Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A transcription factor that plays a role as a key regulator of HEMATOPOIESIS. Aberrant Ikaros expression has been associated with LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.
The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.
A B7 antigen that binds specifically to INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR PROTEIN on T-CELLS. It provides a costimulatory signal for T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.
A costimulatory receptor that is specific for INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR LIGAND. The receptor is associated with a diverse array of immunologically-related effects including the increased synthesis of INTERLEUKIN 10 in REGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES and the induction of PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of phenylpyruvic acid which has the general formula C6H5CH2COCOOH, and is a metabolite of phenylalanine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (1/1345)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

HLA-DM and invariant chain are expressed by thyroid follicular cells, enabling the expression of compact DR molecules. (2/1345)

Thyroid follicular cells (TFC) in Graves' disease (GD) hyperexpress HLA class I and express ectopic HLA class II molecules, probably as a consequence of cytokines produced by infiltrating T cells. This finding led us to postulate that TFC could act as antigen-presenting cells, and in this way be responsible for the induction and/or maintenance of the in situ autoimmune T cell response. Invariant chain (li) and HLA-DM molecules are implicated in the antigen processing and presentation by HLA class II molecules. We have investigated the expression of these molecules by TFC from GD glands. The results demonstrate that class II+ TFC from GD patients also express li and HLA-DM, and this expression is increased after IFN-gamma stimulation. The level of HLA-DM expression by TFC was low but sufficient to catalyze peptide loading into the HLA class II molecules and form stable HLA class II-peptide complexes expressed at the surface of TFC. These results have implications for the understanding of the possible role of HLA class II+ TFC in thyroid autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Cathepsin S required for normal MHC class II peptide loading and germinal center development. (3/1345)

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules acquire antigenic peptides after degradation of the invariant chain (Ii), an MHC class II-associated protein that otherwise blocks peptide binding. Antigen-presenting cells of mice that lack the protease cathepsin S fail to process Ii beyond a 10 kDa fragment, resulting in delayed peptide loading and accumulation of cell surface MHC class II/10 kDa Ii complexes. Although cathepsin S-deficient mice have normal numbers of B and T cells and normal IgE responses, they show markedly impaired antibody class switching to IgG2a and IgG3. These results indicate cathepsin S is a major Ii-processing enzyme in splenocytes and dendritic cells. Its role in humoral immunity critically depends on how antigens access the immune system.  (+info)

Impaired invariant chain degradation and antigen presentation and diminished collagen-induced arthritis in cathepsin S null mice. (4/1345)

Cathepsins have been implicated in the degradation of proteins destined for the MHC class II processing pathway and in the proteolytic removal of invariant chain (Ii), a critical regulator of MHC class II function. Mice lacking the lysosomal cysteine proteinase cathepsin S (catS) demonstrated a profound inhibition of Ii degradation in professional APC in vivo. A marked variation in the generation of MHC class II-bound Ii fragments and presentation of exogenous proteins was observed between B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages lacking catS. CatS-deficient mice showed diminished susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for regulation of immune responsiveness.  (+info)

Engagement of B cell receptor regulates the invariant chain-dependent MHC class II presentation pathway. (5/1345)

The intracellular sites in which Ags delivered by the B cell receptor (BCR) are degraded and loaded onto class II molecules remain poorly defined. To address this issue, we generated wild-type and invariant chain (Ii)-deficient H-2k mice bearing BCR specific for hen egg lysozyme. Our results show that, 1) unlike Ags taken up from the fluid phase, Ii is required for presentation of hen egg lysozyme internalized through the BCR in a manner independent of the peptide analyzed; 2) BCR ligation induces intracellular accumulation of MHC class II molecules only in Ii-positive B cells; and 3) these class II molecules reach intracellular compartments where BCR targets exogenous Ag. No differences in expression of adhesion and costimulatory molecules or in the presentation of soluble peptides were detectable between Ii-positive and -negative B cells. Therefore, the BCR delivers its ligand to compartments containing MHC class II-Ii complexes and bypasses the Ii-independent presentation pathway. The linked roles of Ag internalization and B cell activation of the BCR leads to potent Ii-dependent presentation in splenic B cells.  (+info)

The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for peptide hormone processing in vivo and provides a novel mechanism for pituitary Cushing's disease. (6/1345)

The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 has been implicated in activation of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), an important neuroendocrine precursor processing endoprotease. To test this hypothesis, we created a null mutation in 7B2 employing a novel transposon-facilitated technique and compared the phenotypes of 7B2 and PC2 nulls. 7B2 null mice have no demonstrable PC2 activity, are deficient in processing islet hormones, and display hypoglycemia, hyperproinsulinemia, and hypoglucagonemia. In contrast to the PC2 null phenotype, these mice show markedly elevated circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels, with adrenocortical expansion. They die before 9 weeks of severe Cushing's syndrome arising from pituitary intermediate lobe ACTH hypersecretion. We conclude that 7B2 is indeed required for activation of PC2 in vivo but has additional important functions in regulating pituitary hormone secretion.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (7/1345)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Phagosomes are fully competent antigen-processing organelles that mediate the formation of peptide:class II MHC complexes. (8/1345)

During the processing of particulate Ags, it is unclear whether peptide:class II MHC (MHC-II) complexes are formed within phagosomes or within endocytic compartments that receive Ag fragments from phagosomes. Murine macrophages were pulsed with latex beads conjugated with OVA. Flow or Western blot analysis of isolated phagosomes showed extensive acquisition of MHC-II, H-2M, and invariant chain within 30 min, with concurrent degradation of OVA. T hybridoma responses to isolated subcellular fractions demonstrated OVA (323-339):I-Ad complexes in phagosomes and plasma membrane but not within dense late endocytic compartments. Furthermore, when two physically separable sets of phagosomes were present within the same cells, OVA(323-339):I-Ad complexes were demonstrated in latex-OVA phagosomes but not in phagosomes containing latex beads conjugated with another protein. This implies that these complexes were formed specifically within phagosomes and were not formed elsewhere and subsequently transported to phagosomes. In addition, peptide:MHC-II complexes were shown to traffic from phagosomes to the cell surface. In conclusion, phagosomes are fully competent to process Ags and generate peptide:MHC-II complexes that are transported to the cell surface and presented to T cells.  (+info)

Proteolysis of the class II-associated invariant chain generates a peptide binding site in intracellular HLA-DR molecules. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1991. 88:
RefSeq Summary (NM_002118): HLA-DMB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta (DMB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide) molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ...
AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine: A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) -- from cancer.gov ...
Improved risk models of patients with stage III melanoma will improve the treatment of patients with this disease; however, molecular markers are lacking. Our analysis of independent cohorts (two for protein in TMA, and one for mRNA in TCGA) of patients tumors strongly implicates increased CD74 expression as a new marker of good prognosis in stage III melanoma. Previously, we had considered inflammatory markers to be associated with poor prognosis, which was the case for MIF in both cohorts, and for iNOS in the MDACC cohort. The surprising finding of higher expression of CD74 having a strong association with good prognosis is most intriguing, and elucidating the mechanism involved is likely to open new avenues for melanoma research.. The functional role of CD74 is not well understood. Historically, CD74 was known primarily as the MHC class II invariant chain and functions in the molecular processing of MHC II through the Golgi (24). It has a potential role in the antitumor immune response (25), ...
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Clone REA296 recognizes MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii)-derived peptide (CLIP) complexes. MHC class II αβ heterodimers associate early during biosynthesis with a type II membrane protein, the invariant chain (Ii). The invariant chain serves as a chaperone for MHC II molecules and mediates trafficking to the endosomal pathway. In the endosomal pathway Ii is sequentially degraded, leaving a residual CLIP in the peptide-binding groove of MHC II. In presence of antigen peptide fragments, HLA-DM then binds to the MHC II molecule, releasing CLIP and allowing peptides to bind. REA296 detects HLA class II-positive cells which have impaired HLA-DM activity, and tumor cells that have escaped immuno-surveillance by CD4-positive T cells.Additional information: Clone REA296 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Analysis of Invariant Chain Subsets as a Function of Their Association with MHC Class II Chains. AU - Nguyen, Q. V.. AU - Reyes, Victor. AU - Humphreys, R. E.. PY - 1995/2/20. Y1 - 1995/2/20. N2 - Respective subsets of human invariant chain (Ii), as identified with antibodies to two different epitopes, were characterized as a function of their associations with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II α,β chains and intracellular processing. E1 antiserum to Ii(183-193) and VIC-Y1 monoclonal antibody to an N-terminal determinant identified Ii(E1) and Ii(VIC) populations, respectively. Ii proteins comprise several species which have been defined with either genomic or post-translational processes: Ii itself; IpN and IpO, which represent the glycosylated forms on asparagine or threonine/serine, respectively; γ2 and γ3, which originate from an alternative initiation site for transcription; and p41, which has a 64-amino-acid insert which originated from an ...
The spatiotemporal regulation of the immune response remains largely unknown. Now Faure-André et al. (see the Perspective by Lukacs-Kornek and Turley) show that the invariant chain, a key regulator of antigen processing and presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, also controls the intrinsic migratory capacity of dendritic cells. In a study of the behavior of dendritic cells taken from mouse models on microfabricated surfaces using time-lapse imaging, the invariant chain caused dendritic cells to enter a discontinuous migration mode that alternated between low- and high-motility phases. This regulation of dendritic cell migration by the invariant chain results from its association with the actin-based motor protein, myosin II. This use of common regulators for antigen processing and cell motility may provide dendritic cells with a way to coordinate the two functions in time and space.. G. Faure-André, P. Vargas, M.-I. Yuseff, M. Heuzé, J. Diaz, D. Lankar, V. ...
The goal of the Phase I part of this clinical research study is to find the highest tolerable dose of milatuzumab that can be given to patients with NHL or CLL. The goal of the Phase II part of this clinical research study is to learn if milatuzumab can help to control NHL or CLL. The safety of the study drug will also be studied.
Milatuzumab or placebo will be given subcutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks to determine if milatuzumab helps to control lupus (SLE). The treatment portion of the study lasts 4 weeks. Then patients are followed for disease activity for at least 12 weeks. If patients respond to the study drug, they may be eligible for one course of retreatment, again followed by 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients who showed a response will continue to be followed at timepoints up to one year after treatment to assess how long the response lasts ...
Milatuzumab or placebo will be given subcutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks to determine if milatuzumab helps to control lupus (SLE). The treatment portion of the study lasts 4 weeks. Then patients are followed for disease activity for at least 12 weeks. If patients respond to the study drug, they may be eligible for one course of retreatment, again followed by 12 weeks of follow-up. Patients who showed a response will continue to be followed at timepoints up to one year after treatment to assess how long the response lasts ...
CD74, the cell-surface form of the MHC class II invariant chain, is a key inflammatory factor that is involved in various immune-mediated diseases as part of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) binding complex. However, little is known about the natural regulators of CD74 in this context. In order to study the role of the HLA-DR molecule in regulating CD74, we used the HLA-DRα1 domain, which was shown to bind to and downregulate CD74 on CD11b+ monocytes. We found that DRα1 directly inhibited binding of MIF to CD74 and blocked its downstream inflammatory effects in the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Potency of the DRα1 domain could be destroyed by trypsin digestion but enhanced by addition of a peptide extension (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG]-35-55 peptide) that provided secondary structure not present in DRα1. These data suggest a conformationally sensitive determinant on DRα1-MOG that is responsible for optimal binding to ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
B cell maturation starts in the bone marrow but is completed in the spleen (Hardy et al., 2007). Survival of IgM+ splenic B cells is linked to the antiapoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family of proteins and their opposing proapoptotic antagonist, BCL2-interacting mediator of cell death (BIM; Enders et al., 2003), and depends on tonic signals from surface IgM and IgD B cell antigen receptors transmitted through spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (Srinivasan et al., 2009). Starting from the transitional 2 (T2) stage, B cells also depend on survival signals provided by a circulating cytokine, B cell-activating factor (BAFF), engaging the BAFF receptor (BAFFR; Khan, 2009). BCRs and BAFFR signal via pathways that activate transcription factors of the NF-κB family, and these play essential roles in mediating survival of B cells (Siebenlist et al., 2005).. CD74, also called MHC II invariant chain or Ii, is a type 2 transmembrane protein ...
The invariant chain (Ii) binds nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, blocking peptide binding until the complex dissociates in the endosomes. This may serve to differentiate the MHC class I and II antigen presentation pathways and enable class II molecules to efficiently bind peptides in the endosomes. This hypothesis was addressed by probing spleen cells from a combination of knock-out and transgenic mice with a large panel of T cell hybridomas. The Ii molecule blocked the presentation of a range of endogenously synthesized epitopes, but some epitopes actually required Ii. Thus, the influence of Ii on presentation does not follow simple rules. In addition, mice expressing Ii were not tolerant to epitopes unmasked in its absence, a finding with possible implications for autoimmunity. ...
Mouse anti-CD23/Fc epsilon RII, Clone: EBVCS2, Cy5.5, PerCP, Novus Biologicals 100 Tests; Cy5.5, PerCP Life Sciences:Antibodies:Primary Antibodies:Flow Cytometry (Flow)
A big thanks to Noah Zark for providing information on this new clip. The clip was filled with 5 rounds of Nigerian Ball Ammo headstamped OFN.. ...
Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of th …
Helper T cells are stimulated to fight infections or diseases upon recognition of peptides from antigens that are processed and presented by the proteins of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II molecules. Degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments is a lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperones. Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its mouse analog H2-O, herein called DO. While DO was originally discovered decades ago, elucidating its function has proven challenging. DO was discovered in association with
Milatuzumab (or hLL1) is an anti-CD74 humanized monoclonal antibody for the treatment of multiple myeloma non-Hodgkins lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The drug is the first anti-CD74 antibody that has entered into human testing and is currently being studied for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Milatuzumab has received orphan drug designation from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States for the treatment of multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Milatuzumab was developed by Immunomedics, Inc, (Morris Plains NJ USA). CD74 is present on a variety of hematological tumors and even on some solid cancers. It is present in limited amounts in normal tissues but widely found in leukemias, lymphomas and the vast majority of multiple myeloma cases.[citation needed] CD74 is involved in a cell-to-cell communication pathway that is critical for survival.[citation needed] When CD74 is blocked by milatuzumab, it can lead to cell death. CD74 is an attractive target for a ...
The endocytic pathway comprises various organelles of low pH, including early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes, each with varying capacities for protein degradation and protein recycling. Certain proteins, such as transferrin receptors, are sorted for retrieval from endocytic compartments and are selectively recycled back to the PM or TGN, whereas those that are targeted for degradation are retained in late endosomes and lysosomes ( Piper and Katzmann, 2007). Upon reaching the late endosomes, proteins that are intended for destruction are sorted onto intraluminal vesicles that are derived from the inward budding of the limiting membrane of the endosome, thereby giving rise to multivesicular antigen-processing compartments termed multivesicular bodies (MVBs). The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) protein machinery, either directly through the recognition of the small molecule ubiquitin or indirectly through ubiquitin-independent targeting, sorts molecules that are ...
MO-DC generated in vitro serve as a model type of DC to unravel the complex interactions among DC maturation, MHC class II peptide loading, and endocytic transport (3, 33, 34). The emerging picture suggests that endocytic protease activity is regulated by differential activity of the lysosomal ATPase during DC maturation (3). By analyzing lysosomal MBP processing at pH 5.0 in vitro, we have here mimicked the conditions present in the lysosomal compartment of DC in the activated state in vivo.. The MHC class II-associated proteolytic machinery is characterized by a hierarchical proteolytic cascade, where the initial step controls the efficiency of Ag processing, peptide presentation, and T cell activation (14). Different types of APC as well as primary cells and immortalized cell lines contain distinct activity patterns of endocytic proteases (11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 37) which might result in different processing pathways for a given Ag and hence in different selections of peptides presented. We here ...
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RefSeq Summary (NM_006120): HLA-DMA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta chain (DMB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ##Evidence-Data-START## Transcript exon combination :: BC011447.1, ...
De Novo drug design aims at predicting the peptide leads for anti-malarial activity from the designed set of 200 templates (Dipeptide, tripeptide, tet..
WPI has amongst the best Organic Values3, which means it yields far more usable grams of Amino Acids than other Protein nutritional supplements. Furthermore, it has quick chain peptides which enable it to be available for absorption inside fifteen minutes immediately after use. This timing is most crucial as post-training is when your muscles are primed for nutrient and Protein absorption. Whey Isolate contains little to no find out here now Fat, Lactose or Cholesterol ...
The ability of the immune system to eliminate and shape the immunogenicity of tumours defines the process of cancer immunoediting1. Immunotherapies such as those that target immune checkpoint molecules can be used to augment immune-mediated elimination of tumours and have resulted in durable responses in patients with cancer that did not respond to previous treatments. However, only a subset of patients benefit from immunotherapy and more knowledge about what is required for successful treatment is needed2-4. Although the role of tumour neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour rejection is well established5-9, the roles of other subsets of T cells have received less attention. Here we show that spontaneous and immunotherapy-induced anti-tumour responses require the activity of both tumour-antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, even in tumours that do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In addition, the expression of MHC class II-restricted antigens by tumour cells
My major interest is in antigen processing, defined as the combination of mechanisms that generate the complexes of class I and class II MHC molecules with peptides that are the targets for recognition by T lymphocytes. My colleagues and I have identified a number of proteins that collaborate in these processes. MHC class I peptide binding occurs in the context of a large complex that we have defined in the endoplasmic reticulum consisting of TAP, an ATP-dependent peptide transporter; tapasin, a protein that couples the transporter to assembling class I molecules; and two house-keeping chaperones, calreticulin and ERp57. How these accessory molecules combine to facilitate peptide binding is currently being intensively investigated. We have also studied MHC class II peptide binding through the mechanism of class II molecules being delivered into the endocytic pathway by an associated protein, the invariant chain. This has included study of the CLIP, a residual fragment of the invariant chain, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Val-tyr, an Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor from Sardines that have Resistance to Gastrointestinal Proteases. AU - Seki, Eiji. AU - Osajima, Katsuhiro. AU - Matsufuji, Hiroshi. AU - Matsui, Toshiro. AU - Osajima, Yutaka. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The NH2-terminal residue of a dipeptide is an important determinant of the resistance to peptidases of porcine small mucosa. NH2-terminal Val or Ile, and COOH-terminal Trp or Tyr dipeptides had higher angiotensin I converting enzyme(ACE)inhibitory activity and digestive resistance than other dipeptides. We defined Val-Tyr as a main inhibitor in alkaline protease hydrolyzates from sardines. Attempts to isolate and measurement of Val-Tyr were done from the short chain peptides that reduced blood pressure. The content of Val-Tyr was 51 mg per 100 g of the short chain peptides, represented 1.3% of the total ACE inhibitory activity of the short chain peptides. Isolated Val-Tyr was resistant to gastrointestinal proteases. ...
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HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide involved in the formation and transport of MHC class II protein. The cell surface form of the invariant chain is known as CD74. The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER binds a segment of the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) in order to shape the peptide binding groove and prevent formation of a closed conformation. Binding to Ii might also prevent binding of peptides from the endogenous pathway to the groove of MHC class II. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. The signal for endosomal targeting resides in the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed proteins. It is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic ...
Over the last decade, our understanding and ability to predict the MHC class I pathway antigen presentation has improved substantially. This however does not hold for post-transnationally modified (PTM) antigens, where our understanding on how PTMs impact the potential for antigen presentation remains limited. Likewise, is our ability to predict MHC class II antigen presentation limited, and data suggest that properties other that MHC binding plays a critical role for the prediction of CD4 epitopes. Finally, is our understanding of the role of the T cell and the similarity of the presented peptide to the self proteome in the context of peptide immunogenicity very limited ...
|p|One of the first cytokines described, MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor) was originally identified in studies of delayed hypersensitivity reactions where it was shown to inhibit macrophage migration. It is an important mediator of the innate immune response with potential roles in the pathophysiology of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. The human MIF gene encodes a 115 amino acid, 12.5 kDa secreted protein. Crystallographic studies suggest that MIF exists as a homotrimer, although some reports show that it may exist as a dimer or monomer as well. Although MIF exhibits no homology with other known cytokines, it shares structural homology with several bacterial enzymes. It has been speculated that MIF is an inflammatory mediator possibly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) severity.|/p|
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an evolutionary conserved 12.5-kDa protein mediator with multiple functions in innate and acquired immunity. Upon leaderless secretion, MIF acts as a typical inflammatory cytokine, but there is no structural homology between MIF and any of the known cy …
In article ,01bc8736$e36ebb80$0b0b258a at rhgf001,, N. Sheikh ,rhgf001 at mailrelay.qmw.ac.uk, wrote: ,Hi, ,I am trying to block the class II antigen processing pathway in mice - has ,anyone tried this ? , ,I am thinking of using Chloroquine - does anybody have any ideas on doses ? I dont know if anyone has done much with this - it seems kind of tricky to do systemically. For one thing, the proteases thought to be involved in Class II processing are probably important in other cellular functions, especially normal cellular protein turnover. FWIW, chloroquine concs. of 100-200 micromolar are sufficient to block most processing in vitro, but I dont know what effect that might have on the viability of non-presenting cells. ,Or are there any alternatives - even knockout mice...which are defective in ,class II processing ? Aside from the Class II knockouts, there are two that might be useful. Both invariant chain and H-2M knockouts have presentation defects, although neither stems from problems ...
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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, is considered an attractive therapeutic target in multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In addition to its known biologic activities, MIF can also function as a tautomerase. Several small molecules have been reported to be effective inhibitors of MIF tautomerase activity in vitro. Herein we employed a robust activity-based assay to identify different classes of novel inhibitors of the catalytic and biological activities of MIF. Several novel chemical classes of inhibitors of the catalytic activity of MIF with IC(50) values in the range of 0.2-15.5 microm were identified and validated. The interaction site and mechanism of action of these inhibitors were defined using structure-activity studies and a battery of biochemical and biophysical methods. MIF inhibitors emerging from these studies could be divided into three categories based on their mechanism of action: 1) molecules that covalently modify the catalytic site at
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The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER has its peptide-binding cleft blocked by the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed, degraded proteins. It is then broken down in stages, leaving only a small fragment called CLIP which still blocks the peptide binding cleft. An MHC class II-like structure, HLA-DM, removes CLIP and replaces it with a peptide from the endosome. The stable MHC class-II is then presented on the cell surface ...
The B cell surface molecule B1 is functionally linked with B cell activation and differentiation. J Immunol. 1985 Aug; 135(2):973-9 ...
Y. Mizue, S. Ghani, L. Leng, C. McDonald, P. Kong, J. Baugh, S. J. Lane, J. Craft, J. Nishihira, S. C. Donnelly, Z. Zhu, R. Bucala ...
Swanson B.J., Jaeck H.-M., Lyons G.E. (1998). Characterization of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) expression in B and T cells: MEF2C is a B cell-restricted transcription factor in lymphocytes.. Mol. Immunol. 35: 445 - 458. PubMed DOI:10.1016/S0161-5890(98)00058-3 ...
Has strong elastinolytic activity, even at neutral pH, and may play a role in tissue damage associated with inflammation (Kirschke et al., 1989; Shi et al., 1992). Facilitates antigen presentation in the MHC class II system by degradation of the invariant chain (Driessen et al., 1999), and may therefore by a target for attenuation of immune response ...
Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. Current computational methods trained on in vitro binding data are limited by insufficient training data and algorithmic constraints. Here we describe MARIA (major histocompatibility complex analysis with recurrent integrated architecture; https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our improved machine learning framework, MARIA (area under the curve = 0.89-0.92) outperformed existing methods
Title: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: A Therapeutic Target Across Inflammatory Diseases. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Alberta Y. Hoi, Magdy N. Iskander and Eric F. Morand. Affiliation:Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University,Locked Bag 29, Melbourne, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.. Keywords:Macrophage migration inhibitory factor, inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, atherosclerosis, cytokines, therapeutic target, small molecule antagonists. Abstract: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a cytokine originally reported in the 1960s as the prototypic T lymphokine, has emerged in recent years as a key factor regulating inflammatory responses. Both by directly activating immune cells, and by participating in activation entrained by other stimuli, MIF is important in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as tissue-specific mechanisms of damage. As a consequence of its involvement in ...
MHC class II presentation of antigenic peptides derived from soluble proteins is usually preceded by antigenic uptake via (nonreceptor-mediated) endocytosis by professional APCs, followed by processing in endosomal compartments. Although in vitro alternative pathways for MHC class II loading have been described for certain intracellularly synthesized proteins, the importance of these pathways has not been assessed in vivo. We have shown previously that endogenously produced membrane-associated glycoprotein (GP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a noncytopathic virus, can be presented in vitro on MHC class II molecules in the absence of the invariant chain (Ii), whereas the cytosolic LCMV nucleoprotein (LCMV-NP) failed to be presented under the same conditions. Taking advantage of this system, we analyzed presentation of LCMV-GP and LCMV-NP in vivo in Ii-deficient mice and followed the induced Th cell and B cell responses. At early time points after LCMV infection of li-deficient mice, we
HLA-DQA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B Lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa. It is encoded by 5 exons; exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, and exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
HLA-DQA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B Lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa. It is encoded by 5 exons; exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, and exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
PubMedID: 23536817 | Macrophage migration inhibitory factor inhibition is deleterious for high-fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction. | PloS one | 1/1/2013
This former Russian military secret is now available to the public!. Today Professor Vladimir Khavinson is the President of the European Academy of Gerontology and Geriatrics, but in the 1980s he was a Colonel in the Soviet Union military medical corps. At the time, he and his team were approached by Kremlin officials, they wanted them to find a way to protect their troops from a myriad of problems; issues such as radiation for submariners in nuclear submarines to troops that may be blinded from known, (but thankfully unused) new weapons such as battlefield lasers.. What their secret research uncovered- that was used for two decades on many thousands of men and women- was a remarkable link between short chain peptides and DNA.. Now their published research is in the open and it identifies that each organ/ gland/ tissue uses a highly specific short chain peptide to act as a short cut to initiate protein synthesis. These peptides can be found in food and unlike proteins they can enter the blood ...
Bay-Richter et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation (2015) 12:163 DOI /s JOURNAL OF NEUROINFLAMMATION RESEARCH Behavioural and neurobiological consequences of macrophage migration inhibitory
摘 要:II类反式激活因子(class II trans-activator, CIITA)为非DNA结合蛋白,在MHC II类基因的转录激活过程中以协同激活分子的形式发挥主导开关的作用。CIITA还可以调节其他与抗原递呈相关的基因,如H-2M基因、Ia相关恒定链(Ii chain)基因等。结构上,CIITA分子又是NOD样受体(NOD-like receptor, NLR)家族成员之一,其功能与固有免疫密切相关。除此之外,CIITA在T细胞分化、FasL介导的细胞死亡、胶原的合成等方面也发挥着重要的调节作用 ...
Antigen Background The CD74 molecule has several isoforms (33, 35 and 41 kD) and is the invariant chain of HLA-DR. The protein is reported to be expressed in B cell lymphomas, leukemias, Reed Sternberg cells and Hodgkins mononuclear cells. The expression of CD74 protein occurs before the pre-B cell stage and is lost before the plasma cell stage. Product Specific Information NCL ...
Recombinant Human immunoglobulin epsilon receptor subunit alpha (FCER1A) Protein, Fc-epsilon RI-alpha (FcERI), produced in human 293 cells (HEK293)
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... a phosphorylated human lymphocyte differentiation and activation antigen". Eur J Immunol. 20 (11): 2417-23. doi:10.1002/eji. ... Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. This gene encodes an intracellular F- ... "Entrez Gene: LSP1 lymphocyte-specific protein 1". Jongstra-Bilen J, Young AJ, Chong R, Jongstra J (1990). "Human and mouse LSP1 ... 1993). "Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family". Genomics. 15 (3): 515-20. doi: ...
"Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...
... stimulate the differentiation and proliferation of, and present foreign antigens to B-cells. The FD cells in FDCS may derive ... lymphocyte rich (LRHD), and lymphocyte depleted (LDHD) subtypes. EBV is found in 30% to 50% of HL cases, but occurs in ~90% of ... The lymphocytes are primarily B cells (e.g., express CD20 and CD10 markers) with rare T cells evident only in the background. ... While EBV preferentially infects B cells, it may also infect other lymphocyte types viz., CD4+ T cells (i..e T helper cells), ...
"Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ... This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule that plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into ...
... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... Thomas ML, Barclay AN, Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) ... The success linked to this work on Thy1 prompted Williams to expand the search for surface molecules on lymphocytes that could ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ...
In addition, PGE2 limits the immune response by preventing B-lymphocyte differentiation and their ability to present antigens. ... In terms of immunity, prostaglandins have the ability to regulate lymphocyte function. PGE2 affect T-lymphocyte formation by ... PGE2 also has roles in inhibition of cytotoxic T-cell function, cell division of T-lymphocytes, and the development of TH1 ... In addition, it can suppress an immune response by inhibiting B lymphocytes from forming into antibody-secreting plasma cells. ...
Differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes. Alan F. Williams, Giovanni Galfrè and Cesar Milstein "Archived copy". Archived ... The recirculation of lymphocytes from blood to lymph in the rat. GOWANS JL. Cell, Vol 12, 663-673, (1977)Analysis of cell ... During the 1950s Gowans pioneering work sorted out the life cycle of that cell, He showed that the small lymphocyte ... Florey suggested he should investigate the lymphocyte, a cell whose life history was at that time completely obscure. ...
It is associated with agammaglobulinemia-6. The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000007312 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human B-cell antigen receptor complex- ...
T-lymphocyte surface antigen Ly-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY9 gene. LY9 has also recently been designated ... CD229 (cluster of differentiation 229). LY9 has been shown to interact with SH2D1A. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000122224 ... "Entrez Gene: LY9 lymphocyte antigen 9". Sayós J, Martín M, Chen A, Simarro M, Howie D, Morra M, Engel P, Terhorst C (Jun 2001 ... lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological ...
... and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored lymphocyte differentiation antigen ... The enzyme is used as a marker of lymphocyte differentiation. Consequently, a deficiency of NT5 occurs in a variety of ... 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NT), also known as ecto-5′-nucleotidase or CD73 (cluster of differentiation 73), is an enzyme that in ... Cluster of differentiation Arterial calcification due to CD73 deficiency GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135318 - Ensembl ...
"A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas". J. Exp. ... The same name is also used to refer to the gene which codes for the antigen. The MART-1/melan-A antigen is specific for the ... of Belgium called the gene melan-A, presumably an abbreviation for "melanocyte antigen." MART-1/melan-A is a protein antigen ... Protein melan-A also known as melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 or MART-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
CAMPATH-1 antigen, also known as cluster of differentiation 52 (CD52), is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the CD52 ... CD52 is present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes were derived. It ... CD52+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD52 genome location and CD52 gene ... Since it is highly negatively charged and present on sperm cells and lymphocytes, it has been conjectured that its function is ...
... is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation ... CD226 (Cluster of Differentiation 226), PTA1 (outdated term, 'platelet and T cell activation antigen 1') or DNAM-1 (DNAX ... Cluster of differentiation Nectin GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000150637 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adhesion molecule involved in the cytolytic function of T lymphocytes". Immunity. 4 (6): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613 ...
He is best known for his work regarding lymphocyte development, particularly the differentiation of immature CD4+8+ (double ... Singer's work is foundational in the understanding of T cells and MHC-restricted antigen recognition. Singer's work explores ...
1992). "The antigen-specific induction of normal human lymphocytes in vitro is down-regulated by a conserved HIV p24 epitope". ... Relationship to lymphoid differentiation". J. Clin. Invest. 84 (2): 506-16. doi:10.1172/JCI114193. PMC 548910. PMID 2547833. ... 1989). "Dephosphorylation of the human T lymphocyte CD3 antigen". Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989 ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is associated on the T cell surface with a complex of protein called CD3. CD3G (gamma chain) is ...
T lymphocytes regulate the growth and differentiation of T cells and certain B cells through the release of secreted protein ... IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators ... They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, and hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on ... lymphocyte activating factor, mitogenic protein, T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation ...
... (Cluster of Differentiation 300A) is a human gene. The CMRF35 antigen (CMRF35A; MIM 606786), which was identified by ... reactivity with a monoclonal antibody, is present on monocytes, neutrophils, and some T and B lymphocytes. CMRF35H is ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 101-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550201.x. PMID 10746781. Cantoni C, Bottino C, Augugliaro R, et al ... recognized by the same antibody and is distinct from CMRF35 (Green et al., 1998).[supplied by OMIM] Cluster of differentiation ...
... need to enter secondary lymph nodes to encounter their antigen. Central memory T-lymphocytes, which have encountered antigen, ... of L-selectin on human bone marrow progenitor cells is an early sign of cells becoming committed to lymphoid differentiation. L ... Here they reside ready to proliferate upon re-encountering antigen. Effector memory T-lymphocytes do not express L-selectin, as ... Naive T-lymphocytes, which have not yet encountered their specific antigen, ...
... cluster differentiation antigen-26) by the uterine endometrium of the ewe and cow that costimulates lymphocyte proliferation". ... In particular, sheep uterine serpin can inhibit lymphocyte and natural killer cell function in vitro and reduce natural-killer ...
... and human lymphocyte antigen class I messenger RNAs associated with colon carcinoma progression and differentiation". Cancer ... This suggests a possible extra-ribosomal function for this gene in erythropoietic differentiation and proliferation, in ...
The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen- ... CD8a (Cluster of Differentiation 8a), is a human gene. The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T ... Sukhatme VP, Sizer KC, Vollmer AC, Hunkapiller T, Parnes JR (1985). "The T cell differentiation antigen Leu-2/T8 is homologous ... a human T-cell differentiation antigen CD8 (Leu2) cDNA mapped to 2p12". Nucleic Acids Res. 14 (19): 7817. doi:10.1093/nar/14.19 ...
It mediates adhesive interactions important for antigen-specific immune response, NK-cell mediated clearance, lymphocyte ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000108622 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Lalor PF, Shields P, Grant A, Adams DH (February 2002). "Recruitment of lymphocytes to the human liver". Immunology and Cell ... Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2), also known as CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102), is a human gene, and the ...
The assay required, in addition to the thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, also "macrophages" or antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ... including those borne by the individual in which the differentiation takes place (the self-molecules). The cells with receptors ... The receptors of the T lymphocytes recognize an antigen in association with their own Mhc molecules. The different ... concluded that the class II antigens they demonstrated on the surfaces of lymphocytes were the product of the Ir-1 locus. Later ...
B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 molecule (Cluster of Differentiation 19), B-Lymphocyte Surface Antigen B4, T-Cell ... Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Omori SA, Tedder TF (1992). "Structure of the genes encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes ... Zhou LJ, Ord DC, Omori SA, Tedder TF (1992). "Structure of the genes encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes ... Tedder TF, Isaacs CM (July 1989). "Isolation of cDNAs encoding the CD19 antigen of human and mouse B lymphocytes. A new member ...
... antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. In the late 19th ... Kansler, Emily R.; Li, Ming O. (July 2019). "Innate lymphocytes-lineage, localization and timing of differentiation". Cellular ... can induce the differentiation into TC2 cells and IL-1 or IL-23 can induce the differentiation into TC17 cells. Naïve CD4+ ... Naive T cells, which are immature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells ...
After differentiation, memory B cells relocate to the periphery of the body where they will be more likely to encounter antigen ... In immunology, a memory B cell (MBC) is a type of B lymphocyte that forms within germinal centers in response to an initial ... In a secondary response, the memory B cells specific to the antigen or similar antigens will respond.[2] When memory B cells ... Differentiation of memory B cells into plasma cells is far faster than differentiation by naïve B cells, which allows memory B ...
CD257 antigen; cluster of differentiation 257). BAFF is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand ... Tian RY, Han W, Yu Y, Chen Y, Yu GS, Yang SL, Gong Y (December 2003). "[The immunopotentiation of human B lymphocyte stimulator ... It has been also shown to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. BAFF is a 285-amino acid ... BAFF is also known as B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) and TNF- and APOL-related leukocyte expressed ligand (TALL-1) and the ...
When a cutaneous lymphocyte antigen is expressed in the skin, the CD4+ Lutzner cell travels to the epidermis and dermis layers ... This rearrangement occurs early in the differentiation process and creates novel T-cell receptors that mimic the structure of ... They are a form of T-lymphocytes that has been mutated This atypical form of T-lymphocytes contains T-cell receptors on the ... It binds to a specific antigen to initiate an immune response. T-cell antibodies bind to antigens such as virus infected cells ...
... will continuously present VMV antigens inducing T-lymphocytes to produce cytokines that in turn induce the differentiation of ... This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and ... MR is involved in recognizing the surface of pathogens and is involved in phago- and endocytosis and mediating antigen ... of maturity/differentiation of the monocytes. Infected differentiated monocytes, also known as macrophages, ...
The differentiation of B cells to plasma cells is also an example of a signal mechanism in lymphocytes, induced by a cytokine ... Therefore, the antigenic receptors play a central role in signal transduction in lymphocytes, because when antigens interact ... "Signal Transduction Events Involved in Lymphocyte Activation and Differentiation". Retrieved 8 January 2014. Le Gallou, S; ... These receptors, that recognize the antigen soluble (B cells) or linked to a molecule on Antigen Presenting Cells (T cells), do ...
Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
CD69 Association with Jak3/Stat5 Proteins Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation Pilar Martín, Manuel Gómez, Amalia Lamana, ...
... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ...
A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ...
The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface ...
Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20." CD20 is ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION OF CHIMERIC AND RADIOLABELLED ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN B LYMPHOCYTE RESTRICTED DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGEN FOR ... typically designated as the human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, commonly referred to as CD20. As used ...
Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4−CD8,− cytolytic T lymphocyte *Steven Porcelli ... Rights & permissionsfor article Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4,sup,−,/sup,CD8,sup,,−,/sup, ...
... ... antigen-encoding loci. Viral DNA restriction fragments are associated with Ly-17 on chromosome 1, H-30, H-3, and H-13 on ... hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) ...
Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from ... Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A : its differentiation from ...
Apart from T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells (including cells positive for the terminal transferase marker, myeloid colony- ... This IgM antibody, MBG6, bound to human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and to medullary thymocytes. It was unreactive with ... MBG6 did not have any direct mitogenic action on T lymphocytes. Double immunofluorescence studies using IgM MBG6 and OKT3, and ... Animals, Antibodies, Monoclonal, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Antigens, Ly, Binding, Competitive, Fluorescent ...
Antigens, Differentiation / immunology* * B7-1 Antigen / metabolism * B7-2 Antigen / metabolism * CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / ... Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4-dependent down-modulation of costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells in CD4+ CD25+ ... Further, we report that down-modulation was induced rapidly and was inhibited by blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 ( ... Even though Treg cells have previously been reported to kill antigen-presenting cells, the down-modulation was not due to ...
When this occurs locally it increases lymphocyte numbers in the responding lymphoid organ; when … ... Naive lymphocytes continually enter and exit lymphoid organs in a recirculation process that is essential for immune ... Antigens, CD / physiology* * Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / physiology* * Cell Line * Cell Movement ... Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte ...
Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation of different subpopulations of afc progenitors ... Schlegel, R A.; Von boehmer, H; and Shortman, K, "Antigen-initiated b lymphocyte differentiation. V. Electrophoretic separation ...
... antigen recognition; lymphokines; tolerance; lymphocyte differentiation; genetic regulation; viral immunity; autoimmunity; ... BIOL 405d Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis Mr. Fulton. BIOL 406d Neurophysiology Ms. Marder. BIOL 407d Structural ... Cell differentiation and selective gene expression in eucaryotic cells. Morphogenesis of cell shape and assembly of cell ... Topics include determination of the neuronal precursors, pattern formation in the nervous system, neuronal differentiation, and ...
Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the ... ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. ... Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory T cell marker involved in ...
T lymphocytes subpopulation are related to the clinical status of patients with lupus nephritis. Evaluation of Foxp3 expression ... lymphocytes might be responsible for an increased proinflammatory response in the exacerbation of SLE. ... Antigen presenting cell. CD:. Cluster of differentiation. CTL:. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte. FBS:. Fetal bovine serum. ... lymphocytes along with an increase in disease activity. That indicates importance of lymphocytes in the inflammatory process ...
0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, Differentiation / immunology. Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. ... T-Lymphocyte; 0/BTLA protein, human; 0/Receptors, Immunologic; 0/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; 0/inducible T-cell co- ...
This process is highly dependent on functional interactions between B and T lymphocytes. In vitro activation of CD40 present on ... Antigen-driven B-cell proliferation and maturation occur in germinal centres present in lymphoid tissues. ... Antigens, CD / immunology*. Antigens, CD40. Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte / immunology*. B-Lymphocytes / immunology ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD40; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte; 0/DNA, Viral; 9007-49-2/DNA ...
... lymphocyte antigen; HLDA, human leukocyte differentiation antigen; KIR, killing inhibitory receptor; DC, dendritic cell. ... Cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a new mouse B lymphocyte differentiation antigen homologous to the human B1 (CD20) ... The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series as well as some ... B lymphocytes express and lose syndecan at specific stages of differentiation. Cell Regul. 1: 27. ...
Evaluation of the potential diagnostic value of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 in differentiation of active and ... Objective To analyze the expressions of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) in the peripheral blood of ... Evaluation of the potential diagnostic value of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen- ... and to evaluate its diagnostic value in differentiation of ATB and LTBI .Methods Forty-eight patients including 18 ATB cases ...
Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 45 Antigen Expression on Lymphocyte Subsets / 대한진단검사의학회지 ... Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Leukocyte Common Antigens/analysis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/ ... NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. Therefore, this lymphocyte subset would be most profoundly affected by ... Comparative Quantitative Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 45 Antigen Expression on L ...
Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. Comparison with CD21 (complement ... Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. Comparison with CD21 (complement ...
Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Therapeutic application of chimeric and radiolabeled antibodies to human B lymphocyte restricted differentiation antigen for ... Chimeric antibody with specificity to human b cell surface antigen.. Int Genetic Eng, Oncogen, July 13, 1988: EP0274394-A2 (49 ...
... whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. Thus, in TI-2 immune responses ... However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. CD19 deficiency increased the affinity ... large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and ... Antigens varying in affinity for the B cell receptor induce differential B lymphocyte responses. J. Exp. Med. 188, 1453-1464 ( ...
Abbreviations: CD, cluster of differentiation; CTLA, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, ... Single-antigen varicella vaccine should be con-sidered for HIV-infected children aged 1-8 years who have CD4 percentages ≥15%. ... For lymphocyte-depleting (alemtuzumab and rituximab) agents, the waiting period is ≥6 months, although some experts believe the ... In particular, lymphocyte-depleting agents (thymoglobulin or alemtuzumab) and B cell-depleting agents (rituximab) are more ...
Acquisition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-specific carbohydrate differentiation antigens.. Lefrancois L, Puddington L, Machamer CE ... Chronic inhaled ovalbumin exposure induces antigen-dependent but not antigen-specific inhalational tolerance in a murine model ... Shifts in lung lymphocyte profiles correlate with the sequential development of acute allergic and chronic tolerant stages in a ... Differentiation of distinct long-lived memory CD4 T cells in intestinal tissues after oral Listeria monocytogenes infection. ...
B lymphocytes secrete antigen-presenting vesicles. J Exp Med (1996) 183(3):1161-72. doi:10.1084/jem.183.3.1161 ... Effects of human mesenchymal stem cells on the differentiation of dendritic cells from CD34+ cells. Stem Cells Dev (2007) 16(5 ... Human leukocyte antigen-G5 secretion by human mesenchymal stem cells is required to suppress T lymphocyte and natural killer ... Antigen-presenting cells (APC) phagocytose, process, and present the antigen as peptides on MHC molecules. Virus-specific T ...
1999) The role of CTLA-4 in regulating Th2 differentiation. J. Immunol. 163:2634-2639, pmid:10453003. ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Plays an Essential Role in the Function of Cd25+Cd4+ Regulatory Cells That Control ... Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 Plays an Essential Role in the Function of Cd25+Cd4+ Regulatory Cells That Control ... 1998) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) regulates the unfolding of autoimmune diabetes. J. Exp. Med. 187:427 ...
  • It functions as a B-cell activation receptor and B-lymphocyte development and differentiation agent, presumably through modulating intracellular calcium levels. (novusbio.com)
  • CD19 is a signal-transduction molecule and CD20 is part of a multimeric receptor complex regulating cell cycle progression and B-cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphocyte egress requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1), and IFN-alpha/beta was found to inhibit lymphocyte responsiveness to S1P. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7), surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4), transcription factors B lymphocyte maturation protein 1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling, and repressor miR 146a. (frontiersin.org)
  • Three unique processes - variable, diversity and joining region (V(D)J) recombination, somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination - diversify antigen receptor genes. (nih.gov)
  • After encounter with antigen, B cells further recombine the receptor by somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. (nih.gov)
  • CD19 is a cell surface molecule which assembles with the antigen receptor of B lymphocytes in order to decrease the threshold for antigen receptor-dependent stimulation. (fishersci.com)
  • The present invention is concerned with a series of novel monoclonal antibodies directed against CD22, a B lineage-restricted member of the Ig-superfamily which serves as an adhesion receptor expressed by mature B lymphocytes and is believed to function in the regulation of B cell activation. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is largely attributable to the decrease in T-lymphocytes bearing the CD4 receptor (CD4+) (1-5). (cdc.gov)
  • The CD79a molecule (MB-1, Igα) is part of the MB-1/B29 (CD79a/CD79b) disulfide-linked heterodimer which is non-covalently associated with membrane immunoglobulins (Igs) to build the B Cell antigen Receptor (BCR) complex. (beckman.com)
  • The CD8 antigen acts as a co-receptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell (APC) in the context of class I MHC molecules. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Mac-1 antigen is a macrophage differentiation antigen associated with type three complement receptor (CR3). (atcc.org)
  • 1995. The role of short homology repeats and TdT in generation of the invariant gd antigen receptor repertoire in the fetal thymus. (berkeley.edu)
  • Studies performed on animal models and in vitro on factors involved in activation of certain dendritic cell (DC) populations in autoimmune diseases point to a significant role of recently discovered lectin receptors such as C-type lectin domain family 4, member C receptor (CLEC4C) and lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75) [2, 3]. (termedia.pl)
  • 23761635 ). In the context of bacterial infection, acts as a signaling receptor on epithelial cells for CD160 from intraepithelial lymphocytes, triggering the production of antimicrobial proteins and proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • T lymphocytes that constitutively express the IL-2 receptor a-chain, CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3, comprising approximately 10% of the [CD4.sup. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Firstly, natural or thymic Tregs (nTregs or tTregs) develop in the thymus through intermediate strength interactions between a self-reacting T cell receptor (TCR) and their cognate antigens, presented by medullary thymic epithelial cells and hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells, leading to upregulation of CD25 [7, 8]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • SYK is a positive effector of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulated responses [ PMID: 19670961 , PMID: 19592646 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functional cloning of Src-like adapter protein-2 (SLAP-2), a novel inhibitor of antigen receptor signaling. (nih.gov)
  • In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. (nih.gov)
  • Overexpression of SLAP-2 in B and T cell lines specifically impaired antigen receptor-mediated signaling events, including CD69 surface marker upregulation, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation and calcium influx. (nih.gov)
  • Signaling induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin was not significantly reduced, suggesting SLAP-2 functions proximally in the antigen receptor signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In antigen receptor-stimulated cells, SLAP-2 associated with several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. (nih.gov)
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • By expressing in appropriate time and location, these pathways have different regulatory functions through independent receptors or on different subsets of lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the recent scientific findings, clinical experiences, and technological advances for cell processing toward the application of mesenchymal stromal cells as a therapy for treatment of severe GvHD, virus-specific T cells for targeting life-threating infections, and of chimeric antigen receptors-engineered T cells to treat relapsed leukemia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adaptive immunity is mediated through numerous genetic and cellular processes that generate favourable somatic variants of antigen-binding receptors under evolutionary selection pressure by pathogens and other factors. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of the B cell to respond in a specific, yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. (fishersci.com)
  • TI-1 antigen , which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen , which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors , which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of B lymphocytes is caused by cross-linking of a critical number of B cell receptors, which leads to accumulation of BCRs and cross activation of these receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mature B lymphocyte can be activated by the binding of an antigen to cell surface receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • cytotoxic T l's differentiated T lymphocytes, marked by CD4 and CD8 antigens , able to recognize and lyse target cells bearing specific antigens recognized by their antigen receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SLAM receptors triggered by homo- or heterotypic cell-cell interactions are modulating the activation and differentiation of a wide variety of immune cells and thus are involved in the regulation and interconnection of both innate and adaptive immune response. (genecards.org)
  • Lymphocytes are activated upon antigen (Ag) recognition by their clonotypic surface Ag receptors, TCR in the case of T cells and BCR in the case of B cells. (els.net)
  • At the lymphocyte-lymphocyte junction, viral materials and adhesion molecules concentrate in donor cells, in a process involving raft microdomains, whereas on the other side, in target cells, viral receptors (CD4 and CXCR4 or CCR5) and cognate adhesion molecules accumulate in a cytoskeleton- and actin-dependent mechanism ( 24 , 25 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Cellular receptors for BLyS are detected on mature immunoglobulin (Ig) expressing B-lymphocytes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, the CD20 surface antigen has the potential of serving as a candidate for "targeting" of B cell lymphomas. (justia.com)
  • In essence, such targeting can be generalized as follows: antibodies specific to the CD20 surface antigen of B cells are, eg injected into a patient. (justia.com)
  • the anti-CD20 antibody bound to the CD20 surface antigen may lead to the destruction and depletion of neoplastic B cells. (justia.com)
  • Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (5E9) which defines a human cell surface surface antigen of cell activation, J. Immunol. (springer.com)
  • Lymphocytes are produced in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow (adult) and represent about 30% of the total white blood cells present in the circulatory system of humans (adult). (justia.com)
  • The non-protein microbial antigens cannot stimulate classical T cell response by themselves, but they are able to elicit the production of antibodies, so that is why we call them T cell or thymus independent antigens . (wikipedia.org)
  • What type of cell finishes differentiation in thymus? (brainscape.com)
  • If the thymus is removed or becomes nonfunctional during fetal life, the lymphoid tissue fails to become seeded with the sensitized lymphocytes and the body's cell-mediated arm of immunity fails to develop. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Doherty PC, Effros RB, Bennink J (1977) Heterogeneity of the cytotoxic response of thymus-derived lymphocytes after immunization with influenza viruses. (springer.com)
  • CD8 T cells and B cells also differentiate into cytotoxic thymus‐derived lymphocytes and plasma cells, respectively, driven by specific activation in the context of CD4 T H cells (helper) and the cytokine microenvironment. (els.net)
  • The effects of aging on the immune system are manifest at multiple levels that include reduced production of B and T cells in bone marrow and thymus and diminished function of mature lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, the comprehension about lymphocytes and their contribution to the immune response will favor their application in developmental hematology and immunology. (intechopen.com)
  • It has been reported previously that antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones can be isolated from blood lymphocytes of HLA-A2 melanoma patients, after stimulation in vitro with autologous tumor cells, and that some of these CTL clones lyse most HLA-A2 melanomas. (rupress.org)
  • CD20 is a human B-lymphocyte surface molecule that spans the membrane four times and is expressed on both normal and malignant cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). (novusbio.com)
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD19 and CD20 play an important role in the development, differentiation, and activation of B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are two major sub-populations of lymphocytes: T cells and B cells. (justia.com)
  • such activation causes release of biological mediators ("interleukins") which, in essence, stimulate B cells to differentiate and produce antibody ("immunoglobulins") against the antigen. (justia.com)
  • T cells and B cells both comprise cell surface proteins which can be utilized as "markers" for differentiation and identification. (justia.com)
  • Specifically, the CD20 molecule may regulate a step in the activation process which is required for cell cycle initiation and differentiation and is usually expressed at very high levels on neoplastic ("tumor") B cells. (justia.com)
  • Apart from T lymphocytes, bone marrow cells (including cells positive for the terminal transferase marker, myeloid colony-forming cells, myeloblasts, and differentiating myeloid and erythroid cells) were negative. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We aimed to study the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on alloreactivity and effects of T-cell activation on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the addition of fewer MSCs (10-1000 cells) led to a less consistent suppression or a marked lymphocyte proliferation in several experiments, ranging from 40 to 190% of the maximal lymphocyte proliferation in control MLCs. (nih.gov)
  • High numbers of MSCs suppress alloreactive T cells, whereas very low numbers clearly stimulated lymphocyte proliferation in some experiments. (nih.gov)
  • NKT cells express the highest levels of CD45 antigen. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, in competition experiments only the high-affinity B cells responded to antigen. (nature.com)
  • Thus, in TI-2 immune responses, large differences in affinity produce only small differences in the intrinsic ability of B cells to respond to antigen, and selection for high-affinity clones is due to clonal competition during the earliest stages of the response. (nature.com)
  • The leading cause of non-relapse mortality is graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), an inflammatory immune reaction against healthy tissue of the patient, induced by donor-derived T cells and triggered by major and minor histocompatibility antigen differences between HSCT recipient and donor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differentiation of distinct long-lived memory CD4 T cells in intestinal tissues after oral Listeria monocytogenes infection. (nih.gov)
  • Biological Basis: Tumour Associated Antigens, the Immune Machinery and Its Behaviour Concerning Cancer Cells 5 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Using established bone marrow irradiation chimeras across the multiple minor histocompatibility antigen-disparate, C57BL/6→BALB.B combination, we studied the occurrence of lethal GVHD mediated by CD4 + T cells in recipient mice expressing only hematopoietically derived alloantigens. (jci.org)
  • GVHD occurs when mature T cells in the donor bone marrow (BM) graft respond to host tissues expressing incompatible histocompatibility antigens, represented by either MHC antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens (miHAs). (jci.org)
  • Subsequent error-prone repair results in individual point mutations (yellow dot in the gene and yellow bar in the immunoglobulin molecules), and B cells with higher affinity for the original antigen are selected. (nih.gov)
  • The histologic features were: spongiosis, neutrophilic exocytosis, massive keratinocyte necrosis, shadow cells in the upper epidermis, vacuolization of basal cells, necrotic cells in follicles and sweat glands, dense superficial dermal infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, and strong granulysin expression. (bireme.br)
  • However, in tumor-invaded lymph nodes of most patients, CD8 + T cells directed to melanocyte differentiation antigens or to tumor-restricted antigens (MAGE-3 and NY-ESO-1 epitopes), showed a CCR7 + CD45RA + CD27 + CD28 + perforin − "precursor" phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Only in 7 of 23 cases antigen-specific CD8 + T cells in invaded lymph nodes showed a predominant CCR7 − CD45RA − CD27 + CD28 − perforin + "preterminally differentiated" phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, perforin and granzyme B were expressed on a higher fraction of the CD8 + cells surrounding the invading tumor compared with the lymphocytes infiltrating the neoplastic tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the paucity of terminally differentiated CD8 + T cells at tumor site suggests that immunotherapy strategies may require not only the boosting of tumor immunity, but also effective means to promote CD8 + T-cell differentiation in the neoplastic tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dr. Craft investigates CD4 T helper cells in conventional and autoimmune responses in mice and in humans, with a primary focus upon the differentiation and function of follicular helper (Tfh) cells that promote B cell maturation in germinal centers (GC). (yale.edu)
  • It is now clear that functionally specialized regulatory T (Treg) cells exist as part of the normal immune repertoire, preventing the development of pathogenic responses to both self- and intestinal antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Our studies reveal that the immune-suppressive function of these cells in vivo is dependent on signaling via the negative regulator of T cell activation cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), as well as secretion of the immune-suppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β. (rupress.org)
  • Subpopulations of peripheral CD4 + T cells have also been shown in several different model systems to be essential for the maintenance of tolerance to tissue-specific self-antigens ( 11 )( 12 )( 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • Functional analysis of CD25 + CD4 + T cells in vitro showed that this population failed to proliferate or secrete cytokines in response to polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation, but rather inhibited the activation of normally responsive T cells ( 17 )( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • I. Effect of anti-immunoglobulin and enhancing soluble factor on differentiation and proliferation of B cells. (springer.com)
  • For most protein antigens, the production of antibodies by B lymphocytes is dependent on stimulation of helper T cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells , necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. (intechopen.com)
  • T cells that survive the selection processes eventually become mature cluster of differentiation (CD)4 + or CD8 + single positive T cells ( Fig. 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antigen distribution across activated B cells influences B-T lymphocyte interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • E5039-E5048 ) that c-Myc constitutive expression and Dnmt1 ablation disrupt the differentiation-coupled emergence of the clock from mouse ES cells (ESCs). (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that the programmed gene expression network regulates the differentiation-coupled circadian clock development in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • and the percentage of lymphocytes that are CD4+ T-cells. (cdc.gov)
  • thy·mus/ ( thi´mus ) a bilaterally symmetrical lymphoid organ consisting of two pyramidal lobules situated in the anterior superior mediastinum, each lobule consisting of an outer cortex, rich in lymphocytes (thymocytes) and an inner medulla, rich in epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it is followed by proliferation and differentiation of various effector and memory cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • amplifier T l's a T lymphocyte of the CD8 cell type that modifies a developing immune response by releasing nonspecific signals to which other T lymphocytes (either effector or suppressor cells) respond. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This induces proliferation of the cell, resulting in a clone of cells specific for that antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All the cells of a clone secrete Ig with identical antigen binding sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These lymphocytes are important in graft rejection and killing of tumor cells and virus-infected host cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • lymphocyte proliferation test a functional test of the ability of lymphocytes to respond to mitogens, specific antigens, or allogenic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although evidence for B-cell memory is abundant (K atz 1977), it is not clear whether it is maintained by means of (a) persistence of antigen, (b) continuous exposure to cross-reactive "natural" environmental antigen, or (c) the existence of true memory B cells. (springer.com)
  • May participate in adhesion reactions between T lymphocytes and accessory cells by homophilic interaction. (genecards.org)
  • Primed CBY lymphocytes, which reject H2-DMα−/− grafts, do not respond to H2-DMα−/− stimulator cells in a secondary MLR. (nih.gov)
  • Bone marrow houses Stem cells that develop into lymphocytes and provide immunity. (scribd.com)
  • T lymphocytes rupture foreign cells or produce toxins while B lymphocytes differentiate in to plasma cells that secrete antibodies. (scribd.com)
  • These cells intercept foreign antigens and then travel to lymph nodes to undergo differentiation and proliferation. (scribd.com)
  • that is, at early stages or differentiation, all CD4 T cells can be switched to other lineage. (els.net)
  • T H 1 cells collaborate with CD8 T cells for their differentiation into CTLs whereas T H 2 cells provide help to B cells that differentiate into plasma cells. (els.net)
  • Probably plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation of early B-lineage cells. (genecards.org)
  • In the BM, MSCs fulfill a supportive function for hematopoietic cells and participate in the control of their renewal and differentiation [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated severe depletion of CD4 + CD8 − single-positive T cells and CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) during primary SIV infection which persisted through the entire course of SIV infection. (asm.org)
  • These data, along with previous immunophenotypic evidence, unequivocally define that PEL cells represent a preterminal stage of B-cell differentiation and may bear implications for the peculiar growth pattern of this lymphoma. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Further refinement of the detailed B-cell origin of PEL cells may be provided by the study of phenotypic markers specifically associated with late stages of B-cell differentiation, such as the plasma cell-specific CD138 antigen recognized by the B-B4 monoclonal antibody (MoAb). (bloodjournal.org)
  • A majority of thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature alpha beta TCR T cells express CD8 alpha beta while gamma delta TCR T cells, a subpopulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and dendritic cells express CD8 alpha alpha. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD8 is found on a T cell subset of normal cytotoxic/suppressor cells which make up approximately 20-35 % of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CD8 antigen is also detected on natural killer (NK) cells, subpopulations of peripheral blood null cells, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • 1997. Events that regulate differentiation of ab TCR+ and gd TCR+ cells from a common precursor. (berkeley.edu)
  • The effects of aging on the immune system are widespread and affect the rate at which naive B and T cells are produced as well as the composition and quality of the mature lymphocyte pool. (jci.org)
  • According to some authors, ingestion of apoptotic bodies by DC manifesting CD205+ phenotype initiates production of transforming growth factor  (TGF-) by the cells, which promotes differentiation of Tregs [2]. (termedia.pl)
  • IL-17A increases the production of cytokines enhancing the tissue remodelling process, affects apoptosis of endothelial cells and promotes proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells [6, 7]. (termedia.pl)
  • 9162022 ). Participates in bidirectional cell-cell contact signaling between antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • iTregs are mostly present in the mucosal interface, by the action of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells [12]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • MDX-CTLA4 stimulated extensive tumor necrosis with lymphocyte and granulocyte infiltrates in three of three metastatic melanoma patients and the reduction or stabilization of CA-125 levels in two of two metastatic ovarian carcinoma patients previously vaccinated with irradiated, autologous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting tumor cells. (pnas.org)
  • Cancer-associated gene products may stimulate T, B, and natural killer T (NKT) lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and phagocytes ( 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cancer cells typically lack the expression of costimulatory molecules necessary to prime potent T lymphocyte responses directly, and dendritic cells infiltrating established tumors generally display limited maturation ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • One strategy to ameliorate this defect in antigen presentation involves vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • These recruited cells efficiently phagocytose and process dying tumor cells, migrate to regional lymph nodes, and stimulate tumor-specific lymphocytes ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • A second therapeutic strategy to improve tumor antigen presentation involves the loading of cancer antigens, in a variety of formulations, onto ex vivo- expanded dendritic cells ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Acutely infected donor cells were mixed with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled lymphocytes as targets, and viral production was followed by measuring HIV Gag expression at different time points by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • Virological or "infectious" synapses are also formed between dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to HIV particles and target lymphocytes through the same principle ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Carbohydrate differentiation antigens of murine T cells: Expression on intestinal lymphocytes and intestinal epithelium. (currentprotocols.com)
  • B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS (Trademark)) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of cytokines that is expressed on peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • CD1 (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are related to the class I MHC molecules, and are involved in the presentation of lipid antigens to T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1a, CD1b and CD1c (group 1 CD1 molecules) are expressed on cells specialized for antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group 1 CD1 molecules have been shown to present foreign lipid antigens, and specifically a number of mycobacterial cell wall components, to CD1-specific T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are activated by CD1d-presented antigens, and rapidly produce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, typically represented by interferon-gamma and IL-4 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This often remains true in neoplastic cells from these populations, so that the presence of CD1 antigens can be used in diagnostic immunohistochemistry to identify some thymomas and malignancies arising from T cell precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under chronic antigen stimulation, repeated cycles of activation occur and lead to progressive and irreversible reduction in CD28 molecule expression on the lymphocyte surface. (hindawi.com)
  • Differential expression of cell activation markers following stimulation of resting human B lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte stimulation leads to the activation of selected transcription factors depending on the type of signals. (els.net)
  • Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Cellular activation [Induction of B lymphocyte proliferation]: Use at an assay dependent dilution. (abcam.com)
  • Efforts to evaluate normal human B cell physiology have resulted in the development of a model in which a resting B cell must progress through stages of activation, proliferation, and differentiation before becoming an immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing cell (1-4). (springer.com)
  • B lymphocyte activation by insoluble anti-immunoglobulin: induction of immunoglobulin secretion by a T cell dependent soluble factor. (springer.com)
  • Regulation of B cell activation and differentiation with factors generated by human T cell hybridomas. (springer.com)
  • Amplification of Human B Cell Activation by a Monoclonal Antibody to the B Cell-Specific Antigen CD22, Bp 130/140," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Lymphocyte activation triggers multiple signalling cascades that converge in the cell nucleus to cause significant changes in the pattern of gene expression that determine the phenotype of activated lymphocytes and, ultimately, the type of immune response. (els.net)
  • Antigen‐induced lymphocyte activation: the two‐signal paradigm. (els.net)
  • CLEC4C or cluster of differentiation 303 (CD303), also known as blood dendritic cell antigen (BDCA-2), is a type II C-type lectin specifically expressed by human plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and plays a significant role in activation of pDC and in development of antigen-specific T lymphocytes [3, 4]. (termedia.pl)
  • ZAP-70 plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The attenuation of T cell activation by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) further limits the potency of tumor immunity. (pnas.org)
  • This activation induces their proliferation, differentiation and cytokine production. (intechopen.com)
  • Foreign circRNAs are potent adjuvants to induce antigen-specific Tcell activation, antibody production, and anti-tumor immunity invivo, and m6A modification abrogates immune gene activation and adjuvant activity. (stanford.edu)
  • Since the recent introduction of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD) 45 for the treatment of lymphoma, the clinical significance of the CD45 antigen has been increasing steadily. (bvsalud.org)
  • In higher concentrations, TI-1 antigens bind to BCR and TLR of various clones of B lymphocytes, which leads to production of multiclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • But when the concentration of TI-1 is lower, it can activate only B lymphocytes with specific binding of TI-1 on their BCR, and leads to production of monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • That may explain why children up to 5 years are not capable of producing effective antibodies against polysaccharide antigens, as the majority of their B cell population is immature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunophenotyping relies on detecting specific antigenic determinants on the surface of WBCs by antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies that have been labeled with a fluorescent dye or fluorochrome, such as phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). (cdc.gov)
  • Fazekas de St. Groth S (1981) The joint evolution of antigens and antibodies in the immune system. (springer.com)
  • In murine systems, the administration of antibodies that block CTLA-4 function inhibits the growth of moderately immunogenic tumors and, in combination with cancer vaccines, increases the rejection of poorly immunogenic tumors, albeit with a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens. (pnas.org)
  • Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with cellular antigens," Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The ability of T lymphocytes to produce cytokines in response to pathogenic organisms is crucial in inducing and maintaining effective innate as well as acquired immunity. (asm.org)
  • Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. (novusbio.com)
  • In this study we set out to determine whether cytotoxic CD8 + T-cell responses specific for peptides derived from CD19 and CD20 antigens occur in healthy individuals and patients with B-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20. (justia.com)
  • CD20 is expressed during early pre-B cell development and remains until plasma cell differentiation. (justia.com)
  • Radionuclide (B-lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen [CD20] inhibitor). (empr.com)
  • In contrast, in 74 American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-IV melanoma patients, we found that development of lymph node metastases is a key event triggering CD8 + T-cell-mediated immunity to self-epitopes encoded by melanocyte differentiation antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, if the immune system is expected to play a role in controlling tumor growth, then immunity to tumor antigens should evolve as a function of tumor progression, possibly despite concurrent development of tumor escape mechanisms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They are divided on the basis of ontogeny and function into two classes, B and T lymphocytes, responsible for humoral and cellular immunity, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Origin of B- and T-lymphocytes responsible for cellular and humoral immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity to intestinal antigens. (currentprotocols.com)
  • CD19 deficiency increased the affinity threshold of TI-2 responses, whereas Lyn deficiency enhanced clonal expansion but abrogated B cell terminal differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Leukemia phenotype studies have demonstrated that the earliest and broadest B cell restricted antigen is the CD19 antigen. (fishersci.com)
  • From an immunologic perspective, the most profound effect of stem cell aging in both mice ( 11 , 18 ) and humans ( 17 ) is a decreased capacity to produce lymphocytes and an increase in myeloid potential. (jci.org)
  • Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this and the fact that cows are a natural host of Mycobacterium bovis, a pathogen in humans as well, it is hoped that studying cows will yield insights into the group 1 CD1 antigen-presenting system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we have analyzed PEL for the expression status of CD138/syndecan-1, a molecule selectively associated with late stages of B-cell differentiation and implicated in cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix interactions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Each B call within the host expresses a different antibody on its surface-thus, one B cell will express antibody specific for one antigen, while another B cell will express antibody specific for a different antigen. (justia.com)
  • Such antibody production most typically ceases (or substantially decreases) when the foreign antigen has been neutralized. (justia.com)
  • Recognition of a human T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen by an IgM monoclonal antibody. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This IgM antibody, MBG6, bound to human peripheral blood T lymphocytes and to medullary thymocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Characterization of a monoclonal antibody (4F2) which binds to human monocytes and to a subset of activated lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • T independent antigen elicits antibody production by B lymphocytes without T lymphocyte involvement. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been known for more than 100 years that the persistence of high antibody titers (Fig. 1) can be lifelong after viral infections and that delayed-type hypersensitivity can be demonstrated for a long time by challenging with a protein antigen after prior infection with tubercle bacilli. (springer.com)
  • B lymphocytes secrete antibody, present antigen and regulate immune responses. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD) from CD1 to CD166 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. (jimmunol.org)
  • CD8 (Cluster of Differentiation 8) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediate efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (thermofisher.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene associates with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and is an important chaperone that regulates antigen presentation for immune response. (cancerindex.org)
  • LY9 (Lymphocyte Antigen 9) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CD79a protein is specifically and strictly expressed throughout B lymphocyte differentiation. (beckman.com)
  • Protein kinases play a role in a multitude of cellular processes, including division, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation [ PMID: 12368087 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The protein is expressed in lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, and endothelium and may regulate neutrophil motility, adhesion to fibrinogen matrix proteins, and transendothelial migration. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also detected on erythroid and myeloid progenitors in bone marrow, where the level of surface expression was shown to decrease during differentiation of blast-forming unit E to colony-forming unit E. (abcam.com)
  • the common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) can differentiate into all types of lymphocytes but lack the myeloid potential under physiological conditions, although some myeloid-related genes can be detected in CLPs depending on experimental conditions [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Dynamic changes in intestinal T lymphocytes were not adequately represented in peripheral lymph nodes or blood. (asm.org)
  • peripheral blood, in contrast, represents only 2 to 5% of total lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • T lymphocytes at the periphery, named induced or peripheral Tregs (iTregs or pTregs). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2) Protecting against invasion: Lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues are the site for production of immunocompetent lymphocytes and macrophages in the specific immune response. (scribd.com)
  • Antigenactivated lymphocytes differentiate and proliferate by cloning in the lymph nodes. (scribd.com)
  • Intestinal CD4 + T-cell depletion and the potential for cytokine responses were examined during SIV infection and compared with results for lymphocytes from lymph nodes and blood. (asm.org)
  • Lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate in response to various concentrations of different antigens. (fishersci.com)
  • Schematic representation of B cell maturation in bone marrow and their differentiation in the lymph node [19, 35]. (intechopen.com)
  • We will discuss B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and the later stages of maturation in secondary lymphoid tissues, besides the B cell profiles in interfollicular, perifollicular, and follicular areas. (intechopen.com)
  • PD-L1), the inhibition of antigen-presenting cell maturation, and cytolysis [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This document contains revised guidelines developed by CDC for laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • This document has been developed by CDC to give guidance to laboratories performing lymphocyte immunophenotyping assays in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • We report here the identification of another gene that also directs the expression of an antigen recognized on most melanomas by CTL clones that are restricted by HLA-A2. (rupress.org)
  • Interestingly, miR-17-92 and FOXO1 act as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we analyzed CD45 expression on lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry in order to predict the susceptibility of normal lymphocytes to RIT. (bvsalud.org)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigens with expression restricted to the recipient hematopoietic compartment represent prospective immunological targets for graft-versus-leukemia therapy. (jci.org)
  • These data suggest that severe acute CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD across this minor histocompatibility antigen barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloantigens for maximal target-tissue infiltration and injury. (jci.org)
  • HD39 (B3), A B Lineage-Restricted Antigen Whose Cell Surface Expression is Limited to Resting and Activated Human B Lymphocytes," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To evaluate this mRNA expression, surgically removed colon tumors as well as matched normal tissue and human colon carcinoma cell lines showing various differentiation states, anchorage dependence, and proliferation states were examined by Northern blot analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and changes in gene expression that characterise activated lymphocytes. (els.net)
  • 1-11 However, the overwhelming majority of cases exhibit a non-B, non-T (ie, indeterminate) phenotype, lacking expression of surface Igs and B-cell-associated antigens. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Expression of the CD6 T lymphocyte differentiation antigen in normal human brain. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • At the terminal stage of differentiation, the transcription factor Foxp3 is upregulated by the action of IL-2 through CD25, whose signalization induces further CD25 production and high expression of suppressor genes, rendering regulatory functions [7]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We will provide flow cytometry plots showing strategies to identify and characterize NK, T and B lymphocytes and their subsets in circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • Several polymorphic DNA restriction endonuclease fragments hybridizing with xenotropic and ecotropic envelope virus probes map adjacent to minor histocompatibility and lymphocyte (H/Ly) antigen-encoding loci. (scripps.edu)
  • It remains unclear, however, whether donor T cell recognition of these hematopoietically derived minor histocompatibility antigens will induce significant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, the importance of minor histocompatibility antigens derived from nonhematopoietic tissues was demonstrated by the finding that [C57BL/6→BALB.B] chimeric mice succumbed to C57BL/6 CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD. (jci.org)
  • Role of the CD22 Human B Cell Antigen in B Cell Triggering by Anti-Immunoglobulin," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the latter subset of patients, by immunohistochemistry in lymph node lesions, we found that CD8 + T lymphocytes intermingling with the neoplastic tissue expressed a CCR7 − CD45RO + /RA − phenotype, whereas CD4 + lymphocytes did not infiltrate the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Lymphoid hematopoiesis is not trivial, because although lymphocytes are found in the bloodstream and their precursor originates in the bone marrow, they mainly belong to the separate lymphatic system, which interacts with the blood circulation. (intechopen.com)
  • see the Perspective by Dustin and Meyer-Hermann) used multiphoton microscopy and imaging flow cytometry to visualize the localization of antigen in B lymphocytes during an immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • The process of measuring the percentage of CD4+ T-lymphocytes in the whole blood sample is referred to as ``immunophenotyping by flow cytometry'' (9-14). (cdc.gov)
  • These include antigens, mitogens, soluble factors produced by various cell types, and various pharmacologic agents. (springer.com)
  • TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens , because they induce numerous cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immunomodulatory properties of MSCs were first demonstrated by Di Nicola and coauthors, who showed that BM-MSCs inhibited T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • One of these is cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which after reaching maturity and fulfilling their effector function undergo apoptosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during the immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have studied the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the growth and differentiation of human tonsillar B lymphocytes cultured in the CD40 system with or without IL-4 or IL-10. (jimmunol.org)
  • Altogether, the present data indicate that PGE2 stimulates human CD40-activated B cell growth, but differently modulates cytokine-induced differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. (umn.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Structural characterization of the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen CD22. (umn.edu)
  • Proliferative responses of normal human B - lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels are also used as prognostic indicators in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (8). (cdc.gov)
  • Complete RPMI medium ( appendix 2A ) containing 5% to 10% human AB serum (heat‐inactivated 30 to 60 min at 56°C) or platelet‐poor plasma ( protocol 8 ) or , alternatively, a commercially available serum‐free medium designed for human lymphocytes (e.g. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the cell surface antigens was measured using a FACSCanto II system (Becton Dickinson Bioscience, USA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Schematic representation of T lymphocytes thymic selection [54, 59-63]. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, as melanoma progresses to metastatic disease, T-cell-mediated immune response to tumor antigens could be promoted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therapeutic vaccines that enhance dendritic cell presentation of cancer antigens increase specific cellular and humoral responses, thereby effectuating tumor destruction in some cases. (pnas.org)
  • MDX-CTLA4 did not elicit tumor necrosis in four of four metastatic melanoma patients previously immunized with defined melanosomal antigens. (pnas.org)
  • The formulation of genetic and biochemical strategies to identify cancer antigens yielded the unexpected discovery that tumor development frequently evokes immune recognition ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • One mechanism that may contribute to the failure of host defense is inadequate tumor antigen presentation ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • In 28-day toxicology studies in mice, pharmacological effects were restricted to B lymphoid tissues including B lymphocyte hyperplasia, increased splenic weight without significant increase in spleen size, and increased immunoglobulin production. (bioportfolio.com)
  • T- and B-Lymphocyte and Monocyte Differen- tiation 22 2. (worldcat.org)
  • Transcriptional networks (not depicted) are crucial for the differentiation and maintenance of cellular identity. (nih.gov)
  • The emergence of the cell-autonomous circadian oscillator is coupled with cellular differentiation. (pnas.org)
  • Cellular differentiation, as well as reprogramming, results in global alterations of the transcriptional program via epigenetic modification such as DNA methylation. (pnas.org)
  • The cytotoxic activity requires firm binding of the lymphocyte to the target cell to produce holes in its plasma membrane with loss of its cellular contents and osmotic lysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since intestinal T lymphocytes are localized at functionally distinct sites, including intestinal epithelium and lamina propria, it will be important to examine isolated cell populations for their cytokine responses. (asm.org)
  • In vitro studies show that BLyS increases B cell number, Ig production, antigen-specific immunoglobulin response, and induces production of secretory IgA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Lymphocytes, amongst others, are critical to the immune system. (justia.com)
  • Debate continues as to whether sarcoidosis results from a dysfunctional immune system or a secondary response to environmental antigens. (medscape.com)
  • We used simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as an animal model for HIV to determine pathogenic effects of SIV on intestinal T lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • It is not known whether intestinal T lymphocytes exhibit similar functional defects. (asm.org)
  • Local concentrations of lymphocytes in these systems and other areas are called lymphatic nodules. (scribd.com)