Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Amino Acid Transport System L: A sodium-independent neutral amino acid transporter system with specificity for large amino acids. One of the functions of the transporter system is to supply large neutral amino acids to the brain.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Trigger Points: Discrete spots in taut bands of muscle that produce local and referred pain when muscle bands are compressed.Amino Acid Transport System ASC: A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Dictionaries, ChemicalImmunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Pleural Effusion, Malignant: Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Pleurodesis: The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Talc: Finely powdered native hydrous magnesium silicate. It is used as a dusting powder, either alone or with starch or boric acid, for medicinal and toilet preparations. It is also an excipient and filler for pills, tablets, and for dusting tablet molds. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Tuberculosis, Pleural: Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.

Identification and characterization of a novel member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family presumed to be associated with an unknown heavy chain. (1/54)

We identified a novel amino acid transporter designated Asc-2 (for asc-type amino acid transporter 2). Asc-2 exhibited relatively low but significant sequence similarity to the members of the heterodimeric amino acid transporters. The cysteine residue responsible for the disulfide bond formation between transporters (light chains) and heavy chain subunits in the heterodimeric amino acid transporters is conserved for Asc-2. Asc-2 is, however, not colocalized with the already known heavy chains such as 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) or related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter (rBAT) in mouse kidney. Because Asc-2 solely expressed or coexpressed with 4F2hc or rBAT did not induce functional activity, we generated fusion proteins in which Asc-2 is connected with 4F2hc or rBAT. The fusion proteins were sorted to the plasma membrane and expressed the function corresponding to the Na(+)-independent small neutral amino acid transport system asc. Distinct from the already identified system asc transporter Asc-1 which is associated with 4F2hc, Asc-2-mediated transport is less stereoselective and did not accept some of the high affinity substrates of Asc-1 such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and beta-alanine. Asc-2 message was detected in kidney, placenta, spleen, lung, and skeletal muscle. In kidney, Asc-2 protein was present in the epithelial cells lining collecting ducts. In the Western blot analysis on mouse erythrocytes and kidney, Asc-2 was detected as multiple bands in the nonreducing condition, whereas the bands shifted to a single band at lower molecular weight, suggesting the association of Asc-2 with other protein(s) via a disulfide bond. The finding of Asc-2 would lead to the establishment of a new subgroup of heterodimeric amino acid transporter family which includes transporters associated not with 4F2hc or rBAT but with other unknown heavy chains.  (+info)

Expression and regulation of 4F2hc and hLAT1 in human trophoblasts. (2/54)

The neutral amino acid transport system L is a sodium-independent transport system in human placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. Recently, it was found that the heterodimer composed of hLAT1 (a light-chain protein) and 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is responsible for system L amino acid transport. We found that the mRNAs of 4F2hc and hLAT1 were expressed in the human placenta and a human choriocarcinoma cell line. The levels of the 4F2hc and hLAT1 proteins in the human placenta increased at full term compared with those at midtrimester. Immunohistochemical data showed that these proteins were localized mainly in the placental apical membrane. Data from leucine uptake experiments, Northern blot analysis, and immunoblot analysis showed that this transport system was partially regulated by protein kinase C and calcium ionophore in the human choriocarcinoma cell line. Our results suggest that the heterodimer of 4F2hc and hLAT1 may play an important role in placental amino acid transport system L.  (+info)

Akt maintains cell size and survival by increasing mTOR-dependent nutrient uptake. (3/54)

In multicellular organisms, constituent cells depend on extracellular signals for growth, proliferation, and survival. When cells are withdrawn from growth factors, they undergo apoptosis. Expression of constitutively active forms of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB can prevent apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Akt-mediated survival depends in part on the maintenance of glucose metabolism, suggesting that reduced glucose utilization contributes to growth factor withdrawal-induced death. However, it is unclear how restricting access to extracellular glucose alone would lead to the metabolic collapse observed after growth factor withdrawal. We report herein that growth factor withdrawal results in the loss of surface transporters for not only glucose but also amino acids, low-density lipoprotein, and iron. This coordinated decline in transporters and receptors for extracellular molecules creates a catabolic state characterized by atrophy and a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Activated forms of Akt maintained these transporters on the cell surface in the absence of growth factor through an mTOR-dependent mechanism. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin diminished Akt-mediated increases in cell size, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell survival. These results suggest that growth factors control cellular growth and survival by regulating cellular access to extracellular nutrients in part by modulating the activity of Akt and mTOR.  (+info)

Distribution of cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, system x(c)-, in the mouse brain. (4/54)

Mammalian cells express a transport system known as system x(c)-, which is an exchange agency specific for anionic forms of cystine and glutamate. System x(c)- activity is important to maintain both intracellular glutathione levels and the redox balance between cystine and cysteine in the extracellular milieu. We have shown that the cloned cDNAs encoding the transporter for system x(c)- consist of two components, xCT and the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen. In the present study, we have investigated the mRNA distribution for these components in the mouse brain by in situ hybridization. The xCT mRNA was expressed in the area postrema, subfornical organ, habenular nucleus, hypothalamic area, and ependymal cells of the lateral wall of the third ventricle in the adult mouse brain. A strong signal was also detected in the meninges in both adult and fetal mouse brains. The mRNA expression of the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen was detected in a more broad area, including all of the regions in which xCT mRNA was detected. These data are compatible with our biochemical evidence that xCT functions in combination with the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen to elicit system x(c)- activity. The expression of system x(c)- in meninges and some circumventricular organs may suggest that this transporter contributes to the maintenance of the redox state (i.e., cysteine/cystine ratio) in the CSF.  (+info)

Characterization of the system L amino acid transporter in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. (5/54)

System L is a major nutrient transport system responsible for the Na(+)-independent transport of large neutral amino acids including several essential amino acids. In malignant tumors, a system L transporter L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is up-regulated to support tumor cell growth. LAT1 is also essential for the permeation of amino acids and amino acid-related drugs through the blood-brain barrier. To search for in vitro assay systems to examine the interaction of chemical compounds with LAT1, we have investigated the expression of system L transporters and the properties of [14C]L-leucine transport in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. Northern blot, real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence analyses have reveled that T24 cells express LAT1 in the plasma membrane together with its associating protein 4F2hc, whereas T24 cells do not express the other system L isoform LAT2. The uptake of [14C]L-leucine by T24 cells is Na(+)-independent and almost completely inhibited by system L selective inhibitor BCH. The profiles of the inhibition of [14C]L-leucine uptake by amino acids and amino acid-related compounds in T24 cells are comparable with those for the LAT1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The majority of [14C]L-leucine uptake is, therefore, mediated by LAT1 in T24 cells. Consistent with LAT1 in Xenopus oocytes, the efflux of preloaded [14C]L-leucine is induced by extracellularly applied substrates of LAT1 in T24 cells. This efflux measurement has been proven to be more sensitive than that in Xenopus oocytes, because triiodothyronine, thyroxine and melphalan were able to induce the efflux of preloaded [14C]L-leucine in T24 cells, which was not detected for Xenopus oocyte expression system. T24 cell is, therefore, proposed to be an excellent tool to examine the interaction of chemical compounds with LAT1.  (+info)

Electrophile response element-mediated induction of the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter gene expression. (6/54)

In mammalian cultured cells, the cystine/glutamate exchange transport mediated by system x(c)- is important to maintain intracellular GSH levels. System x(c)- consists of two protein components, xCT and the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen. The activity of system x(c)- is induced by various stimuli, including electrophilic agents like diethyl maleate. In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of xCT mRNA by diethyl maleate. The xCT gene consisted of twelve exons and sequence analysis identified four electrophile response element (EpRE)-like sequences between -230 and -1 in the 5'-flanking region, designated EpRE-1 to EpRE-4. To identify sequences mediating the constitutive and induced expression of xCT, a series of 5'-deletion mutants created from the 5'-flanking region were cloned into a luciferase reproter vector and transfected into BHK21 cells. The 5'-deletion analysis revealed that the sequence between -116 and -82 is essential for the basal expression and the sequence between -226 and -116 containing EpRE-1 is essential in response to diethyl maleate. Mutational analysis demonstrated that EpRE-1 is critically involved in the response to diethyl maleate. Other stress agents like arsenite, cadmium, and hydroquinone seemed to induce system x(c)- activity via the same sequence. Furthermore, the experiments using the mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from the Nrf2-deficient mice revealed that the induction of xCT gene by electrophilic agents is mediated by Nrf2. EpRE occurs in a broad spectrum of genes for the proteins that are involved in the defense against xenobiotics and regulates their expression. The present results have demonstrated that xCT is a novel member of this protein family.  (+info)

Rab7 prevents growth factor-independent survival by inhibiting cell-autonomous nutrient transporter expression. (7/54)

Growth factor withdrawal results in the endocytosis and degradation of transporter proteins for glucose and amino acids. Here, we show that this process is under the active control of the small GTPase Rab7. In the presence of growth factor, Rab7 inhibition had no effect on nutrient transporter expression. In growth factor-deprived cells, however, blocking Rab7 function prevented the clearance of glucose and amino acid transporter proteins from the cell surface. When Rab7 was inhibited, growth factor deprived cells maintained their mitochondrial membrane potential and displayed prolonged, growth factor-independent, nutrient-dependent cell survival. Thus, Rab7 functions as a proapoptotic protein by limiting cell-autonomous nutrient uptake. Consistent with this, dominant-negative Rab7 cooperated with E1A to promote the transformation of p53(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). These results suggest that proteins that limit nutrient transporter expression function to prevent cell-autonomous growth and survival.  (+info)

Prevention of ornithine cytotoxicity by nonpolar side chain amino acids in retinal pigment epithelial cells. (8/54)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of amino acids on ornithine cytotoxicity in ornithine-delta-aminotransferase (OAT)-deficient human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells as an in vitro model of gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina. METHODS: RPE cells were treated with 0.5 mM 5-fluoromethylornithine (5-FMOrn), a specific and irreversible OAT inhibitor. OAT-deficient RPE cells were incubated with 10 mM ornithine in the presence of 20 mM of 1 of 18 amino acids or 10 mM 2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid (BCH), a conventional inhibitor of the amino acid transporter system L. Ornithine cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects of each amino acid was evaluated with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay 72 hours after treatment with ornithine in OAT-deficient RPE cells. Ornithine incorporation into RPE cells was evaluated using DL-[14C]ornithine. RESULTS: An MTT colorimetric assay revealed that small and large zwitterionic amino acids, but not acidic or basic amino acids, decreased ornithine cytotoxicity in OAT-deficient RPE cells. Incorporation of DL-[14C]ornithine by RPE cells decreased to 79% of the control level after incubation for 48 hours with 20 mM leucine, the most effective cytoprotective amino acid. Further, BCH prevented ornithine cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Both light and heavy chains of L-type amino acid transporter (LAT)-1, LAT2, y+LAT1, and 4F2hc were expressed in RPE cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate that L-type amino acid transporter(s) may be involved in protection against ornithine cytotoxicity in human RPE cells. Thus, amino acid transportation in RPE cells may be a good target for a new therapy for GA as well as other kinds of chorioretinal degeneration.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 -- ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 -- ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 -- calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 -- calgranulin ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... integrin beta chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.249 -- antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 -- antigens, ... clathrin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.200.750 -- clathrin light chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.300.150 -- ADP-ribosylation ...

*APC Family

These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ... Hip1 of S. cerevisiae (TC #2.A.3.1.5) has been implicated in heavy metal transport. Subfamilies of the APC family, and the ...

*SLC3A2

4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... 4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene (this gene) CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene ... "Molecular cloning of complementary DNAs encoding the heavy chain of the human 4F2 cell-surface antigen: a type II membrane ... "Primary structure of the human 4F2 antigen heavy chain predicts a transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic NH2 terminus". J ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 light chains ... cd98 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 light ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*CD98

4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene Cluster of ... CD98 Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at ... LAT1 is a heterodimeric membrane transport protein that preferentially transports branched-chain (valine, leucine, isoleucine) ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ...
We have developed a novel software algorithm, JOINSOLVER, to analyze the human CDR3H. Within the CDR3H, the definition of the D segment has been particularly problematic because of its short size and extensive terminal processing. Many attempts have been made to define the minimum length needed for D segment assignment (8, 21, 24, 25, 26, 36), yet there is still no consensus definition. Thus, we used novel methods to assign D segments. The first involved the use of a consecutive matching approach rather than the more standard alignment scoring system. The consecutive matching approach permitted the secure assignment of more D segments than the alignment scoring method. The second used methods to limit the search for identity to the VH-JH region only. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to determine the consecutive match necessary to assign a D segment. We opted to distinguish an actual D segment match from random sequence identity using a 95% probability. This level of confidence seems ...
How to use the site: The homepage contains two dendrograms indicating the relatedness of human subunits that form cys-loop receptors specific for cations and anions, respectively. Cation channels are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 ( 5-HT3 ) receptors and the zinc-activated ion channel (ZAC). The anionic channels are g-aminobutyric acid type A ( GABAA (includes r subunits sometimes referred to as GABAC ) and glycine receptors. The dendrograms contain links to the receptors and their individual subunits. These pages give brief information about the subunits and links to their gene and amino acid sequences in Genbank. There are also diagrams of the subunit topology. Click on one of the eight regions of the subunit (N-terminal domain, TM1, TM1-2 loop, TM2, TM2-3 loop, TM3, TM3-4 loop, TM4) and these will link you to an expanded diagram annotated with the human amino acids. These diagrams lack the signal sequence. However amino acid numbering starts ...
The poster was presented by Irene Berra.. Human articulate language doesnt involve clearly distinguishable structures and substructures but shows distributed functions. Clues coming from brain comparative studies and neuroimaging point out that cortical structures and connections have been re-functionalized during the evolution of primates and hominids, due to their plasticity and learning capacity. But also the expression of FoxP2 in basal ganglia is involved in vocal and sequential learning. However, neither vocal-learning mammals (whales, dolphins and bats) nor song-learning birds share the human amino acid substitutions (Webb and Zhang, J. Hered., 96, 2005). Language evolution is likely to be a recruitment, with slight modifications, of pre-existing genetic cascades that have other regulatory functions. An exaptive hypothesis has been proposed for acoustic communication during water-to-land transition, as in the case of limbs. Comparative analyses within living species are being conducted ...
l-3-(18)F-α-methyl tyrosine ((18)F-FAMT) has been developed as a PET radiotracer for tumor imaging. Clinical studies have demonstrated the usefulness of (18)F-FAMT PET for the prediction of prognosis and the differentiation of malignant tumors and b
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
Like normal cells, cancer cells require amino acids for growth, maintenance, and cell signaling, and L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) are the delivery vehicles that supply them.
... is extracted from the skins of various select fish. This collagen is then purified and dried, and mixed with buffers before it is added to capsules for supplementation. Like chicken collagen, the ability for the body to absorb this fish collagen is only about 15 percent. This means that although the collagen may be more potent than that, it is unable to be absorbed properly into the bloodstream, which renders it less powerful.. On the flip side, bovine collagen that undergoes the same purifying and drying process, but goes a step further, is going to be much more effective. When the collagen is nurtured further under laboratory conditions, its amino acid chains have more time to grow, and they will more closely resemble human amino acid chains. This allows for greater absorption into the bloodstream at rates as high as 95 percent. When you are ordering any collagen supplements, it is wise to investigate how the collagen is processed before being sold.. ...
Mediates the exchange of chloride ions against protons. Functions as antiporter and contributes to the acidification of the endosome and synaptic vesicle lumen, and may thereby affect vesicle trafficking and exocytosis. May play an important role in neuronal cell function through regulation of membrane excitability by protein kinase C. It could help neuronal cells to establish short-term memory.
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for V2Q6Z9 (V2Q6Z9_ECOLX), H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter ClcA. Escherichia coli HVH 50 (4-2593475)
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Find SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research area related information and SLC3: Heavy Subunits of the Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporter Family research products from R&D Systems. Learn more.
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
Acts as a sodium-independent DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. May play a role in the maintenance of the electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the kidney, by acting as a distal excretory segment-specific anion exchanger, specifically chloride. Plays a major role in gastric acid secretion.
The SLC43 family is composed of only three genes coding for the plasma membrane facilitator system l amino acid transporters LAT3 (SLC43A1; TC 2.A.1.44.1) and LAT4 (SLC43A2; TC 2.A.1.44.2), and the orphan protein EEG1 (SLC43A3; TC 2.A.1.44.3). Beside
The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is often dependent on the detection of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain expression. In some BCLs, the determination of clonality based on Ig light chain restriction may be difficult. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of flow cytometric analysis of surface Ig heavy chain (HC) expression in lymphoid tissues in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasias from BCLs, and also differentiating various BCL subtypes. HC expression on B-cells varied among different types of hyperplasias. In follicular hyperplasia, IgM and IgD expression was high in mantle cells while germinal center cells showed poor HC expression. In other hyperplasias, B cell compartments were blurred but generally showed high IgD and IgM expression. Compared to hyperplasias, BCLs varied in IgM expression. Small lymphocytic lymphomas had lower IgM expression than mantle cell lymphomas. Of importance, IgD expression was significantly lower in BCLs than in hyperplasias, a finding that can be
A full-length aryl sulfotransferase cDNA was isolated from a human liver cDNA library. It was 1155 bp long containing a coding region of 885 basepairs encoding a cytosolic protein (Mr 34178 Da) of 295 amino acids. This human cDNA shared 80% homology to the rat aryl sulfotransferase cDNA, 58% to the bovine and rat oestrogen sulfotransferase cDNAs, 53% to the rat hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase cDNA and 51% to the human liver dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase cDNA over its whole 885 bp coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence of this human cDNA was 79% homologous to that of the rat aryl sulfotransferase cDNA and the putative common-substrate binding site motif GXXGXXK of the sulfotransferases has been conserved in this human amino acid sequence. At least two sizes of this human aryl sulfotransferase mRNA were detected in the human liver and lung ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and is a component of the heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor T1R1+3. The T1R1+3 receptor responds to L-amino acids but not to D-enantiomers or other compounds. Most amino acids that are perceived as sweet activate T1R1+3, and this activation is strictly dependent on an intact T1R1+3 heterodimer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010 ...
Fusion protein amino acids 568-746 (C-terminus) of rat Clcn5 (also known as H(+)/Cl(-) exchange transporter 5, Chloride channel protein 5, Chloride transporter ClC-5, Clc5 and CLCK2, accession number P51796)Mouse: 99% identity (178/179 amino acids identical)Human: 98% identity (177/179 amino acids identical)70% identit
Page contains details about platinum-loaded Vulcan XC-72R carbon . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
4F2hc (CD98) has been associated with tumor growth, and is highly expressed in various tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of 4F2hc expression in pulmonary neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Surgically-resected patient tumors including 16 large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), 12 small cell lung cancer (SCLC), 1 atypical carcinoid (AC) and 5 typical carcinoid (TC) samples were included in this study. Tumor sections were immunohistochemically stained for 4F2hc (CD98), glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) and 3 (Glut3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), hexokinase I, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessel density (CD34), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (p-Akt, p-mTOR and p-S6K) and for a cell cycle regulator (p53). 4F2hc was overexpressed in 0% of the pulmonary carcinoids (TCs and ACs), 62.5% of the LCNECs and 50.0% of the SCLCs. A positive 4F2hc expression was ...
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular and electrolyte regulation in health and disease. Juxtaglomerular cells in the kidney regulate endocrine RAAS by physiologically controlling conversion of prorenin and secretion of renin. The classical baroceptor, neurogenic, and macula densa mechanisms regulate renin expression at the cellular level by Ca2+, adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and chemiosmotic forces (K+, Cl-, and water flux coupled to H+ movement). The baroceptor mechanism (through Ca2+) activates K+ and Cl- channels in the surface membrane and deactivates a KCl-H+ exchange chemiosmotic transporter in the secretory granular membrane. The neurogenic mechanism (through cAMP) promotes prorenin processing to renin. The macula densa mechanism (through K+ and Cl-) involves the processing of prorenin to renin. Ca2+, by inhibiting the KCl-H+ exchange transporter, prevents secretory granules from engaging in chemiosmotically mediated exocytosis.
LATS2兔多克隆抗体(ab111054)可与人样本反应并经IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Abbreviations: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; AdiC, arginine/agmatine antiporter; AGC, aspartate/glutamate carrier; AMPK, AMP-dependent kinase; Apc, amino acid, polyamine and organocation; ASC, preference for alanine, serine and cysteine; ASCT, neutral amino acid transporter; ASS, argininosuccinate synthetase; B0AT, broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter; CTNL2, type 2 citrullinaemia; EA, episodic ataxia 1; EAAT, excitatory amino acid transporter; EEG, electroencephalogram; 4F2hc4F2, cell-surface-antigen heavy chain; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid; GC1, mitochondrial glutamate carrier 1; HAT, heteromeric amino acid transporter; HHH, hyperammonaemia-hyperornithinaemia-homocitrullinuria; IL1, intracellular loop 1; LeuT, leucine transporter; LeuTAa, LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus; LPI, lysinuric protein intolerance; MCT, monocarboxylate transporter; MeAIB, N-methylaminoisobutyric acid; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NICCD, neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency; OCD, ...
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
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Lenovo also announces an entirely new Special Bids system, and the delay of the replacement of the IBM services contract tool with a new one from Lenovo.
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Bedeutungen für die Abkürzung lat., Lat., LAT ▶ Alle Bedeutungen im Überblick ✐ Ähnliche Abkürzungen zu lat., Lat., LAT ✐ 25572 Abkürzungen online ✐ Jetzt Abkürzungen & Bedeutungen auf Woxikon ansehen!
LATS1 +LATS2兔多克隆抗体(ab111344)可与人样本反应并经IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Avicin Therapeutics Ltd. is developing avicin d for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Avicins are triterpenoid compounds that occur naturally in Acacia
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab70565 交差種: Ms,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P…LATS1 +LATS2抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。

intestinal neoplasms benign drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineintestinal neoplasms benign drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney ... Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured. *Genetic Alliance. consumer health ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / ... CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Humans. ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=intestinal+neoplasms+benign+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Ping Yin - Fingerprint
     - Northwestern ScholarsPing Yin - Fingerprint - Northwestern Scholars

CD98 Heavy Chain Antigens Pregnancy Anterior Pituitary Gland Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Fetus Upstream Stimulatory Factors ...
more infohttps://www.scholars.northwestern.edu/en/persons/ping-yin/fingerprints/

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.157) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 -- ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 -- ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 -- calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 -- calgranulin ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.157)

JCI -
Tumor VEGF:VEGFR2 autocrine feed-forward loop triggers angiogenesis in lung cancerJCI - Tumor VEGF:VEGFR2 autocrine feed-forward loop triggers angiogenesis in lung cancer

... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... Briefly, 3-μm-thick sections of FFPE tumors were deparaffinized, and antigen retrieval was performed by boiling the section in ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/65385

CD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LëtzebuergCD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg

The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is ... The heavy chain binds to the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-β chains and mediates adhesive signals that control cell spreading, ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LU-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd98-antibodies-human-rea387-1-50.html

CD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - ÖsterreichCD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Österreich

The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is ... The heavy chain binds to the cytoplasmic tails of integrin-β chains and mediates adhesive signals that control cell spreading, ... The light chain functions in amino acid transport. Some of the light chains have broad specificity, but the large neutral amino ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/AT-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd98-antibodies-human-rea387-1-11.html

List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D12.776.543) - Wikipedia

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... integrin beta chains MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.249 -- antigens, cd18 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.200.500 -- antigens, ... clathrin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.200.750 -- clathrin light chains MeSH D12.776.543.990.300.150 -- ADP-ribosylation ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D12.776.543)

TCDB » Human MTPsTCDB » Human MTPs

... function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen ... Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 ... We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/hgnc_explore.php?symbol=SLC7A6

The light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit | The EMBO JournalThe light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit | The EMBO Journal

... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98) ... Devés R and Boyd CA (2000) Surface antigen CD98(4F2): not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple ... Rossier G, Meier C, Bauch C, Summa V, Sordat B, Verrey F and Kuhn LC (1999) LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98‐associated amino ... with 4F2hc heavy chain, the amino acid transport system xc−. Pflügers Arch, 442, 286-296. ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/21/18/4906?ijkey=087a1321e2730e5dfb76da604ca2c0288e551eab&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable...Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable...

The mRNAs of these five genes were analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in matched sets of ... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4 F2 antigen (CD98 ... it was found to be co-expressed with the heavy chain of 4 F2 cell surface antigen (4F2hc) and to be involved in the ... Progesterone and Mifepristone regulate L-type amino acid transporter 2 and 4 F2 heavy chain expression in uterine leiomyoma ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-13-509

CurationCuration

... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... At higher concentrations inhibits myosin light chain kinase (IC50 , 5 µM), protein kinase A (IC50 , 50 µM), protein kinase G ( ... Janes, P.W., Ley, S.C., and Magee, A.I. (1999). Aggregation of lipid rafts accompanies signaling via the T cell antigen ...
more infohttp://pl.csl.sri.com/DatumDictionary/pages/_Chemicals.html

The Human NAD Metabolome Functions Metabolism and Compartmentalization | Nikotinamida Adenina Dinukleotida | MitokondriaThe Human NAD Metabolome Functions Metabolism and Compartmentalization | Nikotinamida Adenina Dinukleotida | Mitokondria

activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98). J Biol Chem. 273:2362932.. Kasamatsu A, Nakao M, Smith BC, et al. (2011). ... immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), is. regulated by NAD-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation.. GRP78/BiP mediates ... the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance. (Cerutti et al., 2014).. NAD biosynthesis from all known precursors ... O-glycosidic bond of poly-ADP-ribose chains (Lin et al.,. 1997; Mashimo et al., 2013; Mueller-Dieckmann. et al., 2006; Niere et ...
more infohttps://id.scribd.com/document/333516820/The-Human-NAD-Metabolome-Functions-Metabolism-and-Compartmentalization

Toronto Research Chemicals | Page 19Toronto Research Chemicals | Page 19

4F2HC/CD98 antigen/CD98 heavy chain/CD98HC/heavy chain/Lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit/MDU1antigen defined by ... SLC3A2(4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain)/4F2/CD98/4T2HC/antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, ... heavy chain/monoclonal 44D7/NACAE4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain/solute carrier family 3(activators of dibasic and neutral ... ANXA2/Annexin A2/Lipocortin II/Chromobindin-8/Calpactin-1 heavy chain/Calpactin I heavy chain/p36/Protein I/Placental ...
more infohttps://www.trc-canada.com/elisa-kits/19/

Recombinant Human SLC3A2 cell lysate SLC3A2-2015HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human SLC3A2 cell lysate SLC3A2-2015HCL - Creative BioMart

Human CD98 / SLC3A2 derived in Human Cells. The whole cell lysate is provided in 1X Sample Buffer.Browse all transfected cell ... CD98; CD98 heavy chain; CD98HC; heavy chain; lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2 large subunit; monoclonal 44D7; NACAE; antigen ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain; 4F2; 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain; 4F2 heavy chain; 4F2HC; 4T2HC; antigen defined ... heavy chain; antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2, TRA1.10, TROP4, and T43;. ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_399786_318.htm

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...Identification and Functional Characterization of a Na+-Independent Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporter, LAT1, in Human and...

... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98) ... that co-expresses with 4F2 heavy chain, an L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large ... Pfeiffer, R, Rossier, G, Spindler, B, et al (1999) Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ... Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2181705

Automated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System ImagingAutomated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System Imaging

... which contain a chaperone-like heavy chain 4F2hc, and a 12-time transmembrane light chain that is unique to each subtype [26]. ... LAT1/4F2hc complex, one form of 4F2 antigen or CD98 antigen, preferentially transports large neutral amino acids, such as ... K. Kaira, N. Oriuchi, H. Imai et al., "L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 expression in primary and metastatic sites of ... In step 2, an aliphatic tosyl chain was to be added at phenolic hydroxyl group of N-Boc-5-hydroxytryptophan methyl ester. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/492545/

Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain(SLC3A2) ELISA kit - CusabioHuman 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain(SLC3A2) ELISA kit - Cusabio

Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain(SLC3A2) ELISA kit of Cusabio is available for serum, plasma, tissue homogenates in ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain,4F2 heavy chain,CD98 heavy chain,antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2, heavy chain, ... Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain(SLC3A2) ELISA kit. Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain(SLC3A2) ELISA kit. ... Recombinant Human 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain(SLC3A2),partial. Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. ...
more infohttps://www.cusabio.com/ELISA-Kit/Human-4F2-cell-surface-antigen-heavy-chainSLC3A2-ELISA-kit-104458.html

Antigen 4F2, Heavy Chain - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigen 4F2, Heavy Chain - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Heavy Chain. A transmembrane glycoProtein Subunit that can dimerize with a variety of Light chain subunits (Antigens, CD98 ... Its function is altered depending which of the Light chain subunits it interacts with. ... Light Chains). This Protein Subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and Cell Fusion. ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigen-4f2-heavy-chain.html

Oncotarget | SLC3A2, antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancerOncotarget | SLC3A2, antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer

... antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer ... Transformation of BALB3T3 cells caused by over-expression of rat CD98 heavy chain (HC) requires its association with light ... MAb 3G9 identified SLC3A2 as target antigen. To identify the target antigen recognized by 3G9, the whole cell lysate of MGC-803 ... Malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells by overexpression of early lymphocyte activation antigen CD98. Biochem Biophys Res ...
more infohttp://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=19529&path%5B%5D=62419

CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]

CD98 antigen antibody. *CD98 heavy chain antibody. *CD98HC antibody. *Heavy chain antibody ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. *Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 ... Anti-CD98 antibody [MEM-108] (Biotin) (ab26009)参考文献. ab26009 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications. ... Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/cd98-antibody-mem-108-biotin-ab26009.html

CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]

CD98 antigen antibody. *CD98 heavy chain antibody. *CD98HC antibody. *Heavy chain antibody ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. *Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 ... ab123635, at 5 µl/106 cells, staining CD98 in normal Human peripheral blood cells by Flow Cytometry. Cells in the leukocyte ... Required for the function of light chain amino-acid transporters. Involved in sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/cd98-antibody-fg18-cf405m-ab123635.html

Nordic BioSiteNordic BioSite

CD and Related Antigens (Human) Notes. CD98 (4F2) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein which serves as the heavy chain of ... 80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... Mouse Monoclonal to CD98 Recommended Dilution. The purified antibody is conjugated with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) under ... Besides its roles in amino acid transport, CD98 is thus involved in cell fusion and activation. It is implicated in regulation ...
more infohttps://nordicbiosite.com/product/AFC-4959-2/CD98

CAZy - GH13 34CAZy - GH13 34

4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain isoform c (Slc3a2). Macaca mulatta AFE67118.1. AFH28051.1. AFI33834.1. 34. ... CD98 solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2). Petromyzon marinus AAN64301.1. Q8AV90. 34. ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain isoform b (Slc3a2). Macaca mulatta AFE67000.1. 34. ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain isoform c (Slc3a2). Macaca mulatta AFJ70224.1. 34. ...
more infohttp://www.cazy.org/GH13_34_eukaryota.html

Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin - EXBIO AntibodiesAnti-Hu CD98 Biotin - EXBIO Antibodies

80 kDa glycosylated heavy chain + 45 kDa non-glykosylated light chain). CD98 is expressed on T lymphocytes (upon activation) ... Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin ... Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and ... Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase ...
more infohttps://www.exbio.cz/research-product/antibodies/cd-and-related-antigens/anti-hu-cd98-biotin

Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD98 (IPO-T10) | BiotiumMouse Monoclonal anti-CD98 (IPO-T10) | Biotium

Mouse Monoclonal anti-CD98 (IPO-T10) CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a ... The Sixth International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, Kobe, Japan 1996 (Garland ... CD98 exits as a heterodimer containing a disulphide-linked glycosylated heavy chain and a non-glycosylated light chain. It is a ... made of a disulfide-linked glycosylated heavy chain of approximately 80-90 kDa and a non-glycosylated light chain ...
more infohttps://biotium.com/product/monoclonal-anti-cd98-ipo-t10/
  • Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members ofthe glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporter family.EMBO J. 1999 Jan 4;18(1):49-57. (tcdb.org)
  • Characterization of antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody (4F2): different molecular forms on human T and B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (ximbio.com)
  • We recently have identified the vertebrate proteins which mediate Na+-independent exchange of large neutral amino acids corresponding to transport system L. This transporter consists of a novel amino acid permease-related protein (LAT1 or AmAT-L-lc) which for surface expression and function requires formation of disulfide-linked heterodimers with the glycosylated heavy chain of the h4F2/CD98 surface antigen. (tcdb.org)
  • We show that h4F2hc also associates with other mammalian light chains, e.g. y+LAT1 from mouse and human which are approximately 48% identical with LAT1 and thus belong to the same family of glycoprotein-associated amino acid transporters. (tcdb.org)
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for large neutral amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) was performed on total RNA from rabbit cornea, SIRC cells, and human cornea. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD69 controls the uptake of L-tryptophan through LAT1-CD98 and AhR-dependent secretion of IL-22 in psoriasis. (springer.com)
  • Genetic disruption of the multifunctional CD98/LAT1 complex demonstrates the key role of essential amino acid transport in the control of mTORC1 and tumor growth. (springer.com)
  • Liu X, Charrier L, Gewirtz A, Sitaraman S, Merlin D: CD98 and intracellular adhesion molecule I regulate the activity of amino acid transporter LAT-2 in polarized intestinal epithelia. (exbio.cz)
  • 1997 ). Depending on the number of N-glycan chains, the CD69 polypeptide forms subunits of the size 28 kDa or 32 kDa. (springer.com)
  • CD98, linked to various light chains by disulfide bond, is responsible for cell surface expression and basolateral localization of this transporter complex in polarized epithelial cells and also interacts with beta1 integrins and increases their affinity for ligand. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Surface antigen CD98 (4F2): not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple functions. (springer.com)
  • Through its nutrient function, CD98 can contribute to the survival and growth of many cell types. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD98-mediated adhesive signaling enables the establishment and propagation of acute myelogenous leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and amino acid transport in the human placental trophoblast (BeWo) cell line. (exbio.cz)
  • Human endometrial CD98 is essential for blastocyst adhesion. (springer.com)
  • The functional interactions between CD98, beta1-integrins, and CD147 in the induction of U937 homotypic aggregation. (ximbio.com)
  • Cho JY, Skubitz KM, Katz DR, Chain BM: CD98-dependent homotypic aggregation is associated with translocation of protein kinase Cdelta and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. (exbio.cz)
  • The mRNAs of these five genes were analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in matched sets of tumor and non-tumor tissues obtained at operation from 82 Japanese patients with clear cell RCC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides its roles in amino acid transport, CD98 is thus involved in cell fusion and activation. (nordicbiosite.com)
  • Deletion of CD98 H chain in B cells leads to complete failure of B cell proliferation, plasma cell formation, and Ab secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we examined the role of T cell CD98 in cell-mediated immunity and autoimmune disease pathogenesis by specifically deleting it in murine T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Deletion of T cell CD98 prevented experimental autoimmune diabetes associated with dramatically reduced T cell clonal expansion. (jimmunol.org)
  • In sharp contrast to B cells, CD98-null T cells showed only modestly impaired Ag-driven proliferation and nearly normal homeostatic proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • When we expanded CD98-null T cells in vitro, they adoptively transferred diabetes, establishing that impaired clonal expansion was responsible for protection from disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, because of the embryonic lethal phenotype of a CD98 knockout mouse ( 15 ), definitive in vivo loss-of-function studies have been lacking. (jimmunol.org)