for treatment of severe GvHD, virus-specific T cells for targeting life-threating infections, and of chimeric antigen receptors-engineered T cells to treat relapsed leukemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of antigen-binding receptors under evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of the B cell to respond in a specific, yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. (fishersci.com)
  • TI-1 antigen , which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen , which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors , which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a critical number of B cell receptors, which leads to accumulation of BCRs and cross activation of these receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells and BCR in the case of B cells. (els.net)
  • SLAM receptors triggered by homo- or heterotypic cell-cell interactions are modulating the activation and differentiation of a wide variety of immune cells and thus are involved in the regulation and interconnection of both innate and adaptive immune response. (genecards.org)
  • A mature B lymphocyte can be activated by the binding of an antigen to cell surface receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cytotoxic T l's differentiated T lymphocytes, marked by CD4 and CD8 antigens , able to recognize and lyse target cells bearing specific antigens recognized by their antigen receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furthermore, the comprehension about lymphocytes and their contribution to the immune response will favor their application in developmental hematology and immunology. (intechopen.com)
  • Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • CD19 and CD20 play an important role in the development, differentiation, and activation of B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • such activation causes release of biological mediators ("interleukins") which, in essence, stimulate B cells to differentiate and produce antibody ("immunoglobulins") against the antigen. (justia.com)
  • Specifically, the CD20 molecule may regulate a step in the activation process which is required for cell cycle initiation and differentiation and is usually expressed at very high levels on neoplastic ("tumor") B cells. (justia.com)
  • Under chronic antigen stimulation, repeated cycles of activation occur and lead to progressive and irreversible reduction in CD28 molecule expression on the lymphocyte surface. (hindawi.com)
  • In vitro activation of CD40 present on B cells mimics B cell-T interactions and allows the proliferation of normal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative B lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Freshly isolated B lymphocytes were cultured in vitro through activation of CD40. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our studies reveal that the immune-suppressive function of these cells in vivo is dependent on signaling via the negative regulator of T cell activation cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), as well as secretion of the immune-suppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β. (rupress.org)
  • Functional analysis of CD25 + CD4 + T cells in vitro showed that this population failed to proliferate or secrete cytokines in response to polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation, but rather inhibited the activation of normally responsive T cells ( 17 )( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Cellular activation [Induction of B lymphocyte proliferation]: Use at an assay dependent dilution. (abcam.com)
  • Efforts to evaluate normal human B cell physiology have resulted in the development of a model in which a resting B cell must progress through stages of activation, proliferation, and differentiation before becoming an immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cell (1-4). (springer.com)
  • B lymphocyte activation by insoluble anti-immunoglobulin: induction of immunoglobulin secretion by a T cell dependent soluble factor. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (5E9) which defines a human cell surface surface antigen of cell activation, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
  • Differential expression of cell activation markers following stimulation of resting human B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of B cell activation and differentiation with factors generated by human T cell hybridomas. (springer.com)
  • Lymphocyte activation triggers multiple signalling cascades that converge in the cell nucleus to cause significant changes in the pattern of gene expression that determine the phenotype of activated lymphocytes and, ultimately, the type of immune response. (els.net)
  • CD8 T cells and B cells also differentiate into cytotoxic thymus‐derived lymphocytes and plasma cells, respectively, driven by specific activation in the context of CD4 T H cells (helper) and the cytokine microenvironment. (els.net)
  • Lymphocyte stimulation leads to the activation of selected transcription factors depending on the type of signals. (els.net)
  • Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. (els.net)
  • Amplification of Human B Cell Activation by a Monoclonal Antibody to the B Cell-Specific Antigen CD22, Bp 130/140," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The attenuation of T cell activation by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) further limits the potency of tumor immunity. (pnas.org)
  • ZAP-70 plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CLEC4C or cluster of differentiation 303 (CD303), also known as blood dendritic cell antigen (BDCA-2), is a type II C-type lectin specifically expressed by human plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and plays a significant role in activation of pDC and in development of antigen-specific T lymphocytes [3, 4]. (termedia.pl)
  • This activation induces their proliferation, differentiation and cytokine production. (intechopen.com)
  • It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of HLA-A2 melanoma patients, after stimulation in vitro with autologous tumor cells, and that some of these CTL clones lyse most HLA-A2 melanomas. (rupress.org)
  • CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). (novusbio.com)
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocytes are produced in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow (adult) and represent about 30% of the total white blood cells present in the circulatory system of humans (adult). (justia.com)
  • There are two major sub-populations of lymphocytes: T cells and B cells. (justia.com)
  • T cells and B cells both comprise cell surface proteins which can be utilized as "markers" for differentiation and identification. (justia.com)
  • In essence, such targeting can be generalized as follows: antibodies specific to the CD20 surface antigen of B cells are, eg injected into a patient. (justia.com)
  • the anti-CD20 antibody bound to the CD20 surface antigen may lead to the destruction and depletion of neoplastic B cells. (justia.com)
  • Cells from primary lymphomas and tumors in culture, as well as normal thymocytes, were studied for surface expression of lymphocyte differentiation antigens by direct or indirect immunofluorescence in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. (yu.edu)
  • The results indicate that MCA-induced tumor cells develop in lymphocytes of the T-cell lineage and express Lyt-1, Lyt-2, H-2D, H-2K and Oa-1. (yu.edu)
  • Apart from T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells (including cells positive for the terminal transferase marker, myeloid colony-forming cells, myeloblasts, and differentiating myeloid and erythroid cells) were negative. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Further, we report that down-modulation was induced rapidly and was inhibited by blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which is constitutively expressed by the Treg cells. (nih.gov)
  • Even though Treg cells have previously been reported to kill antigen-presenting cells, the down-modulation was not due to selective killing of DCs expressing high level of the costimulatory molecules. (nih.gov)
  • In HIV-1-seropositive individuals, B cells become exposed to free viral particles and to infected T lymphocytes while migrating through germinal centres. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, HIV-mediated fusion between infected B cells and uninfected CD4+ T lymphocytes was assessed in a coculture assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. (nature.com)
  • Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
  • Differentiation of distinct long-lived memory CD4 T cells in intestinal tissues after oral Listeria monocytogenes infection. (nih.gov)
  • The leading cause of non-relapse mortality is graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), an inflammatory immune reaction against healthy tissue of the patient, induced by donor-derived T cells and triggered by major and minor histocompatibility antigen differences between HSCT recipient and donor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biological Basis: Tumour Associated Antigens, the Immune Machinery and Its Behaviour Concerning Cancer Cells 5 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Using established bone marrow irradiation chimeras across the multiple minor histocompatibility antigen-disparate, C57BL/6→BALB.B combination, we studied the occurrence of lethal GVHD mediated by CD4 + T cells in recipient mice expressing only hematopoietically derived alloantigens. (jci.org)
  • GVHD occurs when mature T cells in the donor bone marrow (BM) graft respond to host tissues expressing incompatible histocompatibility antigens, represented by either MHC antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens (miHAs). (jci.org)
  • Subsequent error-prone repair results in individual point mutations (yellow dot in the gene and yellow bar in the immunoglobulin molecules), and B cells with higher affinity for the original antigen are selected. (nih.gov)
  • However, in tumor-invaded lymph nodes of most patients, CD8 + T cells directed to melanocyte differentiation antigens or to tumor-restricted antigens (MAGE-3 and NY-ESO-1 epitopes), showed a CCR7 + CD45RA + CD27 + CD28 + perforin − "precursor" phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only in 7 of 23 cases antigen-specific CD8 + T cells in invaded lymph nodes showed a predominant CCR7 − CD45RA − CD27 + CD28 − perforin + "preterminally differentiated" phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, perforin and granzyme B were expressed on a higher fraction of the CD8 + cells surrounding the invading tumor compared with the lymphocytes infiltrating the neoplastic tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the paucity of terminally differentiated CD8 + T cells at tumor site suggests that immunotherapy strategies may require not only the boosting of tumor immunity, but also effective means to promote CD8 + T-cell differentiation in the neoplastic tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is now clear that functionally specialized regulatory T (Treg) cells exist as part of the normal immune repertoire, preventing the development of pathogenic responses to both self- and intestinal antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Subpopulations of peripheral CD4 + T cells have also been shown in several different model systems to be essential for the maintenance of tolerance to tissue-specific self-antigens ( 11 )( 12 )( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • The histologic features were: spongiosis, neutrophilic exocytosis, massive keratinocyte necrosis, shadow cells in the upper epidermis, vacuolization of basal cells, necrotic cells in follicles and sweat glands, dense superficial dermal infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, and strong granulysin expression. (bireme.br)
  • Dr. Craft investigates CD4 T helper cells in conventional and autoimmune responses in mice and in humans, with a primary focus upon the differentiation and function of follicular helper (Tfh) cells that promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GC). (yale.edu)
  • For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells , necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells that survive the selection processes eventually become mature cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + or CD8 + single positive T cells ( Fig. 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antigen distribution across activated B cells influences B-T lymphocyte interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • I. Effect of anti-immunoglobulin and enhancing soluble factor on differentiation and proliferation of B cells. (springer.com)
  • and the percentage of lymphocytes that are CD4+ T-cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. (intechopen.com)
  • that is, at early stages or differentiation, all CD4 T cells can be switched to other lineage. (els.net)
  • T H 1 cells collaborate with CD8 T cells for their differentiation into CTLs whereas T H 2 cells provide help to B cells that differentiate into plasma cells. (els.net)
  • E5039-E5048 ) that c-Myc constitutive expression and Dnmt1 ablation disrupt the differentiation-coupled emergence of the clock from mouse ES cells (ESCs). (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that the programmed gene expression network regulates the differentiation-coupled circadian clock development in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • thy·mus/ ( thi´mus ) a bilaterally symmetrical lymphoid organ consisting of two pyramidal lobules situated in the anterior superior mediastinum, each lobule consisting of an outer cortex, rich in lymphocytes (thymocytes) and an inner medulla, rich in epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • May participate in adhesion reactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells by homophilic interaction. (genecards.org)
  • it is followed by proliferation and differentiation of various effector and memory cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • amplifier T l's a T lymphocyte of the CD8 cell type that modifies a developing immune response by releasing nonspecific signals to which other T lymphocytes (either effector or suppressor cells) respond. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This induces proliferation of the cell, resulting in a clone of cells specific for that antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All the cells of a clone secrete Ig with identical antigen binding sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These lymphocytes are important in graft rejection and killing of tumor cells and virus-infected host cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lymphocyte proliferation test a functional test of the ability of lymphocytes to respond to mitogens, specific antigens, or allogenic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although evidence for B-cell memory is abundant (K atz 1977), it is not clear whether it is maintained by means of (a) persistence of antigen, (b) continuous exposure to cross-reactive "natural" environmental antigen, or (c) the existence of true memory B cells. (springer.com)
  • Primed CBY lymphocytes, which reject H2-DMα−/− grafts, do not respond to H2-DMα−/− stimulator cells in a secondary MLR. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow houses Stem cells that develop into lymphocytes and provide immunity. (scribd.com)
  • T lymphocytes rupture foreign cells or produce toxins while B lymphocytes differentiate in to plasma cells that secrete antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • These cells intercept foreign antigens and then travel to lymph nodes to undergo differentiation and proliferation. (scribd.com)
  • These data, along with previous immunophenotypic evidence, unequivocally define that PEL cells represent a preterminal stage of B-cell differentiation and may bear implications for the peculiar growth pattern of this lymphoma. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Further refinement of the detailed B-cell origin of PEL cells may be provided by the study of phenotypic markers specifically associated with late stages of B-cell differentiation, such as the plasma cell-specific CD138 antigen recognized by the B-B4 monoclonal antibody (MoAb). (bloodjournal.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 stimulated extensive tumor necrosis with lymphocyte and granulocyte infiltrates in three of three metastatic melanoma patients and the reduction or stabilization of CA-125 levels in two of two metastatic ovarian carcinoma patients previously vaccinated with irradiated, autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Cancer-associated gene products may stimulate T, B, and natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and phagocytes ( 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cancer cells typically lack the expression of costimulatory molecules necessary to prime potent T lymphocyte responses directly, and dendritic cells infiltrating established tumors generally display limited maturation ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • One strategy to ameliorate this defect in antigen presentation involves vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • These recruited cells efficiently phagocytose and process dying tumor cells, migrate to regional lymph nodes, and stimulate tumor-specific lymphocytes ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • A second therapeutic strategy to improve tumor antigen presentation involves the loading of cancer antigens, in a variety of formulations, onto ex vivo- expanded dendritic cells ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Probably plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation of early B-lineage cells. (genecards.org)
  • In the BM, MSCs fulfill a supportive function for hematopoietic cells and participate in the control of their renewal and differentiation [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated severe depletion of CD4 + CD8 − single-positive T cells and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) during primary SIV infection which persisted through the entire course of SIV infection. (asm.org)
  • 1997. Events that regulate differentiation of ab TCR+ and gd TCR+ cells from a common precursor. (berkeley.edu)
  • 9162022 ). Participates in bidirectional cell-cell contact signaling between antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature alpha beta TCR T cells express CD8 alpha beta while gamma delta TCR T cells, a subpopulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and dendritic cells express CD8 alpha alpha. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD8 is found on a T cell subset of normal cytotoxic/suppressor cells which make up approximately 20-35 % of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of peripheral blood null cells, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group 1 CD1 molecules have been shown to present foreign lipid antigens, and specifically a number of mycobacterial cell wall components, to CD1-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are activated by CD1d-presented antigens, and rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically represented by interferon-gamma and IL-4 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often remains true in neoplastic cells from these populations, so that the presence of CD1 antigens can be used in diagnostic immunohistochemistry to identify some thymomas and malignancies arising from T cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to some authors, ingestion of apoptotic bodies by DC manifesting CD205+ phenotype initiates production of transforming growth factor  (TGF-) by the cells, which promotes differentiation of Tregs [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • IL-17A increases the production of cytokines enhancing the tissue remodelling process, affects apoptosis of endothelial cells and promotes proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells [6, 7]. (termedia.pl)
  • iTregs are mostly present in the mucosal interface, by the action of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells [12]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the first part, structure and function of the gene-regulatory network that controls differentiation of type I T-helper (Th1) cells is investigated. (logos-verlag.de)
  • The non-protein microbial antigens cannot stimulate classical T cell response by themselves, but they are able to elicit the production of antibodies, so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens . (wikipedia.org)
  • What type of cell finishes differentiation in thymus? (brainscape.com)
  • If the thymus is removed or becomes nonfunctional during fetal life, the lymphoid tissue fails to become seeded with the sensitized lymphocytes and the body's cell-mediated arm of immunity fails to develop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Doherty PC, Effros RB, Bennink J (1977) Heterogeneity of the cytotoxic response of thymus-derived lymphocytes after immunization with influenza viruses. (springer.com)
  • CD3 plays a central role in signal transduction during antigen recognition. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. (bvsalud.org)
  • In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and leads to production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunophenotyping relies on detecting specific antigenic determinants on the surface of WBCs by antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies that have been labeled with a fluorescent dye or fluorochrome, such as phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). (cdc.gov)
  • Fazekas de St. Groth S (1981) The joint evolution of antigens and antibodies in the immune system. (springer.com)
  • In murine systems, the administration of antibodies that block CTLA-4 function inhibits the growth of moderately immunogenic tumors and, in combination with cancer vaccines, increases the rejection of poorly immunogenic tumors, albeit with a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the CD20 surface antigen has the potential of serving as a candidate for "targeting" of B cell lymphomas. (justia.com)
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since T-bet expression in the late phase requires IL-12 stimulation, this work uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind the unique role of IL-12 in Th1 differentiation. (logos-verlag.de)
  • The ability of T lymphocytes to produce cytokines in response to pathogenic organisms is crucial in inducing and maintaining effective innate as well as acquired immunity. (asm.org)
  • Response to LPS is an intricate process that involves several co-stimulatory molecules, including myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), NF-κB, LBP, and CD14, in addition to TLR-4 and MD-2, and results in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from the NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. (peprotech.com)
  • In this study we set out to determine whether cytotoxic CD8 + T-cell responses specific for peptides derived from CD19 and CD20 antigens occur in healthy individuals and patients with B-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD19 deficiency increased the affinity threshold of TI-2 responses, whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Leukemia phenotype studies have demonstrated that the earliest and broadest B cell restricted antigen is the CD19 antigen. (fishersci.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of CD19 expression on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The fluorescence histogram showing CD19 expression (or Ig Isotype control staining) was derived from gated events with the forward and side light-scatter characteristics of intact lymphocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • In this study, we have analyzed PEL for the expression status of CD138/syndecan-1, a molecule selectively associated with late stages of B-cell differentiation and implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix interactions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This IgM antibody, MBG6, bound to human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and to medullary thymocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CD3ε is expressed on 70-80% of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and 60-85% of thymocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Dynamic changes in intestinal T lymphocytes were not adequately represented in peripheral lymph nodes or blood. (asm.org)
  • peripheral blood, in contrast, represents only 2 to 5% of total lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • T lymphocytes at the periphery, named induced or peripheral Tregs (iTregs or pTregs). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • L-selectin mediates rolling of lymphocytes in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. (bvsalud.org)
  • We will provide flow cytometry plots showing strategies to identify and characterize NK, T and B lymphocytes and their subsets in circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • Thymocytes from normal RF mice display an age-associated increase in surface expression of MuLV gag and env antigens and synthesize an unusual envelope protein of 50 kilodaltons. (yu.edu)
  • The protein encoded by this gene associates with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and is an important chaperone that regulates antigen presentation for immune response. (cancerindex.org)
  • LY9 (Lymphocyte Antigen 9) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • It has been known for more than 100 years that the persistence of high antibody titers (Fig. 1) can be lifelong after viral infections and that delayed-type hypersensitivity can be demonstrated for a long time by challenging with a protein antigen after prior infection with tubercle bacilli. (springer.com)
  • CD79a protein is specifically and strictly expressed throughout B lymphocyte differentiation. (beckman.com)
  • Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [ PMID: 12368087 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2), also referred to as LY69, is an accessory glycoprotein secreted in hematopoietic, nervous, and reproductive tissues at various stages of development where it regulates innate immune responses to microbial pathogens through interaction with the extracellular do mains of TLR-2 and TLR-4. (peprotech.com)
  • Each B call within the host expresses a different antibody on its surface-thus, one B cell will express antibody specific for one antigen, while another B cell will express antibody specific for a different antigen. (justia.com)
  • Such antibody production most typically ceases (or substantially decreases) when the foreign antigen has been neutralized. (justia.com)
  • Recognition of a human T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen by an IgM monoclonal antibody. (ox.ac.uk)
  • T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (4F2) which binds to human monocytes and to a subset of activated lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • B lymphocytes secrete antibody, present antigen and regulate immune responses. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • 2) Protecting against invasion: Lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues are the site for production of immunocompetent lymphocytes and macrophages in the specific immune response. (scribd.com)
  • Antigenactivated lymphocytes differentiate and proliferate by cloning in the lymph nodes. (scribd.com)
  • Intestinal CD4 + T-cell depletion and the potential for cytokine responses were examined during SIV infection and compared with results for lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • Transendothelial migration of lymphocytes across high endothelial venules into lymph nodes is affected by metalloproteinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In contrast, in 74 American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IV melanoma patients, we found that development of lymph node metastases is a key event triggering CD8 + T-cell-mediated immunity to self-epitopes encoded by melanocyte differentiation antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, if the immune system is expected to play a role in controlling tumor growth, then immunity to tumor antigens should evolve as a function of tumor progression, possibly despite concurrent development of tumor escape mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are divided on the basis of ontogeny and function into two classes, B and T lymphocytes, responsible for humoral and cellular immunity, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Origin of B- and T-lymphocytes responsible for cellular and humoral immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. (novusbio.com)
  • One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20. (justia.com)
  • CD20 is expressed during early pre-B cell development and remains until plasma cell differentiation. (justia.com)
  • Radionuclide (B-lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen [CD20] inhibitor). (empr.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Schematic representation of B cell maturation in bone marrow and their differentiation in the lymph node [19, 35]. (intechopen.com)
  • We will discuss B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and the later stages of maturation in secondary lymphoid tissues, besides the B cell profiles in interfollicular, perifollicular, and follicular areas. (intechopen.com)
  • PD-L1), the inhibition of antigen-presenting cell maturation, and cytolysis [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD) from CD1 to CD166 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (thermofisher.com)
  • It is also detected on erythroid and myeloid progenitors in bone marrow, where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming unit E. (abcam.com)
  • the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. (fishersci.com)
  • This document contains revised guidelines developed by CDC for lab- oratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immu- nodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • This document has been developed by CDC to give guidance to laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of this and the fact that cows are a natural host of Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen in humans as well, it is hoped that studying cows will yield insights into the group 1 CD1 antigen-presenting system. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the terminal stage of differentiation, the transcription factor Foxp3 is upregulated by the action of IL-2 through CD25, whose signalization induces further CD25 production and high expression of suppressor genes, rendering regulatory functions [7]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Several polymorphic DNA restriction endonuclease fragments hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) antigen-encoding loci. (scripps.edu)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigens with expression restricted to the recipient hematopoietic compartment represent prospective immunological targets for graft-versus-leukemia therapy. (jci.org)
  • It remains unclear, however, whether donor T cell recognition of these hematopoietically derived minor histocompatibility antigens will induce significant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, the importance of minor histocompatibility antigens derived from nonhematopoietic tissues was demonstrated by the finding that [C57BL/6→BALB.B] chimeric mice succumbed to C57BL/6 CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. (jci.org)
  • These data suggest that severe acute CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD across this minor histocompatibility antigen barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloantigens for maximal target-tissue infiltration and injury. (jci.org)
  • In the latter subset of patients, by immunohistochemistry in lymph node lesions, we found that CD8 + T lymphocytes intermingling with the neoplastic tissue expressed a CCR7 − CD45RO + /RA − phenotype, whereas CD4 + lymphocytes did not infiltrate the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1-11 However, the overwhelming majority of cases exhibit a non-B, non-T (ie, indeterminate) phenotype, lacking expression of surface Igs and B-cell-associated antigens. (bloodjournal.org)
  • One of these is cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which after reaching maturity and fulfilling their effector function undergo apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during the immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • T lymphocyte co-signaling pathways of the B7-CD28 family. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • The antigen signal acts as a switch between the two pathways. (logos-verlag.de)
  • We report here the identification of another gene that also directs the expression of an antigen recognized on most melanomas by CTL clones that are restricted by HLA-A2. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, miR-17-92 and FOXO1 act as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • To evaluate this mRNA expression, surgically removed colon tumors as well as matched normal tissue and human colon carcinoma cell lines showing various differentiation states, anchorage dependence, and proliferation states were examined by Northern blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and changes in gene expression that characterise activated lymphocytes. (els.net)
  • HD39 (B3), A B Lineage-Restricted Antigen Whose Cell Surface Expression is Limited to Resting and Activated Human B Lymphocytes," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Expression of the CD6 T lymphocyte differentiation antigen in normal human brain. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Moreover, it is shown that only T-bet expression in the late phase is predictive of the success of the differentiation process. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Lymphoid hematopoiesis is not trivial, because although lymphocytes are found in the bloodstream and their precursor originates in the bone marrow, they mainly belong to the separate lymphatic system, which interacts with the blood circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens , because they induce numerous cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include antigens, mitogens, soluble factors produced by various cell types, and various pharmacologic agents. (springer.com)
  • The best known costimulatory signal is provided by the interaction of CD28 molecules presented on the T lymphocyte as well as the CD86 and CD80 molecules expressed on the pAPC's surface [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These are a significant source of both antigens and proinflammatory molecules present in bacterial cell walls. (rupress.org)
  • The immunomodulatory properties of MSCs were first demonstrated by Di Nicola and coauthors, who showed that BM-MSCs inhibited T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Periodontitis: A Translational View. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Schematic representation of T lymphocytes thymic selection [54, 59-63]. (intechopen.com)
  • Therapeutic vaccines that enhance dendritic cell presentation of cancer antigens increase specific cellular and humoral responses, thereby effectuating tumor destruction in some cases. (pnas.org)
  • Lymphocytes, amongst others, are critical to the immune system. (justia.com)
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the importance of B cell-T cell interactions in the maintenance of a functional immune system, disruption of B-lymphocyte development could have direct implications on the course of AIDS progression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Structural Characterization of the Human B Lymphocyte-Restricted Differentiation Antigen CD22," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Role of the CD22 Human B Cell Antigen in B Cell Triggering by Anti-Immunoglobulin," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Local concentrations of lymphocytes in these systems and other areas are called lymphatic nodules. (scribd.com)
  • Thus, as melanoma progresses to metastatic disease, T-cell-mediated immune response to tumor antigens could be promoted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 did not elicit tumor necrosis in four of four metastatic melanoma patients previously immunized with defined melanosomal antigens. (pnas.org)
  • The formulation of genetic and biochemical strategies to identify cancer antigens yielded the unexpected discovery that tumor development frequently evokes immune recognition ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • One mechanism that may contribute to the failure of host defense is inadequate tumor antigen presentation ( 13 ). (pnas.org)