Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute: A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Nerve Tissue ProteinsImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell SeparationCoculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins: Inhibitor of differentiation proteins are negative regulators of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. They inhibit CELL DIFFERENTIATION and induce CELL PROLIFERATION by modulating different CELL CYCLE regulators.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. It plays a role in regulating IMMUNOGLOBULIN E expression.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 1: A negative regulator of BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that blocks activation of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and is de-regulated in a variety of NEOPLASMS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/4207)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (2/4207)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of ADP-ribosyl cyclase from Euglena gracilis. (3/4207)

ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion from NAD+ to cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADPR), is proposed to participate in cell cycle regulation in Euglena gracilis. This enzyme, which was found as a membrane-bound protein, was purified almost the homogeneity after solubilization with deoxycholate, and found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. Its Km value for NAD+ was estimated to be 0.4 mM, and cADPR, a product of the enzyme, inhibited the enzyme competitively with respect to NAD+ whereas another product, nicotinamide, showed noncompetitive (mixed-type) inhibition. In contrast to mammalian CD38 and BST-1, Euglena ADP-ribosyl cyclase lacked cADPR hydrolase activity.  (+info)

The CTLA-4 gene is expressed in placental fibroblasts. (4/4207)

In order to elucidate the mechanisms that ensure survival of the allogeneic fetus, we are investigating the expression pattern of genes that are involved in peripheral self-tolerance in tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative regulator of T cell activation and may modulate peripheral self-tolerance. Previously, we reported the preferential transmission of maternally-inherited shorter alleles at a 3'-UTR microsatellite locus to liveborn children, but random transmission of paternally-inherited alleles, suggesting that CTLA-4 may be involved in the maintenance of tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. In this report, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 mRNA and protein are indeed expressed in fetal tissues at the maternal-fetal interface throughout gestation.  (+info)

Characterization of viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy: relationships to host factors, cellular restoration, and virologic end points. (5/4207)

Biphasic plasma viral decays were modeled in 48 patients treated with ritonavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. Estimated first- and second-phase decay rates were d1 as 0.47/day and d2 as 0.04/day. Interpatient differences in both decay rates were significant. The d1 was directly correlated with baseline CD4+, CD4+CD28+, and CD8+CD28+ T lymphocyte counts (P<.05) and inversely correlated with baseline virus load (P=.044) and the magnitude of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte recovery (P<.01). The d2 was directly correlated with baseline percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes (P=.023), the CD8+CD38+ cell number (P=.024), and the level of IgG that binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 (P=.02). Viral decay rates were not predictive of treatment failure or durability of viral suppression. These exploratory findings are consistent with a model in which immunologic factors contribute to elimination of HIV-infected cells and suggest a dynamic interplay between regulation of HIV expression and lymphocyte activation and recovery.  (+info)

Shorter survival in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is more closely associated with T lymphocyte activation than with plasma virus burden or virus chemokine coreceptor usage. (6/4207)

To define predictors of survival time in late human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, long- and short-duration survivors were studied after their CD4+ T cells fell to +info)

Cellular and molecular characterization of the scurfy mouse mutant. (7/4207)

Mice hemizygous (Xsf/Y) for the X-linked mutation scurfy (sf) develop a severe and rapidly fatal lymphoproliferative disease mediated by CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes. We have undertaken phenotypic and functional studies to more accurately identify the immunologic pathway(s) affected by this important mutation. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphoid cell populations reveal that scurfy syndrome is characterized by changes in several phenotypic parameters, including an increase in Mac-1+ cells and a decrease in B220+ cells, changes that may result from the production of extremely high levels of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage CSF by scurfy T cells. Scurfy T cells also exhibit strong up-regulation of cell surface Ags indicative of in vivo activation, including CD69, CD25, CD80, and CD86. Both scurfy and normal T cells are responsive to two distinct signals provided by the TCR and by ligation of CD28; scurfy cells, however, are hyperresponsive to TCR ligation and exhibit a decreased requirement for costimulation through CD28 relative to normal controls. This hypersensitivity may result, in part, from increased costimulation through B7-1 and B7-2, whose expression is up-regulated on scurfy T cells. Although the specific defect leading to this hyperactivation has not been identified, we also demonstrate that scurfy T cells are less sensitive than normal controls to inhibitors of tyrosine kinases such as genistein and herbimycin A, and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A. One interpretation of our data would suggest that the scurfy mutation results in a defect, which interferes with the normal down-regulation of T cell activation.  (+info)

IL-5 induces IgG1 isotype switch recombination in mouse CD38-activated sIgD-positive B lymphocytes. (8/4207)

Mouse B cells express CD38, whose ligation by anti-CD38 Ab induces their proliferation and protection from apoptosis. We previously showed that stimulation of mouse splenic B cells with IL-5 together with CS/2, an anti-mouse CD38 mAb, induces production of IgG1 and IgM. Here we examined the role of IL-5 and CS/2 in the expression of germline gamma1 transcripts and the generation of reciprocal products forming DNA circles as byproducts of mu-gamma1 switch recombination. By itself, CS/2 induced significant expression of germline gamma1 transcripts in splenic naive B cells, whereas IL-5 neither induced nor enhanced germline gamma1 expression. Increased cellular content of reciprocal product, which is characteristic of mu-gamma1 recombination, was not observed after culturing B cells with CS/2, but increased reciprocal product, along with high levels of lgG1 secretion, was found when B cells were cultured with CS/2 plus IL-5. Although IL-4 did not, by itself, induce mu-gamma1 recombination in B cells stimulated with CS/2, in conjunction with CS/2 plus IL-5, IL-4 dramatically enhanced sterile gamma1 transcription and IgG1 production. These results demonstrate that CD38 ligation induces only germline gamma1 transcription and that IL-5 promotes both mu-gamma1 switch recombination and lgG1 secretion in an IL-4-independent manner.  (+info)

*Cluster of differentiation

White Cell Differentiation Antigens. Oxford University Press. Knapp, W; et al. (1989). Leucocyte Typing IV. Oxford University ... Since 1982 there have been nine Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops culminating in a conference The CD system is ... Bernard A, Boumsell L (1984). "[Human leukocyte differentiation antigens]". Presse Med (in French). 13 (38): 2311-6. PMID ... 1995). Leucocyte Typing V: White cell differentiation antigens. Oxford University Press. Kishimoto, T; et al. (1997). Leucocyte ...

*CD34

White cell differentiation antigens.Oxford University Press 630-635. Nielsen JS, McNagny KM (Nov 2008). "Novel functions of the ... Antigens, CD34 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... Hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34 also known as CD34 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD34 gene. ... White cell differentiation antigens. Oxford University Press, 654-655. Loken M. Shah V. Civin CI.. (1987). "Characterization of ...

*Hematopoietic stem cell

White cell differentiation antigens. Oxford University Press 654-655. Loken M. Shah V. Civin CI.. (1987). ""Characterization of ... hematopoietic cell surface antigen defined by a monoclonal antibody raised against KG-1a cells". Journal of Immunology. 133 (1 ... All three types are normal types of HSC, and they do not represent stages of differentiation. Rather, these are three classes ... Many markers belong to the cluster of differentiation series, like: CD34, CD38, CD90, CD133, CD105, CD45, and also c-kit, - the ...

*Microglia

Perivascular microglia also react strongly to macrophage differentiation antigens. These microglia have been shown to be ... CD45 antigens, and many other surface receptors required to act in the antigen-presenting, phagocytic, and cytotoxic roles that ... In some cases, microglia can also be activated by IFN-γ to present antigens, but do not function as effectively as if they had ... As mentioned above, resident non-activated microglia act as poor antigen presenting cells due to their lack of MHC class I/II ...

*MNDA

Myeloid cell Nuclear Differentiation Antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded as MNDA gene. The myeloid cell nuclear ... "Entrez Gene: MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen". Burrus GR, Briggs JA, Briggs RC (February 1992). " ... nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen ... "The human myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen gene is one of at least two related interferon-inducible genes located ...

*CD43

Fukuda M, Carlsson SR (1987). "Leukosialin, a major sialoglycoprotein on human leukocytes as differentiation antigens". Med. ... CD43 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human SPN genome location and SPN gene ... Leukosialin also known as sialophorin or CD43 (cluster of differentiation 43) is a transmembrane cell surface protein that in ... it is generally less effective at demonstrating this condition than is CD3 antigen. However, it may be useful as part of a ...

*Park Seong-hoe

JL1, a novel differentiation antigen of human cortical thymocyte. J Exp Med. 178:1447-51, 1993 Choi EY, Park WS, Jung KC, Chung ... He also found the novel antigen JL1 expressed in thymocytes (J Exp Med. 178:1447-51, 1993). JL1 is a unique epitope of CD43 ... Besides, he found the novel antigen JL1 on thymocytes, which has been developed as a therapeutic target for leukemia. Now he is ... His another important achievement is the induction of antigen-specific T cell tolerance, which has been a distant dream of ...

*Ocular albinism type 1

have characterized OA1 immunologically as a melanoma/melanocyte differentiation antigen. Flow cytometry data suggests that OA1- ... This indicates that OA1 peptide is processed and presented on the surface of melanoma cells to be recognized by antigen- ...

*CD4

Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... CD1 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen ... "Joint Report of the First International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens by the Investigators of the ... The antigen has also been associated with a number of autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo and type I diabetes mellitus. T- ...

*CD1E

Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (23): 9154-8. ... CD1E Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD1A genome location and CD1A gene ... The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. ...

*CD1D

Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (23): 9154-8. ... A differentiation of these two types can be obtained in human by using an antibody against the TCR Vα24 chain, which is ... CD1d-presented lipid antigens activate a special class of T cells, known as natural killer T (NKT) cells, through the ...

*CD1A

Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human thymocyte differentiation antigen genes". EMBO J. 8 (12): ... a family of major histocompatibility complex-related differentiation antigens". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (23): 9154-8. ... CD1a (Cluster of Differentiation 1a) is a human protein encoded by the CD1A gene. This gene encodes a member of the CD1 family ... 1988). "Structure and expression of the human thymocyte antigens CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (24): ...

*Alan Williams (immunologist)

... differentiation antigens of rat lymphocytes". Cell. 12: 696-703. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(77)90266-5. Thomas ML, Barclay AN, ... Gagnon J, Williams AF (1985). "Purification, chain separation and sequence of the MRC OX-8 antigen, a marker of rat cytotoxic T ... "Evidence from cDNA clones that the rat leukocyte-common antigen (T200) spans the lipid bilayer and contains a cytoplasmic ...

*CD20

... differentiation antigen is located on chromosome 11 near the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation site". Journal of Immunology. 142 ... "Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1)". Journal of Immunology. 142 (7): 2560- ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... CD20 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ...

*CD6

Tsuge I, Utsumi KR, Ueda R, Takamoto S, Takahashi T (1985). "Assignment of gene coding human T-cell differentiation antigen, ... CD6 (Cluster of Differentiation 6) is a human protein encoded by the CD6 gene. This gene encodes a protein found on the outer ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000013725 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Involvement of CD166 in the activation of human gamma delta T cells by tumor cells sensitized with nonpeptide antigens". J. ...

*Clonal hypereosinophilia

The FLT3 gene codes for the cluster of differentiation antigen 135 (i.e. CD135) protein or FLT3 protein. This protein is a ... It mediates at least in part the cell proliferating signaling stimulated by PDGF receptors as well as by antigen receptors on T ... PDGFRA, through its tyrosine kinase activity, contributes to the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of cells. ... PDGFRA, through its tyrosine kinase activity, contributes to the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of cells. ...

*Mast cell leukemia

Mast cell differentiation antigens: expression in normal and malignant cells and use for diagnostic purposes". Eur. J. Clin. ...

*Mesothelin

... is a tumour differentiation antigen that is normally present on the mesothelial cells lining the pleura, peritoneum ... Chang K, Pastan I (January 1996). "Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, ... Chang K, Pai LH, Batra JK, Pastan I, Willingham MC (January 1992). "Characterization of the antigen (CAK1) recognized by ...

*CD163

Law SK, Micklem KJ, Shaw JM, Zhang XP, Dong Y, Willis AC, Mason DY (1993). "A new macrophage differentiation antigen which is a ... CD163 (Cluster of Differentiation 163) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD163 gene. CD163 is the high affinity ... Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177575 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...

*CD7

"Molecular cloning of the gene coding for the human T cell differentiation antigen CD7". Immunogenetics. 33 (5-6): 352-60. doi: ... CD7 (Cluster of Differentiation 7) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD7 gene. This gene encodes a transmembrane ... Cluster of differentiation CD7 has been shown to interact with PIK3R1. CD7 can be aberrantly expressed in refractory anaemia ... Aruffo A, Seed B (November 1987). "Molecular cloning of two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system ...

*CD48

... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... CD48 was the first B-cell-specific cellular differentiation antigen identified in transformed B lymphoblasts. The gene for CD48 ... "Epstein-Barr virus superinduces a new human B cell differentiation antigen (B-LAST 1) expressed on transformed lymphoblasts". ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ...

*CD84

... analysis with a newly generated set of monoclonal antibodies to differentiation antigens". Blood. 67 (5): 1257-64. PMID 3008886 ... CD84 (Cluster of Differentiation 84) is a human protein encoded by the CD84 gene. Members of the CD2 (see MIM 186990) subgroup ... de la Fuente MA, Pizcueta P, Nadal M, Bosch J, Engel P (Sep 1997). "CD84 leukocyte antigen is a new member of the Ig ... Krause SW, Rehli M, Heinz S, Ebner R, Andreesen R (Mar 2000). "Characterization of MAX.3 antigen, a glycoprotein expressed on ...

*CD15

... (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ... It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... Sialyl Lewis X CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kerr MA, Stocks SC (November ...

*PDPN

The homologous protein in other species has been described as a differentiation antigen and influenza-virus receptor. The ... 2005). "Characterization of human PA2.26 antigen (T1alpha-2, podoplanin), a small membrane mucin induced in oral squamous cell ...

*Chang Yi Wang

Expression of a 1a-like antigen on human granulocytes during early stages of differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1977; 74: ... Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing two distinct differentiation antigens Pro-Im1, Pro-Im2 on ... Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing three distinct differentiation antigens (BL1, BL2, and ... Human lymphocyte bearing 1a-like antigens [now termed HLA-DK or class 1 MHC antigen]: Absence in patients with infantile ...

*Death-associated protein 6

It interacts with a wide variety of proteins, such as apoptosis antigen Fas, centromere protein C, and transcription factor ... TGF-β regulates a variety of different cellular developmental processes including growth, differentiation, proliferation, and ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Background: Associations between polymorphisms in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) / interleukin-18 (IL-18) and susceptibility to liver diseases were already reported by many publications. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify associations between polymorphisms in CTLA-4/IL-18 and liver diseases by combing the results of all relevant publications. Methods: Eligible publications were searched from Pubmed, Embase, WOS and CNKI. The latest literature searching update was performed on 2nd October, 2019. We used Review Manager to combine the results of individual studies. Results: Sixty-seven studies were included in this study. Combined results revealed that CTLA-4 rs231775 (dominant comparison: OR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.79-0.88; recessive comparison: OR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.23-1.43; allele comparison: OR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.78-0.90), IL-18 rs1946518 (dominant comparison: OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78-0.92; recessive comparison: OR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.13-1.48; allele comparison: OR 0.79, 95 % CI ...
The emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumor treatments represents a major oncological advance. Since the approval of ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibody, for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, many drugs, especially those targeting PD1/PD-L1, have demonstrated promising antitumor effects in many types of cancer. By reactivating the immune system (IS), these immunotherapies have led to the development of new toxicity profiles, also called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). IrAEs can involve many organ systems, and their management is radically different from that of cytotoxic drugs; irAEs require immunosuppressive treatments, such as corticoids or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody. Additionally, the occurrence of irAEs has raised significant questions. Here, we summarize progress that has been made toward answering these questions, focusing on 1) the impact of immunotherapy dose on irAE occurrence, 2) the correlation ...
Abstract Download Blockade of various immune targets such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and Programmed cell death leads to immune-mediated tumor regression and immune-related adverse events, predominantly gastrointestinal events including diarrhea and colitis. The current review is done to understand the […]. ...
Human Cell Differentiation Molecules is an organisation which runs HLDA (Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules.
Two closely related proteins, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα; SHPS-1/CD172) and SIRPβ, have been described in humans. The existence of a third SIRP protein has been suggested by cDNA sequence only. We show that this third SIRP is a separate gene that is expressed as a protein with unique characteristics from both α and β genes and suggest that this gene should be termed SIRPγ. We have expressed the extracellular region of SIRPγ as a soluble protein and have shown that, like SIRPα, it binds CD47, but with a lower affinity (K d , ∼23 μM) compared with SIRPα (K d , ∼2 μM). mAbs specific to SIRPγ show that it was not expressed on myeloid cells, in contrast to SIRPα and -β, being expressed instead on the majority of T cells and a proportion of B cells. The short cytoplasmic tail of SIRPγ does not contain any known signaling motifs, nor does it contain a characteristic lysine, as with SIRPα, that is required for DAP12 interaction. DAP12 coexpression is a requirement for SIRPβ surface
Our findings support the hypothesis that T cell activation is a critical and proximal event in the complex chronic inflammatory cascade that culminates in the generation of psoriatic plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the accumulation of mature DCs in a human autoimmune target organ, the skin. Additionally, the resolution of activated phenotypes on lesional keratinocytes, DCs, and vascular endothelium after T cell costimulatory blockade has not previously been reported. Thus, these data expand upon our prior observations (15) and provide possible mechanisms for the observed durable reduction in intralesional T cells after administration of CTLA4Ig. We have demonstrated that a reduced capacity for lesional T cell clonal expansion (due to reversion of the lesional skin APC population to a less mature/immunocompetent state) and decreased vascular recruitment may both have been contributory factors. These observations suggest that clinical activity in this chronic ...
The combined results show that the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against experimental melanoma is markedly increased by interfering with mechanisms that normally keep autoimmune responses in check. Antitumor treatment is strongly improved if vaccination is either accompanied by CTLA-4 blockade or preceded by a depletion of CD25+ Treg cells. These intervention strategies act synergistically, in that combination of CTLA-4 blockade and depletion of CD25+ Treg cells results in maximal efficacy of therapeutic vaccination. The potency of the different treatment modalities for preventing B16 melanoma outgrowth strongly correlates with the extent of autoimmune skin depigmentation in the treated mice as well as with the frequency of TRP-2180-188-specific CTLs detected in the periphery. Furthermore, antitumor protection was abrogated upon depletion of the CD8+ T cell subset. Therefore, our data indicate that the CTL response against melanoma-associated autoantigens is an important component of the ...
A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with immunosuppressive activity. Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes.
Interaction of signal regulatory protein (SIRP) expressed on the surface of macrophages with its ligand CD47 expressed on target cells negatively regulates phagocytosis of the latter cells by the former. We recently showed that blocking Abs to mouse SIRP enhanced both the Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activity of mouse macrophages for Burkitts lymphoma Raji cells opsonized with an Ab to CD20 (rituximab) invitro as well as the inhibitory effect of rituximab on the growth of tumors formed by Raji cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice. However, the effects of blocking Abs to human SIRP in preclinical cancer models have remained unclear given that such Abs have failed to interact with endogenous SIRP expressed on macrophages of immunodeficient mice. With the use of Rag2(c)(-/-)(-/-) mice harboring a transgene for human SIRP under the control of human regulatory elements (hSIRP-DKO mice), we here show that a blocking Ab to human SIRP significantly enhanced the ADCP activity of ...
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
The monoclonal antibody UC10-4B9 reacts with CD152, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which is a 33 kDa member of the immunoglobin superfamily and is expressed on activated T cells at a low level. CTLA-4 and CD28 have similarities concerning B7 family counter-receptors. While CD28 delivers a costimulary signal in T cell activation, CD152 restricts the progression of T cells to an activated state by inhibiting interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion and cellular proliferation. A large proportion of CTLA-4 is intracellular localized. For a complete detection it may be necessary to assess intracellular staining in addition to surface expression of CD152. - Liechtenstein
Cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the immune system to target tumor specific antigens to generate an immune response. This initial response requires both binding of the MHC/antigen peptide to T-cell receptor complex along with a second co-stimulatory signal created by the binding of CD28 on the T cell with B7 located on the antigen presenting cell. Regulatory checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), serve to attenuate this signal, thereby preventing autoimmunity. Its key role in regulating the immune system has made CTLA-4 an attractive therapeutic target for cancer, with the development of fully human monoclonal antibodies that have successfully targeted CTLA-4 in clinical trials. Augmentation of the immune response via blockade of CTLA-4 represents a significant advance in the field of oncology and has demonstrated an improvement in survival for patients with metastatic melanoma. An increased understanding of the components of this pathway and the ...
This medicine is human anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4) monoclonal antibody. It binds to CTLA-4 receptor of T-cell (immune cell) to enhance growth/activation/cytotoxic activity of tumor antigen-specific T-cell. It consequently suppresses tumor growth. It also decreases regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and reduces the number of Treg in the tumor tissue. It consequently increases anti-tumor immune response and suppresses tumor growth ...
CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, CD152) protein. CTLA4 blocking antibodies are used in cancer therapy (immune checkpoint blockade therapy). Space-filling model with conventional colour coding. - Stock Image F019/2238
A high mutational load and the presence of a T-cell-"inflamed" environment may independently predict for treatment response to pembrolizumab (Keytruda) and progression-free survival, according to a study presented by Tanguy Seiwert, MD, of the University of Chicago, at the 2017 ASCO-SITC Clinical Immuno-Oncology Symposium.1. "Nonsynonymous mutational load and neoantigen load as well as an 18-gene immune-related gene-expression profiling were significantly associated with overall response and progression-free survival to pembrolizumab across multiple indications," Dr. Seiwert revealed. "This suggests that tumor antigenicity and T-cell infiltration may provide complementary information for expected pembrolizumab activity" and may be useful in characterizing responses to immunotherapies, he said.. Tumor mutational load has been shown to correlate with benefit from drugs blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) in multiple tumor types. ...
Hereditary Factors:, Linkage:, Origin:, Serology: Antigen, Congenic Resistant Lines: A.SW, Genes: Ly-3 - Lymphocyte antigen-3, Lyt-3, Ly-1 - Lymphocyte antigen-1, ly-a, Lyt-1, mu - greek, Ly-2 - Lymphocyte antigen-2, Lyt-2, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), AKR, BALB/C, CBA/H-T6T6, CE, C3H/AN, C3H/BI, C3HF (C3HB, ZB), C57BL/6, C57BL/10, C57BR/CD, C58, DA, DBA/2 (212), GR, H-2I (HTI), H-2H (HTH), I, L (P), LP, NZB, PL (PLA, PLB), RF (W), SJL, ST/B (STB), SWR, 129. ...
SIRP alpha小鼠多克隆抗体(ab77061)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The HuGEMM CTLA-4 mouse model is a chimeric tumor model where the mouse immune system is functional and the CTLA-4 receptors have been humanized
High-quality CTLA-4 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
Prior therapy with any antibody/drug that targets the T cell coregulatory proteins, including but not limited to, anti-CD137, Anti Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4) or Anti-Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (anti-GITR). However, Anti-Programmed Death-1 (anti-PD-1), Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand1 (anti-PD-L1) are permissible as prior ...
Complete information for SIRPA gene (Protein Coding), Signal Regulatory Protein Alpha, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The P84 monoclonal antibody reacts with Signal-Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα), also known as CD172a. SIRPα is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Neurons and other tissues of the central nervous system have also been shown to express SIRPα. Its ligand, CD47 is expressed by a wide variety of cells. SIRPα and CD47 regulate dendritic cell-mediated T cell activation, neutrophil migration, and phagocytosis. SIRPα diffuses laterally on the macrophage membrane and accumulates at a phagocytic synapse to bind CD47 which inhibits phagocytosis by macrophages. Anti-SIRPα antibodies that block the interaction of SIRPα with CD47 have been shown to suppress tumor formation in mice. The P84 antibody has been shown to have neutralizing activity in vivo and in vitro ...
B cell development is a highly organized process, which commences in the fetal liver during embryogenesis and in the bone marrow (BM) after birth. Surface IgM+ immature B cells emigrate from the BM via the blood stream to the spleen and finally differentiate into conventional mature follicular B (FoB) cells and marginal zone (MZ) B cells. Conversely, some sIgM+ immature B cells can also mature into IgD+ FoB cells in the BM.. The ubiquitously expressed cell surface glycoprotein CD47 and its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Both individually and upon their interaction, CD47 and SIRPα have been found to play important role in the homeostasis of T lymphocytes or CD8- conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. However, their role in regulating B cell homeostasis has remained unknown.. The present study describes important roles of CD47 and SIRPα in B cell homeostasis. Lack of SIRPα signaling in adult SIRPα mutant ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming a cornerstone of cancer immunotherapy as a result of their clinical success in relieving immune suppression and driving durable antitumor T cell responses in certain subsets of patients. Unfortunately, checkpoint inhibition is also associated with treatment-related toxicities that result in a myriad of side effects, ranging from mild and manageable to severe and debilitating. In this issue of the JCI, Das and colleagues report an association between early therapy-induced changes in circulating B cells and an increased risk of high-grade immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). These findings identify potential predictive biomarkers for high-grade IRAEs that may be leveraged to improve patient monitoring and may prompt new treatment strategies to prevent IRAEs.. ...
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), including antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), have shown durable treatment...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
Design of efficacious Treg-based therapies and establishment of clinical tolerance in autoimmune diseases have proven to be challenging. The clinical implementation of Treg immunotherapy has been hampered by various impediments related to the stability and isolation procedures of Tregs as well as the specific in vivo targets of Treg modalities. Herein, we have demonstrated that Foxp3+ Tregs potently suppress autoimmune responses in vivo through inhibition of the autophagic machinery in DCs in a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-dependent (CTLA4-dependent) manner. Autophagy-deficient DCs exhibited reduced immunogenic potential and failed to prime autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells to mediate autoimmunity. Mechanistically, CTLA4 binding promoted activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis and FoxO1 nuclear exclusion in DCs, leading to decreased transcription of the autophagy component microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3β (Lc3b). Human DCs treated with CTLA4-Ig, a fusion protein ...
GZMB - GZMB (untagged)-Human granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1) (GZMB) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Targeting the CD47-signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach to enhance anti-cancer immunity by promoting both innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike CD47, which is expressed ubiquitously, SIRPα expression is mainly restricted to myeloid cells and neurons. Therefore, compared to CD47-targeted therapies, targeting SIRPα may result in differential safety and efficacy profiles, potentially enabling lower effective doses and improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The development of effective SIRPα antagonists is restricted by polymorphisms within the CD47-binding domain of SIRPα, necessitating pan-allele reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies for therapeutic intervention in diverse patient populations. We immunized wild-type and human antibody transgenic chickens with a multi-allele and multi-species SIRPα regimen in order to discover pan-allelic and pan-mammalian reactive anti-SIRPα antibodies suitable for clinical translation. A total of ...
Immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes.
To endow the immune system with the capacity to fight cancer has always attracted attention, although the clinical results obtained have been until recently disappointing. Cutaneous melanoma is a highly immunogenic tumor; therefore most of the attempts to produce cancer vaccines have been addressed to this disease. New advances in the comprehension of the mechanisms of antigen presentation by dendritic cells, in the immune responses triggered by adjuvants, as well as the understanding of the role of immunosuppressor molecules such as Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which led to the recent approval of the anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, have opened new hopes about the installment of immunotherapy as a new modality to treat cancer.
Reaktivität: Rind (Kuh), Pferd, Human and more. 68 verschiedene SIRPG Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ T-Lymphocyte antigen 4, Host species: rabbit, polyclonal antibody \ CTLA4-101AP for more molecular products just contact us
CD47 (Cluster of Differentiation 47) also known as integrin associated protein (IAP) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the CD47 gene. CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα).
CD47 is involved in a range of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Furthermore, it plays a key role in immune and angiogenic responses. CD47 is ubiquitously expressed in human cells and has been found to be overexpressed in many different tumor cells.
SIRPB1 - SIRPB1 (untagged)-Human signal-regulatory protein beta 1 (SIRPB1), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Looking for online definition of Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 in the Medical Dictionary? Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 explanation free. What is Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1? Meaning of Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 medical term. What does Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1 mean?
Looking for online definition of leukocyte common antigen in the Medical Dictionary? leukocyte common antigen explanation free. What is leukocyte common antigen? Meaning of leukocyte common antigen medical term. What does leukocyte common antigen mean?
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
CD47 is a widely distributed membrane protein that interacts with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα), an inhibitory receptor on myeloid cells that gives a dont-eat-me signal. Manipulation of the interaction is of considerable interest in the immunotherapy of cancer and in xenotransplantation. The amino-terminal ligand binding domain of SIRPα is highly polymorphic in contrast to the single Ig-like domain of CD47. There is confusion as to whether the polymorphisms will affect ligand binding, but this is an important point for this interaction and other paired receptors being considered as targets for therapy. We show by x-ray crystallography that one human SIRPα allele differing in 13 amino acid residues has a very similar binding site and that several different alleles all bind CD47 with similar affinity as expected because the residues are mostly surface-exposed and distant from the binding site. A peptide from the binding site of CD47 has been reported to mimic the CD47 interaction with SIRPα,
... therapies have attracted amounts of attention from scientists who are devoted to cancer treatment. What is immune checkpoint? It is a kind of co-stimulatory and inhibitory signal for regulating the antigen recognition of T cell receptor (TCR) in the process of immune responce. When immune system is attacking pathogens, these immune checkpoint molecules can protect the normal tissues from damage. The cancer cells cleverly escape from immune attack by dysregulating immune checkpoint related proteins. Immune checkpoint therapy relys on functioning immune system with agonists of co-stimulatory signals or antagonists of inhibitory signals. Over these years there are two immune checkpoint receptors that have been actively studied: cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 / CD152) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1 / PDCD1 / CD279). The corresponding antibodies can inhibit the functioning of the receptors and enhance antitumour immunity. Furthermore, multiple ...
Neutrophil granulocytes constitute the front line of defense in the innate immune response to invading microorganisms, but can also contribute to development of inflammatory disease and tissue destruction following e.g. myocardial infarction or stroke. During inflammatory activation, neutrophils leave the blood, interact with extracellular matrix proteins, and migrate into tissues in response to chemotactic factors to phagocytose and kill infectious agents by using toxic granule contents and reactive oxygen metabolites. The functional neutrophil response relies on exocytosis of cytoplasmic granules, each containing membrane proteins, which are thereby mobilized to the plasma membrane. Specific programmed cell death (apoptotic) pathways regulate neutrophil homeostasis, where an inflammatory milieu can prolong the life span of neutrophils to several days, whereas non-activated neutrophils are committed to constitutive/spontaneous apoptosis within hours.. Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) is ...
Background: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. Objective: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. Methods: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. Results: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%;median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16%(n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal ...
Signal integration between activating Fc receptors and inhibitory signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) controls macrophage phagocytosis. Here, using dual-color direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, we report that Fcγ receptor I (FcγRI), FcγRII, and SIRPα are not homogeneously distributed at macrophage surfaces but are organized in discrete nanoclusters, with a mean radius of 71 ± 11 nm, 60 ± 6 nm, and 48 ± 3 nm, respectively. Nanoclusters of FcγRI, but not FcγRII, are constitutively associated with nanoclusters of SIRPα, within 62 ± 5 nm, mediated by the actin cytoskeleton. Upon Fc receptor activation, Src-family kinase signaling leads to segregation of FcγRI and SIRPα nanoclusters to be 197 ± 3 nm apart. Co-ligation of SIRPα with CD47 abrogates nanocluster segregation. If the balance of signals favors activation, FcγRI nanoclusters reorganize into periodically spaced concentric rings. Thus, a nanometer- and micron-scale reorganization of activating and inhibitory
Melanoma is the most malignant form of skin cancer. The five-year survival rate for metastatic melanoma is 19.9%. Although targeted therapy of BRAF and MEK inhibitors were developed for melanoma, resistance to therapy is inevitable. Immune checkpoint blockade, which reverses the suppression of the immune system, on the other hand, has shown a durable response in 20-30% of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, more predictive and robust biomarkers of response to this therapy are still needed, and resistance mechanisms remain incompletely understood. To address this, we examined a cohort of metastatic melanoma patients treated with sequential checkpoint blockade against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) followed by programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) by immunogenomic profile analyses from serial tumor biopsies. From immune profiling (12 marker immunohistochemistry and NanoString Gene Expression Profiling), we found that adaptive immune signatures in tumor biopsies obtained from early on
Abstract. We recently reported that cross-linking the leukocyte common antigen (CD45) can rapidly induce aggregation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell
In a systematic review and meta-analysis reported in JAMA Oncology, Barroso-Sousa et al evaluated the incidence of endocrine dysfunction in patients receiving currently approved immune checkpoint inhibitors for various advanced solid tumors. Patients who received combination therapy were found to have an increased risk of thyroid dysfunction and hypophysitis.. Study Details. A PubMed search through July 2016 identified 38 randomized clinical trials of ipilimumab (Yervoy; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 [CTLA-4] inhibitor), nivolumab (Opdivo; programmed cell death protein 1 [PD-1] inhibitor), pembrolizumab (Keytruda; PD-1 inhibitor), and atezolizumab (Tecentriq; programmed cell death protein ligand [PD-L1] inhibitor), involving a total of 7,551 patients. Regimens were categorized into monotherapy with a PD-1 inhibitor, a CTLA-4 inhibitor, or a PD-L1 inhibitor, and combination therapy with a PD-1 plus CTLA-4 inhibitor. Outcomes of interest were the incidence of all-grade ...
The blockade of immune checkpoints, such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), is a promising novel approach in cancer treatment. As these pathways are non-redundant, dual targeting may have additive or synergistic antitumour activity. Durvalumab (MEDI4736) is a selective, high affinity human IgG1 mAb that blocks programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) binding to PD-1 (IC50 0.1 nM) and CD80 (IC50 0.04 nM), and tremelimumab is a selective human IgG2 mAb inhibitor of CTLA-4. In a Phase 1b study (NCT02000947), durvalumab + tremelimumab has shown encouraging clinical activity (objective response rate [ORR] 33% [95% CI 17-54%] across tremelimumab 1 mg/kg cohorts [n = 27]) and manageable tolerability in patients (pts) with both PD-L1-positive and -negative NSCLC. NEPTUNE is a Phase 3 study to determine the efficacy and safety of durvalumab + tremelimumab combination therapy versus standard of care (SoC) platinum-based doublets in the first-line ...
Looking for differentiation antigen? Find out information about differentiation antigen. A cell surface antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation Explanation of differentiation antigen
TGF beta Receptor III antibody [1C5H11] (transforming growth factor beta receptor III) for ELISA, FACS, WB. Anti-TGF beta Receptor III mAb (GTX60683) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Clone B4B6 recognizes the human CD172b antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein also known as signal-regulatory protein beta (SIRPβ). SIRPs are a family of transmembrane receptor-like signaling proteins that are abundantly expressed in hematopoietic cells, including granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. In addition, SIRPs are expressed in neuronal cells and certain types of cancer cells. SIRPs can be divided into two subfamilies, CD172a and CD172b, based on the putative structures of their C-terminal intracellular domains which distinguish them as either activating (CD172b) or inhibitory (CD172a) isoforms. CD172b is expressed on peripheral blood monocytes, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. - USA
IPILIMUMAB, 1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE YERVOY is a human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-blocking antibody indicated for: •Treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in adults and pediatric patients
Expression profiles of CTLA-4 in breast cancer. CTLA-4 was expressed in cytoplasm and cell membrane of interstitial lymphocytes (a); CTLA-4+ cytoplasmic dots we
CEACAM6小鼠单克隆抗体[9A6](ab78029)可与人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
[54 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (Carcinoembryonic Antigen or CEA or Meconium Antigen 100 or CD66e or CEACAM5) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8) also known as CD66b (Cluster of Differentiation 66b), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. Its main function is cell adhesion, cell migration, and pathogen binding. CEACAM8 is expressed exclusively on granulocytes and used as granulocyte marker. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000124469 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CEACAM8 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8". Khan WN, Frängsmyr L, Teglund S, et al. (1992). "Identification of three new genes and estimation of the size of the carcinoembryonic antigen family". Genomics. 14 (2): 384-90. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80230-7. PMID 1427854. Oikawa S, Inuzuka C, Kuroki M, et al. (1991). "A specific heterotypic cell adhesion activity between members of carcinoembryonic antigen family, W272 and NCA, is mediated by N-domains". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (13): 7995-8001. PMID 2022629. Berling ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen) (CEACAM6) also known as CD66c (Cluster of Differentiation 66c), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family.. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000086548 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: CEACAM6 carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen)". Oikawa S, Inuzuka C, Kuroki M, et al. (1991). "A specific heterotypic cell adhesion activity between members of carcinoembryonic antigen family, W272 and NCA, is mediated by N-domains". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (13): 7995-8001. PMID 2022629. Haus O, Noworolska A, Laskowski M, et al. (1990). "Prognostic significance of secondary cytogenetic changes and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) in patients with Ph-positive chronic myeloid leukemia". Exp. Mol. Pathol. 52 (2): 235-42. doi:10.1016/0014-4800(90)90008-2. PMID 2332039. Hefta SA, Paxton RJ, ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
Our previous in vitro data suggested that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis. This is supported by a recent proteomic screen for cell membrane components expressed in newly formed tumor vessels and the fact that CEACAM1 expression is upregulated in synergy with other angiogenic factors in cardiac hypoxia (17, 19). To date, however, evidence for a causal implication of CEACAM1 in angiogenesis in vivo was lacking. In the present study, we report on 2 different genetic mouse models in which the angiogenic action of CEACAM1 has been investigated: in CEACAM1endo+ mice, the expression of CEACAM1-L was targeted to endothelia via the Tie2 promoter, and in Ceacam1-/- mice, the Ceacam1 gene was inactivated by targeted disruption (29). In addition, endothelial cells were transfected with cDNAs coding for WT CEACAM1-L and for CEACAM1-L mutants harboring amino acid substitutions in the cytoplasmic domain. In these experimental systems, we provide conclusive evidence that CEACAM1 is involved in angiogenesis ...
0034] Suitable non-limiting examples to polyethyleneglycols and polypropyleneglycols are PEG-4, PEG-6, PEG-7, PEG-8, PEG-9, PEG-10, PEG-12, PEG-14, PEG-16, PEG-18, PEG-20, PEG-32, PEG-33, PEG-40, PEG-45, PEG-55, PEG-60, PEG-75, PEG-80, PEG-90, PEG-100, PEG-135, PEG-150, PEG-180, PEG-180, PEG-200, PEG-220, PEG-240, PEG-350, PEG-400, PEG-450, PEG-500, PEG-800, PEG-2M, PEG-5M, PEG-7M, PEG-9M, PEG-14M, PEG-20M, PEG-23M, PEG-25M, PEG-45M, PEG-65M, PEG-90M, PEG-115M, PEG-160M, PEG-180M, PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69. Preferred are PEG-10, PEG-12, PEG-14, PEG-16, PEG-18, PEG-20, PEG-32, PEG-33, PEG-40, PEG-45, PEG-55, PEG-60, PEG-75, PEG-80, PEG-90, PEG-100, PEG-135, PEG-150, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69. More preferred are PEG-12, PEG-14, PEG-16, PEG-18, PEG-20, PEG-32, PEG-33, PEG-40, PEG-45, PEG-55, PEG-60, PEG-75, PEG-80, ...
Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)--which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system--as candidates for primary determinants of risk of the common autoimmune disorders Graves disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism and type 1 diabetes. In humans, disease susceptibility was mapped to a non-coding 6.1 kb 3 region of CTLA4, the common allelic variation of which was correlated with lower messenger RNA levels of the soluble alternative splice form of CTLA4. In the mouse model of type 1 diabetes, susceptibility was also associated with variation in CTLA-4 gene splicing with reduced production of a splice form encoding a molecule lacking the CD80/CD86 ligand-binding domain. Genetic mapping of variants conferring a small disease risk can identify pathways in complex disorders, as exemplified
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exosome-SIRPα, a CD47 blockade increases cancer cell phagocytosis. AU - Koh, Eunee. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Nam, Gi Hoon. AU - Hong, Yeonsun. AU - Cho, Eunji. AU - Yang, Yoosoo. AU - Kim, In-San. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - CD47, a "dont eat me" signal, is over-expressed on the surface of most tumors that interacts with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) on phagocytic cells. By engaging SIRPα, CD47 limits the ability of macrophages to engulf tumor cells, which acts as a major phagocytic barrier. In this study, we developed an exosome-based immune checkpoint blockade that antagonizes the interaction between CD47 and SIRPα. These exosomes harboring SIRPα variants (SIRPα-exosomes) were sufficient to induce remarkably augmented tumor phagocytosis, lead to prime effective anti-tumor T cell response. Given that clustering of native CD47 provides a high binding avidity to ligate dimerized SIRPα on macrophage, nature-derived exosomes could be appreciable platform to ...
Background: The anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antibody pembrolizumab is clinically active against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In addition to T-cells, human natural killer (NK) cells, reported to have the potential to prolong the survival of advanced NSCLC patients, also express PD-1. This study aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab plus allogeneic NK cells in patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC. Methods: In total, 109 enrolled patients with a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥1% were randomly allocated to group A (55 patients, pembrolizumab plus NK cells) and group B (54 patients, pembrolizumab alone). The patients received intravenous pembrolizumab (10 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks and continued treatment until the occurrence of tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. The patients in group A continuously received two cycles of NK cell therapy as one course of treatment. Results: In our study, Group A patients had ...
, TGF beta Receptor III blocking peptide, GTX88782-PEP, Applications: Apuri, Blocking, ELISA; Affinity purification, Blocking, ELISA; CrossReactivity: Human
Siinkohal on kohane kritiseerida ka valitsevat arvamust, nagu oleks kaalu langetamine imelihtne - tuleb vaid süüa vähem ja sportida rohkem. Paraku me kõik teame, et sellel on vaid lühiajaline mõju. Inimkeha on väga kohanemisvõimeline. Kui toidust saadav energiakogus väheneb, siis hakkab keha vastusena vähendama ka kulutatavat energiat - ainevahetuse baastase langeb. Seda on teatud tegelikult juba pea sada aastat14 ja see muudab meie praeguse obsessiivse kalorilugemismaania veelgi veidramaks. Dieeditav inimene tunneb ennast peagi apaatse ja väsinuna, tal on külm ja pidevalt vaevab näljatunne. Tõsi, kaal on vähenenud, aga peagi jõutakse nn platooni, mis tähendab seda, et kulutatav ja tarbitav energiakogus on tasakaalus.. Kui masenduses dieeditaja siis näljatunde leevendamiseks pisut rohkem sööma hakkab, hakkavad ka kilod tagasi tulema, sest ainevahetus on endiselt kokkuhoiurežiimil. Kõige kurvem on, et see juhtub ka siis, kui tarbitav energiakogus on ikkagi palju väiksem kui ...
The results of genetic association studies regarding cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) polymorphisms and digestive system malignancies were controversial. The authors designed this meta-analysis to more precisely estimate relationships between CTLA-4 polymorphisms and digestive system malignancies by pooling the results of related studies. The authors searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI for eligible studies. Thirty-one eligible studies were pooled analyzed in this meta-analysis. The pooled meta-analysis results showed that genetic distributions of rs231775, rs4553808, and rs733618 polymorphisms among patients with digestive system malignancies and controls differed significantly. Moreover, genotypic distribution differences were also observed for rs231775 polymorphism among patients with colorectal cancer/pancreatic cancer and controls, for rs4553808 and rs5742909 polymorphisms among patients with gastric cancer and controls, for rs3087243 polymorphism among patients
We studied the association of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 gene (CTLA4) polymorphisms with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Korean children and adolescents. A total of 176 Korean subjects (92 females and 84 males) with childhood-onset T1D were studied. The A/G polymorphism at position 49 in CTLA4 exon 1 and the C/T polymorphism at position -318 in the CTLA4 promoter were analyzed by PCR-RFLP methods. The genotype and allele frequencies of the CTLA4 polymorphisms in the T1D patients were not different from those in the controls. These polymorphisms were not associated with the clinical characteristics or the development of autoimmune thyroid disease in the T1D patients. The frequency of the A allele was significantly higher in the patients that did not have two out of the three susceptible HLA-DRB1 alleles, which were DRB1*0301, *0405 and *09012, compared to the controls (P,0.05). These results suggest that CTLA4 polymorphisms do not directly confer any susceptibility to T1D. ...
Fc gamma RII/CD32 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Fc gamma RII/CD32 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Quantity100 testsVolume1ImmunogenHuman thymocytes and T lymphocytesBackground InformationCD45 (LCA; leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type pr...
Cadp-ribose/ACM119340535 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Estimating the kon and koff for sCD80 binding CTLA-4 Ig. (A) Example of primary data. sCD80 (265 nM) was injected (solid bar) at 40 μl/min through FCs with n
Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial differentiation, neovascularisation and regulation of T-cell proliferation, and is one of the few CEACAM family members with homologues in different mammalian lineages. However, it is unknown whether bacterial adhesins of human pathogens can recognize CEACAM1 orthologues from other mammals.,br /,Results: Sequence comparisons of the amino-terminal Ig-variable-like domain of CEACAM1 reveal that the highest sequence divergence between human, murine, canine and bovine orthologues is found in the β-strands comprising the bacteria-binding ...
Background T cell exhaustion has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to prevent memory development and tissue damage arising during ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in murine orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), with carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) identified as a key ligand for TIM-3-mediated negative immune regulation in the liver. In our cohort of human OLT patients, IRI+ recipients had a 12-fold higher ratio of TIM-1+:TIM-3+ CD4+ T cells at 3 months post-transplant than IRI-. Aim We sought to investigate donor and recipient contributions to CEACAM1 expression in human OLT-IRI. Methods We compared the cellular expression of CEACAM1 biopsies obtained from the donor organ pre- and post-reperfusion with the recipient's portal blood. Additionally, we evaluated CEACAM1 expression of 3rd party healthy donor monocytes co-cultured for 4 days with recipient portal blood obtained both pre- and post-reperfusion through the donor organ. Results ...
T cells are the driving force that mediates graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after transplantation. Thus, T cell suppression is key for GVHD treatment. Optimal T cell activation requires interaction between CD28, expressed on T cells, and CD80/CD86, expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, activation of the metabolic regulator, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, is critical for T cell function. Currently, there are FDA-approved medicines that inhibit CD80/CD86 (abatacept and belatacept) and mTOR (sirolimus). However, belatacept treatment unexpectedly led to increased acute organ rejection in a renal transplantation clinical trial, possibly by disrupting the checkpoint receptor cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, which also binds CD80/CD86. Whether blocking CD28 receptor specifically is a viable option for GVHD is not clear.. Watkins and colleagues evaluated the efficacy of a CD28-blocking antibody fragment (FR104) in a rhesus macaque GVHD model with hematopoietic stem cell ...
Weinstein, Y, "20alpha-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase. A t lymphocyte-associated enzyme." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 930 ...
The Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Market is driven by the launch of premium-priced therapies, including anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapies and targeted agents. The market growth is estimated to occur across the seven major markets of the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK, and Japan.. Browse Detailed Toc, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies Mentioned in Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Market ResearchReport at- http://www.absolutereports.com/opportunityanalyzer-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc-opportunity-analysis-and-forecasts-to-2024-10112598. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor "Yervoy" will be the first immunotherapy to be introduced in the market. This drug is being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and will be launched in 2016 across the seven major markets.. The increase in rates of the disease across the five European markets and Japan, at a CAGR of 1.49% over the forecast period is estimated to further bolster the Small Cell Lung Cancer treatment ...
The administration of anti-CTLA-4 Ab to patients with metastatic melanoma induced durable objective clinical responses that were highly associated with the induction of autoimmune side effects (23, 24). However, the mechanism responsible for tumor regression and autoimmunity was unclear, although two dominant hypotheses have been proposed. CTLA-4 is constitutively expressed on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (25, 26); hence, the administration of an anti-CTLA-4 Ab may lead to the depletion or inhibition of these regulatory cells, with a resultant increase in the activity of effector T cells. Alternatively, CTLA-4 engagement imparts an inhibitory signal to the T cell (5), and the blockade of CTLA-4 may directly tip the balance toward T cell effector function. These two possibilities have been studied in this report.. We first addressed the impact of anti-CTLA-4 Ab on CD4+CD25+ T cell regulatory cell function in vitro using a coculture suppression assay. This proliferation assay was developed to ...
Heppt, Markus V., Heinzerling, Lucie, Kähler, Katharina C., Forschner, Andrea, Kirchberger, Michael C., Loquai, Carmen, Meissner, Markus, Meier, Friedegund, Terheyden, Patrick, Schell, Beatrice, Herbst, Rudolf, Göppner, Daniela, Kiecker, Felix, Rafei-Shamsabadi, David, Haferkamp, Sebastian, Huber, Margit A., Utikal, Jochen, Ziemer, Mirjana, Bumeder, Irmgard, Pfeiffer, Christiane, Schäd, Susanne G., Schmid-Tannwald, Christoph, Tietze, Julia K., Eigentler, Thomas K. and Berking, Carola (2017) Prognostic factors and outcomes in metastatic uveal melanoma treated with programmed cell death-1 or combined PD-1/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibition. European Journal of Cancer 82, pp. 56-65 ...
In this study, we show that bispecific tandem ScFv against human CTLA-4 can have an unexpected biological effect by revealing the plasticity for signaling through the cytoplasmic domain of this surface receptor. On one hand, when CTLA-4 binds B7.1 or B7.2 in the context of coligation with the TCR, it transduces a signal that inhibits T cell activation (reviewed in Refs. 1 , 2 , and 4, 5, 6). On the other hand, we show in this study that binding of a bispecific tandem ScFv ligand of CTLA-4 causes the same cytoplasmic domain to transduce a signal that, by itself, activates the T cell without the need for coligation of the TCR. Although triggered by different ligands that bind to different sites on CTLA-4, both responses involve PP2A. The inhibitory function of CTLA-4 correlates with a decrease in its association with PP2A (19), while the activating function of CTLA-4 correlates with an increase in its association with PP2A.. Activation of T cells by 24:26 is not the result of functional blockade ...
At Sundays Plenary Session, a landmark study provided new data that have implications for changing clinical practice. Steven ODay, MD, of the Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, reported that ipilimumab alone or in combination with vaccine increased overall survival (OS) in patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma for whom previous treatment had failed (Abstract 4). "This is an historic first - the first phase III randomized study showing improvement in median and long-term survival in patients with metastatic melanoma," Dr. ODay said. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), is an immune therapy directed against T-cells. The... Continue reading ...
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
Fc gamma receptor IIB: present in myelomonocytic and lymphocytic cells; highly homologous to other Fc gamma RII receptors but has unique cytoplasmic exons; has been sequenced
Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenHuman thymocytes and T lymphocytesBackground InformationCD45 (LCA; leukocyte common antigen) is a receptor-type ...
High autophagic activity in podocytes, terminally differentiated cells that serve as main components of the kidney filtration barrier, is essential for podocyte survival under various challenges. How podocytes maintain such a high level of autophagy, however, remains unclear. Here we report that signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) plays a key role in promoting podocyte autophagy. Unlike other glomerular cells, podocytes strongly expressed SIRPα, which was, however, downregulated in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and mice with experimental nephropathy. Podocyte SIRPα levels were inversely correlated with the severity of podocyte injury and proteinuria but positively with autophagy. Compared with WT littermates, Sirpa-deficient mice displayed greater age-related podocyte injury and proteinuria and developed more rapid and severe renal injury in various models of experimental nephropathy. Mechanistically, podocyte SIRPα strongly reduced Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - No augmentation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity through belatacept treatment in liver transplant recipients. AU - Bigenzahn, S.. AU - Juergens, B.. AU - Mahr, B.. AU - Pratschke, J.. AU - Koenigsrainer, A.. AU - Becker, T.. AU - Fuchs, D.. AU - Brandacher, Gerald. AU - Kainz, A.. AU - Muehlbacher, F.. AU - Wekerle, T.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Belatacept is a second-generation cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 immunoglobulin (Ig) fusion protein approved for immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients. It was designed intentionally to interrupt co-stimulation via CD28 by binding to its ligands B7·1 and B7·2. Experimental evidence suggests a potential additional mechanism for CTLA-4 Ig compounds through binding to B7 molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunomodulating enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan to kynurenine and that down-regulates T cell ...

Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (P|gentaur.comHuman Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (P|gentaur.com

Human Anti-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) IgG ELISA kit, 96 tests, Quantitative - Gentaur.com - Product info ... 0030218 and erythrocyte differentiation and biological process this GO :0030318 and melanocyte differentiation and biological ... Traditional competition antigen ELISAs are coated with a captor antibody and a competitive antigen is labelled with the ... The IgG antibody has 2 antigen binding sites. They represent 70% or more of serum antibodies. This antibody can be antigen ...
more infohttps://gentaur.com/prod/human-anti-proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-pcna-igg-elisa-kit-96-tests-quantitative/adi/3552893687?product=2011973970

Membrane molecules as differentiation antigens of murine macrophages.  - PubMed - NCBIMembrane molecules as differentiation antigens of murine macrophages. - PubMed - NCBI

Membrane molecules as differentiation antigens of murine macrophages.. McKnight AJ1, Gordon S. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9505092?dopt=Abstract

The Identification and Function of Differentiation Antigens on Primary Sensory Neurons | SpringerLinkThe Identification and Function of Differentiation Antigens on Primary Sensory Neurons | SpringerLink

Stern P (1984) Differentiation antigens of teratomas and embryos. Brit Medical Bulletin 40: 218-223.Google Scholar ... Feizi T (1981) Carbohydrate differentiation antigens. Trends Biochem. Sci. 11: 333-335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Dodd J. (1986) The Identification and Function of Differentiation Antigens on Primary Sensory Neurons. In: Fink G., Harmar A.J ... Jessell TM and Dodd J (1984) Structure and expression of differentiation antigens on functional subsets of primary sensory ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5131-3_4

MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBIMNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen [Homo sapiens] MNDA myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen [Homo ... myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigenprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:7183 See related. Ensembl: ... Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the ... Title: Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=4332

Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antigens, Differentiation, T Lymphocyte. Antigens expressed on the Cell Membrane of T-Lymphocytes during differentiation, ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigens-differentiation-t-lymphocyte.html

Utilization of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Characterization of Monocyte-Macrophage Differentiation Antigens | SpringerLinkUtilization of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Characterization of Monocyte-Macrophage Differentiation Antigens | SpringerLink

Expression of normal monocyte-macrophage differentiation antigens on HL-60 promyelocytes undergoing differentiation induced by ... Dimitriu-Bona, A., Burmester, G. R., Waters, S. J., and Winchester, R. J., 1981, Lineage and differentiation antigens on human ... Griffin, J. D., Ritz, J., Nadler, L. M., and Schlossman, S. F., 1981, Expression of myeloid differentiation antigens on normal ... Todd, R. F., Van Agthoven, A., Schlossman, S. F., and Terhorst, C., 1982, Structural analysis of differentiation antigens Mo1 ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-6784-1_6

CD14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - CD14 gene & proteinCD14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 - Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) - CD14 gene & protein

Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14UniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14Sequence analysis. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,A0A2K5LKS5,A0A2K5LKS5_CERAT Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Cercocebus atys OX=9531 GN=CD14 PE=4 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A2K5LKS5

Cd14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd14 gene & proteinCd14 - Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 precursor - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Cd14 gene & protein

The lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). ... sp,P10810,CD14_MOUSE Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Cd14 PE=1 SV=1 ... Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14Add BLAST. 321. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_ ... The lipoproteins act as agonists to modulate antigen presenting cell functions in response to the pathogen (PubMed:19362712). ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P10810

Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers | PNASMolecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers | PNAS

Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers. K Chang ... Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers ... Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers ... Molecular cloning of mesothelin, a differentiation antigen present on mesothelium, mesotheliomas, and ovarian cancers ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/93/1/136?ijkey=3202b9dcfab5e8942002093e1730ae56c6e776b7&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cluster-of-differentiation antigen financial definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigenCluster-of-differentiation antigen financial definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigen

What is cluster-of-differentiation antigen? Meaning of cluster-of-differentiation antigen as a finance term. What does cluster- ... Definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigen in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Related to cluster-of-differentiation antigen: cluster of differentiation 4 CD (1). See: Certificate of deposit ... Cluster-of-differentiation antigen financial definition of cluster-of-differentiation antigen https://financial-dictionary. ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/cluster-of-differentiation+antigen

The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | ScienceThe CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors | Science

The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/239/4839/497?ijkey=676a6eeaec7ace359919ddfd23e4377b83b5db96&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | JEMA new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | JEM

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ... identification of another gene that also directs the expression of an antigen recognized on most melanomas by CTL clones that ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/180/1/35?ijkey=2c99292aff4daae9eb2d802c5c126817c7b9b47e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy...Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy...

We studied the B-cell differentiation antigens CD19 and CD20, because these molecules play a critical role in the development, ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ... Autoreactive, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific for Peptides Derived from Normal B-Cell Differentiation Antigens in Healthy ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/10/3/1047

Cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen definition | Drugs.comCluster of differentiation (CD) antigen definition | Drugs.com

... antigen. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... Definition: an antigen (marker) on the surface of a cell, usually a lymphocyte. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/cluster-of-differentiation-cd-antigen.html

Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and...Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and...

Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma ... Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and ... Clinical Trial: Rituximab Maintenance Therapy in Aggressive CD20 (Cluster of Differentiation Antigen 20) Positive Lymphoma and ...
more infohttps://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/lymphoma-clinical-trials/clinical-trial-rituximab-maintenance-therapy-in-aggressive-cd20-cluster-of-differentiation-antigen-20-positive-lymphoma-and-mantle-cell-lymphoma/article/312453/

Antigens, Differentiation | Anatomical Neuropharmacology UnitAntigens, Differentiation | Anatomical Neuropharmacology Unit

A new monoclonal antibody to a cell-surface antigen that distinguishes luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the rat ... Expression of the common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia antigen (CALLA) in the human breast.. ...
more infohttp://mrcanu.pharm.ox.ac.uk/research-and-techniques/antigens-differentiation

Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 | P2X7Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14 | P2X7

Monocyte differentiation antigen CD14. Interactor Gene Name:. CD14. Interactor protein name:. Monocyte differentiation antigen ...
more infohttp://www.p2x7.co.uk/proteins/monocyte-differentiation-antigen-cd14/

T-cell differentiation antigen CD6T-cell differentiation antigen CD6

Cell adhesion molecule that mediates cell-cell contacts and regulates T-cell responses via its interaction with ALCAM/CD166 (PubMed:15048703, PubMed:15294938, PubMed:16352806, PubMed:16914752, PubMed:24945728, PubMed:24584089). Contributes to signaling cascades triggered by activation of the TCR/CD3 complex (PubMed:24584089). Functions as costimulatory molecule; promotes T-cell activation and proliferation (PubMed:15294938, PubMed:16352806, PubMed:16914752). Contributes to the formation and maturation of the immunological synapse (PubMed:15294938, PubMed:16352806). Functions as calcium-dependent pattern receptor that binds and aggregates both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Binds both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria and lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria (PubMed:17601777). LPS binding leads to the activation of signaling cascades and down-stream MAP kinases (PubMed:17601777). Mediates activation of the inflammatory response and the secretion of ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P30203

Caltag Medsystems: Myeloid Nuclear Differentiation AntigenCaltag Medsystems: Myeloid Nuclear Differentiation Antigen

Flow Cytometric Assessment of Myeloid Nuclear Differentiation Antigen (MNDA) Expression in the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic ...
more infohttp://caltagmedsystems.blogspot.com/2012/01/myeloid-nuclear-differentiation-antigen.html

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | Journal...A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. | Journal...

A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas. P G ... A new gene coding for a differentiation antigen recognized by autologous cytolytic T lymphocytes on HLA-A2 melanomas.. J Exp ... A first antigen recognized by such CTL clones was previously shown to be encoded by the tyrosinase gene. We report here the ... Degeneracy of Antigen Recognition as the Molecular Basis for the High Frequency of Naive A2/Melan-A Peptide Multimer + CD8 + T ...
more infohttps://rupress.org/jem/article/180/1/35/58268/A-new-gene-coding-for-a-differentiation-antigen

Gender-specific regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 knockout mice<...Gender-specific regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 knockout mice<...

Thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 (Thy-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on T cells and neurons and is involved in cell ... N2 - Thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 (Thy-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on T cells and neurons and is involved in ... AB - Thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 (Thy-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on T cells and neurons and is involved in ... abstract = "Thymocyte differentiation antigen-1 (Thy-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein found on T cells and neurons and is ...
more infohttps://pennstate.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/gender-specific-regulation-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-thymocyte-d

Cluster-of-differentiation antigen synonyms, cluster-of-differentiation antigen antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comCluster-of-differentiation antigen synonyms, cluster-of-differentiation antigen antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for cluster-of-differentiation antigen. 10 synonyms for Cd: atomic number 48, cadmium, candela, standard candle, ... What are synonyms for cluster-of-differentiation antigen? ... Synonyms for cluster-of-differentiation antigen in Free ... Cluster-of-differentiation antigen synonyms, cluster-of-differentiation antigen antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com https://www. ... Related to cluster-of-differentiation antigen: cluster of differentiation 4 #vtZoom,.vt-link{cursor:pointer} .vt-container{ ...
more infohttp://www.freethesaurus.com/cluster-of-differentiation+antigen

NK T Cell-Derived IL-10 Is Essential for the Differentiation of Antigen-Specific T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Tolerance | The...NK T Cell-Derived IL-10 Is Essential for the Differentiation of Antigen-Specific T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Tolerance | The...

NK T Cell-Derived IL-10 Is Essential for the Differentiation of Antigen-Specific T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Tolerance. Koh- ... NK T Cell-Derived IL-10 Is Essential for the Differentiation of Antigen-Specific T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Tolerance ... NK T Cell-Derived IL-10 Is Essential for the Differentiation of Antigen-Specific T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Tolerance ... NK T Cell-Derived IL-10 Is Essential for the Differentiation of Antigen-Specific T Regulatory Cells in Systemic Tolerance ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/166/1/42?ijkey=57764a9d15d61bcc3136003cd7b41a37df60363e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Differentiation antigen | Article about differentiation antigen by The Free DictionaryDifferentiation antigen | Article about differentiation antigen by The Free Dictionary

... antigen that is expressed only during a specific period of embryological differentiation Explanation of differentiation antigen ... Find out information about differentiation antigen. A cell surface ... differentiation antigen. differentiation antigen. [dif·ə‚ren·chē¦ā·shən ′ant·i·jən] (immunology) A cell surface antigen that is ... Differentiation antigen , Article about differentiation antigen by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/differentiation+antigen
  • Kannagi R, Levery SB, Ishigami F, Hakomori SI, Shevinsky LH, Knowles BB and Solter D (1983a) New globoseries glycolipids in human teratocarcinoma reactive with the monoclonal antibody directed to a developmentally regulated antigen: stage specific antigen 3. (springer.com)
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
  • Stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3 and SSEA-4) are epitopes of a unique globoseries ganglioside isolated from human teratocarcinoma cells. (springer.com)
  • Because HER-2 is a self-antigen, most T cells of high affinity for HER-2 epitopes are deleted (6) , and the remainder cells recognize HER-2 peptides with low avidity (at about 10 −6 mol/L). Nevertheless, because the same HER-2 CTL epitopes are presented by substantial proportions of tumors, the CTL epitopes from HER-2 become significant for cancer therapy (7) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • These cells were HLA-A*0201 specific and lytic for peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells but not to malignant or unpulsed B cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mollicone R, Davies R, Evans B, Dalix AM and Oriol R (1985) Cellular expression and genetic control of ABH antigens in primary sensory neurons of marmoset baboon and man. (springer.com)
  • Each B call within the host expresses a different antibody on its surface-thus, one B cell will express antibody specific for one antigen, while another B cell will express antibody specific for a different antigen. (justia.com)