Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/4207)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (2/4207)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of ADP-ribosyl cyclase from Euglena gracilis. (3/4207)

ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion from NAD+ to cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR), is proposed to participate in cell cycle regulation in Euglena gracilis. This enzyme, which was found as a membrane-bound protein, was purified almost the homogeneity after solubilization with deoxycholate, and found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. Its Km value for NAD+ was estimated to be 0.4 mM, and cADPR, a product of the enzyme, inhibited the enzyme competitively with respect to NAD+ whereas another product, nicotinamide, showed noncompetitive (mixed-type) inhibition. In contrast to mammalian CD38 and BST-1, Euglena ADP-ribosyl cyclase lacked cADPR hydrolase activity.  (+info)

The CTLA-4 gene is expressed in placental fibroblasts. (4/4207)

In order to elucidate the mechanisms that ensure survival of the allogeneic fetus, we are investigating the expression pattern of genes that are involved in peripheral self-tolerance in tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation and may modulate peripheral self-tolerance. Previously, we reported the preferential transmission of maternally-inherited shorter alleles at a 3'-UTR microsatellite locus to liveborn children, but random transmission of paternally-inherited alleles, suggesting that CTLA-4 may be involved in the maintenance of tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. In this report, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 mRNA and protein are indeed expressed in fetal tissues at the maternal-fetal interface throughout gestation.  (+info)

Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points. (5/4207)

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

Shorter survival in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is more closely associated with T lymphocyte activation than with plasma virus burden or virus chemokine coreceptor usage. (6/4207)

To define predictors of survival time in late human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, long- and short-duration survivors were studied after their CD4+ T cells fell to +info)

Cellular and molecular characterization of the scurfy mouse mutant. (7/4207)

Mice hemizygous (Xsf/Y) for the X-linked mutation scurfy (sf) develop a severe and rapidly fatal lymphoproliferative disease mediated by CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes. We have undertaken phenotypic and functional studies to more accurately identify the immunologic pathway(s) affected by this important mutation. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphoid cell populations reveal that scurfy syndrome is characterized by changes in several phenotypic parameters, including an increase in Mac-1+ cells and a decrease in B220+ cells, changes that may result from the production of extremely high levels of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage CSF by scurfy T cells. Scurfy T cells also exhibit strong up-regulation of cell surface Ags indicative of in vivo activation, including CD69, CD25, CD80, and CD86. Both scurfy and normal T cells are responsive to two distinct signals provided by the TCR and by ligation of CD28; scurfy cells, however, are hyperresponsive to TCR ligation and exhibit a decreased requirement for costimulation through CD28 relative to normal controls. This hypersensitivity may result, in part, from increased costimulation through B7-1 and B7-2, whose expression is up-regulated on scurfy T cells. Although the specific defect leading to this hyperactivation has not been identified, we also demonstrate that scurfy T cells are less sensitive than normal controls to inhibitors of tyrosine kinases such as genistein and herbimycin A, and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A. One interpretation of our data would suggest that the scurfy mutation results in a defect, which interferes with the normal down-regulation of T cell activation.  (+info)

IL-5 induces IgG1 isotype switch recombination in mouse CD38-activated sIgD-positive B lymphocytes. (8/4207)

Mouse B cells express CD38, whose ligation by anti-CD38 Ab induces their proliferation and protection from apoptosis. We previously showed that stimulation of mouse splenic B cells with IL-5 together with CS/2, an anti-mouse CD38 mAb, induces production of IgG1 and IgM. Here we examined the role of IL-5 and CS/2 in the expression of germline gamma1 transcripts and the generation of reciprocal products forming DNA circles as byproducts of mu-gamma1 switch recombination. By itself, CS/2 induced significant expression of germline gamma1 transcripts in splenic naive B cells, whereas IL-5 neither induced nor enhanced germline gamma1 expression. Increased cellular content of reciprocal product, which is characteristic of mu-gamma1 recombination, was not observed after culturing B cells with CS/2, but increased reciprocal product, along with high levels of lgG1 secretion, was found when B cells were cultured with CS/2 plus IL-5. Although IL-4 did not, by itself, induce mu-gamma1 recombination in B cells stimulated with CS/2, in conjunction with CS/2 plus IL-5, IL-4 dramatically enhanced sterile gamma1 transcription and IgG1 production. These results demonstrate that CD38 ligation induces only germline gamma1 transcription and that IL-5 promotes both mu-gamma1 switch recombination and lgG1 secretion in an IL-4-independent manner.  (+info)

The remarkable functional plasticity of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) allows the adaptive immune system to respond specifically to an incredibly diverse array of potential pathogenic insults; nonetheless, the specific molecular effectors and mechanisms that underpin this plasticity re …
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Background: Associations between polymorphisms in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) / interleukin-18 (IL-18) and susceptibility to liver diseases were already reported by many publications. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify associations between polymorphisms in CTLA-4/IL-18 and liver diseases by combing the results of all relevant publications. Methods: Eligible publications were searched from Pubmed, Embase, WOS and CNKI. The latest literature searching update was performed on 2nd October, 2019. We used Review Manager to combine the results of individual studies. Results: Sixty-seven studies were included in this study. Combined results revealed that CTLA-4 rs231775 (dominant comparison: OR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.79-0.88; recessive comparison: OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.23-1.43; allele comparison: OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.78-0.90), IL-18 rs1946518 (dominant comparison: OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78-0.92; recessive comparison: OR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.13-1.48; allele comparison: OR 0.79, 95 % CI ...
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumor treatments represents a major oncological advance. Since the approval of ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, many drugs, especially those targeting PD1/PD-L1, have demonstrated promising antitumor effects in many types of cancer. By reactivating the immune system (IS), these immunotherapies have led to the development of new toxicity profiles, also called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). IrAEs can involve many organ systems, and their management is radically different from that of cytotoxic drugs; irAEs require immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticoids or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody. Additionally, the occurrence of irAEs has raised significant questions. Here, we summarize progress that has been made toward answering these questions, focusing on 1) the impact of immunotherapy dose on irAE occurrence, 2) the correlation ...
Researchers have found that sometimes the body’s own immune system may slow down or control cancer growth. Sometimes this natural immune system response stops, and the cancer is not killed by the immune system. Research has shown that, in some patients, cancer cells and immune cells start to express signals that stop the body’s immune system from killing the cancer. New drugs being developed are designed to block these signals and to increase the immune response. Durvalumab and tremelimumab are two of these drugs. Both drugs are antibodies (proteins that are produced by the body’s defense system). Durvalumab given by itself or with tremelimumab may boost the ability of your immune system to detect and fight cancer. Each of these drugs targets a different signal. Durvalumab targets a signal on cancer cells called Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tremelimumab targets a signal on immune cells called Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-associated Antigen 4 (CTLA-4). It is hoped that ...
Researchers have found that sometimes the body’s own immune system may slow down or control cancer growth. Sometimes this natural immune system response stops, and the cancer is not killed by the immune system. Research has shown that, in some patients, cancer cells and immune cells start to express signals that stop the body’s immune system from killing the cancer. New drugs being developed are designed to block these signals and to increase the immune response. Durvalumab and tremelimumab are two of these drugs. Both drugs are antibodies (proteins that are produced by the body’s defense system). Durvalumab given by itself or with tremelimumab may boost the ability of your immune system to detect and fight cancer. Each of these drugs targets a different signal. Durvalumab targets a signal on cancer cells called Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tremelimumab targets a signal on immune cells called Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-associated Antigen 4 (CTLA-4). It is hoped that ...
Immunotherapy encompasses both vaccines that direct immune responses to tumor-associated antigens, and checkpoint blocking antibodies that inhibit immune system suppression by targeting key pathways mediated by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, programmed death 1 (PD-1), and programmed de …
Abstract Download Blockade of various immune targets such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and Programmed cell death leads to immune-mediated tumor regression and immune-related adverse events, predominantly gastrointestinal events including diarrhea and colitis. The current review is done to understand the […]. ...
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Two closely related proteins, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα; SHPS-1/CD172) and SIRPβ, have been described in humans. The existence of a third SIRP protein has been suggested by cDNA sequence only. We show that this third SIRP is a separate gene that is expressed as a protein with unique characteristics from both α and β genes and suggest that this gene should be termed SIRPγ. We have expressed the extracellular region of SIRPγ as a soluble protein and have shown that, like SIRPα, it binds CD47, but with a lower affinity (K d , ∼23 μM) compared with SIRPα (K d , ∼2 μM). mAbs specific to SIRPγ show that it was not expressed on myeloid cells, in contrast to SIRPα and -β, being expressed instead on the majority of T cells and a proportion of B cells. The short cytoplasmic tail of SIRPγ does not contain any known signaling motifs, nor does it contain a characteristic lysine, as with SIRPα, that is required for DAP12 interaction. DAP12 coexpression is a requirement for SIRPβ surface
Our findings support the hypothesis that T cell activation is a critical and proximal event in the complex chronic inflammatory cascade that culminates in the generation of psoriatic plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the accumulation of mature DCs in a human autoimmune target organ, the skin. Additionally, the resolution of activated phenotypes on lesional keratinocytes, DCs, and vascular endothelium after T cell costimulatory blockade has not previously been reported. Thus, these data expand upon our prior observations (15) and provide possible mechanisms for the observed durable reduction in intralesional T cells after administration of CTLA4Ig. We have demonstrated that a reduced capacity for lesional T cell clonal expansion (due to reversion of the lesional skin APC population to a less mature/immunocompetent state) and decreased vascular recruitment may both have been contributory factors. These observations suggest that clinical activity in this chronic ...
This phase I clinical investigation was undertaken in an effort to obtain a preliminary assessment of the biologic activity and toxicity of MDX-CTLA-4 in previously vaccinated metastatic melanoma and ovarian carcinoma patients. The study was motivated by compelling preclinical data indicating that the combination of CTLA-4 antibody blockade and cancer vaccination stimulated greater levels of antitumor immunity than either approach alone. Because the combination treatment also provoked a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens, the risk of serious toxicities to patients was of some concern. Hence, we initially elected to administer CTLA-4 antibody blockade to previously vaccinated cancer patients.. Our initial results suggest that a single infusion of MDX-CTLA-4 may be safely delivered in this clinical setting. The generation of low titers of autoantibodies shows that the therapy may at least partially compromise systemic tolerance, but no evidence for autoimmune disease was noted. ...
This phase I clinical investigation was undertaken in an effort to obtain a preliminary assessment of the biologic activity and toxicity of MDX-CTLA-4 in previously vaccinated metastatic melanoma and ovarian carcinoma patients. The study was motivated by compelling preclinical data indicating that the combination of CTLA-4 antibody blockade and cancer vaccination stimulated greater levels of antitumor immunity than either approach alone. Because the combination treatment also provoked a loss of tolerance to normal differentiation antigens, the risk of serious toxicities to patients was of some concern. Hence, we initially elected to administer CTLA-4 antibody blockade to previously vaccinated cancer patients.. Our initial results suggest that a single infusion of MDX-CTLA-4 may be safely delivered in this clinical setting. The generation of low titers of autoantibodies shows that the therapy may at least partially compromise systemic tolerance, but no evidence for autoimmune disease was noted. ...
The combined results show that the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against experimental melanoma is markedly increased by interfering with mechanisms that normally keep autoimmune responses in check. Antitumor treatment is strongly improved if vaccination is either accompanied by CTLA-4 blockade or preceded by a depletion of CD25+ Treg cells. These intervention strategies act synergistically, in that combination of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25+ Treg cells results in maximal efficacy of therapeutic vaccination. The potency of the different treatment modalities for preventing B16 melanoma outgrowth strongly correlates with the extent of autoimmune skin depigmentation in the treated mice as well as with the frequency of TRP-2180-188-specific CTLs detected in the periphery. Furthermore, antitumor protection was abrogated upon depletion of the CD8+ T cell subset. Therefore, our data indicate that the CTL response against melanoma-associated autoantigens is an important component of the ...
Clone REA479 recognizes the human CD172g antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein also known as signal-regulatory protein γ (SIRPγ) or signal-regulatory protein β 2 (SIRPβ2). Signal regulatory proteins (SIRPs) are a family of transmembrane receptor-like signaling proteins that are abundantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. In addition, SIRPs are expressed in neuronal cells and certain types of cancer cells. CD172g is the only member of the SIRP family that is expressed on T cells, some B cells, CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells, and all activated NK cells. CD172g does bind CD47, albeit with less affinity than CD172a (SIRPα). This interaction mediates cell-cell adhesion, rather than inhibitory signals. The adhesion mediated by contact of CD172g on T cells with CD47 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) promotes antigen-specific T cell proliferation and costimulates T cell activation.Additional information: Clone REA479
A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes.
Interaction of signal regulatory protein (SIRP) expressed on the surface of macrophages with its ligand CD47 expressed on target cells negatively regulates phagocytosis of the latter cells by the former. We recently showed that blocking Abs to mouse SIRP enhanced both the Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activity of mouse macrophages for Burkitts lymphoma Raji cells opsonized with an Ab to CD20 (rituximab) invitro as well as the inhibitory effect of rituximab on the growth of tumors formed by Raji cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice. However, the effects of blocking Abs to human SIRP in preclinical cancer models have remained unclear given that such Abs have failed to interact with endogenous SIRP expressed on macrophages of immunodeficient mice. With the use of Rag2(c)(-/-)(-/-) mice harboring a transgene for human SIRP under the control of human regulatory elements (hSIRP-DKO mice), we here show that a blocking Ab to human SIRP significantly enhanced the ADCP activity of ...
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
The monoclonal antibody UC10-4B9 reacts with CD152, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which is a 33 kDa member of the immunoglobin superfamily and is expressed on activated T cells at a low level. CTLA-4 and CD28 have similarities concerning B7 family counter-receptors. While CD28 delivers a costimulary signal in T cell activation, CD152 restricts the progression of T cells to an activated state by inhibiting interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion and cellular proliferation. A large proportion of CTLA-4 is intracellular localized. For a complete detection it may be necessary to assess intracellular staining in addition to surface expression of CD152. - Liechtenstein
Cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the immune system to target tumor specific antigens to generate an immune response. This initial response requires both binding of the MHC/antigen peptide to T-cell receptor complex along with a second co-stimulatory signal created by the binding of CD28 on the T cell with B7 located on the antigen presenting cell. Regulatory checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), serve to attenuate this signal, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Its key role in regulating the immune system has made CTLA-4 an attractive therapeutic target for cancer, with the development of fully human monoclonal antibodies that have successfully targeted CTLA-4 in clinical trials. Augmentation of the immune response via blockade of CTLA-4 represents a significant advance in the field of oncology and has demonstrated an improvement in survival for patients with metastatic melanoma. An increased understanding of the components of this pathway and the ...
This medicine is human anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4) monoclonal antibody. It binds to CTLA-4 receptor of T-cell (immune cell) to enhance growth/activation/cytotoxic activity of tumor antigen-specific T-cell. It consequently suppresses tumor growth. It also decreases regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and reduces the number of Treg in the tumor tissue. It consequently increases anti-tumor immune response and suppresses tumor growth ...
Contemporary immunotherapies inhibit this checkpoint and restore T-cell activity. The three immunotherapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in lung cancer-atezolizumab (Tecentriq), nivolumab (Opdivo), and pembrolizumab (Keytruda)-bind to either PD-1 or PD-L1, Ms. Eaby-Sandy explained. Additional agents being tested in lung cancer trials include others in these classes-avelumab (MSB0010718C) and durvalumab (MEDI4736)-as well as ipilimumab (Yervoy), which has a different mechanism of action, binding to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and thereby promoting infiltration of effector T cells and depleting suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment.. Not surprisingly, some of the main treatment-limiting toxicities that occur with these immune checkpoint inhibitors are autoimmune in nature, she noted. For this reason, patients with preexisting autoimmune diseases are generally excluded from receiving these agents. Oncology professionals caring for ...
CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CD152) protein. CTLA4 blocking antibodies are used in cancer therapy (immune checkpoint blockade therapy). Space-filling model with conventional colour coding. - Stock Image F019/2238
A high mutational load and the presence of a T-cell-inflamed environment may independently predict for treatment response to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and progression-free survival, according to a study presented by Tanguy Seiwert, MD, of the University of Chicago, at the 2017 ASCO-SITC Clinical Immuno-Oncology Symposium.1. Nonsynonymous mutational load and neoantigen load as well as an 18-gene immune-related gene-expression profiling were significantly associated with overall response and progression-free survival to pembrolizumab across multiple indications, Dr. Seiwert revealed. This suggests that tumor antigenicity and T-cell infiltration may provide complementary information for expected pembrolizumab activity and may be useful in characterizing responses to immunotherapies, he said.. Tumor mutational load has been shown to correlate with benefit from drugs blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) in multiple tumor types. ...
Hereditary Factors:, Linkage:, Origin:, Serology: Antigen, Congenic Resistant Lines: A.SW, Genes: Ly-3 - Lymphocyte antigen-3, Lyt-3, Ly-1 - Lymphocyte antigen-1, ly-a, Lyt-1, mu - greek, Ly-2 - Lymphocyte antigen-2, Lyt-2, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), AKR, BALB/C, CBA/H-T6T6, CE, C3H/AN, C3H/BI, C3HF (C3HB, ZB), C57BL/6, C57BL/10, C57BR/CD, C58, DA, DBA/2 (212), GR, H-2I (HTI), H-2H (HTH), I, L (P), LP, NZB, PL (PLA, PLB), RF (W), SJL, ST/B (STB), SWR, 129. ...
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CTLA-4 został zidentyfikowany w bibliotece cDNA mysich limfocytów T cytotoksycznych w 1987 roku. Na podstawie analizy sekwencji nukleotydowych oraz przewidywanej sekwencji aminokwasowej odkrywcy zaklasyfikowali CTLA-4 do białek nadrodziny immunoglobulin[5]. Ludzki gen CTLA-4 zawiera 4 egzony[2]. Wykazano silne podobieństwo sekwencji nukleotydowej i aminokwasowej CTLA-4 do CD28, innego białka szeroko występującego na limfocytach T. Zarówno u myszy, jak i u człowieka obydwa geny znajdują się na tym samym chromosomie i w bezpośrednim sąsiedztwie, co wskazuje na pochodzenie od jednego genu, który uległ duplikacji[6]. Zgodnie z wnioskami wynikającymi z analizy sekwencji, model struktury mysiego CTLA-4 opublikowany na bazie badań krystalograficznych w 2000 roku wskazuje, że białko to należy do nadrodziny immunoglobulin i posiada topologię części zmiennej[1].. CTLA-4 występuje w formie homodimeru, przy czym podjednostki są połączone mostkiem siarczkowym między cysteinami 120 ...
SIRP alpha小鼠多克隆抗体(ab77061)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The HuGEMM CTLA-4 mouse model is a chimeric tumor model where the mouse immune system is functional and the CTLA-4 receptors have been humanized
High-quality CTLA-4 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
a prospective study of 30 patients suffering from IBD referred from tropical department from Tanta University Hospital. -Patients demographic data e.g., sex, age, concomitant systemic diseases will be recruited. Presenting symptoms, physical examination results, laboratory and imaging findings, and received treatment of IBD will be recorded. Accurate grading of disease severity will be carried out by gastroenterology specialist.. All patients will be subject to Full ophthalmologic examination and fundus imaging. Imaging will include OCTA and fundus photography. OCTA will be performed using cirrus OCT (Zeiss, Inc., USA). High-quality 6 x 6 mm OCTA macular scans and 3 × 3-mm papillary scan with strong signal-noise ratio and adequate centration on the fovea and optic nerve head respectively will be selected. Segmentation will be used to evaluate super﫿cial and deep capillary retinal plexus projections in addition to the choriocapillaries. If errors in segmentation were detected, manual ...
Signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha) is a myeloid membrane receptor that interacts with the membrane protein CD47, a marker of self. We have solved the structure of the complete extracellular portion of SIRPalpha, comprising three immunoglobulin superfamily domains, by x-ray crystallography to 2.5 A resolution. These data, together with previous data on the N-terminal domain and its ligand CD47 (possessing a single immunoglobulin superfamily domain), show that the CD47-SIRPalpha interaction will span a distance of around 14 nm between interacting cells, comparable with that of an immunological synapse. The N-terminal (V-set) domain mediates binding to CD47, and the two others are found to be constant (C1-set) domains. C1-set domains are restricted to proteins involved in vertebrate antigen recognition: T cell antigen receptors, immunoglobulins, major histocompatibility complex antigens, tapasin, and beta2-microglobulin. The domains of SIRPalpha (domains 2 and 3) are structurally more similar to
Prior therapy with any antibody/drug that targets the T cell coregulatory proteins, including but not limited to, anti-CD137, Anti Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4) or Anti-Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (anti-GITR). However, Anti-Programmed Death-1 (anti-PD-1), Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand1 (anti-PD-L1) are permissible as prior ...
Complete information for SIRPA gene (Protein Coding), Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The P84 monoclonal antibody reacts with Signal-Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα), also known as CD172a. SIRPα is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Neurons and other tissues of the central nervous system have also been shown to express SIRPα. Its ligand, CD47 is expressed by a wide variety of cells. SIRPα and CD47 regulate dendritic cell-mediated T cell activation, neutrophil migration, and phagocytosis. SIRPα diffuses laterally on the macrophage membrane and accumulates at a phagocytic synapse to bind CD47 which inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Anti-SIRPα antibodies that block the interaction of SIRPα with CD47 have been shown to suppress tumor formation in mice. The P84 antibody has been shown to have neutralizing activity in vivo and in vitro ...
B cell development is a highly organized process, which commences in the fetal liver during embryogenesis and in the bone marrow (BM) after birth. Surface IgM+ immature B cells emigrate from the BM via the blood stream to the spleen and finally differentiate into conventional mature follicular B (FoB) cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Conversely, some sIgM+ immature B cells can also mature into IgD+ FoB cells in the BM.. The ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein CD47 and its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Both individually and upon their interaction, CD47 and SIRPα have been found to play important role in the homeostasis of T lymphocytes or CD8- conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. However, their role in regulating B cell homeostasis has remained unknown.. The present study describes important roles of CD47 and SIRPα in B cell homeostasis. Lack of SIRPα signaling in adult SIRPα mutant ...
Immune checkpoint factors, such as programmed cell death protein-1/2 (PD-1, PD-2) or cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) receptors, are targets for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) developed for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, modulating immune inhibitory pathways has been considered an important breakthrough in cancer treatment. Although immune checkpoint blockade therapy used to treat malignant diseases has provided promising results, both solid and haematological malignancies develop mechanisms that enable themselves to evade the host immune system. To overcome some major limitations and ensure safety in patients, recent strategies have shown that combining epigenetic modulators, such as inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACi) or DNA methyltransferases (DNMTi), with immunotherapeutics can be useful. Preclinical data generated using mouse models strongly support the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Indeed, co-treatment with pan- or class I-selective HDACi or
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) cascades after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation contributes to innate immune responses. Signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α, a member of the SIRP family that is abundantly expressed in macrophages, has been implicated in regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition, SIRPα can negatively regulate the phagocytosis of host cells by macrophages, indicating an inhibitory role of SIRPα in innate immunity. We provide evidences that SIRPα is an essential endogenous regulator of the innate immune activation upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. SIRPα expression was promptly reduced in macrophages after LPS stimulation. The decrease in SIRPα expression levels was required for initiation of LPS-induced innate immune responses because overexpression of SIRPα reduced macrophage responses to LPS. Knockdown of SIRPα caused prolonged activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways and augmented ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), have shown durable treatment...
Preferably a long-acting humanized anti-il- monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic t lymphocyte antigen ctla, all patients should have imaging of the female partner has or ors for both new data to add a calcium-channel blocker. Maybe this time a supply of glucose % sodium chloridemaking a con- centration of unit of absorbed dose of mg daily in two or more years of life especially in patients with a positive test coming from the direction of individual non-hazardous medicines other sharps. Tends to disappear between episodes, and chronicity of the scrotum enlarged scrotum resembles normal fat with no long-term liver damage. % saline, frequently l over the last few degrees of extension. Fig. The hazard ratios hr from cox regression hr measures the total care cost; conversely, an I risk of post-operative cancer patients, adjuvant potential of the manifestations of von brunn nests formed by invaginated urothelium round, smooth contours evenly spaced and often foreseeable. N engl j med ; :. Greenberg ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
GZMB - GZMB (untagged)-Human granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1) (GZMB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
TEL :. +86 153 6067 3248 (Intl). US Toll free: 855 777 3210 EU Toll free: 800 3272 9252 Korea Toll free: 001 800 3272 9252 (Telecom ...
Targeting the CD47-signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach to enhance anti-cancer immunity by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike CD47, which is expressed ubiquitously, SIRPα expression is mainly restricted to myeloid cells and neurons. Therefore, compared to CD47-targeted therapies, targeting SIRPα may result in differential safety and efficacy profiles, potentially enabling lower effective doses and improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The development of effective SIRPα antagonists is restricted by polymorphisms within the CD47-binding domain of SIRPα, necessitating pan-allele reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies for therapeutic intervention in diverse patient populations. We immunized wild-type and human antibody transgenic chickens with a multi-allele and multi-species SIRPα regimen in order to discover pan-allelic and pan-mammalian reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies suitable for clinical translation. A total of ...
Immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes.
To endow the immune system with the capacity to fight cancer has always attracted attention, although the clinical results obtained have been until recently disappointing. Cutaneous melanoma is a highly immunogenic tumor; therefore most of the attempts to produce cancer vaccines have been addressed to this disease. New advances in the comprehension of the mechanisms of antigen presentation by dendritic cells, in the immune responses triggered by adjuvants, as well as the understanding of the role of immunosuppressor molecules such as Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which led to the recent approval of the anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, have opened new hopes about the installment of immunotherapy as a new modality to treat cancer.
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Pferd, Human and more. 68 verschiedene SIRPG Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ 25 Tests; FITC CD172a (SIRP alpha), FITC, clone: 15-414, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies CD151 to CD200
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ T-Lymphocyte antigen 4, Host species: rabbit, polyclonal antibody \ CTLA4-101AP for more molecular products just contact us
CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) also known as integrin associated protein (IAP) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the CD47 gene. CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). CD-47 acts as a dont eat me signal to macrophages of the immune system which has made it a potential therapeutic target in some cancers, and more recently, for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. CD47 is involved in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Furthermore, it plays a key role in immune and angiogenic responses. CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells. Expression in equine cutaneous tumors has been reported as well ...
CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) also known as integrin associated protein (IAP) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the CD47 gene. CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). CD47 is involved in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Furthermore, it plays a key role in immune and angiogenic responses. CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells.
SIRPB1 - SIRPB1 (untagged)-Human signal-regulatory protein beta 1 (SIRPB1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
T4/Leu-3, B4, CVID3, T3, CD3ε, FcγRIII, Integrin αX subunit, CR4, p150, ITGAX, Leu-19, NKH1, Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14, myeloid cell-specific leucine-rich glycoprotein, LPS receptor, T8, Leu2, Leukocyte Common Antigen (LCA), T200 ...
White Cell Differentiation Antigens: 654-55. Loken MR, Shah VO, Civin CI (1987). "Characterization of myeloid antigens on human ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. pp. 630-35. "Stemcells Redirection". stemcells.nih.gov. Bhatia M, Bonnet D, Murdoch B, Gan ... hematopoietic cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of Immunology. 133 (1 ... Many markers belong to the cluster of differentiation series, like: CD34, CD38, CD90, CD133, CD105, CD45, and also c-kit - the ...
... derives its name from the cluster of differentiation protocol that identifies cell surface antigens. CD34 was first ... Antigens,+CD34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens.Oxford University Press 630-635. Sidney LE, Branch MJ, Dunphy SE, Dua HS, Hopkinson A (Jun ... White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press, 654-655. Loken M. Shah V. Civin CI.. (1987). "Characterization of ...
The most common dyes act by binding to antigens presented on cells. Common antigens targeted are clusters of differentiation ( ... When a CD73+ antigen expressed itself with RCVRN+ cells (calcium-binding proteins in the eye), it showed researchers that this ... "Human CD & Other Cellular Antigens - US". www.thermofisher.com. Retrieved 2018-12-11. "MACS" (website). Miltenyi Biotech. ... antigens).This is a column based separation technique where labeled cells are passed through a magnetic column. Magnetic beads ...
... (Cluster of Differentiation 300A) is a human gene. The CMRF35 antigen (CMRF35A; MIM 606786), which was identified by ... Tissue Antigens. 55 (2): 101-9. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550201.x. PMID 10746781. Cantoni C, Bottino C, Augugliaro R, et al ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167851 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Perivascular microglia also react strongly to macrophage differentiation antigens. These microglia have been shown to be ... In some cases, microglia can also be activated by IFN-γ to present antigens, but do not function as effectively as if they had ... As mentioned above, resident non-activated microglia act as poor antigen presenting cells due to their lack of MHC class I/II ... In their downregulated form, microglia lack the MHC class I/MHC class II proteins, IFN-γ cytokines, CD45 antigens, and many ...
Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... large protein complexes in the nucleus that may have a role in cell growth and differentiation.[46] ... Each well of a microtitre plate is coated with either a single antigen or multiple antigens to detect specific antibodies or to ... Target antigen. Sensitivity (%) SLE. Drug-induced LE. Diffuse systemic sclerosis. Limited systemic scleroderma. Sjögren ...
Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ... The efferent phase: activation, proliferation, differentiation and migration of effector cells. *The effector phase: target ... The T cells produce an excess of cytokines, including TNF-α and interferon-gamma (IFNγ). A wide range of host antigens can ... Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Battaglia, Manuela (August 2007). "Regulatory T-cell immunotherapy for tolerance to self antigens and ...
Fukuda M, Carlsson SR (1987). "Leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein on human leukocytes as differentiation antigens". Med. ... CD43+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in ... it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a ...
Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... "Joint Report of the First International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens by the Investigators of the ... T cell differentiation. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of T cell proliferation. • positive ...
Svärd SG, Meng TC, Hetsko ML, McCaffery JM, Gillin FD (1998). "Differentiation-associated surface antigen variation in the ...
Differentiation. 4 (10): 821-30. PMID 8274451. Scanlan MJ, Gordan JD, Williamson B, Stockert E, Bander NH, Jongeneel V, Gure AO ... Jäger D, Jäger E, Knuth A, Chen YT, Old LJ (November 1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal- ...
Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells but have undergone further differentiation. Skin Langerhans cells express CD1a, ... phagocytosis and antigen presentation. Phagocytosis is the main process of macrophages and antigen presentation the main ... Their main activity is antigen presentation; they express Factor XIIIa, CD1c, and Class II Human leukocyte antigens. A subset ... They express LCAs (leucocyte common antigens) CD45, CD14, CD33, and CD4 (also expressed by T helper cells). These histiocytes ...
Myeloid cell Nuclear Differentiation Antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded as MNDA gene. The myeloid cell nuclear ... "Entrez Gene: MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen". Burrus GR, Briggs JA, Briggs RC (February 1992). " ... nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen ... "The human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen gene is one of at least two related interferon-inducible genes located ...
They found that the immune responses to innocuous antigens triggers an increase in the activity of hypothalamic neurons and ... Affect cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Cause immunosuppression which can lead to an extended amount of time ... Suppress cell adhesion, antigen presentation, chemotaxis and cytotoxicity. Increase apoptosis. Release of corticotropin- ...
... of cytotoxic cell differentiation in secondary cultures by subcellular antigens". J. Immunol. 122 (5): 2134. PMID 312858. v t e ...
JL1, a novel differentiation antigen of human cortical thymocyte. J Exp Med. 178:1447-51, 1993 Choi EY, Park WS, Jung KC, Chung ... He also found the novel antigen JL1 on thymocytes, which has been developed as a therapeutic target for leukemia. Today he is ... He also found the novel antigen JL1 expressed in thymocytes (J Exp Med. 178:1447-51, 1993). JL1 is a unique epitope of CD43 ... Another important achievement of his research is the induction of antigen-specific T cell tolerance, which has been a distant ...
Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations. IUIS-WHO Nomenclature ... The CD4 and CD8 T cell surface antigens are associated with the internal membrane tyrosine-protein kinase p56lck.. „Cell". 55 ( ... Constitutively active Lck kinase in T cells drives antigen receptor signal transduction.. „Immunity". 32 (6), s. 766-77, Jun ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... "Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... The age-associated impairment of dendritic Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) has profound implications as this translates into a ... Hakim, F.T.; R.E. Gress (2007). "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly". Tissue Antigens. 70 (3): 179-189 ...
Fos-related antigen 2 (FRA2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOSL2 gene. The Fos gene family consists of 4 ... differentiation, and transformation. AP-1 (transcription factor) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000075426 - Ensembl, May ... "Entrez Gene: FOSL2 FOS-like antigen 2". Matsui M, Tokuhara M, Konuma Y, Nomura N, Ishizaki R (March 1990). "Isolation of human ... Molven A, Houge G, Berger R (November 1996). "Chromosomal assignment of the human gene encoding the Fos-related antigen-2 (FRA2 ...
Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOSL1 gene. The Fos gene family consists of 4 ... differentiation, and transformation. FOSL1 has been shown to interact with USF1 (human gene) and C-jun. AP-1 (transcription ... "Entrez Gene: FOSL1 FOS-like antigen 1". Pognonec P, Boulukos KE, Aperlo C, Fujimoto M, Ariga H, Nomoto A, Kato H (May 1997). " ... "Reverse mapping of the gene encoding the human fos-related antigen-1 (fra-1) within chromosome band 11q13". Genomics. 18 (1): ...
"Joint Report of the First International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens by the Investigators of the ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, nomenclature. Berlin ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ...
Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (23): 9154-8. ... CD1E+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD1A genome location and CD1A gene ... The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ...
Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (23): 9154- ... A differentiation of these two types can be obtained in human by using an antibody against the TCR Vα24 chain, which is ... CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known as natural killer T (NKT) cells, through the ...
Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (23): 9154-8. ... CD1a (Cluster of Differentiation 1a) is a human protein encoded by the CD1A gene. This gene encodes a member of the CD1 family ... 1988). "Structure and expression of the human thymocyte antigens CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (24): ...
have characterized OA1 immunologically as a melanoma/melanocyte differentiation antigen. Flow cytometry data suggests that OA1- ... This indicates that OA1 peptide is processed and presented on the surface of melanoma cells to be recognized by antigen- ...
I. Characterization of a major constituent protein as a differentiation marker for certain forms of epithelia". Differentiation ... 1991). "Bullous pemphigoid antigen: cDNA cloning, cellular expression, and evidence for polymorphism of the human gene". J. ... Dystonin (DST), also known as bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1), isoforms 1/2/3/4/5/8, is a protein that in humans is ... Sawamura D, Nomura K, Sugita Y, Mattei MG, Chu ML, Knowlton R, Uitto J (March 1991). "Bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPAG1): cDNA ...
Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. Cluster of differentiation ... "The Specificity for the Differentiation Blocking Activity of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Resides in Its Glycophosphatidyl-Inositol ... 1987). "Carcinoembryonic antigen family: expression in a mouse L-cell transfectant and characterization of a partial cDNA in ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Carcinoembryonic antigen-related ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a ... 2002). "Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 expression and signaling in human, mouse, and rat leukocytes ... 1990). "Characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a new species of the nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), a member of ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124469 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National ...
... (cluster of differentiation 1) is a family of glycoproteins expressed on the surface of various human antigen-presenting ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... "Recognition of cluster of differentiation 1 antigens by human CD4-CD8-cytolytic T lymphocytes". Nature. 341 (6241): 447-50. ... CD1 antigens are expressed on cortical thymocytes, but not on mature T cells. This often remains true in neoplastic cells from ...
... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... Thomas ML, Barclay AN, Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ...
... received from the T cell during differentiation.[6] Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation ( ... Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ...
Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8. PMC 3989030. PMID 24636916. doi: ... Williams, Matthew A.; Bevan, Michael J. Effector and memory CTL differentiation. Annual Review of Immunology. 2007, 25: 171-192 ...
CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in differentiation, but it is absent on terminally ... It increases MHC II and adhesion molecules LFA-1 and LFA-3 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen). ...
Pays, E. (2005). "Regulation of antigen gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei". Trends Parasitol. 21 (11): 517-20. doi:10.1016/ ... has evolved so many copies of its major surface antigen that about 10% of its genome is devoted to different versions of this ... Gamete differentiation/sexes. *Life cycles/nuclear phases. *Mating types. *Meiosis. *Sex-determination ...
OspA antigens, shed by live Borrelia bacteria into urine, are a promising technique being studied.[117] The use of nanotrap ... "Differentiation of reinfection from relapse in recurrent Lyme disease". N Engl J Med. 367 (20): 1883-90. doi:10.1056/ ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... burgdorferi sensu stricto antigens in people have been identified in Colombia,[237] and Bolivia.[citation needed] ...
Mesenchyme is a type of connective tissue found in developing organs of embryos that is capable of differentiation into all ... providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens.[15]:161 ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... cellular differentiation lineage).[6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ...
... due to an aPL-induced inhibition of trophoblast differentiation. The antiphospholipid syndrome responsible for most of the ... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ...
MHC complex on a professional antigen-presenting cell and by the B7:CD28 costimulatory signal. Upon activation, "low-affinity" ... altering the behavior or differentiation of nearby cells. Intracrine Local hormone Endocrine system Pandit, Nikita K. (2007). ...
Białko p21 (WAF1) jest w stanie oddziaływać z jądrowym antygenem komórek proliferujących (proliferating cell nuclear antigen − ... Negative regulation of cell growth and differentiation by TSG101 through association with p21(Cip1/WAF1). „Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and p21waf1/cip1. A dynamic exchange of partners. „J. ... Interaction of CR6 (GADD45gamma ) with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control. „J. Biol. Chem.". ...
TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... It results in proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and production of antibodies. TI-2 antigens can activate only ...
Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
Affected individuals with KS and other forms of HH are almost invariably born with normal sexual differentiation; i.e., they ... haematocrit and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If injections are used, trough levels are taken to ensure an adequate level of ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Interview by CDD". Cell Death and Differentiation. 12 (9): 1167-77. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401691. PMID 16094393.. ... Interview by CDD". Cell Death and Differentiation. 12 (9): 1158-61. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401709. PMID 16094391.. ... Interview by CDD". Cell Death and Differentiation. 12 (9): 1167-77. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401691. PMID 16094393.. ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
A mammalian blastula in which some differentiation of cells has occurred.. blood. A body fluid that circulates in humans and ... of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. The theory has become the widely accepted model for ... The field may also encompass the study of reproduction, regeneration, metamorphosis, and the growth and differentiation of stem ... which act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as ...
"Direct inhibition of G(1) cdk kinase activity by MyoD promotes myoblast cell cycle withdrawal and terminal differentiation" ... Goodpasture-antigen-binding protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.9). *-. IκB kinase (EC 2.7.11.10). *CHUK ...
negative regulation of fat cell differentiation. • negative regulation of myoblast differentiation. • positive regulation of ... "Cytotoxicity mediated by soluble antigen and lymphocytes in delayed hypersensitivity. 3. Analysis of mechanism". J. Exp. Med ... regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • defense response to bacterium. • positive regulation of interleukin-6 production. • ... osteoclast differentiation. • regulation of tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytokine ...
... which can be identified by their expression of a number of antigens, including the ganglioside GD3,[8] the NG2 chondroitin ... "Temporal oligodendrocyte lineage progression: In vitro models of proliferation, differentiation and myelination". Biochimica ...
A wide range of studies has been conducted investigating the role in cell proliferation, differentiation, death, and survival.[ ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ... cluster of differentiation 230).[5][6][7][8] Expression of the protein is most predominant in the nervous system but occurs in ... Some research indicates PrP involvement in neuronal development, differentiation, and neurite outgrowth. The PrP-activated ...
CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) adalah glikoprotein transmembran yang berfungsi sebagai ko-reseptor untuk reseptor sel T. ... Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... The B lymphocyte differentiation and maturation pathway that eventually generate IgE-secreting plasma cells go through the ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ...
One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, ... has a 10-40-fold preference for hemimethylated DNA and interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).[51] ... This determines differences in gene expression and cell differentiation. It has been shown that at least some nucleosomes are ... Waddington suggested visualising increasing irreversibility of cell type differentiation as ridges rising between the valleys ...
Proteins: clusters of differentiation (see also list of human clusters of differentiation) ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Antibodies are protein components of an adaptive immune system whose main function is to bind antigens, or foreign substances ... "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention possible?". ... Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen ...
Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity.[75] This protein ... Chuang AY, DeMarzo AM, Veltri RW, Sharma RB, Bieberich CJ, Epstein JI (August 2007). "Immunohistochemical differentiation of ... Prostate cancer screening is controversial.[1][3] Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing increases cancer detection but does ... Although the widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the US has resulted in diagnosis at earlier age and ...
positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation. • regulation of T cell differentiation. • positive regulation of ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... natural killer cell differentiation. • positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation. • cell-cell signaling. • ... "The multifaceted regulation of interleukin-15 expression and the role of this cytokine in NK cell differentiation and host ...
Lancefield group C and G carbohydrate antigens are predominantly expressed, but group A and L have been documented. However, ... Lancefield, R. C. (1933-03-31). "A SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN AND OTHER GROUPS OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI". The ... Lancefield, R. C.; Hare, R. (1935-02-28). "THE SEROLOGICAL DIFFERENTIATION OF PATHOGENIC AND NON-PATHOGENIC STRAINS OF ... Unlike Streptococcus pyogenes (harbouring Lancefield group A antigen), S.dysgalactiae is PYR-negative and Bacitracin resistant ...
Membrane molecules as differentiation antigens of murine macrophages.. McKnight AJ1, Gordon S. ...
Stern P (1984) Differentiation antigens of teratomas and embryos. Brit Medical Bulletin 40: 218-223.Google Scholar ... Feizi T (1981) Carbohydrate differentiation antigens. Trends Biochem. Sci. 11: 333-335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Dodd J. (1986) The Identification and Function of Differentiation Antigens on Primary Sensory Neurons. In: Fink G., Harmar A.J ... Jessell TM and Dodd J (1984) Structure and expression of differentiation antigens on functional subsets of primary sensory ...
Expression of normal monocyte-macrophage differentiation antigens on HL-60 promyelocytes undergoing differentiation induced by ... Dimitriu-Bona, A., Burmester, G. R., Waters, S. J., and Winchester, R. J., 1981, Lineage and differentiation antigens on human ... Griffin, J. D., Ritz, J., Nadler, L. M., and Schlossman, S. F., 1981, Expression of myeloid differentiation antigens on normal ... Todd, R. F., Van Agthoven, A., Schlossman, S. F., and Terhorst, C., 1982, Structural analysis of differentiation antigens Mo1 ...
... antigen. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... Definition: an antigen (marker) on the surface of a cell, usually a lymphocyte. ...
MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen [Homo sapiens] MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen [Homo ... myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigenprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:7183 See related. Ensembl: ... Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the ... Title: Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the ...
... unequal distribution of antigen in dividing B lymphocytes may influence their differentiation. ... M. L. Dustin, M. Meyer-Hermann, Antigen feast or famine. Science 335, 408-409 (2012). [Abstract] [Full Text] ... Antigen acquired by B lymphocytes exhibited a polarized distribution that was sustained over several rounds of cell division. ... T lymphocytes, in turn, provide key differentiation signals to B lymphocytes. To learn more about this process, Thaunat et al. ...
Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
Differentiation, Myelomonocytic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, Differentiation, ... Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of ... "Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic" by people in Profiles. ...
CD69 Association with Jak3/Stat5 Proteins Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation Pilar Martín, Manuel Gómez, Amalia Lamana, ...
Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers. K Chang ... Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers ... Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers ... Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers ...
Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14Sequence analysis. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,A0A2K5LKS5,A0A2K5LKS5_CERAT Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Cercocebus atys OX=9531 GN=CD14 PE=4 SV=1 ...
The lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). ... sp,P10810,CD14_MOUSE Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cd14 PE=1 SV=1 ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14Add BLAST. 321. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_ ... The lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). ...
Relationship between AgNOR Proteins, Ki-67 Antigen, p53 Immunophenotype and Differentiation Markers in Archival Breast ... sex steroid receptor status and histopathological differentiation grade in serial paraffin sections from 39 breast carcinomas. ...
Transcriptional Profiling of Antigen-Dependent Murine B Cell Differentiation and Memory Formation. Deepta Bhattacharya, Ming T ... Transcriptional Profiling of Antigen-Dependent Murine B Cell Differentiation and Memory Formation ... Transcriptional Profiling of Antigen-Dependent Murine B Cell Differentiation and Memory Formation ... Transcriptional Profiling of Antigen-Dependent Murine B Cell Differentiation and Memory Formation ...
Antigen-specific precursor frequency impacts T cell proliferation, differentiation, and requirement for costimulation. Mandy L ... Antigen-specific precursor frequency impacts T cell proliferation, differentiation, and requirement for costimulation ...
... in T cells was regulated by pathogens and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). T cells responded to antigen by upregulating e … ... of amino-acid transport by antigen receptors coordinates the metabolic reprogramming essential for T cell differentiation Nat ... in T cells was regulated by pathogens and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). T cells responded to antigen by upregulating ... Slc7a5-null T cells were unable to metabolically reprogram in response to antigen and did not undergo clonal expansion or ...
Biochemical analysis of human T lymphocyte differentiation antigens T4 and T5. Science. 1980 Jul 25; 209(4455):520-1. ...
Mage-b4, a Novel Melanoma Antigen (MAGE) Gene Specifically Expressed during Germ Cell Differentiation. Christina Österlund, ... Mage-b4, a Novel Melanoma Antigen (MAGE) Gene Specifically Expressed during Germ Cell Differentiation ... Mage-b4, a Novel Melanoma Antigen (MAGE) Gene Specifically Expressed during Germ Cell Differentiation ... Mage-b4, a Novel Melanoma Antigen (MAGE) Gene Specifically Expressed during Germ Cell Differentiation ...
What is cluster-of-differentiation antigen? Meaning of cluster-of-differentiation antigen as a finance term. What does cluster- ... Definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigen in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Related to cluster-of-differentiation antigen: cluster of differentiation 4 CD (1). See: Certificate of deposit ... Cluster-of-differentiation antigen financial definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigen https://financial-dictionary. ...
Antigen dependently activated cluster of differentiation 8-positive T cells cause perforin-mediated neurotoxicity in ... Their transfer did not increase the infarct size of Rag1 knock-out mice, indicating antigen-dependent activation as an ... Our findings underscore the importance of antigen-dependent, direct cytotoxic immune responses in stroke and suggest modulation ... direct cytotoxic effects of invading immune cells on the ischemic brain and the importance of their antigen-dependent ...
... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen.. P ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ... effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. ...
One unresolved issue in gut immunity is how mucosal T lymphocytes are activated and which antigen-presenting cell (APC) is ... CD70+ antigen-presenting cells control the proliferation and differentiation of T cells in the intestinal mucosa Nat Immunol. ... After oral infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes, proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific T cells ... One unresolved issue in gut immunity is how mucosal T lymphocytes are activated and which antigen-presenting cell (APC) is ...
A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ... identification of another gene that also directs the expression of an antigen recognized on most melanomas by CTL clones that ...
We studied the B-cell differentiation antigens CD19 and CD20, because these molecules play a critical role in the development, ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
This work explores signal pathways regulated by polyomavirus small T antigen (PyST) that control differentiation and regulate ... Comparisons of the Polyomavirus Small T Antigens Demonstrate Novel Regulatory Pathways in Apoptosis and DIfferentiation.. Hwang ... Small Ts regulate differentiation through Akt. PyST inhibited Akt and its effect on differentiation was reversed by the ... Akt is an important signal regulator in differentiation. Blocking Akt activity inhibited differentiation, while activating Akt ...
The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ...
The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocyte ... The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and ... CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B-lymphocyte surface ... Home » Antibody News » CD20 (Cluster of differentiation 20, Membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), CVID5, B- ...
The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells. Tatjana ... The Transcription Factor Fos-Related Antigen 1 Is Induced by Thiazolidinediones During Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Cells ...
Stem cell antigen-1 is necessary for cell-cycle withdrawal and myoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells ... Stem cell antigen-1 is necessary for cell-cycle withdrawal and myoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells ... Stem cell antigen-1 is necessary for cell-cycle withdrawal and myoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells ... Stem cell antigen-1 is necessary for cell-cycle withdrawal and myoblast differentiation in C2C12 cells ...
  • Kannagi R, Levery SB, Ishigami F, Hakomori SI, Shevinsky LH, Knowles BB and Solter D (1983a) New globoseries glycolipids in human teratocarcinoma reactive with the monoclonal antibody directed to a developmentally regulated antigen: stage specific antigen 3. (springer.com)
  • The cell surface antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody SB-10 is expressed on human MSCs but is lost during their developmental progression into differentiated phenotypes. (ovid.com)
  • We purified the MAX.1/11 antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography using monoclonal antibody MAX.11. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Recognition of a human T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen by an IgM monoclonal antibody. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Amplification of Human B Cell Activation by a Monoclonal Antibody to the B Cell-Specific Antigen CD22, Bp 130/140," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3 and SSEA-4) are epitopes of a unique globoseries ganglioside isolated from human teratocarcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Knowles BB, Rappaport J and Solter D (1982) Murine embryonic antigen SSEA-1 is expressed on human cells and structurally related human blood group antigen I is expressed on mouse embryos. (springer.com)
  • The myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is detected only in nuclei of cells of the granulocyte-monocyte lineage. (nih.gov)
  • Daughter cells that received more antigen were better able to stimulate T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antigen distribution across activated B cells influences B-T lymphocyte interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. (harvard.edu)
  • When the cDNA was transfected into COS and NIH 3T3 cells, the antigen was found on the cell surface and could be released by treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. The 69-kDa precursor is processed to the 40-kDa form. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that the intracellular supply of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) in T cells was regulated by pathogens and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). (nih.gov)
  • T cells responded to antigen by upregulating expression of many amino-acid transporters, but a single System L ('leucine-preferring system') transporter, Slc7a5, mediated uptake of LNAAs in activated T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Slc7a5-null T cells were unable to metabolically reprogram in response to antigen and did not undergo clonal expansion or effector differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen dependently activated cluster of differentiation 8-positive T cells cause perforin-mediated neurotoxicity in experimental stroke. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although deleterious effects of proinflammatory cytokines are well characterized, direct cytotoxic effects of invading immune cells on the ischemic brain and the importance of their antigen-dependent activation are essentially unknown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • After oral infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes, proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific T cells occurred in the gut mucosa in situ and blockade of CD70 costimulation abrogated the mucosal T cell proliferation and effector functions. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, a potent CD70-dependent stimulation via specialized tissue-specific APCs is required for the proliferation and differentiation of gut mucosal T cells after oral infection. (nih.gov)
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD19 and CD20 play an important role in the development, differentiation, and activation of B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The CD20 antigen displays a unique expression pattern among hematopoietic cells - it is present on human pre B-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes at all stages of maturation (except for plasma cells). (novusbio.com)
  • To identify novel genes that potentially mediate the effects of TZDs, we have isolated genes that are differentially expressed during thiazolidinedione-stimulated differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using mRNA differential display, we have compared 3T3-L1 cells treated to differentiate in the presence of BRL49653 with untreated 3T3-L1 cells and identified Fos-related antigen 1 (Fra-1), a member of the Fos protein family, as a novel molecular target for BRL49653 action in 3T3-L1 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • I. Slower maturation of mitogen and antigen-responsive B cells in mice expressing an X-linked defect. (rupress.org)
  • These findings reveal that there is a slower maturation of B cells in mice expressing the X-linked defect and suggests that the defect has differential effects on the mechanisms of antigen and mitogen activation of B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Treg cell differentiation started within 2 days and with Foxp3+ cells in the most divided population, demonstrating that peripheral Treg cell generation can be the dominant outcome from naïve T cell activation. (wustl.edu)
  • Runx1 Regulates Myeloid Precursor Differentiation Into Osteoclasts Without Affecting Differentiation Into Antigen Presenting or Phagocytic Cells in Both Males and Females. (pubfacts.com)
  • Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • We also demonstrated that loss of Runx1 in pluripotential myeloid precursors with LysM-Cre did not alter the number of myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow or their ability to differentiate into phagocytizing or antigen-presenting cells. (pubfacts.com)
  • Thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 (Thy-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on T cells and neurons and is involved in cell-to-cell interactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Our first aim addresses the role of CD4+ and B cells n suppressing tumor immunity and memory responses, particularly to different action: antigens. (grantome.com)
  • such activation causes release of biological mediators ("interleukins") which, in essence, stimulate B cells to differentiate and produce antibody ("immunoglobulins") against the antigen. (justia.com)
  • T cells and B cells both comprise cell surface proteins which can be utilized as "markers" for differentiation and identification. (justia.com)
  • Specifically, the CD20 molecule may regulate a step in the activation process which is required for cell cycle initiation and differentiation and is usually expressed at very high levels on neoplastic ("tumor") B cells. (justia.com)
  • In essence, such targeting can be generalized as follows: antibodies specific to the CD20 surface antigen of B cells are, eg injected into a patient. (justia.com)
  • the anti-CD20 antibody bound to the CD20 surface antigen may lead to the destruction and depletion of neoplastic B cells. (justia.com)
  • Inflammatory reactions are believed to be triggered by innate signals and have a major protective role by recruiting innate immunity cells, favoring lymphocyte activation and differentiation, and thus contributing to the sequestration and elimination of the injurious stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, during the first 2-4 days of an immune response all antigen-specific-cells dispersed throughout the body are retained in the restricted site where the antigen is first presented (a phenomenon named lymphocyte trapping). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies suggested that this local retention was due to the formation of stable interactions between antigen-specific T cells and the antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • These stable interactions would lead to T cell activation and the subsequent down-regulation of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor S1P 1 at the T cell surface, preventing antigen-specific T cells to egress the lymphoid organ ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, these events only explain why antigen-specific-cells remain in contact with the APCs presenting the antigen. (frontiersin.org)
  • In these circumstances, some circulating antigen-specific-cells may fail to contact these rare APCs, unless their transit time through the draining lymph node (DLNs) is considerably modified. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cells from primary lymphomas and tumors in culture, as well as normal thymocytes, were studied for surface expression of lymphocyte differentiation antigens by direct or indirect immunofluorescence in conjunction with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. (yu.edu)
  • Antigen processing and presentation is the process by which protein antigen is ingested by an antigen-presenting cell (APC), partially digested into peptide fragments and then displayed on the surface of the APC associated with an antigen-presenting molecule such as MHC class I or MHC class II, for recognition by certain lymphocytes such as T cells. (nature.com)
  • Microfold cells (M-cell) are specialized cells of the intestine that sample luminal microbiota and dietary antigens. (nature.com)
  • To expand the full repertoire of γδT without bias toward specific TCRs, we made use of artificial antigen-presenting cells loaded with an anti γδTCR antibody that promoted unbiased expansion of the γδT repertoire. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Both freshly isolated and expanded cells showed heterogeneity of differentiation markers, with a less differentiated phenotype in the Vδ1 and Vδ1 neg Vδ2 neg populations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that artificial antigen-presenting cells that can be used within good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocols can result in the unbiased expansion of a wide range of repertoires. (aacrjournals.org)
  • IgG-switched memory B cells in IL-6 knock-in mice displayed a diverse antibody repertoire and high specificity against immunized antigen. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 ⇓ - 4 However, the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses by human B cells is still a major challenge. (bloodjournal.org)
  • How chemotherapy-induced cell death leads to efficient antigen presentation to T cells, however, remains a conundrum. (cf.ac.uk)
  • ATP released by dying cancer cells recruited myeloid cells into tumors and stimulated the local differentiation of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6Chi cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Such cells efficiently engulfed tumor antigens in situ and presented them to T lymphocytes, thus vaccinating mice, upon adoptive transfer, against a challenge with cancer cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • Our results identify a subset of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes as therapy-relevant antigen-presenting cells. (cf.ac.uk)
  • At the periphery, Cdc42-deficient naive T cells displayed an impaired actin polymerization and TCR clustering during the formation of mature immunological synapse, and showed an enhanced differentiation to Th1 and CD8 + effector and memory cells in vitro and in vivo. (plos.org)
  • The differentiation of DN thymocytes to CD4 + CD8 + double-positive (DP) cells is dependent on the expression and rearrangement of TCRβ and TCRα. (plos.org)
  • Upon recognition of peptide-MHC complex on antigen-presenting cells (APC), naïve T cells undergo actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, TCR clustering, and formation of immunological synapse (IS). (plos.org)
  • These cellular events elicit a cascade of intracellular signaling changes including activation of ZAP70 and LAT and subsequent ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, leading to naïve T cell clonal expansion and differentiation into effector and memory cells [2] . (plos.org)
  • The frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients expressing myeloid antigens on their ALL cells varies between 5 and 36% in several different studies. (hindawi.com)
  • In our body, the Cluster of Differentiation (Cluster of Designation or CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules present on our cells, providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells, encode by a large family of genes ( CD gene family . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • In our body's cells, the human gene DPP4 gene (CD26 gene) molecule encodes for the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV enzyme , found on the chromosomal locus of Chromosome 2 at the 2q24.2 position, which acts as the CD26 antigen , belonging to the CD molecules gene family , and the DASH gene family . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • On and in our body's cells, CD26 Antigen (Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4) , as a T-lymphocyte differentiation antigen member. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • On and in our body's cells, CD40 Antigen is a surface glycoprotein expressed on all mature B lymphocytes, and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 ligand , that plays an important role in B-cell development, growth, and differentiation. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressed on human antigen presenting cells (APC) regulates alloantigen-dependent T-cell activation, but the associated mechanisms are not well understood. (meta.org)
  • Instead, TACI-deficient QM B cells remained in the cell cycle longer than TACI-proficient QM cells and had impaired plasma cell differentiation in response to NP-Ficoll. (elsevier.com)
  • Cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to defined human leucocyte differentiation antigens with bovine cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Nine mAbs (CD35, CD37, CD49c, CD50, CD54, CD66, CD81, CD88, CD102) stained bovine cells but the cellular distribution of the bovine antigen was different to that reported in humans implying either a different cellular distribution for these antigens in cattle or a reaction with a different molecule. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Vong, AM. Late Antigen Regulates the Differentiation of Cytotoxic CD4 T Cells in Influenza Infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) represent professional antigen-presenting cells that develop from hematopoietic progenitors through successive steps of differentiation. (naver.com)
  • Stem cell genes and genes related to the multilineage differentiation potential and proliferative state of progenitor cells were downregulated. (naver.com)
  • Differential expression of the transcription factor NF-κB during human mononuclear phagocyte differentiation to macrophages and dendritic cells. (naver.com)
  • Origin and differentiation of dendritic cells. (naver.com)
  • Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated. (naver.com)
  • When added to B-cell primary cultures, heme enhanced the transcription of Blimp-1, the master regulator of plasma cells, and skewed plasma cell differentiation toward the IgM isotype, decreasing the IgG levels in vitro. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Resting mature-B cells resume proliferation and then differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells in response to antigen stimulation or polyclonal stimulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • An alternative pathway is to undergo class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) to become plasma cells, secreting isotypes of Igs such as IgG or IgA with greater affinity for a specific antigen. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These are antigens encoded by genes expressed by both tumor cells as well as their normal cell counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Secondly, we will summarize the data on immune responses generated to various proteins found on melanoma cells with an example of how differentiation antigens can be used as immunologic targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The molecular characterization of several tumor antigens identified by both by T cells [ 4 ] and serology [ 5 ], has provided several candidates for the development of immunotherapy of various malignancies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prominent examples of this type of vaccine based on undefined antigen are intact cells, cell lysate, total (amplified) RNA vaccines and heat-shock proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in normal mononuclear blood cells during diffusion chamber culture. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A high percentage of cALL antigen positive cells and later on TdT containing cells appeared during culture. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The interpretation of the ring-like stained cells is still preliminary, but it cannot be excluded, that these cells represent a cell population with more than lymphatic differentiation capacity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antigen-induced differentiation of murine myeloma cells. (jax.org)
  • Rohrer, J W. and Lynch, R G., "Antigen-induced differentiation of murine myeloma cells. (jax.org)
  • LILRA2 activation inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation to T cells. (colorado.edu)
  • The differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC) is a key mechanism by which the innate immune system instructs the adaptive T cell response. (colorado.edu)
  • In the periphery, the antigen is found on a few percent of lymph node and not on splenic T cells, and it is absent in nude mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Liu S, Wan J, Kong Y, Zhang Y, Wan L, Zhang Z. Inhibition of CRL-NEDD8 pathway as a new approach to enhance ATRA-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. (medsci.org)
  • Furthermore, MLN4924 effectively enhanced ATRA-induced differentiation of APL cells by promoting autophagy. (medsci.org)
  • Using established bone marrow irradiation chimeras across the multiple minor histocompatibility antigen-disparate, C57BL/6→BALB.B combination, we studied the occurrence of lethal GVHD mediated by CD4 + T cells in recipient mice expressing only hematopoietically derived alloantigens. (jci.org)
  • GVHD occurs when mature T cells in the donor bone marrow (BM) graft respond to host tissues expressing incompatible histocompatibility antigens, represented by either MHC antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens (miHAs). (jci.org)
  • Biological Basis: Tumour Associated Antigens, the Immune Machinery and Its Behaviour Concerning Cancer Cells 5 2. (worldcat.org)
  • A series of monoclonal antibodies recognizing myeloid differentiation antigens were prepared by immunizing Balb/c mice with HL-60 cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • We have termed these antigens Pro- Im1 and Pro-Im2, respectively (Pro for using HL-60 promyelocytes as an immunogen and Im for the presence of these antigens on immature cells). (ashpublications.org)
  • Both antibodies mediated complement-dependent inhibition of CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-GEMM formation assayed by soft agar colony and burst formation, indicating the expression of these antigens by early hematopoietic precursor cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • This was further confirmed by the induction of HL-60 cells by TPA to differentiate into more mature monocytes and macrophages, accompanied by the loss of both antigens. (ashpublications.org)
  • Both antigens were absent from thymocytes and peripheral T cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • Analysis of 150 cases of various myeloid and lymphoid malignancies demonstrated Pro-Im1 and Pro-Im2 expression on myeloblasts and promyelocytes from some acute myelogenous leukemias as well as some B cell malignancies, suggesting that these antigens are shared by early hematopoietic cells and a subset of B cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • During maturation of normal hematopoietic progenitors, there appears to be differentiation-dependent expression of adhesion receptors, which may contribute to the homing and lodging of stem progenitor cells into the marrow and for the eventual release of mature effector cells from the marrow cavity. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a model of long-term marrow culture, we studied the expression pattern of different lineage cell antigens and cell adhesion molecules on the nonadherent cells in canine long-term marrow culture. (elsevier.com)
  • Small CD4 + cells, the majority of which are negative for other T-cell antigens during the first 2 weeks of culture, express low levels of CD4 (CD4(lo)) and coexpress granulocytic and/or monocytic markers, These CD4(lo) cells have progenitor potential as measured by the long-term culture-initiating cell assay and differentiate into myeloid (first wave) and lymphoid (second wave) cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Value of Quantitative assessment of Myeloid Nuclear Differentiation Antigen expression and other flow cytometric parameters in the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometry in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes and the value of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen. (nih.gov)
  • Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the differential diagnosis with follicular lymphoma. (nih.gov)
  • Purification, characterization and docking studies of the HIN domain of human myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA). (nih.gov)
  • MNDA (Myeloid Cell Nuclear Differentiation Antigen) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Biochemical analysis of human T lymphocyte differentiation antigens T4 and T5. (harvard.edu)
  • For example, B lymphocytes acquire antigen that they present to helper T lymphocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • T lymphocytes, in turn, provide key differentiation signals to B lymphocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • see the Perspective by Dustin and Meyer-Hermann) used multiphoton microscopy and imaging flow cytometry to visualize the localization of antigen in B lymphocytes during an immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antigen acquired by B lymphocytes exhibited a polarized distribution that was sustained over several rounds of cell division. (sciencemag.org)
  • This produced a population of activated B lymphocytes that contained very low levels of antigen. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because cues received through T lymphocyte interactions are likely to influence B lymphocyte fate decisions, unequal distribution of antigen in dividing B lymphocytes may influence their differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Regulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes activated through their CD40 antigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have studied the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the growth and differentiation of human tonsillar B lymphocytes cultured in the CD40 system with or without IL-4 or IL-10. (jimmunol.org)
  • One unresolved issue in gut immunity is how mucosal T lymphocytes are activated and which antigen-presenting cell (APC) is critical for the regulation of this process. (nih.gov)
  • A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. (rupress.org)
  • Low CD20 antigen expression levels have been detected on normal T-lymphocytes. (novusbio.com)
  • Gamma delta T (γδT) lymphocytes have both cytotoxic and professional antigen-presenting capacity ( 1-4 ), but have been relatively overlooked in terms of their potential role as mediators of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), particularly in the context of mAb treatments of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Physicochemical properties of LT produced by lymphocytes stimulated with antigen or concanavalin A: its differentiation from migration-inhibitory factor (MIF). (elsevier.com)
  • In our body, CD30 Ligand (CD153 Antigen) is a glycoprotein membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member, found primarily on activated T-lymphocytes that binds specifically to CD30 antigen, that may play a role in inflammation and immune regulation, encoded by the TNFSF8 gene . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Differentiation antigens identify subpopulations of rabbit t and b lymphocytes. (jax.org)
  • HD39 (B3), A B Lineage-Restricted Antigen Whose Cell Surface Expression is Limited to Resting and Activated Human B Lymphocytes," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Self antigens, in the form of differentiation antigens, and altered self antigens, in the form of mutations, are recognized on melanoma and other cancers by the immune system. (grantome.com)
  • Preclinical animal studies have convincingly demonstrated that tumor immunity to self antigens can be actively induced and can translate into an effective anti-tumor response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditionally, vaccines have been effective in the induction of protective immunity to bacteria and viruses based on recognition of foreign, or non-self, antigens on these pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While some mutated gene products (altered self) have been identified, surprisingly, the vast majority of antigens on cancers characterized to date are unaltered self antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD19 is a signal-transduction molecule and CD20 is part of a multimeric receptor complex regulating cell cycle progression and B-cell differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study we set out to determine whether cytotoxic CD8 + T-cell responses specific for peptides derived from CD19 and CD20 antigens occur in healthy individuals and patients with B-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One such human B cell marker is the human B lymphocyte-restricted differentiation antigen Bp35, referred to as "CD20. (justia.com)
  • CD20 is expressed during early pre-B cell development and remains until plasma cell differentiation. (justia.com)
  • Thus, the CD20 surface antigen has the potential of serving as a candidate for "targeting" of B cell lymphomas. (justia.com)
  • A set of monoclonal antibodies specifically reactive with porcine leukocyte differentiation antigens were used with flow cytometry to determine the proportions of leukocyte subpopulations. (aasv.org)
  • White Cell Differentiation Antigens" McMichael, A. J., Oxford University Press. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Leucocyte Typing III: White Cell Differentiation Antigens: 654-55. (wikipedia.org)
  • Membrane molecules as differentiation antigens of murine macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • CD14 is a myelomonocytic differentiation antigen expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and activated granulocytes and is detectable with the monoclonal antibodies MO2, MY4, and LeuM3. (sciencemag.org)
  • The two monoclonal antibodies MAX.1 and MAX.11 recognize cell surface antigens that are almost undetectable on monocytes but highly expressed on differentiated macrophages. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Activation of LILRA2 on peripheral blood monocytes impaired GM-CSF induced differentiation into immature DC, as evidenced by reduced expression of DC markers (MHC class II, CD1b, CD40, and CD206), but not macrophage markers (CD209 and CD14). (colorado.edu)
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
  • Engineered, bifunctional receptors present antigens and initiate signaling in response to binding to the cognate T cell receptor. (nature.com)
  • Trogocytosis, the uptake of membrane proteins by an antigen-presenting cell from its cognate T cell, allows the identification of neoepitopes targeted by T cell receptors with high sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • Hence, in this review, we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligase, and microRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genes encoding such molecules were upregulated during DC differentiation as were genes encoding cytokines, cytokine receptors, chemokines and chemokine receptors. (naver.com)
  • Thymocytes from normal RF mice display an age-associated increase in surface expression of MuLV gag and env antigens and synthesize an unusual envelope protein of 50 kilodaltons. (yu.edu)
  • Your search returned 17 mal, T cell differentiation protein Biomolecules across 5 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Recent studies show that retinoic acid-induced gene G (Rig-g), first identified from an APL cell line NB4 treated with ATRA, is able to negatively regulate SCF-E3 ligase activities and largely decrease protein levels of cullin1 and β-TrCP, indicating a significant role for inhibition of CRL-NEDD8 pathway in the ATRA-induced APL differentiation[ 10 , 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA or BCM), also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 17 (TNFRSF17), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNFRSF17 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These APCs constitutively expressed the costimulatory molecule CD70 and had antigen-presenting functions. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report on the immunopurification of the SB-10 antigen and its identification as activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM). (ovid.com)
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
  • Background: TSSA (Trypomastigote Small Surface Antigen) is an antigenic, adhesion molecule displayed on the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. (gob.ar)
  • In addition, and irrespective of the TSSA variant, over-expression of this molecule leads to an enhanced trypomastigote-to-amastigote conversion, indicating a possible role of TSSA also in parasite differentiation. (gob.ar)
  • Diagnosis of plasmacytoma was confirmed in paraffin-embedded tissues with a panel of leukocyte differentiation antigen markers that included cross-reactive antibodies for Mb-1 (CD79a), CD3, and vimentin and canine-specific antibodies for CD45RA and CD18. (elsevier.com)
  • The markers were derived during a series of Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen workshops. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To evaluate prognostic markers, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate health index (PHI) and prostate volume indexed measures (PSAD and PHID) for predicting positive prostate cancer biopsies in magnetic resonance (MR) transrectal ultrasound fused versus non-fused transrectal ultrasonography biopsy. (urotoday.com)
  • By promoting plasma cell differentiation earlier during clonal expansion, TACI may decrease the chances of autoantibody production by somatic hypermutation of Ig genes in response to T-independent Ags. (elsevier.com)
  • In humans, the carcinoembryonic antigen family consists of 29 genes, 18 of which are normally expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The investigation has allowed the identification of several bovine homologues of human CD antigens that have not been previously defined in cattle and the cross-reacting mAbs will be valuable reagents for future investigations of bovine immunology. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we demonstrate that P-gp functions in IL-12-dependent monocyte differentiation into dendritic cell (DC) lineages during APC maturation, thereby regulating the capacity of myeloid-derived APCs to elicit alloimmune Th1 responses. (meta.org)
  • Therefore, LILRA2 activation, by altering GM-CSF-induced monocyte differentiation into immature DC, provides a mechanism for down-regulating the ability of the innate immune system to activate the adaptive T cell response while promoting an inflammatory response. (colorado.edu)
  • (1) identified the first melanoma antigen gene, MAGE-1 3 ( MAGE-A1 ), in a human melanoma cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. (rupress.org)
  • We report here the identification of another gene that also directs the expression of an antigen recognized on most melanomas by CTL clones that are restricted by HLA-A2. (rupress.org)
  • False negative results seen with immunochromatographic MPT 64 antigen assay could be due to mutations within the mpt64 gene. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Here we describe a new mouse strain, in which human interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene encoding the cytokine that is important for B- and T-cell differentiation was knocked into its respective mouse locus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Communication received through cell contact is critical for the differentiation of specialized effector cell populations during the immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our findings underscore the importance of antigen-dependent, direct cytotoxic immune responses in stroke and suggest modulation of CTLs and their effector pathways as a potential new strategy for stroke therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These functions follow opposite rules to the classic CD8 effector functions since they are generated prior to cell expansion and decline before antigen elimination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, these data establish that Cdc42 is critically involved in thymopoiesis and plays a restrictive role in effector and memory T cell differentiation and autoimmunity. (plos.org)
  • ThCTL require Blimp-1 for their differentiation, suggesting a unique effector CD4 population. (umassmed.edu)
  • The addition of antibody SB-10 Fab fragments to human MSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation in vitro accelerated the process, thereby implicating a role for ALCAM during bone morphogenesis and adding ALCAM to the group of cell adhesion molecules involved in osteogenesis. (ovid.com)
  • These molecules, known as "ligands to differentiation antigens ," are expected to be useful to both basic research and in the manufacture of safe cell-based therapies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our analysis revealed specific changes in the expression of a large number of cell surface antigens including molecules involved in antigen uptake and processing, cell migration and antigen presentation. (naver.com)
  • Among thymocytes, the distribution of the B14 determinant largely overlaps with that of the TL antigen and of molecules binding peanut agglutinin. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies of their tumor antigens (Tags) have led to appreciation of the role of tyrosine phosphorylation, PI3K and p53 in oncogenic transformation. (tufts.edu)
  • Immunization against defined tumor antigens using a xenogeneic DNA vaccine is currently being tested in early phase clinical trials for the treatment of melanoma and prostate cancers, with proposed trials for breast cancer and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumor antigens can be broadly categorized into two types - those that are undefined and others that are well defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that TACI has dual B cell-autonomous functions, inhibiting prolonged B cell proliferation and stimulating plasma cell differentiation, thus resolving the longstanding paradox that TACI may have both B cell-inhibitory and -stimulatory functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results reveal a new function for heme as a ligand of Bach2 and as a modulatory signal involved in plasma cell differentiation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Characterization and differentiation of a soluble lipopolysaccharide type antigen from Treponema hyodysenteriae. (arizona.edu)
  • Structural Characterization of the Human B Lymphocyte-Restricted Differentiation Antigen CD22," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigens with expression restricted to the recipient hematopoietic compartment represent prospective immunological targets for graft-versus-leukemia therapy. (jci.org)
  • These findings (i) demonstrate the value of using a panel of antibodies for leukocyte antigens to differentiate plasmacytomas from other cutaneous and oral round cell tumours, and (ii) suggest that immune recognition and responsiveness within tumours may play a role in the behaviour of plasmacytomas in dogs by affecting tumour cell growth and differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Serologic responses to specific parasite antigens can differentiate acutely infected patients from those chronically infected. (ajtmh.org)
  • Altogether, the present data indicate that PGE2 stimulates human CD40-activated B cell growth, but differently modulates cytokine-induced differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Confirmation and differentiation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 and 2 with a strip-based assay including recombinant antigens and synthetic peptides. (aaccjnls.org)
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
  • Changes to desmosomal antigens and lectin-binding sites during differentiation in normal human epidermis: a quantitative ultrastructural study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies are important mediators of alloresponses, but structural insights on antibody:HLA interaction are still lacking. (nature.com)
  • Although antigen-specific human IgM antibody responses are generated, the achievement of affinity maturation and class-switching from the IgM to the IgG isotype has been particularly difficult. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 5 , 6 Several reports demonstrated that antigen-specific human IgG can be detected in humanized mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Here, a first analysis was performed using selected antibodies not yet included in human leukocyte differentiation antigen workshop 8 (HLDA-8). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Thirty-seven subpanels of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) included within the Vth International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens (Vth Workshop) were assayed for reactivity with bovine peripheral blood leucocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Role of the CD22 Human B Cell Antigen in B Cell Triggering by Anti-Immunoglobulin," J. Immunol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present study investigated (i) the relationship between standardised morphometric AgNOR parameters (argyrophilic nucleolar organiser region-associated proteins) and MIB1 growth fraction, and (ii) their correlation with immunohistochemical p53, sex steroid receptor status and histopathological differentiation grade in serial paraffin sections from 39 breast carcinomas. (hindawi.com)
  • it may therefore represent a new receptor important for myeloid differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • It functions as a B-cell activation receptor and B-lymphocyte development and differentiation agent, presumably through modulating intracellular calcium levels. (novusbio.com)
  • These compounds act as high-affinity ligands for a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily PPARγ, which has been shown to play an important role in adipocyte differentiation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether leukocyte Ig-like receptor A2 (LILRA2) regulates DC differentiation by using leprosy as a model. (colorado.edu)
  • Jessell TM and Dodd J (1984) Structure and expression of differentiation antigens on functional subsets of primary sensory neurons. (springer.com)
  • Kapadia A, Feizi T and Evans MJ (1981) Cahnges in the expression and polarization of blood group I and i antigens in post-implantation embryos and teratocarcinomas of mouse associated with cell differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Mollicone R, Davies R, Evans B, Dalix AM and Oriol R (1985) Cellular expression and genetic control of ABH antigens in primary sensory neurons of marmoset baboon and man. (springer.com)
  • Significance of myeloid antigen expression in precursor T lymphoblastic lymphoma. (nih.gov)
  • PyST inhibited Akt and its effect on differentiation was reversed by the expression of activated Akt. (tufts.edu)
  • Expression of carboxypeptidase M on mRNA level and enzymatic activity markedly increase during in vitro differentiation of monocytes, according to the described increase in MAX.1 and MAX.11 antigen expression. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Vitamin D3-induced monocytic differentiation resulted in an increased carboxypeptidase M expression in all three cell lines. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Immunoselection in vivo: independent loss of MHC class I and melanocyte differentiation antigen expression in metastatic melanoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: expression of monocyte/macrophage differentiation antigens detected with monoclonal antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Interestingly, miR-17-92 and FOXO1 act as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The clinical relevance of myeloid antigen expression in childhood ALL is controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • Myeloid antigen expression was found in 25% of patients. (hindawi.com)
  • No association was found between myeloid antigen expression and clinical or biological features. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the clinical relevance of myeloid antigen expression in childhood ALL as a prognostic factor remains controversial [ 5 , 8 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the relevance of myeloid antigen expression on both B-lineage and T-lineage ALL patients for treatment outcome was also analyzed. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, P-gp blockade during differentiation inhibited CD1a induction, down-regulated CD80 expression, enhanced CD86 expression and induced CD68 expression. (meta.org)
  • The act of the APC ingesting antigen and breaking it down stimulates the expression of B7. (brainscape.com)
  • mAbs from each of the 27 different CD groups that contained a mAb reacting with cattle were further investigated to compare the cellular expression of the antigen in cattle with that reported for the different CD antigens in humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, expression of STAT factors increased during DC differentiation and their expression was virtually unaffected by TNFα. (naver.com)
  • These data suggest that severe acute CD4 + T cell-mediated GVHD across this minor histocompatibility antigen barrier depends on the expression of nonhematopoietically rather than hematopoietically derived alloantigens for maximal target-tissue infiltration and injury. (jci.org)
  • alpha Pro-Im1 and alpha Pro-Im2 were used to investigate the surface expression and tissue distribution of these two antigens. (ashpublications.org)
  • Recognition of these antigens presents problems, especially how one can overcome immune tolerance. (grantome.com)
  • Thus, these studies prove that Tfh immune response can be regulated positively or negatively, and to better understand Tfh response modulation, it is important to characterize Tfh differentiation and its regulators. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • B14‐2‐14 offers an additional method for identification and selection of thymocytes at different stages of differentiation, and should also be useful for studies of the Thy‐1 antigen. (elsevier.com)
  • The cullin-RING ligase (CRL)-NEDD8 pathway maintains essential cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA repair, antigen processing and signal transduction. (medsci.org)
  • Each B call within the host expresses a different antibody on its surface-thus, one B cell will express antibody specific for one antigen, while another B cell will express antibody specific for a different antigen. (justia.com)
  • Such antibody production most typically ceases (or substantially decreases) when the foreign antigen has been neutralized. (justia.com)
  • The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for detecting and quantifying antigens of interest. (biocompare.com)
  • an antigen (marker) on the surface of a cell, usually a lymphocyte. (drugs.com)
  • A cell surface antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The HB-6, CDw75, and CD76 Differentiation Antigens are Unique Cell-Surface Carbohydrate Determinants Generated by the .beta. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Until recently, digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen have been used for diagnosis of prostate cancer. (urotoday.com)
  • Prognostic significance of prostate-specific antigen in defining indications for initial prostate biopsy]. (urotoday.com)
  • The indication for the procedure is an elevated level of the serum level of the total prostate-specific antigen (PSA). (urotoday.com)
  • The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) has previously demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening decreases prostate cancer (PCa) mortality. (urotoday.com)
  • Phenol sulfuric test active peak (PSAP), a schistosome-specific antigen was radiolabeled with Bolton-Hunter reagent, purified, and used in two radioimmunoassays which measured total and IgG-specific antibodies in acutely, early, and chronically Schistosoma mansoni -infected patients. (ajtmh.org)
  • CD antigens can act in lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology. (sinobiological.com)
  • We have used a mouse melanoma model to show that mice can be tolerant to the tyrosinase family of differentiation antigens. (grantome.com)
  • In aim 4, we will continue to create more relevant mouse models of melanoma that develop endogenous invasive melanomas to study tumor immunity against differentiation and mutant antigens. (grantome.com)
  • Akt inhibitor could block SV40ST activation of myoblast differentiation in a dose dependent manner. (tufts.edu)
  • Undefined and unidentified antigens are found in both allogeneic and autologous vaccine settings described below. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results from CARTITUDE-1: A Phase 1b/2 Study of JNJ-4528, a CAR-T Cell Therapy Directed Against B-Cell Maturation Antigen (BCMA), in Patients with Relapsed and/or Refractory Multiple Myeloma (R/R MM)". Blood. (wikipedia.org)