Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.NAD+ NucleosidaseImmunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate: An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Myosin-Light-Chain Phosphatase: A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.GizzardKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Bence Jones Protein: An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Mice, Inbred BALB CProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Cell SeparationO Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cytoplasmic Dyneins: Dyneins that are responsible for intracellular transport, MITOSIS, cell polarization, and movement within the cell.Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Mice, Inbred C57BLMuscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Paraproteinemias: A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.

CD98-mediated links between amino acid transport and beta 1 integrin distribution in polarized columnar epithelia. (1/46)

In non-polarized cells, CD98 has been shown to both influence beta(1) integrins and heterodimerize with LAT-2, which confers amino acid transport capability on the LAT-2/CD98 heterodimer. Since LAT-2 is most heavily expressed in intestine and CD98 associates with the beta(1) integrin splice form selectively found in such epithelia, we investigated the relationship and polarity of these proteins using the intestinal epithelial model Caco2-BBE. CD98 was found to selectively coimmunoprecipitate with both LAT-2 and beta(1) integrin, and, logically, all three proteins were polarized to the same (basolateral) domain. Furthermore, expression of CD98 in polarized epithelia lacking human CD98 (MDCK cells) disrupted beta(1) integrin surface distribution and cytoskeletal architecture, suggesting that CD98 can influence integrin function. Expression of a CD98 mutant lacking the specific residues conferring LAT-2 binding similarly affected cells, confirming that the latter effect was not due to LAT-2 sequestration. Use of CD98 truncation mutants suggest that a 10-amino acid domain located at the putative cytoplasmic tail/transmembrane domain interface was necessary and sufficient to induce the phenotype change. We conclude that the CD98/LAT-2 amino acid transporter is polarized to the same domain on which beta(1) integrin resides. CD98 appears to associate with beta(1) integrin and, in doing so, may influence its function as revealed by disruption of the outside-in signaling that confers cytoskeletal organization. Furthermore, such findings suggest a link between classic transport events and a critical element of barrier function: integrin-mediated influences on cytoskeletal organization.  (+info)

Two-way arginine transport in human endothelial cells: TNF-alpha stimulation is restricted to system y(+). (2/46)

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transport arginine through two Na(+)-independent systems. System y(+)L is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibited by L-leucine in the presence of Na(+), and referable to the expression of SLC7A6/y(+)LAT2, SLC7A7/y(+)LAT1, and SLC3A2/4F2hc. System y(+) is referable to the expression of SLC7A1/CAT1 and SLC7A2/CAT2B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce a transient stimulation of arginine influx and efflux through system y(+). Increased expression of SLC7A2/CAT2B is detectable from 3 h of treatment, while SLC7A1 expression is inhibited at later times of incubation. System y(+)L activity and expression remain unaltered. Nitric oxide synthase type 2 mRNA is not detected in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha, while the latter condition lowers nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression at the mRNA and the protein level. Nitrite accumulation is comparable in cytokine-treated and control cells up to 48 h of treatment. It is concluded that modulation of endothelial arginine transport by TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide occurs exclusively through changes in CAT2B and CAT1 expression and is dissociated from stimulation of nitric oxide production.  (+info)

A study of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine transport in the perfused rat mammary gland: possible involvement of LAT1 and LAT2. (3/46)

The transport of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine by the perfused lactating rat mammary gland has been examined using a rapid, paired-tracer dilution technique. The clearances of all three amino acids by the mammary gland consisted of a rising phase followed by a rapid fall-off, respectively, reflecting influx and efflux of the radiotracers. The peak clearance of L-leucine was inhibited by BCH (65%) and D-leucine (58%) but not by L-proline. The inhibition of L-leucine clearance by BCH and D-leucine was not additive. L-leucine inhibited the peak clearance of radiolabelled L-leucine by 78%. BCH also inhibited the peak clearance of L-phenylalanine (66%) and L-alanine (33%) by the perfused mammary gland. Lactating rat mammary tissue was found to express both LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that system L is situated in the basolateral aspect of the lactating rat mammary epithelium and thus probably plays a central role in neutral amino acid uptake from blood. The finding that L-alanine uptake by the gland was inhibited by BCH suggests that LAT2 may make a significant contribution to neutral amino acid uptake by the mammary epithelium.  (+info)

Transport of a neurotoxicant by molecular mimicry: the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex is a substrate for human L-type large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 and LAT2. (4/46)

Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses cell membrane barriers to reach its target tissue, the brain. Although it is generally assumed that this rapid transport is due to simple diffusion, recent studies have demonstrated that MeHg is transported as a hydrophilic complex, and possibly as an L-cysteine complex on the ubiquitous L-type large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). To test this hypothesis, studies were carried out in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing two of the major L-type carriers in humans, LAT1-4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) and LAT2-4F2hc. Oocytes expressing LAT1-4F2hc or LAT2-4F2hc demonstrated enhanced uptake of [(14)C]MeHg when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, but not when administered as the D-cysteine, N -acetyl-L-cysteine, penicillamine or GSH complexes. Kinetic analysis of transport indicated that the apparent affinities ( K (m)) of MeHg-L-cysteine uptake by LAT1 and LAT2 (98+/-8 and 64+/-8 microM respectively) were comparable with those for methionine (99+/-9 and 161+/-11 microM), whereas the V (max) values were higher for MeHg-L-cysteine, indicating that it may be a better substrate than the endogenous amino acid. Uptake and efflux of [(3)H]methionine and [(14)C]MeHg-L-cysteine were trans -stimulated by leucine and phenylalanine, but not by glutamate, indicating that MeHg-L-cysteine is both a cis - and trans -substrate. In addition, [(3)H]methionine efflux was trans -stimulated by leucine and phenylalanine even in the presence of an inwardly directed methionine gradient, demonstrating concentrative transport by both LAT1 and LAT2. The present results describe a major molecular mechanism by which MeHg is transported across cell membranes and indicate that metal complexes may form a novel class of substrates for amino acid carriers. These transport proteins may therefore participate in metal ion homoeostasis and toxicity.  (+info)

Functional cooperation of epithelial heteromeric amino acid transporters expressed in madin-darby canine kidney cells. (5/46)

The heteromeric amino acid transporters b(0,+)AT-rBAT (apical), y(+)LAT1-4F2hc, and possibly LAT2-4F2hc (basolateral) participate to the (re)absorption of cationic and neutral amino acids in the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. We show now by immunofluorescence that their expression levels follow the same axial gradient along the kidney proximal tubule (S1>S2S3). We reconstituted their co-expression in MDCK cell epithelia and verified their polarized localization by immunofluorescence. Expression of b(0,+)AT-rBAT alone led to a net reabsorption of l-Arg (given together with l-Leu). Coexpression of basolateral y(+)LAT1-4F2hc increased l-Arg reabsorption and reversed l-Leu transport from (re)absorption to secretion. Similarly, l-cystine was (re)absorbed when b(0,+)AT-rBAT was expressed alone. This net transport was further increased by the coexpression of 4F2hc, due to the mobilization of LAT2 (exogenous and/or endogenous) to the basolateral membrane. In summary, apical b(0,+)AT-rBAT cooperates with y(+)LAT1-4F2hc or LAT2-4F2hc for the transepithelial reabsorption of cationic amino acids and cystine, respectively. The fact that the reabsorption of l-Arg led to the secretion of l-Leu demonstrates that the implicated heteromeric amino acid transporters function in epithelia as exchangers coupled in series and supports the notion that the parallel activity of unidirectional neutral amino acid transporters is required to drive net amino acid reabsorption.  (+info)

Isoform selectivity of 3-125I-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine membrane transport in human L-type amino acid transporters. (6/46)

3-(123)I-Iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ((123)I-IMT) has been developed for SPECT of amino acid transport imaging. We examined the isoform selectivity of (125)I-IMT transport of the 2 human L-type amino acid transporters, hLAT1 and hLAT2, with human 4F2hc-coexpressed Xenopus laevis oocytes. METHODS: An uptake study of (125)I-IMT was performed using transporter-expressed X. laevis oocytes. Oocytes were injected with 17.6 ng of hLAT1 or hLAT2 complementary RNA (cRNA) and 7.4 ng of h4F2hc cRNA in a molar ratio of 1:1. Two days after injection, the uptake of (125)I-IMT was measured in the Na(+)-free uptake solution containing 18.5 kBq of noncarrier-added (125)I-IMT. After incubation for 30 min at room temperature, radioactivity of the oocytes was determined. RESULTS: Of the 2 hLAT isoforms and h4F2hc-coexpressed X. laevis oocytes, (125)I-IMT uptake via hLAT1 was 5.95-fold higher than that via hLAT2 (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: (125)I-IMT transport was hLAT1 selective. Investigations on the isoform selectivity of (125)I-IMT transport with other transporters are anticipated.  (+info)

Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells. (7/46)

The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2.  (+info)

Basolateral LAT-2 has a major role in the transepithelial flux of L-cystine in the renal proximal tubule cell line OK. (8/46)

During renal reabsorption, the amino acid transporters b(o,+) and y(+)L have a major role in the apical uptake of cystine and dibasic amino acids and in the basolateral efflux of dibasic amino acids, respectively. In contrast, the transporters responsible for the basolateral efflux of the apically transported cystine are unknown. This study shows the expression of system L and y(+)L transport activities in the basolateral domain of the proximal tubule-derived cell line OK and the cloning of the corresponding LAT-2 and y(+)LAT-1 cDNAs. Stable transfection with a LAT-2 antisense sequence demonstrated the specific role of LAT-2 in the basolateral system L amino acid exchange activity in OK cells. This partial reduction of LAT-2 expression decreased apical-to-basolateral trans-epithelial flux of cystine and resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in the intracellular content of cysteine. In contrast, the content of serine, threonine, and alanine showed a tendency to decrease, whereas other LAT-2 substrates were not affected. This demonstrates that LAT-2 plays a major specific role in the net basolateral efflux of cysteine and points to LAT-2 as a candidate gene to modulate cystine reabsorption.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 -- ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 -- ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 -- calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 -- calgranulin ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... integrin beta chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.249 -- antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 -- antigens, ... clathrin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.200.750 -- clathrin light chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.300.150 -- ADP-ribosylation ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 light chains ... cd98 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 light ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*SLC3A2

4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene SLC3A2 has been shown to interact with SLC7A7. Heterodimeric amino acid ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ... covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. It associates with integrins and mediates ...

*APC Family

These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ... Gasol, E; Jiménez-Vidal, M; Chillarón, J; Zorzano, A; Palacín, M (July 23, 2014). "Membrane topology of system xc- light ...

*CD98

4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene Cluster of ... CD98 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at ... LAT1 is a heterodimeric membrane transport protein that preferentially transports branched-chain (valine, leucine, isoleucine) ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ...
Perkara itu diumumkan oleh timbalan ketua pesuruhjaya SPRM (pengurusan dan profesionalisme), Datuk Zakaria Jaafar dalam satu sidang akhbar di ibupejabat suruhanjaya itu di Putrajaya hari ini ...
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NTAL兔多克隆抗体(ab36451)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
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LATS1 +LATS2兔多克隆抗体(ab111344)可与人样本反应并经IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The SLC43 family is composed of only three genes coding for the plasma membrane facilitator system l amino acid transporters LAT3 (SLC43A1; TC 2.A.1.44.1) and LAT4 (SLC43A2; TC 2.A.1.44.2), and the orphan protein EEG1 (SLC43A3; TC 2.A.1.44.3). Beside
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
l-3-(18)F-α-methyl tyrosine ((18)F-FAMT) has been developed as a PET radiotracer for tumor imaging. Clinical studies have demonstrated the usefulness of (18)F-FAMT PET for the prediction of prognosis and the differentiation of malignant tumors and b
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
Like normal cells, cancer cells require amino acids for growth, maintenance, and cell signaling, and L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) are the delivery vehicles that supply them.
J:167825 Braun D, Kinne A, Brauer AU, Sapin R, Klein MO, Kohrle J, Wirth EK, Schweizer U, Developmental and cell type-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse brain and in primary brain cells. Glia. 2011 Mar;59(3):463-71 ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab70565 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P…LATS1 +LATS2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), also called hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2,cationic aminoaciduria or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting amino acid transport. About 140 patients have been reported, almost half of them of Finnish origin. Individuals from Japan, Italy, Morocco and North Africa have also been reported. Infants with LPI are usually symptom-free when breastfed because of the low protein concentration in human milk, but develop vomiting and diarrhea after weaning. The patients show failure to thrive, poor appetite, growth retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, prominent osteoporosis and osteopenia, delayed bone age and spontaneous protein aversion. Forced feeding of protein may lead to convulsions and coma. Mental development is normal if prolonged episode of hyperammonemia can be avoided. Some patients develop severe pulmonary and renal complications. High levels of plasma glutamine and glycine are observed. It has been ...
My 4-month-old was diagnosed with MSPI (milk soy protein intolerance) at 1 month and my wife is nursing. We have tried the diet for three months now and have had varying degrees of success. The troubling thing is that after seeing our pediatrician almost every week until three months, and seeing a GI specialist, our daughter still has bloody stools. Im concerned about Crohns disease.
Aminoaciduria is a condition in which a person has an excessive amount of amino acids in the urine because of genetic defects in...
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NIH Rare Diseases : 50 lysinuric protein intolerance is a metabolic disorder caused by the bodys inability to digest and use the amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine. because the body cannot effectively break down these amino acids, which are found in many protein-rich foods, individuals experience nausea and vomiting after ingesting protein. other features associated with protein intolerance may also occur, including short stature, muscle weakness, impaired immune function, and osteoporosis. a lung disorder called pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may develop in some individuals, as can end-stage renal disease, coma and intellectual disability. symptoms usually develop after infants are weaned and begin to eat solid foods. lysinuric protein intolerance is caused by mutations in the slc7a7 gene. it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. last updated: 11/15/2010 ...
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, characterised by defective transport of the cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine. To date there are few reported necropsy cases. This report describes the necropsy findings in a 21 year old female patient originally diagnosed as having LPI in 1973. Liver function tests deteriorated and immediately before death jaundice, hyperammonaemia, coma, metabolic acidosis, and a severe bleeding diathesis developed. At necropsy, there was micronodular cirrhosis of the liver with extensive fatty change in hepatocytes. The lungs showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed the presence of a glomerulonephritis with predominant IgA deposition. These necropsy findings reflect the spectrum of lesions reported in LPI, providing further evidence of an association between this condition and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, cirrhosis and glomerulonephritis.. ...
More than 40 mutations in the SLC7A7 gene have been found to cause lysinuric protein intolerance. All of these mutations impair the y+LAT-1 proteins ability to transport amino acids. People with lysinuric protein intolerance who are of Finnish descent typically have the same mutation. This mutation (written as IVS6-2A,T) disrupts the way the genes instructions are used to make the y+LAT-1 protein, causing the protein to be misplaced in the cell.. Mutations in the y+LAT-1 protein disrupt the transportation of amino acids, leading to a shortage of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in the body and an abnormally large amount of these amino acids in urine. The abnormal transportation and shortage of these amino acids in various tissues of the body leads to the signs and symptoms of lysinuric protein intolerance. ...
Think your baby has milk protein intolerance? Seek timely diagnosis, like exclusion diet and take measures, like switch formula, to keep your baby on the safe side.
How much of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid is present in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food in details, quantity how high or low Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid nutrient content it has.
We have developed a novel software algorithm, JOINSOLVER, to analyze the human CDR3H. Within the CDR3H, the definition of the D segment has been particularly problematic because of its short size and extensive terminal processing. Many attempts have been made to define the minimum length needed for D segment assignment (8, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36), yet there is still no consensus definition. Thus, we used novel methods to assign D segments. The first involved the use of a consecutive matching approach rather than the more standard alignment scoring system. The consecutive matching approach permitted the secure assignment of more D segments than the alignment scoring method. The second used methods to limit the search for identity to the VH-JH region only. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the consecutive match necessary to assign a D segment. We opted to distinguish an actual D segment match from random sequence identity using a 95% probability. This level of confidence seems ...
Bedeutungen für die Abkürzung lat., Lat., LAT ▶ Alle Bedeutungen im Überblick ✐ Ähnliche Abkürzungen zu lat., Lat., LAT ✐ 25572 Abkürzungen online ✐ Jetzt Abkürzungen & Bedeutungen auf Woxikon ansehen!
PAP in LPI is often untreatable and results in death. In this study, we carefully characterized BALF and tissue samples obtained from an LPI patient. The data revealed elevated levels of protein and dying cells in the airways. In addition, large cholesterol crystals and abnormal tubular myelin structures were found. Our primary cell culture assays using Alexa-647 conjugated BSA and apoptotic Jurkat T cells showed that pre-incubation of the LPI BAL cells with SP-D and GM-CSF increased their innate immune functions. Surprisingly, many of these LPI cells, but not the control cells, became elongated and stopped internalizing foreign material; eventually they formed granulomas ex vivo. Notably, treating these cells with GM-CSF ex vivo dramatically increased granuloma formation. However, treating the cells with SP-D reduced GM-CSF-mediated granuloma formation. Therefore, these findings may provide important clues for devising better treatment of PAP in LPI patients.. Although various SLC7A7 mutations ...
LPI is an autosomally recessively inherited amino acid disorder due to defective transport of cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine in the intestine and kidney tubules. The absence or dysfunction of the transport process leads to low plasma and high urine concentration of the cationic (dibasic) amino acids. Clinical presentation of the disease usually takes place during the weaning period when breast feeding is replaced by cows milk and other high protein diets. Nausea, vomiting and mild diarrhea usually are the first symptoms followed by failure to thrive and growth retardation. Later liver and spleen become enlarged, muscles are hypotonic and osteoporosis can cause bone fractures. High protein intake can lead to hyperammonemia and even to coma, possibly accounting for the mild intellectual deficit found in few cases of LPI. Many patients have spontaneously developed aversion to protein rich food. A pulmonary complication of unknown mechanism, alveolar proteinosis has occurred in few
Breast feeding is the most nutritious form of nourishment in infants and is recommended for at least the first four months of life. Breast fed infants may develop milk protein intolerance. The management of breast milk protein intolerance differs from that of cows milk protein intolerance in formula fed infants. Because breast milk is considered by many to be nutritionally superior to formula and results in maternal infant bonding mothers are often told to continue breast feeding. Despite the lack of evidence based data to support or refute the modification of the mothers diet, it is suggested that they eliminate their own intake of dairy products strictly and avoid supplementing with a cows milk based formula. We are doing this study because we believe that deletion of dairy from the diet of a breast feeding mother will not cause BMPI to resolve ...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
We got the all-clear today from DDs paediatrician to challenge her CMPI. Her skin-prick allergy test came back showing no sensitivities at all so were not concerned about an allergic reaction at this stage. Any advice? Food ideas?
Essential Vegan Protein Powder, by Valia, is infused with enzymes that assist in the digestion process, making it consumable to those who have a protein intolerance.
Synonyms for L-leucine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for L-leucine. 1 word related to leucine: essential amino acid. What are synonyms for L-leucine?
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Name: L-Leucine CAS NO: 61-90-5 Appearance: white crystal Density: 1.289g/cm3 Melting point: 222℃ Molecular weight: 131.17 Chemical Formula: C6H13NO2 Solubility: soluble in water
National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation The National Urea Cycle Disorders Foundation is the only organization solely dedicated to saving the lives of children and adults with urea cycle disorders and leads the search for a cure. Internationally recognized, NUCDF serves as a lifeline to families and medical professionals around the world seeking life saving information. NUCDF is the driving force stimulating and supporting research for new treatments, improved outcomes, and a Cure. NUCDF efforts include educating UCD patients, families and medical professionals on diagnosis, treatment and management, and providing guidance, resources, information and support to all those affected by urea cycle disorders. The UCD International Patient Registry (www.ucdregistry.org), empowers UCD patients and caregivers to self-report their own unique experiences with UCD and compare them to others with UCD. Participants in the UCD Registry can help improve the understanding of UCDs, improve care, and accelerate ...
The Neocate hypoallergenic infant formula product range has been designed for infants and children with cows milk allergy, multiple food protein intolerance, and a range of food allergy induced disorders. The formulas are based on 100% free amino acids and do not contain any cows milk protein to reduce the possibility of a food allergic reaction.
Thyroid Hormone Transporters in Mouse Neurons. Eva K. Wirth, Stephan Roth, Cristiane Blechschmidt, Sabine M. Hölter, Lore Becker, et al.. (see pages 9439-9449). The thyroid hormone 3′,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3) regulates transcription of genes that control all stages of brain development, from neuronal and glial proliferation to synaptogenesis and myelination. To exert these effects, T3 must be transported across plasma membranes and into cell nuclei where it binds to its receptors. The primary T3 transporter in neurons is monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), and the importance of this transporter is revealed by the fact that its mutation causes Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, characterized by profound mental retardation, severe motor defects, and abnormally high plasma levels of T3. Surprisingly, mice lacking Mct8 show no overt behavioral abnormalities, although T3 levels are elevated. Wirth et al. performed extensive analyses and found no anatomical or motor defects, but mutant mice ...
Hello mamas! I need some help...My 2 week old lil girl is having some feeding issues. Shes quite gassy and fussy most of her waking time, spits up
I am so frustrated b/c i cant figure out what is wrong with my four month old.twins (two.months adjusted). They were born 9weeks early and.spent 6wks in the nicu. They got pumped milk, maybe once or twice if at all? formula.early.on (i.cant recall) and towards the end had human.milk.fortifier.added to help with gaining. They were bottle fed and.only after they were discharged did.we really get breastfeeding. By their due date they were 100% breastfed and gaining fine. Initially
I am so frustrated b/c i cant figure out what is wrong with my four month old.twins (two.months adjusted). They were born 9weeks early and.spent 6wks in the nicu. They got pumped milk, maybe once or twice if at all? formula.early.on (i.cant recall) and towards the end had human.milk.fortifier.added to help with gaining. They were bottle fed and.only after they were discharged did.we really get breastfeeding. By their due date they were 100% breastfed and gaining fine. Initially
Detail záznamu - The transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL signals to mast cell cytoskeleton via the small GTPase Rho - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Description: This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest ...
I would love to make an amylase schnapps session. That means, we attempt to produce alcohol with the minimum requirements and whats at hand: our bodies and some carbohydrates. A few folks around the earth figured out th…
Redistribution n Drug releases re-enters circulatory system from l Depot binding l Protein binding l Ion trapping n Bound / unbound drug l Ratio maintained l Prolongs drug effects ~
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Periodical: Halpern, Berthold, J. W. Westley, Ingilt Von Wrendenhagen, and Joshua Lederberg. Optical Resolution of D,L Amino Acids by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 20, 6 (1965): 710-714. Article. 5 Images ...
A year or so ago I was aware that Royal Canin was using feathers in their pet food, to be honest at the time I thought it was an act of desperate cost saving, however it is a whole lot more clever than that!. So a little understanding of immune responses is essential here, basically the body is set up to detect and destroy evil foreign proteins(invaders). Sometimes however it goes wrong and recognises good (or normal) proteins as evil too. In food this causes Adverse Food Reactions, Atopic Dermatitis and so on. Now the immune response is also linked to the size of these proteins - the protein size is measured in Daltons which is the measurement for mass on an molecular scale - and the bigger the protein the bigger the response. This can be partly due to it being easier to "see" by the immune system.. The goal of Royal Canin was to produce a food with protein molecules that were less than 1kDa (1000 Daltons) in size to prevent the immune reaction. Now part of the Royal Canin philosophy is for ...
This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest possible sensitivity
Serpin Structure and Evolution: 501 (Methods in Enzymology). Serpins are a gaggle of proteins with comparable buildings that have been first pointed out as a suite of proteins capable of inhibit proteases. This quantity within the tools in Enzymology sequence comprehensively covers this subject. With a global board of authors, this quantity covers matters such as Crystallography of serpins and serpin complexes, Serpins as hormone transporters, and creation of serpins utilizing telephone loose structures. ...
Affiliation:Kobe University,医学部附属病院,講師, Research Field:Obstetrics and gynecology,Obstetrics and gynecology, Keywords:アポトーシス,子宮筋腫,増殖,CRH,SCP,絨毛外トロホブラスト,Progesterone,浸潤能,SPRM,LGR7, # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:60
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website: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2012; Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, botanical information system at the Missouri Botanical Garden, available at http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb ...
Abbreviations: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; AdiC, arginine/agmatine antiporter; AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier; AMPK, AMP-dependent kinase; Apc, amino acid, polyamine and organocation; ASC, preference for alanine, serine and cysteine; ASCT, neutral amino acid transporter; ASS, argininosuccinate synthetase; B0AT, broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter; CTNL2, type 2 citrullinaemia; EA, episodic ataxia 1; EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter; EEG, electroencephalogram; 4F2hc4F2, cell-surface-antigen heavy chain; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; GC1, mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1; HAT, heteromeric amino acid transporter; HHH, hyperammonaemia-hyperornithinaemia-homocitrullinuria; IL1, intracellular loop 1; LeuT, leucine transporter; LeuTAa, LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus; LPI, lysinuric protein intolerance; MCT, monocarboxylate transporter; MeAIB, N-methylaminoisobutyric acid; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NICCD, neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency; OCD, ...
In article ,jmack-070794234545 at jmack.pipeline.com,, jmack at pipeline.com (John Mack) wrote: , Yes. We know L-amino acids fold into right-handed helices. (And vice , versa.) , , Therefore, look for forces (coriolis? asymmetric surface catalysts?) that , favor right-handed helices. , , If right-handed helices are favored in one hemisphere due to the coriolis , force, then that may be the hemisphere where these were first incorporated , into successful, Darwinian replicating, nano-machines which eventually , became living things. , , Thus, it is just fortuitous that life began in the hemisphere that favored , right-handed helices and also L-amino acids. After all, life would be just , the same with D-amino acids and left-handed helices. , , Maybe the L and D nanomachines existed simultaneously on Earth and , dominated their respective hemispheres! But, for some unknown reason (a , comet striking Earth?) the D nanomachines never developed into living , things. The L machines did. The living ...
(ID:13403) We have successfully demonstrated that the transmembrane adaptor SIT inhibits TCR-mediated signals required for i thymo
Armani Arrives in Style Among the Top Five LPI Ayrshire Sires, tied at #5 LPI, and also captures #3 Milk, tied #8 Fat, #6 Protein with +7 Conformation.
Im trying to teach myself how to do it. How does this look? Mine as welll throw in a fat front pic as well. Im really slacking on my cutting thats why
3 zeszyty A4 - w tym dwa ledwo napoczete, moleskina nie moge od dwoch lat zapelnic. A to co w nim jest n to duzo pisania, glownie pozostalosci notatek ze studiow ...
A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before it is collected (this clears the urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container, catch about 1 to 2 ounces of urine and remove the container from the urine stream. The container is then given to the health care provider. ...
The Hartnup disorder page provides a brief description of the genetics and clinical features of this disease that results from defects in the neutral amino acid transporter encoded by the SLC16A19 gene.
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Azért használunk sütiket, hogy hatékonyan tudjunk dolgozni. Ön beleegyezik ebbe azzal, hogy használja ezt az oldalt. Beleegyezés a sütik használatába.. ...

Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain in Primary Amyloidosis: Prognostic Value and Correlations with Clinical Features | Blood ...Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain in Primary Amyloidosis: Prognostic Value and Correlations with Clinical Features | Blood ...

... antigens, cd98 light chains, bilirubin ... Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain in Primary Amyloidosis: ... free immunoglobulin light chain, immunoglobulin deposition disease, immunoglobulins, primary amyloidosis, signs and symptoms, ... Background: Immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) form the substrate for synthesis of amyloid fibrils in patients with AL ... The relationship of the light chain types and their levels in serum to the clinical feature at presentation and the eventual ...
more infohttps://ashpublications.org/blood/article/112/11/2733/59757/Serum-Immunoglobulin-Free-Light-Chain-in-Primary

Transporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)  | Open-iTransporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) | Open-i

Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism*. *Boron Compounds/metabolism*. *Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins/metabolism* ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4376436_cas0106-0279-f5&req=4

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 -- ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 -- ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 -- calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 -- calgranulin ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.157)

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... integrin beta chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.249 -- antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 -- antigens, ... clathrin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.200.750 -- clathrin light chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.300.150 -- ADP-ribosylation ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.543)

Antigen 4F2, Heavy Chain - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigen 4F2, Heavy Chain - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

A transmembrane glycoProtein Subunit that can dimerize with a variety of Light chain subunits (Antigens, CD98 Light Chains). ... Its function is altered depending which of the Light chain subunits it interacts with. ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigen-4f2-heavy-chain.html

Automated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System ImagingAutomated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System Imaging

... and a 12-time transmembrane light chain that is unique to each subtype [26]. LAT1/4F2hc complex, one form of 4F2 antigen or ... K. Kaira, N. Oriuchi, H. Imai et al., "L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 expression in primary and metastatic sites of ... In step 2, an aliphatic tosyl chain was to be added at phenolic hydroxyl group of N-Boc-5-hydroxytryptophan methyl ester. ... CD98 antigen, preferentially transports large neutral amino acids, such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/492545/

TCDB » Human MTPsTCDB » Human MTPs

... function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen ... We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately ... Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/hgnc_explore.php?symbol=SLC7A6

Oncotarget | SLC3A2, antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancerOncotarget | SLC3A2, antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer

... antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer ... Transformation of BALB3T3 cells caused by over-expression of rat CD98 heavy chain (HC) requires its association with light ... MAb 3G9 identified SLC3A2 as target antigen. To identify the target antigen recognized by 3G9, the whole cell lysate of MGC-803 ... Malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells by overexpression of early lymphocyte activation antigen CD98. Biochem Biophys Res ...
more infohttp://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=19529&path%5B%5D=62419

CD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LatvijaCD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Latvija

... also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is disulfide-linked with a multi-pass light chain of 40 kDa. The heavy ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LV-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd98-antibodies-human-rea387.html

CD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LëtzebuergCD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg

... also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is disulfide-linked with a multi-pass light chain of 40 kDa. The heavy ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LU-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd98-antibodies-human-rea387.html

SLC7A5 / CD98 Light Chain Antibody (Internal) for IHC IHC-plus™ LS-A3096SLC7A5 / CD98 Light Chain Antibody (Internal) for IHC IHC-plus™ LS-A3096

CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog ... Performing IHC? See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ... CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog ... CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/slc7a5-antibody-cd98-light-chain-antibody-internal-ihc-ihc-plus-ls-a3096/3158

Nordic BioSiteNordic BioSite

CD and Related Antigens (Human) Notes. CD98 (4F2) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which serves as the heavy chain of ... 80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). CD98, linked to various light chains by disulfide bond, is responsible for ... Mouse Monoclonal to CD98 Recommended Dilution. The purified antibody is conjugated with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) under ...
more infohttps://nordicbiosite.com/product/AFC-4959-2/CD98

Clinicopathologic predictors of renal outcomes in light chain cast nephropathy: A multicenter retrospective study. | Blood |...Clinicopathologic predictors of renal outcomes in light chain cast nephropathy: A multicenter retrospective study. | Blood |...

antigens, cd98 light chains, kidney, myeloma kidney, biopsy, multiple myeloma, renal biopsy, casts, surgical, chemotherapy ... antigens, cd98 light chains, kidney, myeloma kidney, biopsy, multiple myeloma, renal biopsy, casts, surgical, chemotherapy ... Light chain cast nephropathy (LCCN) in multiple myeloma often leads to severe and poorly reversible acute kidney injury. Severe ... Clinicopathologic predictors of renal outcomes in light chain cast nephropathy: A multicenter retrospective study. Clinical ...
more infohttps://ashpublications.org/blood/article-abstract/doi/10.1182/blood.2019003807/452677/Clinicopathologic-predictors-of-renal-outcomes-in?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin - EXBIO AntibodiesAnti-Hu CD98 Biotin - EXBIO Antibodies

80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin ... Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and ... Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase ...
more infohttps://www.exbio.cz/research-product/antibodies/cd-and-related-antigens/anti-hu-cd98-biotin

Anti-LAT1 [BU53] | Monoclonal Antibodies - XimbioAnti-LAT1 [BU53] | Monoclonal Antibodies - Ximbio

CD98 Light Chain; 4F2 Light Chain; MPE16; HLAT1; LAT1; Sodium-Independent Neutral Amino Acid Transporter LAT1; Large Neutral ... Antigen/Gene or Protein Targets Large neutral Amino acid Transporter 1 (LAT1, CD98) ... Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic NH2 terminus. ... Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic NH2 terminus. ...
more infohttps://ximbio.com/reagent/151426/anti-lat1-bu53

PDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic ScholarPDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic Scholar

In addition to the role in amino acid transport, one HSHAT [the heavy subunit of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (also named CD98 ... and a light subunit (LSHAT) linked by a disulfide bridge. HSHATs are N-glycosylated type II membrane glycoproteins, whereas ... Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains.. Angelika Bröer, Bärbel Friedrich, +4 ... Surface Antigen CD98(4F2): Not a Single Membrane Protein, But a Family of Proteins with Multiple Functions. Rosa Devés, C. A. R ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Heteromeric-amino-acid-transporters%3A-biochemistry%2C-Chillar%C3%B3n-Roca/9d7fb82ef12d96940f9f0250932186321cae1e95

Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD98 (IPO-T10) | BiotiumMouse Monoclonal anti-CD98 (IPO-T10) | Biotium

CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. It is a ... The Sixth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, Kobe, Japan 1996 (Garland ... CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. ... made of a disulfide-linked glycosylated heavy chain of approximately 80-90 kDa and a non-glycosylated light chain ...
more infohttps://biotium.com/product/monoclonal-anti-cd98-ipo-t10/

CD69 | SpringerLinkCD69 | SpringerLink

AIM; BL-AC/P26; CLEC2C; EA1; GP32/28; MLR-3; Leu-23 CD69 was first described as the activation antigen expressed on natural ... The heavy and light chain of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter "L-type amino acid transporter 1" (LAT1) - CD98 can bind ... The leukocyte activation antigen CD69 limits allergic asthma and skin contact hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010b; ... Erg- 1, erythroblast transformation-specific related gene-1; NfkB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101600

clusters of differentiation | Advanced Cancer Researchclusters of differentiation | Advanced Cancer Research

4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5.. ... Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 3 chain; found on nonhematopoietic bone marrow cells. Receptor for collagen, laminin, fibronectin ... Sialyl-Tn antigen[11] (STN). CD176. TF[12] or Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen is a disaccharide found on cell surfaces and ... Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy ...
more infohttp://advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com/clusters-of-differentiation/

IHCPlus™ GPR171 Polyclonal  Antibody Rabbit  anti-Human  HRP IHC | LSBioIHCPlus™ GPR171 Polyclonal Antibody Rabbit anti-Human HRP IHC | LSBio

IHC‑plus™ SLC7A5 / CD98 Light Chain Antibody (N‑Terminus) LS‑A3406 Species: Human, Monkey, Dog, Rabbit ... Performing IHC? See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ... Useful for pre-absorption and neutralization of the antibodys antigen binding site. ... Immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue after heat-induced antigen retrieval. ...
more infohttps://www.lsbio.com/antibodies/ihc-plus-gpr171-antibody-extracellular-domain-azide-free-hrp-ihc-ls-a100623/698352

anti-SLC7A5 antibody | Rabbit SLC7A5 Polyclonal Antibody-Q01650.2anti-SLC7A5 antibody | Rabbit SLC7A5 Polyclonal Antibody-Q01650.2

4F2 light chain antibody; 4F2LC antibody; CD98 antibody; CD98 light chain antibody; CD98LC antibody; D16S469E antibody; DC49 ... Antigen. Biochemical. cDNA Clone. siRNA. Peptide. Rec./Purified Protein. Custom ELISA Kit. Custom Protein. Custom Antibody. ... 4F2 light chain; 4F2 LC; 4F2LC; CD98 light chain; Integral membrane protein E16; L-type amino acid transporter 1; hLAT1; Solute ... large neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1; 4F2 LC; 4F2 light chain; CD98 light chain; integral membrane protein E16 ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Polyclonal/SLC7A5/datasheet.php?products_id=177019

Frontiers | Professional antigen presenting cells in human herpesvirus 8 infection | ImmunologyFrontiers | Professional antigen presenting cells in human herpesvirus 8 infection | Immunology

This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic ... This could be why T cell responses to HHV-8 antigens are not very robust. Of these APC, only B cells support complete, lytic ... are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of ... are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00427/full

Anti-SLC7A5/LAT1 antibody (ab99419) | AbcamAnti-SLC7A5/LAT1 antibody (ab99419) | Abcam

4F2 light chain antibody. *4F2LC antibody. *CD98 antibody. *CD98 light chain antibody ... ab99419 was purified from goat serum by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by antigen affinity chromatography using the ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/slc7a5lat1-antibody-ab99419.html?productwalltab=abreviews

Anti-Hu CD147 PE - EXBIO AntibodiesAnti-Hu CD147 PE - EXBIO Antibodies

Cho JY, Fox DA, Horejsi V, Sagawa K, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain B: The functional interactions between CD98, beta1-integrins, ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD147 PE ... Avoid prolonged exposure to light. Do not use after expiration date stamped on vial label. ... Xu D, Hemler ME: Metabolic activation-related CD147-CD98 complex. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2005 Aug;4(8):1061-71. PubMed ...
more infohttps://www.exbio.cz/research-product/antibodies/cd-and-related-antigens/anti-hu-cd147-pe?q=100+tests
  • The relationship of the light chain types and their levels in serum to the clinical feature at presentation and the eventual outcome has not been systematically studied. (ashpublications.org)
  • Complementation of dominant suppression implicates CD98 in integrin activation. (springer.com)
  • Melchior A, Denys A, Deligny A, Mazurier J, Allain F: Cyclophilin B induces integrin-mediated cell adhesion by a mechanism involving CD98-dependent activation of protein kinase C-delta and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. (exbio.cz)
  • The functional interactions between CD98, beta1-integrins, and CD147 in the induction of U937 homotypic aggregation. (ximbio.com)
  • Xu D, Hemler ME: Metabolic activation-related CD147-CD98 complex. (exbio.cz)
  • CD98, linked to various light chains by disulfide bond, is responsible for cell surface expression and basolateral localization of this transporter complex in polarized epithelial cells and also interacts with beta1 integrins and increases their affinity for ligand. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • 1997 ). Depending on the number of N-glycan chains, the CD69 polypeptide forms subunits of the size 28 kDa or 32 kDa. (springer.com)
  • CD98-mediated adhesive signaling enables the establishment and propagation of acute myelogenous leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Through its nutrient function, CD98 can contribute to the survival and growth of many cell types. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • More pronounced SLC38A1 expression in gastric cancer tissues was significantly associated with age, differentiation status, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression. (springermedizin.de)
  • Background: Immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) form the substrate for synthesis of amyloid fibrils in patients with AL amyloidosis. (ashpublications.org)