Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.
Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.
Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Family of MITES, in the superfamily Acaroidea, order Astigmata. They are frequently found in cereal-based foodstuffs including GRAIN and FLOUR.
A species of mite that causes SCABIES in humans and sarcoptic mange in other animals. Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The contamination of indoor air.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.

Effect of dampness at home in childhood on bronchial hyperreactivity in adolescence. (1/409)

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about risk factors for the persistence of asthma and respiratory symptoms from childhood into adolescence, and few studies have included objective measurements to assess outcomes and exposure. METHODS: From a large cross sectional study of all 4th grade school children in Munich (mean age 10.2 years), 234 children (5%) with active asthma were identified. Of these, 155 (66%) were reinvestigated with lung function measurements and bronchial provocation three years later (mean age 13.5 years). RESULTS: At follow up 35.5% still had active asthma. Risk factors for persisting asthma symptoms in adolescence were more severe asthma (OR 4.94; CI 1.65 to 14.76; p = 0.004) or allergic triggers (OR 3.54; CI 1.41 to 8.92; p = 0.007) in childhood. Dampness was associated with increased night time wheeze and shortness of breath but not with persisting asthma. Risk factors for bronchial hyperreactivity in adolescence were bronchial hyperreactivity in childhood (p = 0.004), symptoms triggered by allergen exposure (OR 5.47; CI 1.91 to 25.20; p = 0.029), and damp housing conditions (OR 16.14; CI 3.53 to 73.73; p < 0.001). In a subgroup in whom house dust mite antigen levels in the bed were measured (70% of the sample), higher mite antigen levels were associated with bronchial hyperreactivity (OR per quartile of mite antigen 2.30; CI 1.03 to 5.12; p = 0.042). Mite antigen levels were also significantly correlated with dampness (p = 0.05). However, the effect of dampness on bronchial hyperreactivity remained significant when adjusting for mite allergen levels (OR 5.77; CI 1.17 to 28.44; p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Dampness at home is a significant risk factor for the persistence of bronchial hyperreactivity and respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. This risk is only partly explained by exposure to house dust mite antigen.  (+info)

Production of recombinant Der fI (a major mite allergen) by Aspergillus oryzae. (2/409)

Der fI is a major mite allergen. To produce Der fI by Aspergillus oryzae, we placed a DNA fragment encoding precursor-type recombinant Der fI E(-1)K (reDer fI E(-1) K), which had the C-terminal amino acid of the pro-sequence (Glu) changed to Lys, downstream of the glaA gene promoter and introduced it into Aspergillus oryzae. In liquid culture, most of the reDer fI E(-1)K produced by the transformants was degraded when culture was shaken vigorously. However, the degradation of reDer fI E(-1)K was suppressed when it was shaken gently. The processed reDer fI E(-1)K could be obtained after lysylendopeptidase and endoglycosidase Hf (Endo Hf) treatment. The yield of processed reDer fI E(-1)K was 8 mg/l. When the transformant was grown on a wheat bran culture, the yield of processed reDer fI E(-1)K reached 48 mg/kg. Because processed reDer fI E(-1)Ks obtained from both cultures had almost the same IgE-binding activity and elicited the same skin reaction as native Der fI, they could be very useful for diagnostic purposes or immunotherapy.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of Der f 6, a serine protease allergen from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. (3/409)

House dust mite allergen is thought to be a major cause of asthma. Characterization of these allergen molecules is therefore an important step for the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents against mite-associated allergic disorders. Here we report molecular cloning and expression of the group 6 (chymotrypsin-like) allergen from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae. Sequencing analysis indicates that cloned cDNA, designated Der f 6, encodes a 279 amino acid polypeptide which conserves a primary structure characteristic for chymotrypsin-like serine proteases found in mammals. Recombinant Der f 6 expressed in Escherichia coli bound IgE in a pool made of 20 sera, and induced histamine release from patients' peripheral blood cells.  (+info)

Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions. (4/409)

House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important factors in the increasing prevalence of asthma. The lung epithelium forms a barrier that allergens must cross before they can cause sensitization. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the cysteine proteinase allergen Der p 1 from fecal pellets of the HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus causes disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs), which are the principal components of the epithelial paracellular permeability barrier. In confluent airway epithelial cells, Der p 1 led to cleavage of the TJ adhesion protein occludin. Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases. Putative Der p 1 cleavage sites were found in peptides from an extracellular domain of occludin and in the TJ adhesion protein claudin-1. TJ breakdown nonspecifically increased epithelial permeability, allowing Der p 1 to cross the epithelial barrier. Thus, transepithelial movement of Der p 1 to dendritic antigen-presenting cells via the paracellular pathway may be promoted by the allergen's own proteolytic activity. These results suggest that opening of TJs by environmental proteinases may be the initial step in the development of asthma to a variety of allergens.  (+info)

Highly Th2-skewed cytokine profile of beta-lactam-specific T cells from nonatopic subjects with adverse drug reactions. (5/409)

A positive lymphocyte transformation test to beta-lactams (beta-L) was found in 12 of 29 subjects with adverse drug reaction (ADR) to beta-L, irrespective of either the type of clinical manifestation or the presence of specific serum IgE. Short-term T cell lines specific for penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin could be generated only from subjects with ADR (eight with positive and one with negative lymphocyte transformation test), while streptokinase and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1)-specific T cells were obtained from all these subjects, from 7 atopic Der p-sensitive donors without history of ADR and 17 healthy nonatopic donors. Streptokinase-specific T cells from all subjects showed intracellular expression of IFN-gamma with poor or no IL-4, whereas Der p 1-specific T cells exhibited IFN-gamma but low or no IL-4 expression in nonatopics, and remarkable IL-4 expression in atopic donors. By contrast, all penicillin G-, ampicillin-, and amoxicillin-specific short-term T cell lines showed high intracellular expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but poor or no expression of IFN-gamma, thus exhibiting a clear-cut Th2 profile. Accordingly, most penicillin G-specific T cell clones derived from two subjects with ADR released high concentrations of IL-4 alone or IL-4 and IFN-gamma. These data suggest that cytokines produced by Th2 cells play an important role in all beta-L-induced ADR, even when late clinical manifestations occur and an IgE-mediated mechanism is apparently indemonstrable.  (+info)

Prevalence of allergic sensitization to regional inhalants among allergic patients in Jakarta, Indonesia. (6/409)

Sensitization towards a panel of eight regional inhalant allergens was evaluated among 107 patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. A total of 32 children (age 5-13 years, mean 9 years; 18 male, 14 female), 75 adolescents and adults (aged 14-66 years, mean 32 years; 21 male, 54 female) and 20 normal control volunteers (aged 16-46, mean 30 years; 4 male, 16 female) were evaluated via skin prick test. A weal response of 3 x 3 mm or greater was taken to be positive. The sensitization rates among individuals to these allergens were: house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (77.57%), Blomia tropicalis (71.96%), Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis (33.64%), pollen, palm oil Elaeis guineensis (22.43%), Acacia auriculiformis (12.15%), fern spore, resam Dicranopteris spp (11.21%), fungal spores: Curvularia fallax (8.41%) and Exserohilum rostratum (13.08%). There were significantly higher frequencies of sensitization to these allergens among allergic individuals compared to normal controls, and among atopic individuals with two allergy manifestations (rhinitis and asthma) compared to those with only one. No difference was noted between children and adults in the allergic group. In conclusion, the allergic patients were highly sensitized to dust mites and sensitization to regional pollen and spores was also documented. They should be considered as relevant and be included in skin test batteries in Indonesia.  (+info)

Role of allergy in nasal polyps of Thai patients. (7/409)

As distinct from many countries, allergy in Thailand is of the perennial type which may play a role in the formation of nasal polyps. Forty consecutive patients with nasal polyps and 30 normal subjects as control were studied at the Allergy Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology, Pramongkutklao Hospital. A positive clinical history and skin allergy testing are diagnostic criteria for allergy. In the nasal polyps group, these were 28 males and 12 females, aged between 12-65 years, with an average age of 38.5 years. In the control group, there were 18 males and 12 females, aged between 15-53 yeas, with an average age of 34 years. All had received prick skin testing with 6 common aeroallergens. The prick skin test was considered positive when the wheal was > or = 3 mm with surrounding erythema. Twenty-four of 40 patients (60%) with nasal polyps had a positive prick skin test, while 6 in the 30 control cases (20%) had a positive prick skin test. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0019), Odd's ratio = 6.0 which means allergic persons were 6 times more prone to have polyps form than normal persons.  (+info)

Administration of interleukin-12 exerts a therapeutic instead of a long-term preventive effect on mite Der p I allergen-induced animal model of airway inflammation. (8/409)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a key cytokine, which promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity and inhibits Th2-type responses. It has been previously shown that IL-12 administration during active immunization following a single allergen exposure can prevent antigen-induced increases in immunoglobulin E (IgE) formation, Th2 cytokine production and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation. Thus, these studies have now been extended and two IL-12 treatment protocols on this murine model were evaluated. Administration of IL-12 during the active immunization strikingly increased Der p I-specific serum IgG2a and transiently decreased the levels of IgG1 and IgE antibodies following multiple allergen challenges. Such early treatment of IL-12 down-regulated IL-5 production and modestly up-regulated interferon-gamma production but did not effect BAL eosinophilia. These results suggest that repeated exposure to antigen and IL-12 is necessary to maintain a persistent Th1-recall response. Furthermore, administration of IL-12 to actively immunized mice, in which Th2-associated responses were established, had a significant effect on IgG2a synthesis and a modest effect on IgE levels, also down-regulation of IL-5 production, and markedly increased interferon-gamma production and abolished recruitment of eosinophils. Therefore, these data indicate that IL-12 can inhibit antigen-induced eosinophil infiltration into airways, despite the existence of a Th2-associated response. Taken together, these studies suggest that IL-12 may be useful as an immunotherapeutic agent in the treatment of such pulmonary allergic disorders as bronchial asthma.  (+info)

Dermatophagoides farinae is a species of mite that belongs to the family Pyroglyphidae. These mites are commonly known as house dust mites, and they are found in household environments all over the world. Dermatophagoides farinae mites feed on human skin cells and other organic debris, and they are often found in bedding, upholstered furniture, and carpeting.

House dust mites, including Dermatophagoides farinae, are a common cause of allergies. The proteins present in the mite's feces and body parts can trigger an immune response in some people, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and skin irritation. Dermatophagoides farinae is one of the most prevalent species of house dust mite found in North America.

It's worth noting that while house dust mites are often associated with poor hygiene or dirty environments, they can be found even in the cleanest homes. Regular cleaning and vacuuming, as well as the use of allergen-proof covers on bedding, can help reduce the number of house dust mites in the home and alleviate symptoms for those who are allergic to them.

Dermatophagoides are a group of mites that are commonly found in house dust. They are a common cause of allergies and can be found in bedding, carpets, and upholstered furniture. Dermatophagoides mites feed on human skin cells and dander, and their feces and bodies contain proteins that can act as antigens. These antigens can trigger an immune response in some people, leading to the production of antibodies and the release of chemicals such as histamine, which can cause allergic symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes.

There are several species of Dermatophagoides mites that are known to cause allergies, including D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. These mites are very small, measuring only about 0.3 millimeters in length, and are not visible to the naked eye. They thrive in warm, humid environments and are most active at night.

Exposure to Dermatophagoides antigens can occur through inhalation or skin contact. In people with allergies to these mites, symptoms can be triggered by activities such as making the bed, vacuuming, or sleeping on a mattress that is infested with mites. Allergy testing, such as a skin prick test or a blood test, can be used to diagnose an allergy to Dermatophagoides mites. Treatment options for allergies to these mites may include avoidance measures, medications, and immunotherapy (allergy shots).

'Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus' is a species of mite that belongs to the family Pyroglyphidae. These mites are commonly known as house dust mites, and they are found in various environments, particularly in households. They thrive in warm and humid conditions, and their primary food source consists of human skin scales.

House dust mites like 'Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus' are associated with allergic reactions in humans, such as asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Their feces and body parts contain protease enzymes that can trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals, leading to the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. These allergens can become airborne and inhaled or come into contact with the skin, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, itchy eyes, and difficulty breathing.

It is essential to maintain a clean living environment, particularly in bedding and upholstered furniture, to reduce the population of house dust mites and minimize allergen exposure. Measures such as using allergen-impermeable covers for mattresses and pillows, washing bedding in hot water, and reducing humidity levels can help control dust mite populations and alleviate allergic symptoms.

Mites are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, which also includes spiders and ticks. They are characterized by their small size, usually measuring less than 1 mm in length, and their lack of obvious segmentation on their bodies. Many mites are parasitic, feeding on the skin cells, blood, or fluids of plants and animals, including humans. Some common mite infestations in humans include scabies, caused by the itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), and dust mites (e.g., Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae), which are commonly found in household dust and can cause allergic reactions in some people. It's worth noting that the majority of mites are not harmful to humans and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers and predators.

Arthropods are a phylum of animals that includes insects, spiders, crustaceans, and other creatures with jointed appendages. Arthropod proteins, therefore, refer to the proteins that are found in these organisms. These proteins play various roles in the structure, function, and regulation of arthropod cells, tissues, and organs.

Arthropod proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions, such as structural proteins, enzymes, signaling proteins, and defense proteins. Structural proteins provide support and protection to the arthropod exoskeleton, which is composed mainly of chitin and proteins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in arthropod metabolism, while signaling proteins regulate various physiological processes, including growth, development, and reproduction. Defense proteins protect arthropods from pathogens, parasites, and environmental stressors.

Arthropod proteins have attracted significant interest in biomedical research due to their potential applications in drug discovery, vaccine development, and diagnostic tools. For example, some arthropod proteins have been identified as promising targets for the development of new insecticides and antiparasitic drugs. Additionally, arthropod-derived proteins have been used in the production of recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases such as Lyme disease and malaria.

Understanding the structure and function of arthropod proteins is essential for advancing our knowledge of arthropod biology, evolution, and ecology. It also has important implications for human health, agriculture, and environmental conservation.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pyroglyphidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a family of small arthropods, specifically mites, that are often found in houses and other buildings. These mites are commonly known as dust mites or storage mites, and some species are associated with allergies and asthma symptoms in humans. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'll be happy to help!

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Allergic rhinitis, perennial type, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic response to environmental allergens that are present throughout the year. Unlike seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is triggered by specific pollens or molds during certain times of the year, perennial allergic rhinitis is a persistent condition that occurs year-round.

Common allergens responsible for perennial allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, pet dander, and indoor mold spores. Symptoms may include sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, itchy eyes, ears, throat, or roof of the mouth. Treatment options typically involve avoiding exposure to the offending allergens, if possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, nasal corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists to manage symptoms. Immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended for long-term management in some cases.

Mite infestations refer to the presence and multiplication of mites, which are tiny arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida, on or inside a host's body. This can occur in various sites such as the skin, lungs, or gastrointestinal tract, depending on the specific mite species.

Skin infestations by mites, also known as dermatophilosis or mange, are common and may cause conditions like scabies (caused by Sarcoptes scabiei) or demodecosis (caused by Demodex spp.). These conditions can lead to symptoms such as itching, rash, and skin lesions.

Lung infestations by mites, although rare, can occur in people who work in close contact with mites, such as farmers or laboratory workers. This condition is called "mite lung" or "farmer's lung," which is often caused by exposure to high levels of dust containing mite feces and dead mites.

Gastrointestinal infestations by mites can occur in animals but are extremely rare in humans. The most common example is the intestinal roundworm, which belongs to the phylum Nematoda rather than Arachnida.

It's important to note that mite infestations can be treated with appropriate medical interventions and prevention measures.

In medical terms, "dust" is not defined as a specific medical condition or disease. However, generally speaking, dust refers to small particles of solid matter that can be found in the air and can come from various sources, such as soil, pollen, hair, textiles, paper, or plastic.

Exposure to certain types of dust, such as those containing allergens, chemicals, or harmful pathogens, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues like asthma, allergies, and lung diseases. Prolonged exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica or asbestos, can even lead to serious conditions like silicosis or mesothelioma.

Therefore, it is important for individuals who work in environments with high levels of dust to take appropriate precautions, such as wearing masks and respirators, to minimize their exposure and reduce the risk of health problems.

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Also known as Type I hypersensitivity, it is an exaggerated and abnormal immune response that occurs within minutes to a few hours after exposure to a second dose of an allergen (a substance that triggers an allergic reaction). This type of hypersensitivity is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which are produced by the immune system in response to the first exposure to the allergen. Upon subsequent exposures, these IgE antibodies bind to mast cells and basophils, leading to their degranulation and the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins. These mediators cause a variety of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain at the site of exposure, as well as systemic symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, and hypotension (low blood pressure). Examples of immediate hypersensitivity reactions include allergic asthma, hay fever, anaphylaxis, and some forms of food allergy.

A Radioallergosorbent Test (RAST) is a type of blood test used in the diagnosis of allergies. It measures the presence and levels of specific antibodies, called immunoglobulin E (IgE), produced by the immune system in response to certain allergens. In this test, a small amount of blood is taken from the patient and then mixed with various allergens. If the patient has developed IgE antibodies against any of these allergens, they will bind to them, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The mixture is then passed over a solid phase, such as a paper or plastic surface, which has been coated with allergen-specific antibodies. These antibodies will capture the antigen-antibody complexes formed in the previous step. A radioactive label is attached to a different type of antibody (called anti-IgE), which then binds to the IgE antibodies captured on the solid phase. The amount of radioactivity detected is proportional to the quantity of IgE antibodies present, providing an indication of the patient's sensitivity to that specific allergen.

While RAST tests have been largely replaced by more modern and sensitive techniques, such as fluorescence enzyme immunoassays (FEIA), they still provide valuable information in diagnosing allergies and guiding treatment plans.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Desensitization, Immunologic is a medical procedure that aims to decrease the immune system's response to an allergen. This is achieved through the controlled exposure of the patient to gradually increasing amounts of the allergen, ultimately leading to a reduction in the severity of allergic reactions upon subsequent exposures. The process typically involves administering carefully measured and incrementally larger doses of the allergen, either orally, sublingually (under the tongue), or by injection, under medical supervision. Over time, this repeated exposure can help the immune system become less sensitive to the allergen, thereby alleviating allergic symptoms.

The specific desensitization protocol and administration method may vary depending on the type of allergen and individual patient factors. Immunologic desensitization is most commonly used for environmental allergens like pollen, dust mites, or pet dander, as well as insect venoms such as bee or wasp stings. It is important to note that this procedure should only be performed under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as there are potential risks involved, including anaphylaxis (a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction).

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Acaridae is a family of mites, also known as "grain mites" or "flour mites." These mites are tiny arthropods that are commonly found in stored food products such as grains, cereals, and dried fruits. Some species of Acaridae can cause allergic reactions in humans, and they have been known to contaminate food and cause spoilage. They are also capable of carrying and transmitting various diseases.

Here is a medical definition for Acaridae:

"A family of mites that includes several species commonly found in stored food products such as grains, cereals, and dried fruits. These mites can cause allergic reactions in humans and contaminate food, leading to spoilage. Some species are capable of carrying and transmitting diseases."

"Sarcoptes scabiei" is a medical term that refers to a species of mite known as the human itch mite or simply scabies mite. This tiny arthropod burrows into the upper layer of human skin, where it lives and lays its eggs, causing an intensely itchy skin condition called scabies. The female mite measures about 0.3-0.5 mm in length and has eight legs. It is barely visible to the naked eye.

The mite's burrowing and feeding activities trigger an immune response in the host, leading to a characteristic rash and intense itching, particularly at night. The rash typically appears as small red bumps or blisters and can occur anywhere on the body, but is most commonly found in skin folds such as the wrists, elbows, armpits, waistline, and buttocks.

Scabies is highly contagious and can spread rapidly through close physical contact with an infected person, shared bedding or towels, or prolonged skin-to-skin contact. It is important to seek medical treatment promptly if scabies is suspected, as the condition can cause significant discomfort and lead to secondary bacterial infections if left untreated. Treatment typically involves topical medications that kill the mites and their eggs, as well as thorough cleaning of bedding, clothing, and other items that may have come into contact with the infected person.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the infestation of the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The female mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin, where it lays its eggs and causes an intensely pruritic (itchy) rash. The rash is often accompanied by small red bumps and blisters, typically found in areas such as the hands, wrists, elbows, armpits, waistline, genitals, and buttocks. Scabies is transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual or through sharing of contaminated items like bedding or clothing. It can affect people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic backgrounds, but it is particularly common in crowded living conditions, nursing homes, and child care facilities. Treatment usually involves topical medications or oral drugs that kill the mites and their eggs, as well as thorough cleaning and laundering of bedding, clothing, and towels to prevent reinfestation.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that is commonly known as eczema. It is characterized by dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin that can become red, swollen, and cracked over time. The condition often affects the skin on the face, hands, feet, and behind the knees, and it can be triggered or worsened by exposure to certain allergens, irritants, stress, or changes in temperature and humidity. Atopic dermatitis is more common in people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever, and it often begins in infancy or early childhood. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the immune system and the skin's ability to maintain a healthy barrier function.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Intradermal tests are a type of allergy test that involves the injection of a small amount of allergen extract directly into the skin, usually the forearm or back. This is different from other types of allergy tests such as scratch tests or blood tests, which measure immune system responses to allergens in other ways.

During an intradermal test, a healthcare professional uses a fine needle to inject a small amount of allergen extract just beneath the surface of the skin. This creates a small wheal or bubble, and the area is then observed for signs of a reaction such as redness, swelling, or itching. These reactions indicate that the person has antibodies to the allergen and may be allergic to it.

Intradermal tests are often used when other types of allergy tests have been inconclusive or when a healthcare professional wants to confirm the results of a previous test. They can be used to diagnose a variety of allergies, including those to insect venom, medications, and environmental allergens such as pollen or mold.

It's important to note that intradermal tests carry a higher risk of causing a severe allergic reaction than other types of allergy tests, so they should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals in a medical setting where appropriate treatments are available.

Cysteine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins. They are also known as cysteine proteases or cysteine proteinases. These enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of three amino acids: cysteine, histidine, and aspartate. The thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine residue acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.

Cysteine endopeptidases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. Some examples of cysteine endopeptidases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains.

It is important to note that these enzymes require a reducing environment to maintain the reduced state of their active site cysteine residue. Therefore, they are sensitive to oxidizing agents and inhibitors that target the thiol group. Understanding the structure and function of cysteine endopeptidases is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies that target these enzymes in various diseases.

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Nasal provocation tests are a type of diagnostic procedure used in allergy testing to determine the specific allergens that cause a person's nasal symptoms. In this test, a small amount of an allergen is introduced into the patient's nostril using a spray or drops. The patient's response is then observed and measured for any signs of an allergic reaction, such as sneezing, runny nose, or congestion.

The test may be performed with a single allergen or with a series of allergens to identify which specific substances the patient is allergic to. The results of the test can help guide treatment decisions and management strategies for allergies, including immunotherapy (allergy shots) and avoidance measures.

It's important to note that nasal provocation tests should only be performed under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as there is a small risk of inducing a severe allergic reaction.

Sublingual administration refers to a route of delivering medication or other substances through placement under the tongue, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes located there. This method can allow for quick onset of action and avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver that may occur with oral administration. Common examples of sublingual medications include nitroglycerin for angina pectoris and certain forms of hormone replacement therapy.

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. In plants, antigens are typically found on the surface of plant cells and may be derived from various sources such as:

1. Pathogens: Plant pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes have unique molecules on their surfaces that can serve as antigens for the plant's immune system. These antigens are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and trigger an immune response.
2. Endogenous proteins: Some plant proteins, when expressed in abnormal locations or quantities, can be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system and elicit an immune response. These proteins may serve as antigens and are involved in self/non-self recognition.
3. Glycoproteins: Plant cell surface glycoproteins, which contain carbohydrate moieties, can also act as antigens. They play a role in plant-microbe interactions and may be recognized by both the plant's immune system and pathogens.
4. Allergens: Certain plant proteins can cause allergic reactions in humans and animals when ingested or inhaled. These proteins, known as allergens, can also serve as antigens for the human immune system, leading to the production of IgE antibodies and triggering an allergic response.
5. Transgenic proteins: In genetically modified plants, new proteins introduced through genetic engineering may be recognized as foreign by the plant's immune system or even by the human immune system in some cases. These transgenic proteins can serve as antigens and have been a subject of concern in relation to food safety and potential allergies.

Understanding plant antigens is crucial for developing effective strategies for plant disease management, vaccine development, and improving food safety and allergy prevention.

Blattellidae is a family of small to medium-sized insects commonly known as cockroaches or wood cockroaches. They are closely related to the larger Blaberidae family, which includes many of the tropical cockroaches. Blattellidae species are found worldwide and include some of the most common and widespread cockroaches, such as the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) and the brown-banded cockroach (Supella longipalpa).

These insects are generally small, with adults ranging in size from about 1/2 to 3/4 inch (1.2 to 1.9 centimeters) in length. They have a flattened body and long, slender antennae. The wings of Blattellidae species are well-developed, but they are not strong flyers. Instead, they tend to scuttle quickly away when disturbed.

Blattellidae cockroaches are omnivorous, feeding on a wide variety of plant and animal materials. They can be found in a range of habitats, including forests, grasslands, and urban environments. Some species are adapted to living in close association with humans and can be found in homes, restaurants, and other buildings.

Like all cockroaches, Blattellidae species have the potential to carry and transmit diseases, as well as cause allergic reactions in some people. It is important to take steps to prevent and control infestations of these pests in order to maintain a healthy living environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Floors and Floorcoverings" is not a medical term. It refers to the physical structures and materials used to cover floors in buildings or homes. If you have any medical terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

Allergic conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids) caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is often characterized by redness, itching, watering, and swelling of the eyes. In some cases, the eyes may also become sensitive to light. Allergic conjunctivitis is not contagious and can be treated with medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, or mast cell stabilizers.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Bronchial provocation tests are a group of medical tests used to assess the airway responsiveness of the lungs by challenging them with increasing doses of a specific stimulus, such as methacholine or histamine, which can cause bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways) in susceptible individuals. These tests are often performed to diagnose and monitor asthma and other respiratory conditions that may be associated with heightened airway responsiveness.

The most common type of bronchial provocation test is the methacholine challenge test, which involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine aerosol via a nebulizer. The dose response is measured by monitoring lung function (usually through spirometry) before and after each exposure. A positive test is indicated when there is a significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or other measures of airflow, which suggests bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Other types of bronchial provocation tests include histamine challenges, exercise challenges, and mannitol challenges. These tests have specific indications, contraindications, and protocols that should be followed to ensure accurate results and patient safety. Bronchial provocation tests are typically conducted in a controlled clinical setting under the supervision of trained healthcare professionals.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

The Basophil Degranulation Test is a medical test that measures the degree of degranulation (the release of granules and their contents) in basophils, a type of white blood cell, in response to a stimulus. This test is often used to diagnose allergies or hypersensitivity reactions, as basophils are known to degranulate when exposed to allergens or certain medications.

In this test, basophils are isolated from a patient's blood sample and then exposed to a suspected allergen or other stimuli. After incubation, the cells are stained with a dye that detects the presence of histamine or other mediators released during degranulation. The degree of staining is then measured and used as an indicator of basophil activation and degranulation.

It's important to note that this test is not commonly used in clinical practice due to its complexity, variability, and limited availability. Other tests, such as skin prick tests or blood tests for specific IgE antibodies, are more commonly used to diagnose allergies.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

'Bedding and linens' is a term that refers to the items used to cover, clean, and maintain beds and other furniture in medical and residential settings. These items include:

1. Sheets: These are flat pieces of cloth that are placed on top of the mattress and beneath the blankets or comforters. They come in various sizes (twin, full, queen, king) to fit different mattress sizes.
2. Blankets/Comforters: These are thicker, often quilted or filled, pieces of fabric that provide warmth and comfort to the user.
3. Pillows and pillowcases: Pillows are used to support the head and neck during sleep, while pillowcases are the removable covers that protect the pillows from dirt, sweat, and stains.
4. Mattress pads/protectors: These are additional layers placed between the mattress and the sheets to provide extra protection against spills, stains, or allergens.
5. Bed skirts: These are decorative pieces of fabric that cover the space between the box spring and the floor, hiding any storage area or providing a more finished look to the bed.
6. Towels and washcloths: While not directly related to the bed, these linens are often included in the 'bedding and linens' category as they share similar cleaning and maintenance requirements.

In medical settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, strict infection control protocols are followed for handling, washing, and storing bedding and linens to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

H-2 antigens are a group of cell surface proteins found in mice that play a critical role in the immune system. They are similar to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex in humans and are involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells, which is a crucial step in the adaptive immune response.

The H-2 antigens are encoded by a cluster of genes located on chromosome 17 in mice. They are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these proteins circulating in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented to T cells, thereby enhancing the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to a variety of pathogens.

The H-2 antigens are divided into two classes based on their function and structure. Class I H-2 antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells and consist of a heavy chain, a light chain, and a peptide fragment. They present endogenous peptides, such as those derived from viruses that infect the cell, to CD8+ T cells.

Class II H-2 antigens, on the other hand, are found primarily on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. They consist of an alpha chain and a beta chain and present exogenous peptides, such as those derived from bacteria that have been engulfed by the cell, to CD4+ T cells.

Overall, H-2 antigens are essential components of the mouse immune system, allowing for the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Allergic rhinitis, seasonal (also known as hay fever) is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when an individual breathes in allergens such as pollen or mold spores. The immune system identifies these substances as harmful and releases histamine and other chemicals, causing symptoms such as sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, red, watery, and itchy eyes, cough, and fatigue. Unlike perennial allergic rhinitis, seasonal allergic rhinitis is worse during specific times of the year when certain plants pollinate.

Basophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are granulocytes, which means they contain granules filled with chemicals that can be released in response to an infection or inflammation. Basophils are relatively rare, making up less than 1% of all white blood cells.

When basophils become activated, they release histamine and other chemical mediators that can contribute to allergic reactions, such as itching, swelling, and redness. They also play a role in inflammation, helping to recruit other immune cells to the site of an infection or injury.

Basophils can be identified under a microscope based on their characteristic staining properties. They are typically smaller than other granulocytes, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and have a multi-lobed nucleus with dark purple-staining granules in the cytoplasm.

While basophils play an important role in the immune response, abnormal levels of basophils can be associated with various medical conditions, such as allergies, infections, and certain types of leukemia.

Volatile oils, also known as essential oils, are a type of organic compound that are naturally produced in plants. They are called "volatile" because they evaporate quickly at room temperature due to their high vapor pressure. These oils are composed of complex mixtures of various compounds, including terpenes, terpenoids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and alcohols. They are responsible for the characteristic aroma and flavor of many plants and are often used in perfumes, flavors, and aromatherapy. In a medical context, volatile oils may have therapeutic properties and be used in certain medications or treatments, but it's important to note that they can also cause adverse reactions if not used properly.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is normally produced in small amounts during fetal development. In adults, low levels of CEA can be found in the blood, but elevated levels are typically associated with various types of cancer, particularly colon, rectal, and breast cancer.

Measurement of CEA levels in the blood is sometimes used as a tumor marker to monitor response to treatment, detect recurrence, or screen for secondary cancers in patients with a history of certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that CEA is not a specific or sensitive indicator of cancer and can be elevated in various benign conditions such as inflammation, smoking, and some gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein that mediates and regulates immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. IL-5 is primarily produced by activated T cells, especially Th2 cells, as well as mast cells, eosinophils, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs).

The primary function of IL-5 is to regulate the growth, differentiation, activation, and survival of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response against parasitic infections. IL-5 also enhances the ability of eosinophils to migrate from the bone marrow into the bloodstream and then into tissues, where they can participate in immune responses.

In addition to its effects on eosinophils, IL-5 has been shown to have a role in the regulation of B cell function, including promoting the survival and differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Dysregulation of IL-5 production and activity has been implicated in several diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain parasitic infections.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or bronchial hyperreactivity (BH) is a medical term that refers to the increased sensitivity and exaggerated response of the airways to various stimuli. In people with BHR, the airways narrow (constrict) more than usual in response to certain triggers such as allergens, cold air, exercise, or irritants like smoke or fumes. This narrowing can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.

BHR is often associated with asthma and other respiratory conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. It is typically diagnosed through a series of tests that measure the degree of airway narrowing in response to various stimuli. These tests may include spirometry, methacholine challenge test, or histamine challenge test.

BHR can be managed with medications such as bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs, which help to relax the muscles around the airways and reduce inflammation. It is also important to avoid triggers that can exacerbate symptoms and make BHR worse.

HLA-DR antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. HLA-DR molecules present peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells, thereby initiating an immune response.

HLA-DR antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variants of these molecules in the human population. This diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented and recognized by the immune system. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

In transplantation, HLA-DR compatibility between donor and recipient is an important factor in determining the success of the transplant. Incompatibility can lead to a heightened immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue, resulting in rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-DR types have been associated with increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a range of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling pathway or changing the cell's behavior. There are various types of receptors, including ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies or T-cells, as foreign and potentially harmful. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or even non-living substances like pollen, chemicals, or toxins. An antigen typically contains epitopes, which are the specific regions that antibodies or T-cell receptors recognize and bind to.

3. T-Cell: Also known as T lymphocytes, T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity, a part of the adaptive immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). T-cells recognize antigens presented to them by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via their surface receptors called the T-cell receptor (TCR). Once activated, T-cells can proliferate and differentiate into various effector cells that help eliminate infected or damaged cells.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Histocompatibility antigens Class II are a group of cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances. They are expressed on the surface of various cells, including immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes.

Class II histocompatibility antigens are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes, which are located on chromosome 6 in humans. These antigens are composed of two non-covalently associated polypeptide chains, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) chain, which form a heterodimer. There are three main types of Class II histocompatibility antigens, known as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

Class II histocompatibility antigens present peptide antigens to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages, to mount an immune response against the presented antigen. Because of their role in initiating an immune response, Class II histocompatibility antigens are important in transplantation medicine, where mismatches between donor and recipient can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. It is primarily involved in liquefying semen after ejaculation, allowing sperm mobility.

In clinical medicine, PSA is used as a tumor marker, mainly for monitoring the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA can indicate inflammation, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer. However, it's important to note that an elevated PSA level does not necessarily confirm cancer; further diagnostic tests like digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate biopsy are often required for definitive diagnosis.

Doctors may also use PSA isoforms or derivatives, such as free PSA, total PSA, and PSA density, to help improve the specificity of cancer detection and differentiate between malignant and benign conditions.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

CD15 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells called neutrophils and monocytes. It is also expressed on some types of cancer cells, including myeloid leukemia cells and some lymphomas. CD15 antigens are part of a group of molecules known as carbohydrate antigens because they contain sugar-like substances called carbohydrates.

CD15 antigens play a role in the immune system's response to infection and disease. They can be recognized by certain types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, which can then target and destroy cells that express CD15 antigens. In cancer, the presence of CD15 antigens on the surface of cancer cells can make them more visible to the immune system, potentially triggering an immune response against the cancer.

CD15 antigens are also used as a marker in laboratory tests to help identify and classify different types of white blood cells and cancer cells. For example, CD15 staining is often used in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to distinguish it from other types of leukemia.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are a type of tumor antigen that are expressed on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens are abnormal forms of carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are attached to proteins and lipids on the cell surface.

TACAs are often overexpressed or expressed in a different form on cancer cells compared to normal cells. This makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicit an immune response. Some examples of TACAs include gangliosides, fucosylated glycans, and sialylated glycans.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been studied as potential targets for cancer vaccines, antibody therapies, and other immunotherapeutic approaches. However, their use as targets for cancer therapy is still in the early stages of research and development.

HLA-A2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule, which is found on the surface of cells in our body. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from inside the cell to the immune system's T-cells, helping them distinguish between "self" and "non-self" proteins.

HLA-A2 is one of the most common HLA class I antigens in the Caucasian population, with an estimated frequency of around 50%. It presents a variety of peptides to T-cells, including those derived from viruses and tumor cells. The presentation of these peptides can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of infected or malignant cells.

It is important to note that HLA typing is crucial in organ transplantation, as a mismatch between donor and recipient HLA antigens can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. Additionally, HLA-A2 has been associated with certain autoimmune diseases and cancer types, making it an area of interest for researchers studying these conditions.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

CD8 antigens are a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes or cytotoxic T cells. These cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response, which is the specific and targeted response of the immune system to foreign substances (antigens) that invade the body.

CD8 antigens help cytotoxic T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells, such as those that have been infected by a virus or have become cancerous. When a cytotoxic T cell encounters a cell displaying a specific antigen bound to a CD8 molecule, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances that can kill the target cell.

CD8 antigens are also known as cluster of differentiation 8 antigens or CD8 receptors. They belong to a larger family of proteins called major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) molecules, which present antigens to T cells and play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

HLA-A antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. They are proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, and transplanted organs.

The HLA-A antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The CTLs then recognize and destroy any cells that display foreign or abnormal peptides on their HLA-A antigens.

Each person has a unique set of HLA-A antigens, which are inherited from their parents. These antigens can vary widely between individuals, making it important to match HLA types in organ transplantation to reduce the risk of rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-A antigens have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

Histocompatibility antigens, class I are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." These antigens are composed of three polypeptides - two heavy chains and one light chain - and are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 in humans.

Class I MHC molecules present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells. This presentation allows the immune system to detect and destroy cells that have been infected by viruses or other intracellular pathogens, or that have become cancerous.

There are three main types of class I MHC molecules in humans: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The term "HLA" stands for human leukocyte antigen, which reflects the original identification of these proteins on white blood cells (leukocytes). The genes encoding these molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variants in the population, and matching HLA types is essential for successful organ transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection.

HLA-D antigens, also known as HLA class II antigens, are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the immune system. "HLA" stands for Human Leukocyte Antigen, which is a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans.

HLA-D antigens are primarily expressed by immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but they can also be found on other cell types under certain conditions. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" by presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that is crucial for mounting an immune response.

HLA-D antigens are divided into three subtypes: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR. Each subtype has a specific function in presenting peptides to T lymphocytes. The genes that encode HLA-D antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variations of these genes in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a better match between an individual's immune system and the wide variety of pathogens they may encounter.

Abnormalities in HLA-D antigens have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, certain variations in HLA-D genes can influence the severity of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C.

Antigen receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells, particularly B cells and T cells. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids that stimulate an immune response.

B cell receptors (BCRs) are membrane-bound antibodies that recognize and bind to native antigens. When a BCR binds to its specific antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signals that lead to the activation and differentiation of the B cell into an antibody-secreting plasma cell.

T cell receptors (TCRs) are membrane-bound proteins found on T cells that recognize and bind to antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. TCRs can distinguish between self and non-self antigens, allowing T cells to mount an immune response against infected or cancerous cells while sparing healthy cells.

Overall, antigen receptors play a critical role in the adaptive immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

CD45 is a protein that is found on the surface of many types of white blood cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen because it is present on almost all leukocytes. CD45 is a tyrosine phosphatase that plays a role in regulating the activity of various proteins involved in cell signaling pathways.

As an antigen, CD45 is used as a marker to identify and distinguish different types of white blood cells. It has several isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing of its mRNA, resulting in different molecular weights. The size of the CD45 isoform can be used to distinguish between different subsets of T-cells and B-cells.

CD45 is an important molecule in the immune system, and abnormalities in its expression or function have been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 proteins or CD4 molecules, are a type of cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T-helper cells and monocytes. They play a critical role in the immune response by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and helping to activate T-cells. CD4 antigens are also the primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, leading to the destruction of CD4-positive T-cells and a weakened immune system.

"Dermatophagoides farinae antigen f 1". US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Takai ... "Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen p 1". US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings. Retrieved 3 April 2015. ... "Purification and characterization of the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-antigen P1". Journal of Immunology ... Der f 1 is found in the fecal pellets of the American house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Der f 1 is considered a major ...
Dermatophagoides evansi Dermatophagoides microceras Dermatophagoides halterophilus Dermatophagoides siboney Dermatophagoides ... House dust mite antigens are strongly associated with asthma development and severity; they are estimated to contribute to 60- ... Dermatophagoides alexfaini Dermatophagoides anisopoda Dermatophagoides chirovi Dermatophagoides deanei Dermatophagoides rwandae ... The currently known species are: Dermatophagoides farinae (American house dust mite) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (European ...
DR11 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR5 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR12 antigens. The ... association of DRB1*1101 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 haplotype with Dermatophagoides spp.-sensitive asthma in a sample of the ... Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 90-7. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1992.tb01965.x. PMID 1357780. Chou HT, Chen CH, Chen JY, Chang KC (2007 ... "Human leukocyte antigen class II and cervical cancer risk: a population-based study". J Infect Dis. 186 (11): 1565-74. doi: ...
SP-D increases bacterial antigen presentation by dendritic cells whereas SP-A blocs differentation of the immature dendritic ... Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) allergens". Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 106 (2): 367-373. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... "Surfactant protein D enhances bacterial antigen presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells". American Journal of ...
"Dermatophagoides farinae antigen f 1". US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings. Retrieved 3 April 2015. Takai ... "Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen p 1". US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings. Retrieved 3 April 2015. ... "Purification and characterization of the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-antigen P1". Journal of Immunology ... Der f 1 is found in the fecal pellets of the American house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Der f 1 is considered a major ...
Dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae 1 (Der f 1) dust antigen, comment code. Target: Both males and females 1 YEARS - 150 YEARS. ... Aspergillus fumigatus: (ng antigen/mL)*(1mL/45mg dust)*(1ug antigen/1000 ng antigen)*(1000 mg dust/1 g dust) = ug Aspergillus ... Dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae 1 (Der f 1) dust antigen, result (ng/mL dust). Target: Both males and females 1 YEARS - 150 ... Dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 (Der p 1) dust antigen, result (ng/mL dust). Target: Both males and females 1 YEARS ...
An aberrant helper T-cell type 2 immune response to a follicular antigen, such as Demodex, might be involved in the ... 21] with hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Some authorities have suggested that patients with eosinophilic ... 25] A selective migration of leukocyte factor antigen-1-positive eosinophils and lymphocytes to hair follicles may be explained ... Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in three atopic children with hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. ...
... and Dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus antigens. Tracheal explants from male Hartley-guinea-pigs were incubated with 0 to 100 ... Fourteen swine farmers and 15 comparisons showed a positive skin reaction to the swine confinement antigens or swine hair. The ... The swine workers with positive skin reactions to swine confinement antigens had a higher prevalence of chronic cough, phlegm, ... microliters of a extract of a mixture of swine hair, pig food, and swine confinement building antigens. The potential of the ...
Clinically important antigen levels were found in the theatre, and ryokans, but not in the hospitals, hotels or offices. ... Contamination of public facilities with Dermatophagoides mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in Japan.. Submitted by admin on Sat, 07/ ... Read more about Contamination of public facilities with Dermatophagoides mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in Japan. ...
MeSH headings : Animals; Antigens, Dermatophagoides / adverse effects; Asthma / chemically induced; Dermatophagoides ... MeSH headings : Animals; Antigens, Dermatophagoides / immunology; Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid; Dose-Response Relationship, ...
Purification and characterization of the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-antigen P1.. MD Chapman, TA Platts- ... A two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA for the quantification of the major Dermatophagoides spp. allergens, Der p I and Der f I. ...
Hepatitis B E Antigen - (HBEAG). Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Hbsag) - Elisa. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Hbsag) - Spot / ... Allergy - Dermatophagoides Farinae. Allergy - Dermatophatgodies Pteronyssinus. Nor - Metanephrines - 24 hrs urine. Malarial ... Free Prostatic Specific Antigen (FPSA) Profile. Free Prostatic Specific Antigen (FPSA). Lymphocytes. Eosinophils. Monocytes. ... Dengue Antigen (NS1). Dengue Virus Antibody IgG. Dengue Virus Antibody IgM. Iron. fe. Postprandial Insulin. pp insulin. insulin ...
Der p 1 antigen was detected in 93% and Der f 1 antigen in 84.7%. The highest amount of antigen detected in one gram of powder ... D. pteronyssinus 74%, D. farinae 13%, Dermatophagoides spp. growth forms 5%, Cheyletus spp. 1%, E. maynei 1%, C. arcuatus 1%, T ... OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to detect house dust mites in houses and to investigate group 1 antigens of ... Later, we compared cystic fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) between the prespecified MUC expressing and nonexpressing cyst ...
For several of the IgE phenotypes investigated (positive responses to whole allergen sources or purified antigens or serum IgE ... Antigens tested included highly purified proteins from the housedust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the domestic cat and ... Antigens tested included highly purified proteins from the housedust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the domestic cat and ... For several of the IgE phenotypes investigated (positive responses to whole allergen sources or purified antigens or serum IgE ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides MeSH DeCS ID:. 60136 Unique ID:. D000092542 Documents indexed in the Virtual Health Library (VHL):. ... Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Allergy Entry term(s). Allergy, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus ... Allergy, Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergy, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Allergy, Dust Mite. Dermatophagoides farinae ... Dermatophagoides farinae Allergy. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Allergies. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Allergy. Dust Mite ...
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding ... Administration, Intranasal, Animals, Antigens, Dermatophagoides, Cytokines, Disease Models, Animal, Electrophoresis, ... Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding ...
These dendritic cells migrate to locoregional lymph nodes and present specific antigens to T lymphocytes. During antigen ... SLIT with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus combined with bacterial extract in children promoted increased salivary IgA levels ... Positive reactivity was observed (6 mm diameter) for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Facial computed tomography showed partial ... Here they promote several events, including an increased cellular immune response specific to bacterial antigens present in the ...
Antigen may remain in a home for 6 months or more after cats are removed from the home, and cat antigen may be found in homes ... confirmed by in vitro testing for IgE antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae or Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus house dust mites ... Antigen-presenting cells (ie, macrophages, dendritic cells) in the airway capture, process, and present antigen to helper T ... Dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae, size 30 µm). The primary allergen associated with dust mites is an ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides - diagnostic use ; Bronchial provocation tests. Charakt. formalna: Zagraniczne streszczenie zjazdowe ... Angielskie s owa kluczowe: Fatty acids - metabolism ; Biological transport ; Anoxia - metabolism ; Antigens, CD36 - metabolism ... Angielskie s owa kluczowe: Asthma - immunology ; Antigens, CD - metabolism ; Receptors, cell surface - metabolism ; Monocytes ... Antigens, CD3 - metabolism ; Lymphocytes - metabolism ; Child ; Adolescent. Charakt. formalna: Polskie streszczenie zjazdowe. J ...
Mycobacterial antigen lymphocyte stimulation Microbiology - Serology of infection - Microbial antibody and/or antigen detection ... Blomia tropicalis house dust mite; Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus house dust mite; ... Immunopathology - Characterisation of leucocyte surface antigens (including immunophenotyping) Blood HLA-DR1; HLA-DR4 ... Detection and quantitation of foetal red cell antigens; Presence of foetal red blood cells ...
Antigen arrays for treatment of bone disease. Secretory protein or membrane protein. Nucleic acid amplification with terminal- ... Dermatophagoides proteins and fragments thereof. Human serine protease. Human marrow stromal cell lines which sustain ... Methods for use of apoptotic cells to deliver antigen to dendritic cells for induction or tolerizati.... Toner and developer ... Inhibition of viral infection using antigen-binding proteins. Using heat shock proteins to increase immune response. Colon ...
Antigen may remain in a home for 6 months or more after cats are removed from the home, and cat antigen may be found in homes ... Dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farina, size 30 µm). The primary allergen associated with dust mites is an ... Antigen-presenting cells (ie, macrophages, dendritic cells) in the airway capture, process, and present antigen to helper T ... Mite and cockroach antigens are common, and exposure and sensitization have been shown to increase asthma morbidity. ...
DCs are antigen-presenting cells (APC) with a unique ability to induce primary immune response of both helper (TH) and TC [90 ... for group 2 allergen of house dust mite Dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus- (Dp2-) induced airway inflammation in mice, using Dp2 ... CD4+ T-cells from mice immunized to syngeneic sarcomas recognize distinct, non-shared tumor antigens. Cancer Res. 1994;54(4): ... APC: antigen-presenting cell; FcR: Fc receptor; TLR: Toll-like receptor; CR1: complement receptor type 1; C: activated ...
Cusabio Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Recombinants. *Cusabio Human papillomavirus type 16 Recombinants. *Cusabio Pongo abelii ... Alternative Name(s): 450KDA epidermal antigen. Gene Names: EPPK1. Research Areas: Signal Transduction ...
Prostatic Specific Antigen, Total (PSA-t)(man) To identify the risk of having prostate cancer ... Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Glycyphagus domesticus. Euroglyphus maynei. Blomia tropicalis. Physical Examination Checking of ...
Antigen(172) * Apoptosis Kits(5) * Array(264) * Assay(405) * Assay-Kit(185) ...
C. Difficile Antigen and Toxins A and B. C‑Peptide. C-Telopeptide ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; VAS = visual analogue scale; SASSAD = six area six sign AD severity score; PBMC = peripheral ... cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen; OPT = oral provocation tests; SPT = skin prick tests; ECP = eosinophil cationic ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides / immunology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... A CD14 gene polymorphism is associated with the IgE level for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Kazuhiko Takeuchi 1 , Shinya ... A CD14 gene polymorphism is associated with the IgE level for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Kazuhiko Takeuchi et al. Acta ... Conclusion: CD14/-159 plays a role in sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in Japanese patients with allergic ...
Publications] S.Fuji: Human T cell responses ot reconbinant mite antigens of Dermatophagoides farinae. Clin.Exp.Immunol.108. ... Publications] S.Fujii: Human T cell responses to reconbinant mite antigens of Dermatophagoides farinae. Clin.Exp.Immunol. 108 ... Publications] S.Fujii: B cell mitogenic activity of house dust mite,Dermatophagoides farinae,antigens. Immunol.Let.49. 37-42 ... Publications] S.Fuji: B cell mitogenic actibity of house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farine, antigens. Immunol.Let.49. 37-42 ...
MeSH Terms: Aerosols; Aging/immunology; Air Pollutants/toxicity*; Allergens/toxicity*; Animals; Antigens, Dermatophagoides; ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Background: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) and Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) are highly similar disease-associated mites ... Identification of Der f 23 as a new major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae. He Y, Dou C, Su Y, Chen J, Zhang Z, Zhao Z, ... The draft genome, transcriptome, and microbiome of Dermatophagoides farinae reveal a broad spectrum of dust mite allergens. ...
Smith, A. P. Hyposensitization with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen: Trial in asthma induced by house dust. Br. Med. J ... particularly when the antigen load from exposure plus the injected antigen exceeds the patients antigen tolerance.. THE ... The PNU content of extracts of the same antigen may vary according to the method of measuring the PNU. Thus, the PNU content of ... Of the many allergens from Short Ragweed which have been purified and characterized [Amb a 1 3 (also known as Antigen E), Amb a ...
GATA-3 and FOXP3 mRNA in asthmatic peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Dermatophagoides farinae antigen].. Guo YS ... Different antigens trigger different Th1/Th2 reactions in neonatal mononuclear cells (MNCs) relating to T-bet/GATA-3 expression ...
AD symptoms were induced by repeated injections of Dermatophagoides farinae antigen (Df-antigen) into the ear auricle at 2- to ... E and Df-antigen-specific IgG1 were augmented when assayed 17 d after the first injection of Df-antigen, and these increases ... on Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions Induced by Mite Antigen in NC/Jic Mice ... 3-d intervals for 16 d. Ear thickness dramatically increased up to 16 d after the first injection of Df-antigen. Daily oral ...
Wind increases antigen exposure.. 3. If allergy to Dermatophagoides house dust mite allergens is confirmed, owners can utilize ... and arthropod antigens for flea allergy dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (house dust mite, cockroach antigen, etc.) ... The signs and severity of allergy will vary with antigen exposure, changes in environment, and may vary with seasonality. ... 3. Controversial--Use of limited antigen or hydrolyzed diets? VII. Control Secondary Bacterial Overgrowth, Pyoderma, or Yeast ...
... and Dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus antigens. Tracheal explants from male Hartley-guinea-pigs were incubated with 0 to 100 ... Fourteen swine farmers and 15 comparisons showed a positive skin reaction to the swine confinement antigens or swine hair. The ... The swine workers with positive skin reactions to swine confinement antigens had a higher prevalence of chronic cough, phlegm, ... microliters of a extract of a mixture of swine hair, pig food, and swine confinement building antigens. The potential of the ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae. Antigens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Antigens, House Dust Mites. Dermatophagoides ... Dermatophagoides Antigens. Dermatophagoides farinae Allergens. Dermatophagoides farinae Antigens. Dermatophagoides ... Antigens, House Dust Mites Dermatophagoides Antigens House Dust Mite Antigens Dermatophagoides Allergens - Narrower Concept UI ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides - Preferred Concept UI. M0419493. Scope note. Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae Antigens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Antigens, House Dust Mites Dermatophagoides ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae Narrower Concept UI. M0116078. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Narrower Concept UI. M0116080. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Antigens, Dermatophagoides ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides Preferred Concept UI. M0419493. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Antigens from the house dust mites ( ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae Antigens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Antigens, House Dust Mites Dermatophagoides ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae Narrower Concept UI. M0116078. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Antigens, Dermatophagoides farinae ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Narrower Concept UI. M0116080. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Antigens, Dermatophagoides ... Antigens, Dermatophagoides Preferred Concept UI. M0419493. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Antigens from the house dust mites ( ...
STANDARDIZED MITE DERMATOPHAGOIDES FARINAE injection, solution. STANDARDIZED MITE DERMATOPHAGOIDES PTERONYSSINUS injection, ... Packager: Antigen Laboratories, Inc.. , previous ,page 1. 2. 3. 4. of 4 , next , 20 results/pg. 50 results/pg. 100 results/pg. ... STANDARDIZED MITE, DERMATOPHAGOIDES PTERONYSSINUS injection, solution. STANDARDIZED MITE, DERMATOPHAGOIDES FARINAE injection, ... STANDARDIZED MITE D FARINAE (dermatophagoides farinae) injection, solution. STANDARDIZED MITE D PTERONYSSINUS (dermatophagoides ...
Hepatitis B E Antigen - (HBEAG). Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Hbsag) - Elisa. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (Hbsag) - Spot / ... Allergy - Dermatophagoides Farinae. Allergy - Dermatophatgodies Pteronyssinus. Nor - Metanephrines - 24 hrs urine. Malarial ... Free Prostatic Specific Antigen (FPSA) Profile. Free Prostatic Specific Antigen (FPSA). Lymphocytes. Eosinophils. Monocytes. ... Dengue Antigen (NS1). Dengue Virus Antibody IgG. Dengue Virus Antibody IgM. Iron. fe. Postprandial Insulin. pp insulin. insulin ...
CD98 N0000171344 Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain N0000171345 Antigens, CD98 Light Chains N0000171063 Antigens, Dermatophagoides ... HLA-A Antigens N0000171097 HLA-A1 Antigen N0000171096 HLA-A2 Antigen N0000171095 HLA-A3 Antigen N0000171098 HLA-B Antigens ... HLA-B27 Antigen N0000171101 HLA-B35 Antigen N0000171099 HLA-B7 Antigen N0000171102 HLA-B8 Antigen N0000171103 HLA-C Antigens ... HLA-D Antigens N0000171114 HLA-DP Antigens N0000171105 HLA-DQ Antigens N0000171106 HLA-DR Antigens N0000171108 HLA-DR1 Antigen ...
Prime-boost vaccination with toxoplasma lysate antigen, but not with a mixture of recombinant protein antigens, leads to ... Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/química , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Western ... which may interfere with tests based on hydrophilic antigens. Further refinement of antigen and the use of specific hydrophobic ... Crude antigen for ELISA is usually prepared from S. scabiei var. canis or other variations and may lead to variations in the ...
An aberrant helper T-cell type 2 immune response to a follicular antigen, such as Demodex, might be involved in the ... 4] with hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Some authorities have suggested that patients with eosinophilic ... 8] A selective migration of leukocyte factor antigen-1-positive eosinophils and lymphocytes to hair follicles may be explained ... Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in three atopic children with hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. ...
D23.101.100.110.198.625 Antigens, Dermatophagoides D24.611.216.181 D23.50.181 Antigens, Differentiation D24.185.101.100 D23.50. ... D23.50.293 Antigens, Surface D24.611.216.301 D23.50.301 Antigens, T-Independent D24.611.216.324 D23.50.324 Antigens, Thy-1 ... D23.50.101 Antigens D24.611.216 D23.50 Antigens, Archaeal D24.611.216.140 D23.50.140 Antigens, Bacterial D24.611.216.161 D23.50 ... D23.101.100.894 Antigens, Fungal D24.611.216.202 D23.50.202 Antigens, Helminth D24.611.216.223 D23.50.223 Antigens, Heterophile ...
Antigens, Dermatophagoides MH - East African People UI - D000094846 MN - M1.686.254.750.750 MS - People native to or ... HN - 2023 BX - Dermatophagoides farinae Allergy BX - Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Allergy BX - Dust Mite Hypersensitivity BX ... HN - 2023 (1992) BX - Antigens, CD223 BX - CD223 Antigen BX - Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 Proteins FX - Lymphocyte Activation ... Progressive deterioration of T-cell function due to chronic antigen stimulation and inflammatory signals, e.g., CHRONIC ...
Tissue antigens 2007 Sep 70 (3): 219-27. Spagnolo P, Sato H, Grutters J C, Renzoni E A, Marshall S E, Ruven H J T, Wells A U, ... Genetic impact of a butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) gene variation on specific IgE responsiveness to Dermatophagoides farinae (Der ... Tissue antigens 2007 Dec 70 (6): 480-6. Sato H, Spagnolo P, Silveira L, Welsh K I, du Bois R M, Newman L S, Maier L ... Tissue antigens 2007 Aug 70 (2): 128-35. Mochida A, Kinouchi Y, Negoro K, Takahashi S, Takagi S, Nomura E, Kakuta Y, Tosa M, ...
Ha H, Lim HS, Lee MY, Shin IS, Jeon WY, Kim JH, Shin HK (2015) Luffa cylindrica suppresses development of Dermatophagoides ... coat extract modulates macrophage functions to enhance antigen presentation: A proteomic study. Journal of Proteomics 161:26-37 ... Perilla leaf extract prevents atopic dermatitis induced by an extract of Dermatophagoides farinae in NC/Nga mice. Asian Pacific ...
  • Eur m 1 shares 88% identity with Der f 1, which has led to the proposal that Euroglyphus maynei may be more closely related to Dermatophagoides farinae than Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subjects were prick tested with extracts of materials collected in the swine confinement building such as swine food, corn flour, swine hair, and bacterial, mold, and Dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • Purification and characterization of the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-antigen P1. (google.lv)
  • D. pteronyssinus 74%, D. farinae 13%, Dermatophagoides spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antigens tested included highly purified proteins from the housedust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the domestic cat and dog, grass pollen, and the mould Alternaria alternata. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SP-D has also been shown to interact, via its carbohydrate recognition domains, with glycoprotein allergens of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Derp), inhibiting specific IgE isolated from mite-sensitive asthmatic patients from binding these allergens, and blocking subsequent histamine release from sensitized basophils. (ox.ac.uk)
  • For several of the IgE phenotypes investigated (positive responses to whole allergen sources or purified antigens or serum IgE above the 70th percentile in the population) the affected sibling-pairs showed significant sharing of TCR-alpha microsatellite alleles from both parents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Contamination of public facilities with Dermatophagoides mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in Japan. (aivc.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to detect house dust mites in houses and to investigate group 1 antigens of Dermatophagoid species in Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon and Rize provinces of the Central and Eastern Black Sea Region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tracheal explants from male Hartley-guinea-pigs were incubated with 0 to 100 microliters of a extract of a mixture of swine hair, pig food, and swine confinement building antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • Fourteen swine farm ers and 15 comparisons showed a positive skin reaction to the swine confinement antigens or swine hair. (cdc.gov)
  • The swine workers with positive skin reactions to swine confinement antigens had a higher prevalence of chronic cough, phlegm, and bronchitis than those with negative results. (cdc.gov)
  • Publications] S.Fujii: 'Human T cell responses to reconbinant mite antigens of Dermatophagoides farinae. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] A.Fujikawa: 'Cloning and characterization of a new allergen,Mag 3,from the house dust mite,Dermatophagoides farinae : Cross-reactivity with high-molecular-weight allergen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] S.Fujii: 'B cell mitogenic activity of house dust mite,Dermatophagoides farinae,antigens. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) and Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) are highly similar disease-associated mites with frequently overlapping geographic distributions. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Expression of T-bet, GATA-3 and FOXP3 mRNA in asthmatic peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Dermatophagoides farinae antigen]. (nih.gov)
  • Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic impact of a butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) gene variation on specific IgE responsiveness to Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) in Japanese. (cdc.gov)
  • 3. If allergy to Dermatophagoides house dust mite allergens is confirmed, owners can utilize pillow and mattress covers made of low-diameter pore fabrics impenetrable to house dust mite allergens. (vin.com)
  • More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Triggering flare factors for allergic skin disease include aeroallergens (pollens, mold spores) in atopic dermatitis, plus food (food allergy, atopic dermatitis), and arthropod antigens for flea allergy dermatitis and atopic dermatitis (house dust mite, cockroach antigen, etc. (vin.com)
  • About 10 antigens were allergenicity of these antigens immunostained with the pooled patient's IgE on an immobilon memmbrane after SDS-PAGE.On the same membrane, Cryj 1 and 2 were not stained for denaturation with SDS.So we estimated the allergen expect Cryj 1 and Cryj 2 by ELISA.PBS extract of cedar pollen (CJP-P) reacted with the 15 patient's sera after neutralizing with Cryj 1 and Cryj 2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA for the quantification of the major Dermatophagoides spp. (google.lv)
  • The signs and severity of allergy will vary with antigen exposure, changes in environment, and may vary with seasonality. (vin.com)
  • Exposures to airborne protein antigens, aeroallergens, may cause sensitization with production of Th2-depend- ent antibodies, including IgE. (cdc.gov)
  • 13. Different antigens trigger different Th1/Th2 reactions in neonatal mononuclear cells (MNCs) relating to T-bet/GATA-3 expression. (nih.gov)
  • The swine workers with positive skin reactions to swine confinement antigens had a higher prevalence of chronic cough, phlegm, and bronchitis than those with negative results. (cdc.gov)
  • We previously showed that infection with Toxoplasma gondii or systemic application of T. gondii tachyzoites lysate antigen (TLA) in a prophylactic, but not therapeutic protocol, prevented allergic airway inflammation in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • The two fungal antigens ( Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus fumigatus ) measured are primarily outdoor antigens, which are transported into the indoor environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Similar to dog antigen, Fel d 1 occurs on particulates that are readily transportable, and can also be found throughout the home environment. (cdc.gov)
  • 8] A selective migration of leukocyte factor antigen-1-positive eosinophils and lymphocytes to hair follicles may be explained by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by keratinocytes on follicular epithelium but not on epidermis. (medscape.com)
  • Tracheal explants from male Hartley-guinea-pigs were incubated with 0 to 100 microliters of a extract of a mixture of swine hair, pig food, and swine confinement building antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • Fourteen swine farmers and 15 comparisons showed a positive skin reaction to the swine confinement antigens or swine hair. (cdc.gov)
  • Publications] S.Fujii: 'Identification of T-cell epitope sequences on an important mite antigen. (nii.ac.jp)