Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.
A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

CD98-mediated links between amino acid transport and beta 1 integrin distribution in polarized columnar epithelia. (1/46)

In non-polarized cells, CD98 has been shown to both influence beta(1) integrins and heterodimerize with LAT-2, which confers amino acid transport capability on the LAT-2/CD98 heterodimer. Since LAT-2 is most heavily expressed in intestine and CD98 associates with the beta(1) integrin splice form selectively found in such epithelia, we investigated the relationship and polarity of these proteins using the intestinal epithelial model Caco2-BBE. CD98 was found to selectively coimmunoprecipitate with both LAT-2 and beta(1) integrin, and, logically, all three proteins were polarized to the same (basolateral) domain. Furthermore, expression of CD98 in polarized epithelia lacking human CD98 (MDCK cells) disrupted beta(1) integrin surface distribution and cytoskeletal architecture, suggesting that CD98 can influence integrin function. Expression of a CD98 mutant lacking the specific residues conferring LAT-2 binding similarly affected cells, confirming that the latter effect was not due to LAT-2 sequestration. Use of CD98 truncation mutants suggest that a 10-amino acid domain located at the putative cytoplasmic tail/transmembrane domain interface was necessary and sufficient to induce the phenotype change. We conclude that the CD98/LAT-2 amino acid transporter is polarized to the same domain on which beta(1) integrin resides. CD98 appears to associate with beta(1) integrin and, in doing so, may influence its function as revealed by disruption of the outside-in signaling that confers cytoskeletal organization. Furthermore, such findings suggest a link between classic transport events and a critical element of barrier function: integrin-mediated influences on cytoskeletal organization.  (+info)

Two-way arginine transport in human endothelial cells: TNF-alpha stimulation is restricted to system y(+). (2/46)

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells transport arginine through two Na(+)-independent systems. System y(+)L is insensitive to N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), inhibited by L-leucine in the presence of Na(+), and referable to the expression of SLC7A6/y(+)LAT2, SLC7A7/y(+)LAT1, and SLC3A2/4F2hc. System y(+) is referable to the expression of SLC7A1/CAT1 and SLC7A2/CAT2B. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide induce a transient stimulation of arginine influx and efflux through system y(+). Increased expression of SLC7A2/CAT2B is detectable from 3 h of treatment, while SLC7A1 expression is inhibited at later times of incubation. System y(+)L activity and expression remain unaltered. Nitric oxide synthase type 2 mRNA is not detected in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha, while the latter condition lowers nitric oxide synthase type 3 expression at the mRNA and the protein level. Nitrite accumulation is comparable in cytokine-treated and control cells up to 48 h of treatment. It is concluded that modulation of endothelial arginine transport by TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharide occurs exclusively through changes in CAT2B and CAT1 expression and is dissociated from stimulation of nitric oxide production.  (+info)

A study of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine transport in the perfused rat mammary gland: possible involvement of LAT1 and LAT2. (3/46)

The transport of L-leucine, L-phenylalanine and L-alanine by the perfused lactating rat mammary gland has been examined using a rapid, paired-tracer dilution technique. The clearances of all three amino acids by the mammary gland consisted of a rising phase followed by a rapid fall-off, respectively, reflecting influx and efflux of the radiotracers. The peak clearance of L-leucine was inhibited by BCH (65%) and D-leucine (58%) but not by L-proline. The inhibition of L-leucine clearance by BCH and D-leucine was not additive. L-leucine inhibited the peak clearance of radiolabelled L-leucine by 78%. BCH also inhibited the peak clearance of L-phenylalanine (66%) and L-alanine (33%) by the perfused mammary gland. Lactating rat mammary tissue was found to express both LAT1 and LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that system L is situated in the basolateral aspect of the lactating rat mammary epithelium and thus probably plays a central role in neutral amino acid uptake from blood. The finding that L-alanine uptake by the gland was inhibited by BCH suggests that LAT2 may make a significant contribution to neutral amino acid uptake by the mammary epithelium.  (+info)

Transport of a neurotoxicant by molecular mimicry: the methylmercury-L-cysteine complex is a substrate for human L-type large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 and LAT2. (4/46)

Methylmercury (MeHg) readily crosses cell membrane barriers to reach its target tissue, the brain. Although it is generally assumed that this rapid transport is due to simple diffusion, recent studies have demonstrated that MeHg is transported as a hydrophilic complex, and possibly as an L-cysteine complex on the ubiquitous L-type large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). To test this hypothesis, studies were carried out in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing two of the major L-type carriers in humans, LAT1-4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) and LAT2-4F2hc. Oocytes expressing LAT1-4F2hc or LAT2-4F2hc demonstrated enhanced uptake of [(14)C]MeHg when administered as the L-cysteine or D,L-homocysteine complexes, but not when administered as the D-cysteine, N -acetyl-L-cysteine, penicillamine or GSH complexes. Kinetic analysis of transport indicated that the apparent affinities ( K (m)) of MeHg-L-cysteine uptake by LAT1 and LAT2 (98+/-8 and 64+/-8 microM respectively) were comparable with those for methionine (99+/-9 and 161+/-11 microM), whereas the V (max) values were higher for MeHg-L-cysteine, indicating that it may be a better substrate than the endogenous amino acid. Uptake and efflux of [(3)H]methionine and [(14)C]MeHg-L-cysteine were trans -stimulated by leucine and phenylalanine, but not by glutamate, indicating that MeHg-L-cysteine is both a cis - and trans -substrate. In addition, [(3)H]methionine efflux was trans -stimulated by leucine and phenylalanine even in the presence of an inwardly directed methionine gradient, demonstrating concentrative transport by both LAT1 and LAT2. The present results describe a major molecular mechanism by which MeHg is transported across cell membranes and indicate that metal complexes may form a novel class of substrates for amino acid carriers. These transport proteins may therefore participate in metal ion homoeostasis and toxicity.  (+info)

Functional cooperation of epithelial heteromeric amino acid transporters expressed in madin-darby canine kidney cells. (5/46)

The heteromeric amino acid transporters b(0,+)AT-rBAT (apical), y(+)LAT1-4F2hc, and possibly LAT2-4F2hc (basolateral) participate to the (re)absorption of cationic and neutral amino acids in the small intestine and kidney proximal tubule. We show now by immunofluorescence that their expression levels follow the same axial gradient along the kidney proximal tubule (S1>S2S3). We reconstituted their co-expression in MDCK cell epithelia and verified their polarized localization by immunofluorescence. Expression of b(0,+)AT-rBAT alone led to a net reabsorption of l-Arg (given together with l-Leu). Coexpression of basolateral y(+)LAT1-4F2hc increased l-Arg reabsorption and reversed l-Leu transport from (re)absorption to secretion. Similarly, l-cystine was (re)absorbed when b(0,+)AT-rBAT was expressed alone. This net transport was further increased by the coexpression of 4F2hc, due to the mobilization of LAT2 (exogenous and/or endogenous) to the basolateral membrane. In summary, apical b(0,+)AT-rBAT cooperates with y(+)LAT1-4F2hc or LAT2-4F2hc for the transepithelial reabsorption of cationic amino acids and cystine, respectively. The fact that the reabsorption of l-Arg led to the secretion of l-Leu demonstrates that the implicated heteromeric amino acid transporters function in epithelia as exchangers coupled in series and supports the notion that the parallel activity of unidirectional neutral amino acid transporters is required to drive net amino acid reabsorption.  (+info)

Isoform selectivity of 3-125I-iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine membrane transport in human L-type amino acid transporters. (6/46)

3-(123)I-Iodo-alpha-methyl-L-tyrosine ((123)I-IMT) has been developed for SPECT of amino acid transport imaging. We examined the isoform selectivity of (125)I-IMT transport of the 2 human L-type amino acid transporters, hLAT1 and hLAT2, with human 4F2hc-coexpressed Xenopus laevis oocytes. METHODS: An uptake study of (125)I-IMT was performed using transporter-expressed X. laevis oocytes. Oocytes were injected with 17.6 ng of hLAT1 or hLAT2 complementary RNA (cRNA) and 7.4 ng of h4F2hc cRNA in a molar ratio of 1:1. Two days after injection, the uptake of (125)I-IMT was measured in the Na(+)-free uptake solution containing 18.5 kBq of noncarrier-added (125)I-IMT. After incubation for 30 min at room temperature, radioactivity of the oocytes was determined. RESULTS: Of the 2 hLAT isoforms and h4F2hc-coexpressed X. laevis oocytes, (125)I-IMT uptake via hLAT1 was 5.95-fold higher than that via hLAT2 (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: (125)I-IMT transport was hLAT1 selective. Investigations on the isoform selectivity of (125)I-IMT transport with other transporters are anticipated.  (+info)

Functional and molecular characteristics of system L in human breast cancer cells. (7/46)

The functional and molecular properties of system L in human mammary cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) have been examined. All transport experiments were conducted under Na(+)-free conditions. alpha-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was almost abolished by BCH (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid). AIB uptake by MDA-MB-231 cells was also inhibited by L-alanine (83.6%), L-lysine (75.6%) but not by L-proline. Similarly, L-lysine and L-alanine, respectively, reduced AIB influx into MCF-7 cells by 45.3% and 63.7%. The K(m) of AIB uptake into MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was, respectively, 1.6 and 8.8 mM, whereas the V(max) was, respectively, 9.7 and 110.0 nmol/mg protein/10 min. AIB efflux from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was trans-stimulated by BCH, L-glutamine, L-alanine, L-leucine, L-lysine and AIB (all at 2 mM). In contrast, L-glutamate, L-proline, L-arginine and MeAIB had no effect. The interaction between L-lysine and AIB efflux was one of low affinity. The fractional release of AIB from MDA-MB-231 cells was trans-accelerated by D-leucine and D-tryptophan but not by D-alanine. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressed LAT1 and CD98 mRNA. MCF-7 cells also expressed LAT2 mRNA. The results suggest that AIB transport in mammary cancer cells under Na(+)-free conditions is predominantly via system L which acts as an exchange mechanism. The differences in the kinetics of AIB transport between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells may be due to the differential expression of LAT2.  (+info)

Basolateral LAT-2 has a major role in the transepithelial flux of L-cystine in the renal proximal tubule cell line OK. (8/46)

During renal reabsorption, the amino acid transporters b(o,+) and y(+)L have a major role in the apical uptake of cystine and dibasic amino acids and in the basolateral efflux of dibasic amino acids, respectively. In contrast, the transporters responsible for the basolateral efflux of the apically transported cystine are unknown. This study shows the expression of system L and y(+)L transport activities in the basolateral domain of the proximal tubule-derived cell line OK and the cloning of the corresponding LAT-2 and y(+)LAT-1 cDNAs. Stable transfection with a LAT-2 antisense sequence demonstrated the specific role of LAT-2 in the basolateral system L amino acid exchange activity in OK cells. This partial reduction of LAT-2 expression decreased apical-to-basolateral trans-epithelial flux of cystine and resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in the intracellular content of cysteine. In contrast, the content of serine, threonine, and alanine showed a tendency to decrease, whereas other LAT-2 substrates were not affected. This demonstrates that LAT-2 plays a major specific role in the net basolateral efflux of cysteine and points to LAT-2 as a candidate gene to modulate cystine reabsorption.  (+info)

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Linker for activation of B cells (LAB, also called NTAL; a product of wbscr5 gene) is a newly identified transmembrane adaptor… Expand ...
LATS1 +LATS2兔多克隆抗体(ab111344)可与人样本反应并经IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. L-type amino acid transporter 1 - SLC7 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
J:167825 Braun D, Kinne A, Brauer AU, Sapin R, Klein MO, Kohrle J, Wirth EK, Schweizer U, Developmental and cell type-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse brain and in primary brain cells. Glia. 2011 Mar;59(3):463-71 ...
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab70565 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P…LATS1 +LATS2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), also called hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2,cationic aminoaciduria or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting amino acid transport. About 140 patients have been reported, almost half of them of Finnish origin. Individuals from Japan, Italy, Morocco and North Africa have also been reported. Infants with LPI are usually symptom-free when breastfed because of the low protein concentration in human milk, but develop vomiting and diarrhea after weaning. The patients show failure to thrive, poor appetite, growth retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, prominent osteoporosis and osteopenia, delayed bone age and spontaneous protein aversion. Forced feeding of protein may lead to convulsions and coma. Mental development is normal if prolonged episode of hyperammonemia can be avoided. Some patients develop severe pulmonary and renal complications. High levels of plasma glutamine and glycine are observed. It has been ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human oral cancer cells and to study the roles of cell cycle regulatory factors in the BCH-induced growth inhibition. The effect of BCH on cell growth suppression and the influence of BCH to cell cycle regulatory factors in KB cell growth inhibition were examined using cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The BCH treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in KB cells. The expression of cyclin D3 was remarkably decreased by BCH treatment. The BCH inhibited the expression of cyclin-dependent protein kinase 6 (CDK6) in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of CDK inhibitor p27 was increased by BCH treatment in KB cells, but not CDK inhibitors p21 and p15. These results suggest that, in KB cells, the inhibition of LAT1 by BCH causes cell cycle arrest at Cl phase ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
Mayerl S, Schmidt M, Doycheva D, Darras VM, Hüttner SS, Boelen A, Visser TJ, Kaether C, Heuer H, von Maltzahn J: Thyroid hormone transporters MCT8 and OATP1C1 control skeletal muscle regeneration. Stem Cell Rep 10(6): 1959-1974, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.03.021. Kotz S, Kullmann M, Kalayda GV, Dyballa-Rukes N, Jaehde U, Metzger S: Optimized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in an alkaline pH range improves the identification of intracellular CFDA-cisplatin-protein adducts in ovarian cancer cells. Electrophoresis 39(12): 1488-1496, 2018. doi: 10.1002/elps.201700377. Thacher JD, Gehring U, Gruzieva O, Standl M, Pershagen G, Bauer CP, Berdel D, Keller T, Koletzko S, Koppelman GH, Kull I, Lau S, Lehmann I, Maier D, Schikowski T, Wahn U, Wijga AH, Heinrich J, Bousquet J, Anto JM, von Berg A, Melén E, Smit HA, Keil T, Bergström A: Maternal smoking during pregnancy and early childhood and development of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis - a MeDALL project. Environ Health Perspect 126(4): ...
Aminoaciduria is a condition in which a person has an excessive amount of amino acids in the urine because of genetic defects in...
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NIH Rare Diseases : 50 lysinuric protein intolerance is a metabolic disorder caused by the bodys inability to digest and use the amino acids lysine, arginine, and ornithine. because the body cannot effectively break down these amino acids, which are found in many protein-rich foods, individuals experience nausea and vomiting after ingesting protein. other features associated with protein intolerance may also occur, including short stature, muscle weakness, impaired immune function, and osteoporosis. a lung disorder called pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may develop in some individuals, as can end-stage renal disease, coma and intellectual disability. symptoms usually develop after infants are weaned and begin to eat solid foods. lysinuric protein intolerance is caused by mutations in the slc7a7 gene. it is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. last updated: 11/15/2010 ...
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, characterised by defective transport of the cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine. To date there are few reported necropsy cases. This report describes the necropsy findings in a 21 year old female patient originally diagnosed as having LPI in 1973. Liver function tests deteriorated and immediately before death jaundice, hyperammonaemia, coma, metabolic acidosis, and a severe bleeding diathesis developed. At necropsy, there was micronodular cirrhosis of the liver with extensive fatty change in hepatocytes. The lungs showed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy revealed the presence of a glomerulonephritis with predominant IgA deposition. These necropsy findings reflect the spectrum of lesions reported in LPI, providing further evidence of an association between this condition and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, cirrhosis and glomerulonephritis.. ...
More than 40 mutations in the SLC7A7 gene have been found to cause lysinuric protein intolerance. All of these mutations impair the y+LAT-1 proteins ability to transport amino acids. People with lysinuric protein intolerance who are of Finnish descent typically have the same mutation. This mutation (written as IVS6-2A,T) disrupts the way the genes instructions are used to make the y+LAT-1 protein, causing the protein to be misplaced in the cell.. Mutations in the y+LAT-1 protein disrupt the transportation of amino acids, leading to a shortage of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in the body and an abnormally large amount of these amino acids in urine. The abnormal transportation and shortage of these amino acids in various tissues of the body leads to the signs and symptoms of lysinuric protein intolerance. ...
Think your baby has milk protein intolerance? Seek timely diagnosis, like exclusion diet and take measures, like switch formula, to keep your baby on the safe side.
How much of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid is present in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food in details, quantity how high or low Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid nutrient content it has.
We have developed a novel software algorithm, JOINSOLVER, to analyze the human CDR3H. Within the CDR3H, the definition of the D segment has been particularly problematic because of its short size and extensive terminal processing. Many attempts have been made to define the minimum length needed for D segment assignment (8, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36), yet there is still no consensus definition. Thus, we used novel methods to assign D segments. The first involved the use of a consecutive matching approach rather than the more standard alignment scoring system. The consecutive matching approach permitted the secure assignment of more D segments than the alignment scoring method. The second used methods to limit the search for identity to the VH-JH region only. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the consecutive match necessary to assign a D segment. We opted to distinguish an actual D segment match from random sequence identity using a 95% probability. This level of confidence seems ...
No, such switches do not normally happen. Did you specify in any way that you have D-amino acids in you system? This is necessary - even though the standard terms in the force field are symmetric wrt L- and D-amino acids, the CMAP cross terms are different and so you need to use toppar_all36_prot_c36_d_aminoacids.str and the residue names in it; this is in CHARMM, I have no idea about CHARMM-GUI or GROMACS ...
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Genetics Home Reference : 25 Lysinuric protein intolerance is a disorder caused by the bodys inability to digest and use certain protein building blocks (amino acids), namely lysine, arginine, and ornithine. Because the body cannot effectively break down these amino acids, which are found in many protein-rich foods, nausea and vomiting are typically experienced after ingesting protein. People with lysinuric protein intolerance have features associated with protein intolerance, including an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), short stature, muscle weakness, impaired immune function, and progressively brittle bones that are prone to fracture (osteoporosis). A lung disorder called pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may also develop. This disorder is characterized by protein deposits in the lungs, which interfere with lung function and can be life-threatening. An accumulation of amino acids in the kidneys can cause end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in which the kidneys become unable to filter ...
PAP in LPI is often untreatable and results in death. In this study, we carefully characterized BALF and tissue samples obtained from an LPI patient. The data revealed elevated levels of protein and dying cells in the airways. In addition, large cholesterol crystals and abnormal tubular myelin structures were found. Our primary cell culture assays using Alexa-647 conjugated BSA and apoptotic Jurkat T cells showed that pre-incubation of the LPI BAL cells with SP-D and GM-CSF increased their innate immune functions. Surprisingly, many of these LPI cells, but not the control cells, became elongated and stopped internalizing foreign material; eventually they formed granulomas ex vivo. Notably, treating these cells with GM-CSF ex vivo dramatically increased granuloma formation. However, treating the cells with SP-D reduced GM-CSF-mediated granuloma formation. Therefore, these findings may provide important clues for devising better treatment of PAP in LPI patients.. Although various SLC7A7 mutations ...
LPI is an autosomally recessively inherited amino acid disorder due to defective transport of cationic amino acids lysine, arginine and ornithine in the intestine and kidney tubules. The absence or dysfunction of the transport process leads to low plasma and high urine concentration of the cationic (dibasic) amino acids. Clinical presentation of the disease usually takes place during the weaning period when breast feeding is replaced by cows milk and other high protein diets. Nausea, vomiting and mild diarrhea usually are the first symptoms followed by failure to thrive and growth retardation. Later liver and spleen become enlarged, muscles are hypotonic and osteoporosis can cause bone fractures. High protein intake can lead to hyperammonemia and even to coma, possibly accounting for the mild intellectual deficit found in few cases of LPI. Many patients have spontaneously developed aversion to protein rich food. A pulmonary complication of unknown mechanism, alveolar proteinosis has occurred in few
Breast feeding is the most nutritious form of nourishment in infants and is recommended for at least the first four months of life. Breast fed infants may develop milk protein intolerance. The management of breast milk protein intolerance differs from that of cows milk protein intolerance in formula fed infants. Because breast milk is considered by many to be nutritionally superior to formula and results in maternal infant bonding mothers are often told to continue breast feeding. Despite the lack of evidence based data to support or refute the modification of the mothers diet, it is suggested that they eliminate their own intake of dairy products strictly and avoid supplementing with a cows milk based formula. We are doing this study because we believe that deletion of dairy from the diet of a breast feeding mother will not cause BMPI to resolve ...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
Nuclear Neuroimaging is becoming an important diagnostic tool with increasing impact in neurological and neuro-oncological practice. An emerging use of brain FDG-PET is the early recognition of a potentially treatable cause of rapid progressive dementia. This is the case of Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis, where brain FDG-PET findings may appear even before characteristic brain MRI hyperintensities. On the other hand, PET is a well-established method in systemic oncology, and is being increasingly used to supplement MRI in the clinical management of brain tumors. The evidence-based recommendation by the PET- Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group (RANO) and the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) on the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas, and the recently published joint guidelines of the SNMMI and EANM focusing on radiotracers that are used in clinical practice imaging, i.e. glucose metabolism, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), and system L amino acid transport ...
Aminoaciduria is a test that screens for increased levels of amino acid excretion in the urine which may indicate inborn errors of metabolism caused by a specific enzyme deficiency.
Essential Vegan Protein Powder, by Valia, is infused with enzymes that assist in the digestion process, making it consumable to those who have a protein intolerance.
Synonyms for L-leucine in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for L-leucine. 1 word related to leucine: essential amino acid. What are synonyms for L-leucine?
abstract = {Serpins compose the largest superfamily of peptidase inhibitors and are well known as regulators of hemostasis and thrombolysis. Studies using model organisms, from plants to vertebrates, now show that serpins and their unique inhibitory mechanism and conformational flexibility are exploited to control proteolysis in molecular pathways associated with cell survival, development, and host defense. In addition, an increasing number of non-inhibitory serpins are emerging as important elements within a diversity of biological systems by serving as chaperones, hormone transporters, or anti-angiogenic factors ...
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Lysine and its bioactive form L-lysine, abbreviated Lys or L, is an essential amino acid. Normal requirements for adults are between 8 g per day or 12 mg/kg. Children and infants need more: 44 mg/kg per day for an eleven to-twelve-year old, and 97 mg/kg per day for three-to six-month old. Lysine is highly concentrated in muscle compared to most other amino acids. Normal lysine metabolism is dependent upon many nutrients including niacin, vitamin B6, riboflavin, vitamin C, glutamic acid and iron. Several inborn errors of lysine metabolism are known, such as cystinuria, hyperdibasic aminoaciduria I, lysinuric protein intolerance, propionic acidemia, and tyrosinemia I. Most are marked by mental retardation with occasional diverse symptoms such as absence of secondary sex characteristics, undescended testes, abnormal facial structure, anemia, obesity, enlarged liver and spleen, and eye muscle imbalance. Low lysine levels have been found in patients with Parkinsons, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, ...
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) [MIM:222700]: A metabolic disorder characterized by increased renal excretion of cationic amino acid (CAA), reduced CAA absorption from intestine, and orotic aciduria. On a normal diet, LPI patients present poor feeding, vomiting, diarrhea, episodes of hyperammoniaemic coma and growth retardation. Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis and a life-threatening pulmonary involvement (alveolar proteinosis) are also seen. Biochemically LPI is characterized by defective transport of dibasic amino acids at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in kidney and intestine. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:10080182, ECO:0000269,PubMed:10631139, ECO:0000269,PubMed:10655553, ECO:0000269,PubMed:12402335, ECO:0000269,PubMed:15756301, ECO:0000269,PubMed:15776427, ECO:0000269,PubMed:17764084, ECO:0000269,PubMed:9829974}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry ...
The Neocate hypoallergenic infant formula product range has been designed for infants and children with cows milk allergy, multiple food protein intolerance, and a range of food allergy induced disorders. The formulas are based on 100% free amino acids and do not contain any cows milk protein to reduce the possibility of a food allergic reaction.
Thyroid Hormone Transporters in Mouse Neurons. Eva K. Wirth, Stephan Roth, Cristiane Blechschmidt, Sabine M. Hölter, Lore Becker, et al.. (see pages 9439-9449). The thyroid hormone 3′,3,5-triiodothyronine (T3) regulates transcription of genes that control all stages of brain development, from neuronal and glial proliferation to synaptogenesis and myelination. To exert these effects, T3 must be transported across plasma membranes and into cell nuclei where it binds to its receptors. The primary T3 transporter in neurons is monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), and the importance of this transporter is revealed by the fact that its mutation causes Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, characterized by profound mental retardation, severe motor defects, and abnormally high plasma levels of T3. Surprisingly, mice lacking Mct8 show no overt behavioral abnormalities, although T3 levels are elevated. Wirth et al. performed extensive analyses and found no anatomical or motor defects, but mutant mice ...
I am so frustrated b/c i cant figure out what is wrong with my four month old.twins (two.months adjusted). They were born 9weeks early and.spent 6wks in the nicu. They got pumped milk, maybe once or twice if at all? formula.early.on (i.cant recall) and towards the end had human.milk.fortifier.added to help with gaining. They were bottle fed and.only after they were discharged did.we really get breastfeeding. By their due date they were 100% breastfed and gaining fine. Initially
I am so frustrated b/c i cant figure out what is wrong with my four month old.twins (two.months adjusted). They were born 9weeks early and.spent 6wks in the nicu. They got pumped milk, maybe once or twice if at all? formula.early.on (i.cant recall) and towards the end had human.milk.fortifier.added to help with gaining. They were bottle fed and.only after they were discharged did.we really get breastfeeding. By their due date they were 100% breastfed and gaining fine. Initially
Description: This purpose of this project is to build a prototype instrument that will, running unattended, detect, identify, and quantify BW agents. In order to accomplish this, we have chosen to start with the world� s leading, proven, assays for pathogens: surface-molecular recognition assays, such as antibody-based assays, implemented on a high-performance, identification (ID)-capable flow cytometer, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for nucleic-acid based assays. With these assays, we must integrate the capability to: l collect samples from aerosols, water, or surfaces; l perform sample preparation prior to the assays; l incubate the prepared samples, if necessary, for a period of time; l transport the prepared, incubated samples to the assays; l perform the assays; l interpret and report the results of the assays. Issues such as reliability, sensitivity and accuracy, quantity of consumables, maintenance schedule, etc. must be addressed satisfactorily to the end user. The highest ...
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... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 - ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 - ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 - calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 - calgranulin b ...
... cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 - antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.625 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH ... cd98 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.500 - antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.625 - antigens, cd98 light ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene SLC3A2 has been shown to interact with SLC7A7. Additionally, SLC3A2 is a ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... Teixeira S, Di Grandi S, Kühn LC (August 1987). "Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ...
... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... integrin alpha chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.100 - antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, ... integrin beta chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.249 - antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 - antigens, ...
These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ... Gasol E, Jiménez-Vidal M, Chillarón J, Zorzano A, Palacín M (July 2004). "Membrane topology of system xc- light subunit reveals ...
4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene Cluster of ... CD98+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Large+Neutral+Amino+Acid-Transporter+1 at ... LAT1 is a heterodimeric membrane transport protein that preferentially transports branched-chain (valine, leucine, isoleucine) ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ...
Immunoglobulin Light ChainsMyosin Light ChainsLightAntigensAntigens, CDAntigens, CD8Antigens, NeoplasmAntigens, CD3Antigens, ... Immunoglobulin Light ChainsMyosin Light ChainsLightAntigensAntigens, CDAntigens, CD8Antigens, NeoplasmAntigens, CD3Antigens, ... Immunoglobulin Light ChainsMyosin Light ChainsLightAntigensAntigens, CDAntigens, CD8Antigens, NeoplasmAntigens, CD3Antigens, ... Immunoglobulin Light ChainsMyosin Light ChainsAntigensAntigens, CDAntigens, CD8Antigens, NeoplasmAntigens, CD3Antigens, Surface ...
Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism*. *Boron Compounds/metabolism*. *Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins/metabolism* ...
CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene SLC3A2 has been shown to interact with SLC7A7. Additionally, SLC3A2 is a ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... Teixeira S, Di Grandi S, Kühn LC (August 1987). "Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ...
CD98 heterodimers, comprised of a heavy chain (CD98hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains, interact with integrins through ... 4F2 antigen) is expressed on a family of heterodimers composed of a common type II transmembrane heavy chain (CD98hc, 4F2hc, ... CD98 promotes amino acid transport through its light chains; however, a CD98hc mutant that interacts with β1 integrins, but not ... but not CD98 light chains, rescued integrin-dependent signaling and protection from apoptosis. Finally, embryonic stem (ES) ...
... and a 12-time transmembrane light chain that is unique to each subtype [26]. LAT1/4F2hc complex, one form of 4F2 antigen or ... K. Kaira, N. Oriuchi, H. Imai et al., "L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 expression in primary and metastatic sites of ... In step 2, an aliphatic tosyl chain was to be added at phenolic hydroxyl group of N-Boc-5-hydroxytryptophan methyl ester. ... CD98 antigen, preferentially transports large neutral amino acids, such as leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine ...
... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 - ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 - ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 - calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 - calgranulin b ...
... also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is disulfide-linked with a multi-pass light chain of 40 kDa. The heavy ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ...
... function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen ... We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately ... Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 ...
CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog ... Performing IHC? See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ... CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog ... CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog ...
CD and Related Antigens (Human) Notes. CD98 (4F2) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which serves as the heavy chain of ... 80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). CD98, linked to various light chains by disulfide bond, is responsible for ... Mouse Monoclonal to CD98 Recommended Dilution. The purified antibody is conjugated with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) under ...
Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. 1. + 42. Lipids. 1. + 43. Receptor, Insulin. 1. + ...
80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin ... Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and ... Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase ...
CD98 Light Chain; 4F2 Light Chain; MPE16; HLAT1; LAT1; Sodium-Independent Neutral Amino Acid Transporter LAT1; Large Neutral ... Antigen/Gene or Protein Targets Large neutral Amino acid Transporter 1 (LAT1, CD98) ... Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic NH2 terminus. ... Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic NH2 terminus. ...
... antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer ... Transformation of BALB3T3 cells caused by over-expression of rat CD98 heavy chain (HC) requires its association with light ... MAb 3G9 identified SLC3A2 as target antigen. To identify the target antigen recognized by 3G9, the whole cell lysate of MGC-803 ... Malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells by overexpression of early lymphocyte activation antigen CD98. Biochem Biophys Res ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain,4F2 heavy chain,CD98 heavy chain,antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain, ... covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. It associates with integrins and mediates ... antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, and T43,heavy chain,lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large ... The human 4F2 antigen: evidence for cryptic and noncryptic epitopes and for a role of 4F2 in human T lymphocyte activation.. ...
Protein Aliases: 4F2; 4F2 LC; 4F2 light chain; 4F2HC; 4F2LC; 4T2HC; CD98 light chain; CD98HC; E16; hLAT1; Integral membrane ... peptide antigen binding L-leucine transmembrane transporter activity L-phenylalanine transmembrane transporter activity L- ... amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5; solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), ... Gene Aliases: 4F2LC; CD98; CD98LC; D0H16S474E; D16S469E; E16; hLAT1; LAT1; MPE16; SLC7A5; TA1 ...
CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. It is a ... The Sixth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, Kobe, Japan 1996 (Garland ... CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. ... made of a disulfide-linked glycosylated heavy chain of approximately 80-90 kDa and a non-glycosylated light chain ...
In addition to the role in amino acid transport, one HSHAT [the heavy subunit of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 (also named CD98 ... and a light subunit (LSHAT) linked by a disulfide bridge. HSHATs are N-glycosylated type II membrane glycoproteins, whereas ... Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains.. Angelika Bröer, Bärbel Friedrich, +4 ... Surface Antigen CD98(4F2): Not a Single Membrane Protein, But a Family of Proteins with Multiple Functions. Rosa Devés, C. A. R ...
Primary structure of the light chain of FRP-1/CD98/4F2 predicts a protein with multiple transmembrane domains that is almost ... Stimulation of system y+-like amino acid transport by the heavy chain of human 4F2 surface antigen in Xenopus laevis oocytes. ... Calcium Ionophore A23187 Inhibits Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Growth and Monoclonal Antibody against CD98 Heavy Chain ... Calcium Ionophore A23187 Inhibits Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Growth and Monoclonal Antibody against CD98 Heavy Chain ...
A transmembrane glycoProtein Subunit that can dimerize with a variety of Light chain subunits (Antigens, CD98 Light Chains). ... Its function is altered depending which of the Light chain subunits it interacts with. ...
AIM; BL-AC/P26; CLEC2C; EA1; GP32/28; MLR-3; Leu-23 CD69 was first described as the activation antigen expressed on natural ... The heavy and light chain of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter "L-type amino acid transporter 1" (LAT1) - CD98 can bind ... The leukocyte activation antigen CD69 limits allergic asthma and skin contact hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010b; ... Erg- 1, erythroblast transformation-specific related gene-1; NfkB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B ...
Cynomolgus CD98 lentiviral cDNA ORF clone in lentiviral vector (pLV-C-GFPSpark®) (CG90588-ACGLN) is expression-ready with ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain, also known as 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, ... SLC3A2 / MDU1 is required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. It is involved in sodium-independent, high- ... CD98, SLC3A2 and MDU1, is a single-pass type I I membrane protein that belongs to the SLC3A transporter family. SLC3A2 / MDU1 ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), Solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2) produced in human 293 cells ... SLC3A2 / CD98 is required for the function of. light chain amino-acid transporters and also involved in sodium-independent, ... CD antigen CD98 is also known as 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Solute carrier. family ... CD98 involved in guiding and targeting of LAT1 and. LAT2 to the plasma membrane. When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, CD98 ...
Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain D12.776.157.530.937.313.500.250 D12.776.543.585.937.313.500.250 Antigens, CD98 Light Chains D12.776. ... Antigens, CD95 D12.776.543.750.73.500 D12.776.543.750.690.500 Antigens, CD98 D12.776.157.530.937.313.500 D12.776.543.585. ... Antigens, CD53 D12.776.543.982.153 D12.776.543.900.153 Antigens, CD63 D12.776.543.982.163 D12.776.543.900.163 Antigens, CD81 ... Antigens, CD11b D12.776.543.750.705.833.62 Antigens, CD151 D12.776.543.982.251 D12.776.543.900.251 Antigens, CD19 D23.50. ...
Mouse monoclonal CD98 antibody [UM7F8] - BSA and Azide free. Validated in FuncS, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. *Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 ... Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of ... Anti-CD98 antibody [UM7F8] - BSA and Azide free. See all CD98 primary antibodies. ...
LifeSpan BioSciences SLC7A5 / CD98 Light Chain Antibody (LS-A3406) and SLC7A5 / CD98 Light Chain Antibody (LS-A3404) ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SLC7A5 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *y+ system cationic amino ... human cell surface glycoprotein 4F2 light chain,heterodimerizing with the cell surface glycoprotein 4F2 heavy chain (CD98) to ... Solute Carrier Family 7 (Amino Acid Transporter Light Chain, L System), Member 5 2 3 ...
4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5.. ... Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 3 chain; found on nonhematopoietic bone marrow cells. Receptor for collagen, laminin, fibronectin ... Sialyl-Tn antigen[11] (STN). CD176. TF[12] or Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen is a disaccharide found on cell surfaces and ... Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy ...
... primary structure of the light chain of fusion regulatory protein-1/CD98/4F2 predicts a protein with multiple transmembrane ... Peptide antigen binding. Specific Function. Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as ... Broer A, Friedrich B, Wagner CA, Fillon S, Ganapathy V, Lang F, Broer S: Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y ... Rossier G, Meier C, Bauch C, Summa V, Sordat B, Verrey F, Kuhn LC: LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98-associated amino acid ...
Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ... Antigens, CD2. CD2 Antigens. Antigens, CD24. CD24 Antigen. Antigens, CD27. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 7 ...
... gamma-Chain Disease; mu-Chain Disease. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. 2. + 15. Interleukins. 2. + 16. Clathrin Heavy Chains. 2. + ... Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains. 1. + 19. Ventricular Myosins. 1. + 20. Immunoglobulin Light Chains. 1. + ... heavy chain disease; Franklin Disease; gamma-Chain Disease; mu-Chain Disease. Fast. Hierarchical. ...
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain, also known as 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, CD98, SLC3A2 and MDU1, is a single-pass type I I membrane protein that belongs to the SLC3A transporter family. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD antigen CD98 is also known as 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, is a single-pass type I I membrane protein which belongs to the SLC3A transporter family. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). (tcdb.org)
  • CD98 heterodimers, comprised of a heavy chain (CD98hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains, interact with integrins through CD98hc. (pnas.org)
  • however, a CD98hc mutant that interacts with β1 integrins, but not CD98 light chains, restored integrin-dependent signaling and protection from apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • CD98 (4F2 antigen) is expressed on a family of heterodimers composed of a common type II transmembrane heavy chain (CD98hc, 4F2hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • These two functions depend on distinct domains within CD98hc: the extracellular domain is required for its interaction with light chains, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains are required for interaction with integrins ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is disulfide-linked with a multi-pass light chain of 40 kDa. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) inhibited human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) replication in LLCMK2 cells and the inhibition was almost completely recovered by monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD98 heavy chain (CD98HC). (ijsciences.com)
  • A functional LAT1 transporter is composed of two proteins encoded by two distinct genes: 4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene (this gene) CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene SLC3A2 has been shown to interact with SLC7A7. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. (tcdb.org)
  • Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Kim DK, Ahn SG, Park JC, Kanai Y, Endou H, Yoon JH: Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its precusorlesions. (springermedizin.de)
  • LAT1 requires another cell surface glycoprotein, the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), for its functional expression and forming a heterodimeric complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antibody MEM-108 reacts with CD98, a 125 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimer (80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). (nordicbiosite.com)
  • CD98 Light Chain antibody LS-A3096 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD98 Light Chain (SLC7A5) from human, dog and monkey. (lsbio.com)
  • Characterization of antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody (4F2): different molecular forms on human T and B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (ximbio.com)
  • Using a TotalSeq™-C antibody panel, the authors analyzed the surface proteome and T and B lymphocyte antigen receptors of patients with various severities of COVID-19. (biolegend.com)
  • As the antibody fragment having an antibody variable region, for example, various shapes such as Fv, Fab, Fab′, F(ab′) 2 , single chain antibody (scFv), dimerized V region (diabody), and disulfide stabilized V region (dsFv) are known, but the short blood half life accompanied by lowering of the molecular weight comes to be a serious problem. (justia.com)
  • ADC is possible to deliver a drug as one of the functional molecules loaded on the antibody derivative, specifically into a target cell by endocytosis of a target antigen upon binding the antibody. (justia.com)
  • Although effector function of the antibody has a mechanism of action outside of a cell mediated by an immune system, since ADC has an intracellular mechanism of action, it is possible to use it depending on biological characteristics of a target antigen. (justia.com)
  • B cells are capable of a wide range of effector functions including antibody secretion, antigen presentation, cytokine production, and generation of immunological memory. (stanford.edu)
  • The noticed molecular people of the weighty chain glycoforms for every antibody corresponded to the predicted masses (Table 1). (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • The masses obtained for the deglycosylated antibody heavy chains confirmed the cleavage of oligosaccharide chains. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • SLC3A2 comprises the heavy subunit of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) that is also known as CD98 (cluster of differentiation 98). (wikipedia.org)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit (LSHAT) linked by a disulfide bridge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A transmembrane glyco Protein Subunit that can dimerize with a variety of Light chain subunits ( Antigens, CD98 Light Chains ). (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • the alpha subunit of Mac-1 (Macrophage-1 antigen), the CR3 complement receptor which consists of CD11b and CD18. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • The α and β chains are involved in binding IL-2, while signal transduction following cytokine interaction is carried out by the γ-chain, along with the β subunit. (chemeurope.com)
  • In non-polarized cells, CD98 has been shown to both influence beta(1) integrins and heterodimerize with LAT-2, which confers amino acid transport capability on the LAT-2/CD98 heterodimer. (lookformedical.com)
  • The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. (biotium.com)
  • Detailed experiments over a decade (1990s) using a rigorous reductionist approach with isolated purified receptor chains and Surface plasmon resonance revealed that the alpha chain of the IL-2R binds to the beta chain before receptor interaction with IL-2, and that the IL-2Rαβ heterodimer formed has a faster association rate and a slower dissociation rate when binding IL-2 versus either chain alone. (chemeurope.com)
  • 700 uM), but after IL-2 is bound to the αβ heterodimer, the gamma chain becomes recruited to the IL2/IL2R complex to forms a very stable macromolecular quaternary ligand/receptor complex. (chemeurope.com)
  • The functional coreceptor is either a homodimer composed of two alpha chains, or a heterodimer composed of one alpha and one beta chain. (wikidoc.org)
  • This protein belongs to the superfamily of immunoglobulins and is similar to immune antigen receptors such as the T-cell receptor, B-cell receptor, and viral receptors such as CD4. (asm.org)
  • Based on our findings, we hypothesize that (1) under-expression of chemokines that recruit neutrophils, antigen-experienced T cells and dendritic cells, (2) blocking NK cell binding to target cells and (3) suppression of apoptosis induced by death receptor signaling, viral RNA, and cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the epithelia compromised virus clearance and allowed FMDV to persist. (frontiersin.org)
  • We suggest that CD98 is a cell membrane receptor involved in the control of cell survival/death of hematopoietic cells. (labome.org)
  • The β and γ chains of the IL-2R are members of the type I cytokine receptor family. (chemeurope.com)
  • [11] [12] The sites on the IL-2 molecule that interact with the three receptor chains do not overlap, except for a small but significant region. (chemeurope.com)
  • The three IL-2 receptor chains span the cell membrane and extend into the cell, thereby delivering biochemical signals to the cell interior. (chemeurope.com)
  • The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen presenting cell (APC) in the context of class I MHC molecules. (wikidoc.org)
  • Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) is a recently discovered decoy receptor of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that binds to FasL, LIGHT, and TLA1. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. (wikidoc.org)
  • The human 4F2 antigen: evidence for cryptic and noncryptic epitopes and for a role of 4F2 in human T lymphocyte activation. (abnova.com)
  • Clone REA387 recognizes the human CD98 antigen, a single-pass type II membrane glycoprotein. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters. (tcdb.org)
  • CD98 (4F2) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which serves as the heavy chain of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). (nordicbiosite.com)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 beta chain. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • Blood coagulation factor V, a large (molecular weight ratio [M r ] = 330 kd) single-chain glycoprotein, is composed of 3 homologous A-type domains, 2 smaller homologous C-type domains, and a heavily glycosylated B domain that connects the N-terminal A1-A2 region with the C-terminal A3-C1-C2 region. (ashpublications.org)
  • Warren A, Patel K, McConkey D, Palacios R. CD98: a type II transmembrane glycoprotein expressed from the beginning of primitive and definitive hematopoiesis may play a critical role in the development of hematopoietic cells. (labome.org)
  • EMMPRIN, also known as basigin, M6 antigen, or CD147, is a 58 kDa cell surface glycoprotein and is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is enriched on the surface of most tumor cells and shown to stimulate underlying stromal cells to produce elevated levels of MMPs, including MMP-1. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. (wikidoc.org)
  • When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, CD98 involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L-nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • The functional interactions between CD98, beta1-integrins, and CD147 in the induction of U937 homotypic aggregation. (ximbio.com)
  • Xu D, Hemler ME: Metabolic activation-related CD147-CD98 complex. (exbio.cz)
  • An antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • IgGs PF-04929113 include antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizable (Fc) areas: the Fab is responsible for binding to the antigen, while the Fc binds to Fc receptors, which regulate immune reactions.2 During the development of CD34 mAbs from drug candidate to marketed product, issues with stability, such as aggregation due to physical instability, or deamidation or oxidation due to chemical instability, often arise. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • In this study, we identified the target antigen of mAb 3G9 as SLC3A2, and detected the expression profile of SLC3A2 in a panel of gastric cancer cell lines and GC tumor tissues. (oncotarget.com)
  • SLC3A2 / MDU1 is required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. (sinobiological.com)
  • SLC3A2 / CD98 is expressed ubiquitously in all tissues tested with highest levels detected in kidney, placenta and testis and weakest level in thymus. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • SLC3A2 / CD98 is required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters and also involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • Use of CD98 truncation mutants suggest that a 10-amino acid domain located at the putative cytoplasmic tail/transmembrane domain interface was necessary and sufficient to induce the phenotype change. (lookformedical.com)
  • CD69 controls the uptake of L-tryptophan through LAT1-CD98 and AhR-dependent secretion of IL-22 in psoriasis. (springer.com)
  • Campbell WA, Thompson NL: Overexpression of LAT1/CD98 light chain is sufficient to increase system L-amino acid transport activity in mouse hepatocytes but not fibroblasts. (springermedizin.de)
  • The heavy chain binds to the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-β chains and mediates adhesive signals that control cell spreading, survival, and growth. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • IL-2 is held in the fork of the Y. The other side of the IL-2 molecule binds to the IL-2R alpha chain. (chemeurope.com)
  • i ) It can associate with and regulate the function of selected integrins ( 5 - 8 ), and ( ii ) it can regulate the expression and distribution of the light chains to modulate amino acid transport function ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • CD98, linked to various light chains by disulfide bond, is responsible for cell surface expression and basolateral localization of this transporter complex in polarized epithelial cells and also interacts with beta1 integrins and increases their affinity for ligand. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. (wikidoc.org)
  • We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. (tcdb.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include peptide antigen binding and antiporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • ab99419 was purified from goat serum by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by antigen affinity chromatography using the immunizing peptide. (abcam.com)
  • Antigens of the Dombrock blood group system are located on the gene product, which is glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the erythrocyte membrane. (wikidoc.org)
  • This gene encodes the CD8 alpha chain isoforms. (wikidoc.org)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. (wikidoc.org)
  • This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. (wikidoc.org)
  • It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. (umassmed.edu)
  • IgGs, which consist of two weighty chains and two light chains linked by a total of 16 inter- or intra-molecular disulfide bonds. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • The two weighty chains are linked by disulfide bonds and each weighty chain is definitely disulfide bonded to a light chain. (biotechnologysymposium.com)
  • Since LAT-2 is most heavily expressed in intestine and CD98 associates with the beta(1) integrin splice form selectively found in such epithelia, we investigated the relationship and polarity of these proteins using the intestinal epithelial model Caco2-BBE. (lookformedical.com)
  • Furthermore, expression of CD98 in polarized epithelia lacking human CD98 (MDCK cells) disrupted beta(1) integrin surface distribution and cytoskeletal architecture, suggesting that CD98 can influence integrin function. (lookformedical.com)
  • Bertran J, Magagnin S, Werner A, Markovich D, Biber J, Testar X, Zorzano A, Kuhn LC, Palacin M, Murer H. Stimulation of system y( $^+$ )-like amino acid transport by the heavy chain of human 4F2 surface antigen in Xenopus laevis oocytes. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Flow cytometry is essential for determining the clonality of B-lymphocytes and the following characteristic CLL-cell-surface phenotypes: the presence of CD 19, CD5, CD23 and CD43, weak expression of CD20 and CD79b , and kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains (8), (9). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD69 was first described as the activation antigen expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes upon in vitro stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2 (Lanier et al. (springer.com)
  • Professional antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC), monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes, are critically important in the recognition of an invading pathogen and presentation of antigens to the T cell-mediated arm of immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • We postulate that host control of HHV-8 infection and development of KS is linked to T cell interactions with HHV-8 infected, professional antigen presenting cells (APC), i.e., dendritic cells (DC), monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • [1] It was found to have a high affinity binding site and is expressed by antigen-activated T lymphocytes (T cells). (chemeurope.com)
  • Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and amino acid transport in the human placental trophoblast (BeWo) cell line. (exbio.cz)
  • Recombinant human CD98 Protein (Human CD98, His Tag) Arg 206 - Ala 630 (Accession # AAH01061) was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) at ACROBiosystems. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • Less than 1.0 EU per μg of the Human CD98, His Tag by the LAL method. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human CD98. (abcam.com)
  • Human endometrial CD98 is essential for blastocyst adhesion. (springer.com)
  • Structure/function analysis indicates a defined region and specific amino-acid side chains that may be involved in ligand binding. (wikidoc.org)
  • Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino acid transporters LAT-1 and LAT-2 have preference for importing certain essential amino acids, particularly leucine, isoleucine, and arginine (LAT-1), in exchange for glutamine. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • More pronounced SLC38A1 expression in gastric cancer tissues was significantly associated with age, differentiation status, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression. (springermedizin.de)
  • See our complete line of Immunohistochemistry Reagents including antigen retrieval solutions, blocking agents ABC Detection Kits and polymers, biotinylated secondary antibodies, substrates and more. (lsbio.com)
  • Furthermore, the interaction between the adhesion molecules leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been described with respect to both virus-cell and cell-cell fusion events. (asm.org)
  • E-selectin , also known as CD62 antigen-like family member E (CD62E), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), or leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 2 (LECAM2), is a selectin cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines . (wikidoc.org)
  • We conclude that the CD98/LAT-2 amino acid transporter is polarized to the same domain on which beta(1) integrin resides. (lookformedical.com)
  • Liu X, Charrier L, Gewirtz A, Sitaraman S, Merlin D: CD98 and intracellular adhesion molecule I regulate the activity of amino acid transporter LAT-2 in polarized intestinal epithelia. (exbio.cz)
  • The high affinity of IL-2 binding is created by a rapid association rate (k = 10e7/M/s) contributed to the alpha chain, and a relatively slow dissociation rate (k' = 10e-4/s) contributed to the beta and gamma chains. (chemeurope.com)
  • Following the binding of IL-2, the beta chain undergoes a conformational change that evidently increases its affinity for the gamma chain, thereby attracting it to form a stable quaternary molecular complex. (chemeurope.com)
  • Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors induce apoptosis. (sri.com)
  • Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase Cdelta and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. (exbio.cz)
  • Melchior A, Denys A, Deligny A, Mazurier J, Allain F: Cyclophilin B induces integrin-mediated cell adhesion by a mechanism involving CD98-dependent activation of protein kinase C-delta and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases. (exbio.cz)
  • The differential expression could reduce the recruitment of neutrophils, antigen-experienced T cells and dendritic cells and increase the migration of macrophages and NK cells to the epithelia in carriers, which was supported by DEG expressed in these immune cells. (frontiersin.org)