The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.

Identification and characterization of a novel member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family presumed to be associated with an unknown heavy chain. (1/54)

We identified a novel amino acid transporter designated Asc-2 (for asc-type amino acid transporter 2). Asc-2 exhibited relatively low but significant sequence similarity to the members of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters. The cysteine residue responsible for the disulfide bond formation between transporters (light chains) and heavy chain subunits in the heterodimeric amino acid transporters is conserved for Asc-2. Asc-2 is, however, not colocalized with the already known heavy chains such as 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) or related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter (rBAT) in mouse kidney. Because Asc-2 solely expressed or coexpressed with 4F2hc or rBAT did not induce functional activity, we generated fusion proteins in which Asc-2 is connected with 4F2hc or rBAT. The fusion proteins were sorted to the plasma membrane and expressed the function corresponding to the Na(+)-independent small neutral amino acid transport system asc. Distinct from the already identified system asc transporter Asc-1 which is associated with 4F2hc, Asc-2-mediated transport is less stereoselective and did not accept some of the high affinity substrates of Asc-1 such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine. Asc-2 message was detected in kidney, placenta, spleen, lung, and skeletal muscle. In kidney, Asc-2 protein was present in the epithelial cells lining collecting ducts. In the Western blot analysis on mouse erythrocytes and kidney, Asc-2 was detected as multiple bands in the nonreducing condition, whereas the bands shifted to a single band at lower molecular weight, suggesting the association of Asc-2 with other protein(s) via a disulfide bond. The finding of Asc-2 would lead to the establishment of a new subgroup of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family which includes transporters associated not with 4F2hc or rBAT but with other unknown heavy chains.  (+info)

Expression and regulation of 4F2hc and hLAT1 in human trophoblasts. (2/54)

The neutral amino acid transport system L is a sodium-independent transport system in human placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. Recently, it was found that the heterodimer composed of hLAT1 (a light-chain protein) and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is responsible for system L amino acid transport. We found that the mRNAs of 4F2hc and hLAT1 were expressed in the human placenta and a human choriocarcinoma cell line. The levels of the 4F2hc and hLAT1 proteins in the human placenta increased at full term compared with those at midtrimester. Immunohistochemical data showed that these proteins were localized mainly in the placental apical membrane. Data from leucine uptake experiments, Northern blot analysis, and immunoblot analysis showed that this transport system was partially regulated by protein kinase C and calcium ionophore in the human choriocarcinoma cell line. Our results suggest that the heterodimer of 4F2hc and hLAT1 may play an important role in placental amino acid transport system L.  (+info)

Akt maintains cell size and survival by increasing mTOR-dependent nutrient uptake. (3/54)

In multicellular organisms, constituent cells depend on extracellular signals for growth, proliferation, and survival. When cells are withdrawn from growth factors, they undergo apoptosis. Expression of constitutively active forms of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB can prevent apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Akt-mediated survival depends in part on the maintenance of glucose metabolism, suggesting that reduced glucose utilization contributes to growth factor withdrawal-induced death. However, it is unclear how restricting access to extracellular glucose alone would lead to the metabolic collapse observed after growth factor withdrawal. We report herein that growth factor withdrawal results in the loss of surface transporters for not only glucose but also amino acids, low-density lipoprotein, and iron. This coordinated decline in transporters and receptors for extracellular molecules creates a catabolic state characterized by atrophy and a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Activated forms of Akt maintained these transporters on the cell surface in the absence of growth factor through an mTOR-dependent mechanism. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin diminished Akt-mediated increases in cell size, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell survival. These results suggest that growth factors control cellular growth and survival by regulating cellular access to extracellular nutrients in part by modulating the activity of Akt and mTOR.  (+info)

Distribution of cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, system x(c)-, in the mouse brain. (4/54)

Mammalian cells express a transport system known as system x(c)-, which is an exchange agency specific for anionic forms of cystine and glutamate. System x(c)- activity is important to maintain both intracellular glutathione levels and the redox balance between cystine and cysteine in the extracellular milieu. We have shown that the cloned cDNAs encoding the transporter for system x(c)- consist of two components, xCT and the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen. In the present study, we have investigated the mRNA distribution for these components in the mouse brain by in situ hybridization. The xCT mRNA was expressed in the area postrema, subfornical organ, habenular nucleus, hypothalamic area, and ependymal cells of the lateral wall of the third ventricle in the adult mouse brain. A strong signal was also detected in the meninges in both adult and fetal mouse brains. The mRNA expression of the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen was detected in a more broad area, including all of the regions in which xCT mRNA was detected. These data are compatible with our biochemical evidence that xCT functions in combination with the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen to elicit system x(c)- activity. The expression of system x(c)- in meninges and some circumventricular organs may suggest that this transporter contributes to the maintenance of the redox state (i.e., cysteine/cystine ratio) in the CSF.  (+info)

Characterization of the system L amino acid transporter in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. (5/54)

System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the Na(+)-independent transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. In malignant tumors, a system L transporter L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is up-regulated to support tumor cell growth. LAT1 is also essential for the permeation of amino acids and amino acid-related drugs through the blood-brain barrier. To search for in vitro assay systems to examine the interaction of chemical compounds with LAT1, we have investigated the expression of system L transporters and the properties of [14C]L-leucine transport in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. Northern blot, real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence analyses have reveled that T24 cells express LAT1 in the plasma membrane together with its associating protein 4F2hc, whereas T24 cells do not express the other system L isoform LAT2. The uptake of [14C]L-leucine by T24 cells is Na(+)-independent and almost completely inhibited by system L selective inhibitor BCH. The profiles of the inhibition of [14C]L-leucine uptake by amino acids and amino acid-related compounds in T24 cells are comparable with those for the LAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The majority of [14C]L-leucine uptake is, therefore, mediated by LAT1 in T24 cells. Consistent with LAT1 in Xenopus oocytes, the efflux of preloaded [14C]L-leucine is induced by extracellularly applied substrates of LAT1 in T24 cells. This efflux measurement has been proven to be more sensitive than that in Xenopus oocytes, because triiodothyronine, thyroxine and melphalan were able to induce the efflux of preloaded [14C]L-leucine in T24 cells, which was not detected for Xenopus oocyte expression system. T24 cell is, therefore, proposed to be an excellent tool to examine the interaction of chemical compounds with LAT1.  (+info)

Electrophile response element-mediated induction of the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter gene expression. (6/54)

In mammalian cultured cells, the cystine/glutamate exchange transport mediated by system x(c)- is important to maintain intracellular GSH levels. System x(c)- consists of two protein components, xCT and the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen. The activity of system x(c)- is induced by various stimuli, including electrophilic agents like diethyl maleate. In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of xCT mRNA by diethyl maleate. The xCT gene consisted of twelve exons and sequence analysis identified four electrophile response element (EpRE)-like sequences between -230 and -1 in the 5'-flanking region, designated EpRE-1 to EpRE-4. To identify sequences mediating the constitutive and induced expression of xCT, a series of 5'-deletion mutants created from the 5'-flanking region were cloned into a luciferase reproter vector and transfected into BHK21 cells. The 5'-deletion analysis revealed that the sequence between -116 and -82 is essential for the basal expression and the sequence between -226 and -116 containing EpRE-1 is essential in response to diethyl maleate. Mutational analysis demonstrated that EpRE-1 is critically involved in the response to diethyl maleate. Other stress agents like arsenite, cadmium, and hydroquinone seemed to induce system x(c)- activity via the same sequence. Furthermore, the experiments using the mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from the Nrf2-deficient mice revealed that the induction of xCT gene by electrophilic agents is mediated by Nrf2. EpRE occurs in a broad spectrum of genes for the proteins that are involved in the defense against xenobiotics and regulates their expression. The present results have demonstrated that xCT is a novel member of this protein family.  (+info)

Rab7 prevents growth factor-independent survival by inhibiting cell-autonomous nutrient transporter expression. (7/54)

Growth factor withdrawal results in the endocytosis and degradation of transporter proteins for glucose and amino acids. Here, we show that this process is under the active control of the small GTPase Rab7. In the presence of growth factor, Rab7 inhibition had no effect on nutrient transporter expression. In growth factor-deprived cells, however, blocking Rab7 function prevented the clearance of glucose and amino acid transporter proteins from the cell surface. When Rab7 was inhibited, growth factor deprived cells maintained their mitochondrial membrane potential and displayed prolonged, growth factor-independent, nutrient-dependent cell survival. Thus, Rab7 functions as a proapoptotic protein by limiting cell-autonomous nutrient uptake. Consistent with this, dominant-negative Rab7 cooperated with E1A to promote the transformation of p53(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). These results suggest that proteins that limit nutrient transporter expression function to prevent cell-autonomous growth and survival.  (+info)

Prevention of ornithine cytotoxicity by nonpolar side chain amino acids in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (8/54)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of amino acids on ornithine cytotoxicity in ornithine-delta-aminotransferase (OAT)-deficient human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as an in vitro model of gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina. METHODS: RPE cells were treated with 0.5 mM 5-fluoromethylornithine (5-FMOrn), a specific and irreversible OAT inhibitor. OAT-deficient RPE cells were incubated with 10 mM ornithine in the presence of 20 mM of 1 of 18 amino acids or 10 mM 2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid (BCH), a conventional inhibitor of the amino acid transporter system L. Ornithine cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects of each amino acid was evaluated with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay 72 hours after treatment with ornithine in OAT-deficient RPE cells. Ornithine incorporation into RPE cells was evaluated using DL-[14C]ornithine. RESULTS: An MTT colorimetric assay revealed that small and large zwitterionic amino acids, but not acidic or basic amino acids, decreased ornithine cytotoxicity in OAT-deficient RPE cells. Incorporation of DL-[14C]ornithine by RPE cells decreased to 79% of the control level after incubation for 48 hours with 20 mM leucine, the most effective cytoprotective amino acid. Further, BCH prevented ornithine cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Both light and heavy chains of L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)-1, LAT2, y+LAT1, and 4F2hc were expressed in RPE cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate that L-type amino acid transporter(s) may be involved in protection against ornithine cytotoxicity in human RPE cells. Thus, amino acid transportation in RPE cells may be a good target for a new therapy for GA as well as other kinds of chorioretinal degeneration.  (+info)

LAT1/4F2hc heterodimeric complex is a major route for the transport of large neutral essential amino acids through the plasma membrane. Although it has been shown that LAT1/4F2hc is highly expressed in a variety of human tumors including gliomas, and LAT1 over-expression is associated with glioma grade and poor prognosis of glioma patients, the precise tissue location of LAT1/4F2hc in gliomas and the precise role of LAT1/4F2hc in glioma biological features remain unclear. In the current study, the expressions of LAT1, 4F2hc, CD34 and Ki-67 were investigated by immunohistochemistry in 62 cases of human brain glioma; LAT1/4F2hc expression level, Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and microvessel density (MVD) were measured semi-quantitatively; and the correlation of LAT1/4F2hc expression with histopathological features, Ki-67 LI and MVD in gliomas was further analyzed. The results showed that both LAT1 and 4F2hc were expressed in all examined specimens. LAT1 but 4F2hc expression levels significantly
We have developed a novel software algorithm, JOINSOLVER, to analyze the human CDR3H. Within the CDR3H, the definition of the D segment has been particularly problematic because of its short size and extensive terminal processing. Many attempts have been made to define the minimum length needed for D segment assignment (8, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36), yet there is still no consensus definition. Thus, we used novel methods to assign D segments. The first involved the use of a consecutive matching approach rather than the more standard alignment scoring system. The consecutive matching approach permitted the secure assignment of more D segments than the alignment scoring method. The second used methods to limit the search for identity to the VH-JH region only. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the consecutive match necessary to assign a D segment. We opted to distinguish an actual D segment match from random sequence identity using a 95% probability. This level of confidence seems ...
How to use the site: The homepage contains two dendrograms indicating the relatedness of human subunits that form cys-loop receptors specific for cations and anions, respectively. Cation channels are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 ( 5-HT3 ) receptors and the zinc-activated ion channel (ZAC). The anionic channels are g-aminobutyric acid type A ( GABAA (includes r subunits sometimes referred to as GABAC ) and glycine receptors. The dendrograms contain links to the receptors and their individual subunits. These pages give brief information about the subunits and links to their gene and amino acid sequences in Genbank. There are also diagrams of the subunit topology. Click on one of the eight regions of the subunit (N-terminal domain, TM1, TM1-2 loop, TM2, TM2-3 loop, TM3, TM3-4 loop, TM4) and these will link you to an expanded diagram annotated with the human amino acids. These diagrams lack the signal sequence. However amino acid numbering starts ...
The poster was presented by Irene Berra.. Human articulate language doesnt involve clearly distinguishable structures and substructures but shows distributed functions. Clues coming from brain comparative studies and neuroimaging point out that cortical structures and connections have been re-functionalized during the evolution of primates and hominids, due to their plasticity and learning capacity. But also the expression of FoxP2 in basal ganglia is involved in vocal and sequential learning. However, neither vocal-learning mammals (whales, dolphins and bats) nor song-learning birds share the human amino acid substitutions (Webb and Zhang, J. Hered., 96, 2005). Language evolution is likely to be a recruitment, with slight modifications, of pre-existing genetic cascades that have other regulatory functions. An exaptive hypothesis has been proposed for acoustic communication during water-to-land transition, as in the case of limbs. Comparative analyses within living species are being conducted ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), an inhibitor of L-type amino acid transporters, on the cell growth suppression in KB human oral cancer cells and to study the roles of cell cycle regulatory factors in the BCH-induced growth inhibition. The effect of BCH on cell growth suppression and the influence of BCH to cell cycle regulatory factors in KB cell growth inhibition were examined using cell cycle analysis, immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The BCH treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in KB cells. The expression of cyclin D3 was remarkably decreased by BCH treatment. The BCH inhibited the expression of cyclin-dependent protein kinase 6 (CDK6) in a time-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of CDK inhibitor p27 was increased by BCH treatment in KB cells, but not CDK inhibitors p21 and p15. These results suggest that, in KB cells, the inhibition of LAT1 by BCH causes cell cycle arrest at Cl phase ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. L-type amino acid transporter 1 - SLC7 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
Abstract: The L-type neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1/SLC7A5) is one of 7 light chains that can form a heteromeric amino acid transporter (HAT) with the type II single pass glycoprotein CD98hc (SLC3A2). LAT1-CD98hc transports essential amino acids and some of their catabolites, such as tryptophan, methionine and kynurenine, across the plasma membranes of normal and cancer cells. It is also a drug transporter, carrying drugs such as gabapentin and L-DOPA across the blood brain barrier. The atypical heterodimeric nature of LAT1-CD98hc and its role in disease and drug delivery, motivate the structural characterisation of the HAT. Sequence analysis revealed two putative cholesterol binding motifs conserved between dDAT and LAT1 as well as 32 putative CRAC/CARC motifs. The crystal structures of various bacterial homologues of LAT1 were used for structure prediction, in order to visualise these putative cholesterol binding motifs and assess their plausibility. Here is presented the first binding ...
xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
Fish collagen is extracted from the skins of various select fish. This collagen is then purified and dried, and mixed with buffers before it is added to capsules for supplementation. Like chicken collagen, the ability for the body to absorb this fish collagen is only about 15 percent. This means that although the collagen may be more potent than that, it is unable to be absorbed properly into the bloodstream, which renders it less powerful.. On the flip side, bovine collagen that undergoes the same purifying and drying process, but goes a step further, is going to be much more effective. When the collagen is nurtured further under laboratory conditions, its amino acid chains have more time to grow, and they will more closely resemble human amino acid chains. This allows for greater absorption into the bloodstream at rates as high as 95 percent. When you are ordering any collagen supplements, it is wise to investigate how the collagen is processed before being sold.. ...
4F2hc (heavy chain) is over-expressed in hepatoma, breast and colon cancer. 4F2hc has been proposed as a potential tumour marker of poor prognosis in patients who have suffered larynx, breast, renal or lung cancer. Moreover, a direct correlation between in vitro over-expression of the protein and malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells has been shown, and its deletion markedly impaired the ability of embryonic stem cells to form teratocarcinomas in mice. This multifunctional protein associates with beta1-integrin (modulating integrin signalling events) and with different light chains (being the guide towards the membrane and enabling heteromeric amino acid transport). The aim of this study is to analyze the role of 4F2hc in tumorigenesis.. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for V2Q6Z9 (V2Q6Z9_ECOLX), H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter ClcA. Escherichia coli HVH 50 (4-2593475)
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Find SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research area related information and SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
Uchino H, Kanai Y, Kim DK, Wempe MF, Chairoungdua A, Morimoto E, Anders MW, Endou H: Transport of amino acid-related compounds mediated by L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): insights into the mechanisms of substrate recognition. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;61(4):729-37. PMID 11901210 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning and functional expression of rat leukotriene A4hydrolase using the polymerase chain reaction. AU - Makitala, Naomasa. AU - Funku, Colin D.. AU - Imaic, Enyu. AU - Hoover, Richard L.. AU - Badra, Kamal F.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - We isolated a cDNA encoding rat leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase from mesangial cells by the polymerase chain reaction according to the human amino acid sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that rat LTA, hydrolase is a 609 amino acid protein with an M, 69 kDa. Comparison of human LTA4 hydrolase revealed 93% homology, and include zinc-binding motifs of aminopeptidases. COS-7 cells transfected with the cDNA revealed substantial LTA4 hydrolase activity, and their activities were abolished by preincubation with captopril, representing the first reported cDNA expression of recombinant enzyme in mammalian cells. RNA blot analysis indicated that LTA4 hydrolase was expressed in glomerular endothelial, epithelial and mesangial ...
BACKGROUND: Oncocytic L-amino acid transporter (LAT) 1 could be a target of new molecular therapy against malignancies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlation between overexpression of LAT1 and local progression (LP) in prostatic carcinoma (PC) patien
Acts as a sodium-independent DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. May play a role in the maintenance of the electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the kidney, by acting as a distal excretory segment-specific anion exchanger, specifically chloride. Plays a major role in gastric acid secretion.
The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is often dependent on the detection of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain expression. In some BCLs, the determination of clonality based on Ig light chain restriction may be difficult. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of flow cytometric analysis of surface Ig heavy chain (HC) expression in lymphoid tissues in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasias from BCLs, and also differentiating various BCL subtypes. HC expression on B-cells varied among different types of hyperplasias. In follicular hyperplasia, IgM and IgD expression was high in mantle cells while germinal center cells showed poor HC expression. In other hyperplasias, B cell compartments were blurred but generally showed high IgD and IgM expression. Compared to hyperplasias, BCLs varied in IgM expression. Small lymphocytic lymphomas had lower IgM expression than mantle cell lymphomas. Of importance, IgD expression was significantly lower in BCLs than in hyperplasias, a finding that can be
Exogenous Dopamine is unable to cross the tight junctions of the endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Dopamine has no clinically significant endogenous transporter on the blood-brain barrier and is otherwise too polar of a molecule to move through the lipid membrane. Levodopa, however, utilizes a receptor on the BBB known as Large amino acid transporter (LAT) which allows it to be transported across the blood-brain barrier and decarboxylated into Dopamine. ...
A full-length aryl sulfotransferase cDNA was isolated from a human liver cDNA library. It was 1155 bp long containing a coding region of 885 basepairs encoding a cytosolic protein (Mr 34178 Da) of 295 amino acids. This human cDNA shared 80% homology to the rat aryl sulfotransferase cDNA, 58% to the bovine and rat oestrogen sulfotransferase cDNAs, 53% to the rat hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase cDNA and 51% to the human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase cDNA over its whole 885 bp coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence of this human cDNA was 79% homologous to that of the rat aryl sulfotransferase cDNA and the putative common-substrate binding site motif GXXGXXK of the sulfotransferases has been conserved in this human amino acid sequence. At least two sizes of this human aryl sulfotransferase mRNA were detected in the human liver and lung ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and is a component of the heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor T1R1+3. The T1R1+3 receptor responds to L-amino acids but not to D-enantiomers or other compounds. Most amino acids that are perceived as sweet activate T1R1+3, and this activation is strictly dependent on an intact T1R1+3 heterodimer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010 ...
Fusion protein amino acids 568-746 (C-terminus) of rat Clcn5 (also known as H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter 5, Chloride channel protein 5, Chloride transporter ClC-5, Clc5 and CLCK2, accession number P51796)Mouse: 99% identity (178/179 amino acids identical)Human: 98% identity (177/179 amino acids identical)70% identit
Page contains details about platinum-loaded Vulcan XC-72R carbon . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
After two years of design and development by a team of Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) multi-risk experts, the Secure Assessment Software Tool, or SAST, was completed in December 2008. The Web-based, encrypted software is designed to help risk managers identify physical security system vulnerabilities and define and address shortfalls in planning, equipment and training. In addition, the software can construct a comprehensive mitigation strategy and generate easy-to-comprehend reports which clarify security issues for decision-makers.. The SAST was developed using TEEX instructors years of extensive training experience in both private and public sector safety and security.. We understand the complexity in which the health, safety and environmental community works, said Charles Baisey, TEEX Public Safety & Security Training Director. We also understand the need to communicate risks in a clear manner.. TEEX, a part of The Texas A&M University System, is world-renowned for its ...
4F2hc (CD98) has been associated with tumor growth, and is highly expressed in various tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of 4F2hc expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Surgically-resected patient tumors including 16 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 12 small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 1 atypical carcinoid (AC) and 5 typical carcinoid (TC) samples were included in this study. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically stained for 4F2hc (CD98), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and 3 (Glut3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hexokinase I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessel density (CD34), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-S6K) and for a cell cycle regulator (p53). 4F2hc was overexpressed in 0% of the pulmonary carcinoids (TCs and ACs), 62.5% of the LCNECs and 50.0% of the SCLCs. A positive 4F2hc expression was ...
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis.
LATS2兔多克隆抗体(ab111054)可与人样本反应并经IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Abbreviations: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; AdiC, arginine/agmatine antiporter; AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier; AMPK, AMP-dependent kinase; Apc, amino acid, polyamine and organocation; ASC, preference for alanine, serine and cysteine; ASCT, neutral amino acid transporter; ASS, argininosuccinate synthetase; B0AT, broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter; CTNL2, type 2 citrullinaemia; EA, episodic ataxia 1; EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter; EEG, electroencephalogram; 4F2hc4F2, cell-surface-antigen heavy chain; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; GC1, mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1; HAT, heteromeric amino acid transporter; HHH, hyperammonaemia-hyperornithinaemia-homocitrullinuria; IL1, intracellular loop 1; LeuT, leucine transporter; LeuTAa, LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus; LPI, lysinuric protein intolerance; MCT, monocarboxylate transporter; MeAIB, N-methylaminoisobutyric acid; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NICCD, neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency; OCD, ...
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Herein, the urate anion exchange transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitor lesinurad is synthesized from commercially available building blocks by a five-step linear continuous flow sequence. Our previously developed continuous flow platform was successfully applied to generate the 3-thio-1,2,4-triazole key intermediate 2 in 88% yield, after 55 minutes of residence time. Condensation, cyclization and S-alkylation were telescoped in a single operation without conducting solvent exchanges and intermediate purifications. Next, 1,2,4-triazole bromination and ester hydrolysis were also performed in continuous flow regime to deliver lesinurad in 68% overall yield in a total residence time of 2 hours. Our approach enables the fast generation of lesinurad and can be directly applied to produce major quantities of this important ...
XC-407A Advanced Human Trachea Intubation Model-Xincheng Scientific Industries Co., Ltd. -ProductName:AdvancedHumanTracheaIntubationModelProductNo:XC-407AMaterial:PVCDescription:Features:1)UpgradedfromXC-4072)Neckbackwardfunction,morerealisticsimulationofendotrachealintubationtechniqueandt
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n animal regeneration, control of position-dependent cell proliferation is crucial for the complete restoration of patterned appendages in terms of both, shape and size. However, detailed mechanisms of this process are largely unknown. In this study, we identified leucine/glutamine and v-ATPase/lysosomal acidification, via mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, as effectors of amputation plane-dependent zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. mTORC1 activation, which functions in cell proliferation, was regulated by lysosomal acidification possibly via v-ATPase activity at 3 h post amputation (hpa). Inhibition of lysosomal acidification resulted in reduced growth factor-related gene expression and suppression of blastema formation at 24 and 48 hpa, respectively. Along the proximal-distal axis, position-dependent lysosomal acidification and mTORC1 activation were observed from 3 hpa. We also report that Slc7a5 (L-type amino acid transporter), whose gene expression is ...
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Bedeutungen für die Abkürzung lat., Lat., LAT ▶ Alle Bedeutungen im Überblick ✐ Ähnliche Abkürzungen zu lat., Lat., LAT ✐ 25572 Abkürzungen online ✐ Jetzt Abkürzungen & Bedeutungen auf Woxikon ansehen!
LATS1 +LATS2兔多克隆抗体(ab111344)可与人样本反应并经IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Clone REA381 recognizes the mouse IFN-γ receptor β chain antigen, a type 1 transmembrane protein also known as IFN-γ accessory factor 1 (AF-1). The IFN-γR β chain pairs with CD119 to form the IFN-γ receptor. It is expressed at low levels on T and B cells, NK cells, monocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts. IFN-γ induces several biologic effects in target cells, including antiviral and antiproliferative responses, expression of major histocompatibility complex and of Fc receptor genes, and immunoglobulin class switching.Additional information: Clone REA381 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Avicin Therapeutics Ltd. is developing avicin d for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Avicins are triterpenoid compounds that occur naturally in Acacia
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab70565 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P…LATS1 +LATS2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
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Metribolone is an AAS, or an agonist of the AR, with both anabolic and androgenic activity.[2] It is one of the most potent AAS to have ever been synthesized, with 120 to 300 times the oral anabolic potency and 60 to 70 times the androgenic potency of the reference AAS methyltestosterone in castrated male rats, although the same level of potency has not been observed in studies in humans.[2][4] In addition to the AR, metribolone has high affinity for the progesterone receptor (PR), and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well.[5][6] The drug was also identified in 2007 as a potent antimineralocorticoid, with similar affinity for the mineralocorticoid receptor as aldosterone and spironolactone.[7] In addition, metribolone was identified in 2010 as a potent inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) 1 and 2 (IC50 = 0.02 and 0.16 μM, respectively).[8] On the basis of this finding, it has been said that metribolone should be used very cautiously in scientific research, taking ...
These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ... Hip1 of S. cerevisiae (TC #2.A.3.1.5) has been implicated in heavy metal transport. Subfamilies of the APC family, and the ...
... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500. ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 - ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 - ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 - calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 - calgranulin b ...
... cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 - antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.625 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.500 - antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.625 - antigens, cd98 ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene (this gene) CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... Teixeira S, Di Grandi S, Kühn LC (August 1987). "Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ...
... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500. ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 - antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... integrin alpha chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.100 - antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, ... integrin beta chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.249 - antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 - antigens, ...
4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene Cluster of ... CD98+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Large+Neutral+Amino+Acid-Transporter+1 at ... LAT1 is a heterodimeric membrane transport protein that preferentially transports branched-chain (valine, leucine, isoleucine) ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ...
Mouse monoclonal CD98 antibody [UM7F8] - BSA and Azide free. Validated in FuncS, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. *Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 ... Anti-CD98 antibody [UM7F8] - BSA and Azide free. See all CD98 primary antibodies. ... Protein - Recombinant Human CD98 protein (ab181902) SDS-PAGE Secondary - Goat Anti-Mouse IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205719) WB, IP, ELISA ...
CD98 Heavy Chain in Human. Order directly at bio-connect.nl ... CD98 Heavy Chain Protein LS-G98478 is Recombinant Rat SLC3A2 / ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain; CD98 heavy chain; antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain; antigen ... Rat SLC3A2 / CD98 Heavy Chain Protein (Recombinant His) (Ala100-Ala527). Catalog number:. LS-G98478_100ug. ... Product specifications for - Rat SLC3A2 / CD98 Heavy Chain Protein (Recombinant His) (Ala100-Ala527). Overview:. ...
4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene (this gene) CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... Teixeira S, Di Grandi S, Kühn LC (August 1987). "Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ...
Human CD98 / SLC3A2 derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer.Browse all transfected cell ... CD98; CD98 heavy chain; CD98HC; heavy chain; lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit; monoclonal 44D7; NACAE; antigen ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain; 4F2; 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain; 4F2 heavy chain; 4F2HC; 4T2HC; antigen defined ... heavy chain; antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, and T43;. ...
CD98 heterodimers, comprised of a heavy chain (CD98hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains, interact with integrins through ... 4F2 antigen) is expressed on a family of heterodimers composed of a common type II transmembrane heavy chain (CD98hc, 4F2hc, ... CD98 promotes amino acid transport through its light chains; however, a CD98hc mutant that interacts with β1 integrins, but not ... but not CD98 light chains, rescued integrin-dependent signaling and protection from apoptosis. Finally, embryonic stem (ES) ...
The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is ... The heavy chain binds to the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-β chains and mediates adhesive signals that control cell spreading, ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ...
The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is ... The heavy chain binds to the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-β chains and mediates adhesive signals that control cell spreading, ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... lease Complex to bind markers with high avidity.Clone REAL355 recognizes the human CD98 antigen, a single-pass type II membrane ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain isoform c (Slc3a2). Macaca mulatta AFE67118.1. AFH28051.1. AFI33834.1. 34. ... CD98 solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2). Petromyzon marinus AAN64301.1. Q8AV90. 34. ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain isoform b (Slc3a2). Macaca mulatta AFE67000.1. 34. ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain isoform c (Slc3a2). Macaca mulatta AFJ70224.1. 34. ...
... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... Briefly, 3-μm-thick sections of FFPE tumors were deparaffinized, and antigen retrieval was performed by boiling the section in ...
... which contain a chaperone-like heavy chain 4F2hc, and a 12-time transmembrane light chain that is unique to each subtype [26]. ... LAT1/4F2hc complex, one form of 4F2 antigen or CD98 antigen, preferentially transports large neutral amino acids, such as ... K. Kaira, N. Oriuchi, H. Imai et al., "L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 expression in primary and metastatic sites of ... In step 2, an aliphatic tosyl chain was to be added at phenolic hydroxyl group of N-Boc-5-hydroxytryptophan methyl ester. ...
These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ... Hip1 of S. cerevisiae (TC #2.A.3.1.5) has been implicated in heavy metal transport. Subfamilies of the APC family, and the ...
... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD 98 ... that coexpresses with 4F2 heavy chain, a L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large ...
CD98 Heavy Chain Antigens Pregnancy Anterior Pituitary Gland Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Fetus Upstream Stimulatory Factors ...
These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ... 2015). Brucella Intracellular Life Relies on the Transmembrane Protein CD98 Heavy Chain. J Infect Dis 211: 1769-1778. 25505297 ... 1999). Identification of a membrane protein, LAT-2, that co-expresses with 4F2 heavy chain, and l-type amino acid transport ...
CD and Related Antigens (Human) Notes. CD98 (4F2) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which serves as the heavy chain of ... 80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... Mouse Monoclonal to CD98 Recommended Dilution. The purified antibody is conjugated with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) under ... Besides its roles in amino acid transport, CD98 is thus involved in cell fusion and activation. It is implicated in regulation ...
ELISA Kit can measure Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other ... Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ... ", "name" : " Human CD98 ELISA Kit", "image" : "https://www. ... Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ELISA Kit Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ELISA Kit. ( ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain, 4F2hc, 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, SLC3A2, ...
MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney ... Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured. *Genetic Alliance. consumer health ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / ... CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Humans. ...
... function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen ... Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 ... We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately ...
... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98) ... Devés R and Boyd CA (2000) Surface antigen CD98(4F2): not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple ... Rossier G, Meier C, Bauch C, Summa V, Sordat B, Verrey F and Kuhn LC (1999) LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98‐associated amino ... with 4F2hc heavy chain, the amino acid transport system xc−. Pflügers Arch, 442, 286-296. ...
The mRNAs of these five genes were analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in matched sets of ... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4 F2 antigen (CD98 ... it was found to be co-expressed with the heavy chain of 4 F2 cell surface antigen (4F2hc) and to be involved in the ... Progesterone and Mifepristone regulate L-type amino acid transporter 2 and 4 F2 heavy chain expression in uterine leiomyoma ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain,4F2 heavy chain,CD98 heavy chain,antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain, ... antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, and T43,heavy chain,lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large ... The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible ... The human 4F2 antigen: evidence for cryptic and noncryptic epitopes and for a role of 4F2 in human T lymphocyte activation.. ...
CD98 antigen antibody. *CD98 heavy chain antibody. *CD98HC antibody. *Heavy chain antibody ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. *Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 ... Anti-CD98 antibody [MEM-108] (Biotin) (ab26009)参考文献. ab26009 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications. ... Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of ...
CD98 antigen antibody. *CD98 heavy chain antibody. *CD98HC antibody. *Heavy chain antibody ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. *Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 ... ab123635, at 5 µl/106 cells, staining CD98 in normal Human peripheral blood cells by Flow Cytometry. Cells in the leukocyte ... Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of ...
... gamma-Chain Disease; mu-Chain Disease. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. 2. + 15. Interleukins. 2. + 16. Clathrin Heavy Chains. 2. + ... heavy chain disease; Franklin Disease; gamma-Chain Disease; mu-Chain Disease. Fast. Hierarchical. ... Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains. 1. + We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the ...
80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin ... Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and ... Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase ...
4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain,4F2 heavy chain,CD98 heavy chain,antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Cell-surface antigen1. *CD antigen CD98 is also known as 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), 4F2 heavy chain antigen ... cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 light chains ...
Stimulation of system y+-like amino acid transport by the heavy chain of human 4F2 surface antigen in Xenopus laevis oocytes. ... Calcium Ionophore A23187 Inhibits Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Growth and Monoclonal Antibody against CD98 Heavy Chain ... Calcium Ionophore A23187 Inhibits Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Growth and Monoclonal Antibody against CD98 Heavy Chain ... against CD98 heavy chain (CD98HC). A23187 considerably reduced the number of viruses released from the cells. Virus ...
... antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer ... Transformation of BALB3T3 cells caused by over-expression of rat CD98 heavy chain (HC) requires its association with light ... MAb 3G9 identified SLC3A2 as target antigen. To identify the target antigen recognized by 3G9, the whole cell lysate of MGC-803 ... Malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells by overexpression of early lymphocyte activation antigen CD98. Biochem Biophys Res ...
... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... At higher concentrations inhibits myosin light chain kinase (IC50 , 5 µM), protein kinase A (IC50 , 50 µM), protein kinase G ( ... Janes, P.W., Ley, S.C., and Magee, A.I. (1999). Aggregation of lipid rafts accompanies signaling via the T cell antigen ...
Cloning and Characterization of a Transporter for Large Neutral Amino Acids Activated by the Heavy Chain of 4F2 Antigen (CD98)* ...
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ELISA Genie Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ELISA Kit can assay for Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain in the following samples: serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues. (elisagenie.com)
  • How do our Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ELISA Kits work? (elisagenie.com)
  • The ELISA Genie Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ELISA Kits are designed for the quantitative measurement of analytes in a wide variety of samples. (elisagenie.com)
  • The amount of bound Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is proportional to the signal generated by the reaction meaning the Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (SLC3A2) ELISA Kit assay gives you a quantitative measurement of the analyte in your samples. (elisagenie.com)
  • context" : "http://schema.org", "@type" : "Product", "name" : " Mouse 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (Slc3a2) ELISA Kit", "image" : "https://www.elisagenie. (elisagenie.com)
  • CD antigen CD98 is also known as 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain (4F2hc), 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2), Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, is a single-pass type I I membrane protein which belongs to the SLC3A transporter family. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain, also known as 4F2 heavy chain antigen, Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit, CD98, SLC3A2 and MDU1, is a single-pass type I I membrane protein that belongs to the SLC3A transporter family. (sinobiological.com)
  • A functional LAT1 transporter is composed of two proteins encoded by two distinct genes: 4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene (this gene) CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene SLC3A2 has been shown to interact with SLC7A7. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD98 (4F2 antigen) is expressed on a family of heterodimers composed of a common type II transmembrane heavy chain (CD98hc, 4F2hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. (tcdb.org)
  • LAT1 requires another cell surface glycoprotein, the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), for its functional expression and forming a heterodimeric complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LAT1 forms a disulfide-linked heterodimer with CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc, 4F2hc or SLC3A2), but the mechanism of assembly and amino acid transport are poorly understood. (rcsb.org)
  • Kim DK, Ahn SG, Park JC, Kanai Y, Endou H, Yoon JH: Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its precusorlesions. (springermedizin.de)
  • Association of 4F2hc with light chains LAT1, LAT2 or y+LAT2 requires different domains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some of these transporters (b 0,+ AT, LAT2, y + LAT1) form covalent heterodimers with heavy subunits (rBAT, 4F2hc). (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • SLC3A2 comprises the heavy subunit of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) that is also known as CD98 (cluster of differentiation 98). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human CD98 / SLC3A2 derived in Human Cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • CD98 heterodimers, comprised of a heavy chain (CD98hc, SLC3A2) and one of several light chains, interact with integrins through CD98hc. (pnas.org)
  • SLC3A2 / CD98 is expressed ubiquitously in all tissues tested with highest levels detected in kidney, placenta and testis and weakest level in thymus. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • SLC3A2 / CD98 is required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters and also involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • SLC3A2 / MDU1 is required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. (sinobiological.com)
  • In this study, we identified the target antigen of mAb 3G9 as SLC3A2, and detected the expression profile of SLC3A2 in a panel of gastric cancer cell lines and GC tumor tissues. (oncotarget.com)
  • CD98 H chain (4F2 Ag, Slc3a2 ) was discovered as a lymphocyte-activation Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • Slc3a2 mediates branched-chain amino-acid-dependent maintenance of regulatory T cells. (tokushima-u.ac.jp)
  • CD98 is a glycoprotein [ 1 ] [ 2 ] that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ( LAT1 ). (omicsgroup.org)
  • The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is disulfide-linked with a multi-pass light chain of 40 kDa. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • however, a CD98hc mutant that interacts with β1 integrins, but not CD98 light chains, restored integrin-dependent signaling and protection from apoptosis. (pnas.org)
  • These two functions depend on distinct domains within CD98hc: the extracellular domain is required for its interaction with light chains, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains are required for interaction with integrins ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) inhibited human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) replication in LLCMK2 cells and the inhibition was almost completely recovered by monoclonal antibody (mAb) against CD98 heavy chain (CD98HC). (ijsciences.com)
  • Pre-expansion/differentiation of CD98-null T cells in vitro prior to adoptive transfer restored population effector functions and diabetogenicity, confirming that the mechanism by which CD98hc deletion protected from T1D was a block of clonal expansion. (jimmunol.org)
  • We also show that two anti-CD98 antibodies recognize distinct, multiple epitopes on CD98hc but not its glycans, explaining their robust reactivities. (rcsb.org)
  • The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody MEM-108 reacts with CD98, a 125 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimer (80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). (nordicbiosite.com)
  • In non-polarized cells, CD98 has been shown to both influence beta(1) integrins and heterodimerize with LAT-2, which confers amino acid transport capability on the LAT-2/CD98 heterodimer. (lookformedical.com)
  • CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. (biotium.com)
  • The CD79a/b heterodimer associates non-covalently with the immunoglobulin heavy chain through its transmembrane region, thus forming the BCR along with the immunoglobulin light chain [11] and the pre-BCR when associated with the surrogate light chain in developing B cells. (gutenberg.org)
  • [12] Association of the CD79a/b heterodimer with the immunoglobulin heavy chain is required for surface expression of the BCR and BCR induced calcium flux and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. (gutenberg.org)
  • CD69 was first described as the activation antigen expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes upon in vitro stimulation with interleukin (IL)-2 (Lanier et al. (springer.com)
  • Clone REAL355 is an antibody fragment derived from the full CD98 antibody molecule. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Characterization of antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody (4F2): different molecular forms on human T and B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (ximbio.com)
  • RESULTS: S47W reduced secondary structure and failed to bind the hydrophobic ANS ligand as well as a monoclonal antibody known to be dependent on the nature of the side chain of residue 114 in an adjacent loop. (bvsalud.org)
  • Staining of human peripheral blood monocytes with Mouse anti Human CD98 ( MCA1105G ) using Rabbit F(ab') 2 anti Mouse IgG:FITC ( STAR9B ) as a secondary antibody. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Mouse anti Human CD98 antibody, clone 44D7 reacts with the heavy chain of the CD98 molecule. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • B cells are capable of a wide range of effector functions including antibody secretion, antigen presentation, cytokine production, and generation of immunological memory. (stanford.edu)
  • [9] The ensuing signaling cascades lead to pro-inflammatory responses such as release of cytokines , phagocytosis , respiratory bursts , antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity , production of reactive oxygen species , and antigen presentation. (appspot.com)
  • We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. (tcdb.org)
  • Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase Cdelta and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. (exbio.cz)
  • Recombinant human CD98 Protein (Human CD98, His Tag) Arg 206 - Ala 630 (Accession # AAH01061) was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) at ACROBiosystems. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • A transmembrane glyco Protein Subunit that can dimerize with a variety of Light chain subunits ( Antigens, CD98 Light Chains ). (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Surface antigen CD98 (4F2): not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple functions. (springer.com)
  • An antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • This protein belongs to the superfamily of immunoglobulins and is similar to immune antigen receptors such as the T-cell receptor, B-cell receptor, and viral receptors such as CD4. (asm.org)
  • LAT1 is a heterodimeric membrane transport protein that preferentially transports branched-chain ( valine , leucine , isoleucine ) and aromatic ( tryptophan , tyrosine ) amino acids . (omicsgroup.org)
  • No variations were observed among isolates in restriction patterns of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction covering the internal transcribed spacer region, 5.8S rRNA and part of 25S rRNA, suggesting that M. The 26S proteasome plays a major role in eukaryotic protein breakdown, especially for ubiquitin-tagged proteins. (faintpower.ml)
  • Cluster of differentiation CD79A also known as B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain and MB-1 membrane glycoprotein , is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD79A gene . (gutenberg.org)
  • The CD79a protein together with the related CD79b protein, forms a dimer associated with membrane-bound immunoglobulin in B-cells , thus forming the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). (gutenberg.org)
  • the alpha subunit of Mac-1 (Macrophage-1 antigen), the CR3 complement receptor which consists of CD11b and CD18. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • The heteromeric amino acid transporters (HATs) are composed of two polypeptides: a heavy subunit (HSHAT) and a light subunit (LSHAT) linked by a disulfide bridge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • THY mocyte differentiation antigen 1Detection range0. (elisagenie.com)
  • More pronounced SLC38A1 expression in gastric cancer tissues was significantly associated with age, differentiation status, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) expression. (springermedizin.de)
  • They remain metabolically quiescent before meeting their cognate antigens, however upon antigen encounter, these activated T cells have increased demands for energy and biological building blocks for differentiation, proliferation, and effector molecules production. (hapres.com)
  • They respond to antigen stimulation by undergoing rapid proliferation and differentiation to produce effector populations. (hapres.com)
  • Upon receiving the signal from their cognate antigen, naïve T cells enter activation state followed by differentiation and proliferation to become T effector cells. (hapres.com)
  • Based on our findings, we hypothesize that (1) under-expression of chemokines that recruit neutrophils, antigen-experienced T cells and dendritic cells, (2) blocking NK cell binding to target cells and (3) suppression of apoptosis induced by death receptor signaling, viral RNA, and cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the epithelia compromised virus clearance and allowed FMDV to persist. (frontiersin.org)
  • The FcεRIα-chain, a member of the Ig superfamily, binds IgE Fc domain at a 1:1 ratio of receptor to IgE with unusually high affinity (K d = ∼10 −10 M) ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. (wikidoc.org)
  • This occurs in a similar manner to the association of CD3 with the T-cell receptor , and enables the cell to respond to the presence of antigens on its surface. (gutenberg.org)
  • [5] Inside-out signaling primes FcαRI in order for it to bind its ligand, [4] while outside-in signaling caused by ligand binding depends on FcαRI association with the Fc receptor gamma chain (FcR γ-chain). (appspot.com)
  • Clone REA387 recognizes the human CD98 antigen, a single-pass type II membrane glycoprotein. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Clone REAL355 recognizes the human CD98 antigen, a single-pass type II membrane glycoprotein. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD98 (4F2) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which serves as the heavy chain of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). (nordicbiosite.com)
  • We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters. (tcdb.org)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 beta chain. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • Blood coagulation factor V, a large (molecular weight ratio [M r ] = 330 kd) single-chain glycoprotein, is composed of 3 homologous A-type domains, 2 smaller homologous C-type domains, and a heavily glycosylated B domain that connects the N-terminal A1-A2 region with the C-terminal A3-C1-C2 region. (ashpublications.org)
  • Use of CD98 truncation mutants suggest that a 10-amino acid domain located at the putative cytoplasmic tail/transmembrane domain interface was necessary and sufficient to induce the phenotype change. (lookformedical.com)
  • When associated with SLC7A5 or SLC7A8, CD98 involved in the cellular activity of small molecular weight nitrosothiols, via the stereoselective transport of L-nitrosocysteine (L-CNSO) across the transmembrane. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • The FcαRI α-chain consists of two extracellular domains, EC1 and EC2, at a right angle to each other, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain. (appspot.com)
  • The heavy chain binds to the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-β chains and mediates adhesive signals that control cell spreading, survival, and growth. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • FcαRI binds the heavy-chain constant region of Immunoglubulin A ( IgA ) antibodies. (appspot.com)
  • When FcαRI monovalently binds monomeric, non-antigen bound IgA, the form most common in serum, [4] the resulting signals result in inactivation of other activating receptors such as FcγR and FcεRI. (appspot.com)
  • Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. (abcam.com)
  • Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino acid transporters LAT-1 and LAT-2 have preference for importing certain essential amino acids, particularly leucine, isoleucine, and arginine (LAT-1), in exchange for glutamine. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD98 at the crossroads of adaptive immunity and cancer. (springer.com)
  • CD69 controls the uptake of L-tryptophan through LAT1-CD98 and AhR-dependent secretion of IL-22 in psoriasis. (springer.com)
  • Campbell WA, Thompson NL: Overexpression of LAT1/CD98 light chain is sufficient to increase system L-amino acid transport activity in mouse hepatocytes but not fibroblasts. (springermedizin.de)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include peptide antigen binding and antiporter activity . (genecards.org)
  • CD98, linked to various light chains by disulfide bond, is responsible for cell surface expression and basolateral localization of this transporter complex in polarized epithelial cells and also interacts with beta1 integrins and increases their affinity for ligand. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Liu X, Charrier L, Gewirtz A, Sitaraman S, Merlin D: CD98 and intracellular adhesion molecule I regulate the activity of amino acid transporter LAT-2 in polarized intestinal epithelia. (exbio.cz)
  • We conclude that the CD98/LAT-2 amino acid transporter is polarized to the same domain on which beta(1) integrin resides. (lookformedical.com)
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on total RNA from rabbit cornea, SIRC cells, and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • i ) It can associate with and regulate the function of selected integrins ( 5 - 8 ), and ( ii ) it can regulate the expression and distribution of the light chains to modulate amino acid transport function ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. (cancerindex.org)
  • The functional interactions between CD98, beta1-integrins, and CD147 in the induction of U937 homotypic aggregation. (ximbio.com)
  • The human 4F2 antigen: evidence for cryptic and noncryptic epitopes and for a role of 4F2 in human T lymphocyte activation. (abnova.com)
  • CD70, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member critically expressed on antigen-presenting cells and strongly but transiently up-regulated during lymphocyte activation, represents an important co-stimulatory molecule that induces effective T cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the interaction between the adhesion molecules leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been described with respect to both virus-cell and cell-cell fusion events. (asm.org)
  • Since LAT-2 is most heavily expressed in intestine and CD98 associates with the beta(1) integrin splice form selectively found in such epithelia, we investigated the relationship and polarity of these proteins using the intestinal epithelial model Caco2-BBE. (lookformedical.com)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. (wikidoc.org)
  • This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. (wikidoc.org)
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human CD98. (abcam.com)
  • context" : "http://schema.org", "@type" : "Product", "name" : " Human Cell surface A33 antigen (GPA33) ELISA Kit", "image" : "https://www.elisagenie. (elisagenie.com)
  • context" : "http://schema.org", "@type" : "Product", "name" : " Human CD98 ELISA Kit", "image" : "https://www.elisagenie.com/product_images/v/648/EH2042__57925.jpg", "description" : "Human CD98. (elisagenie.com)
  • Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and amino acid transport in the human placental trophoblast (BeWo) cell line. (exbio.cz)
  • Furthermore, expression of CD98 in polarized epithelia lacking human CD98 (MDCK cells) disrupted beta(1) integrin surface distribution and cytoskeletal architecture, suggesting that CD98 can influence integrin function. (lookformedical.com)
  • Less than 1.0 EU per μg of the Human CD98, His Tag by the LAL method. (proteinkinase.biz)
  • Human endometrial CD98 is essential for blastocyst adhesion. (springer.com)
  • Both LAT1 and CD98, which covalently associates to LAT1 on the membrane, were expressed in human esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE30 and KYSE150. (bireme.br)
  • The light chain functions in amino acid transport. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Antigens cd98 light chains. (lookformedical.com)
  • Its function is altered depending which of the Light chain subunits it interacts with. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Both mutations would result in the synthesis of truncated proteins lacking complete light chain or its C-terminal part. (ashpublications.org)
  • In the patient's plasma, no factor V light chain was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (ashpublications.org)
  • Thrombin, the physiological activator of factor V, removes the internal B domain by limited proteolysis and the remaining heavy chain (HC) (M r = 105 kd) and light chain (LC) (M r = 73 kd) are associated via a calcium ion. (ashpublications.org)
  • It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. (umassmed.edu)
  • CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Deletion of CD98 H chain in B cells leads to complete failure of B cell proliferation, plasma cell formation, and Ab secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Through its nutrient function, CD98 can contribute to the survival and growth of many cell types. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The mRNAs of these five genes were analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in matched sets of tumor and non-tumor tissues obtained at operation from 82 Japanese patients with clear cell RCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic disruption of the multifunctional CD98/LAT1 complex demonstrates the key role of essential amino acid transport in the control of mTORC1 and tumor growth. (springer.com)
  • CD98 was found to selectively coimmunoprecipitate with both LAT-2 and beta(1) integrin, and, logically, all three proteins were polarized to the same (basolateral) domain. (lookformedical.com)