Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Cutting edge: primary structure of the light chain of fusion regulatory protein-1/CD98/4F2 predicts a protein with multiple transmembrane domains that is almost identical to the amino acid transporter E16. (1/114)

The CD98 light chain (CD98LC) was copurified from HeLa S3 cells by an affinity chromatography using a mAb specific for the fusion regulatory protein-1 (FRP-1) which is identical to the CD98 heavy chain. On the basis of the N-terminal sequence (63 amino acids) of purified CD98LC polypeptide, we have cloned a PCR fragment (155 bp) from a HeLa S3 cDNA library and finally obtained a full cDNA clone encoding the CD98LC. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the cDNA assigned the CD98LC gene to the long arm of human chromosome 16 (16q24). The predicted amino acid sequence suggested that CD98LC is a protein with multiple transmembrane domains and is almost identical to the amino acid transporter E16. Resting monocytes and lymphocytes expressed CD98LC as analyzed by a newly isolated anti-CD98LC mAb, which showed cross-reactivity with insect Sf9 cells as well as with various mammalian cell lines.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against murine FRP-1/CD98/4F2 heavy chain: murine FRP-1 is an alloantigen and amino acid change at 129 (P<-->R) is related to the alloantigenicity. (2/114)

Nineteen mAb directed against murine fusion regulatory protein-1 (mFRP-1)/4F2/CD98 were isolated and their biological properties were analysed. Intriguingly, mFRP-1 was found to be an alloantigen, namely, FRP-1.1 (DBA/2 and CBA mice type) and FRP-1.2 (BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C3H/He mice type). The nucleotide sequences of FRP-1.1 and FRP-1.2 were determined, demonstrating that amino acid change at 129 (P<-->R) is related to the alloantigenicity. mFRP-1 is expressed on thymocytes, on spleen cells, on peripheral lymphocytes and on blood monocytes, suggesting that the physiological role in vivo of murine FRP-1 is different from that of human FRP-1. The biological activities of antimFRP-1 mAbs showed by the present study are: (i) enhancement of Newcastle disease virus-induced cell fusion; (ii) suppression of HIVgp160-mediated cell fusion; and (iii) induction of aggregation and multinucleated giant cells of monocytes/macrophages.  (+info)

Pro-adhesive and chemotactic activities of thrombospondin-1 for breast carcinoma cells are mediated by alpha3beta1 integrin and regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 and CD98. (3/114)

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a matricellular protein that displays both pro- and anti-adhesive activities. Binding to sulfated glycoconjugates mediates most high affinity binding of soluble TSP1 to MDA-MB-435 cells, but attachment and spreading of these cells on immobilized TSP1 is primarily beta1 integrin-dependent. The integrin alpha3beta1 is the major mediator of breast carcinoma cell adhesion and chemotaxis to TSP1. This integrin is partially active in MDA-MB-435 cells but is mostly inactive in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, which require beta1 integrin activation to induce spreading on TSP1. Integrin-mediated cell spreading on TSP1 is accompanied by extension of filopodia containing beta1 integrins. TSP1 binding activity of the alpha3beta1 integrin is not stimulated by CD47-binding peptides from TSP1 or by protein kinase C activation, which activate alphavbeta3 integrin function in the same cells. In MDA-MB-231 but not MDA-MB-435 cells, this integrin is activated by pertussis toxin, whereas serum, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and ligation of CD98 increase activity of this integrin in both cell lines. Serum stimulation is accompanied by increased surface expression of CD98, whereas insulin-like growth factor-1 does not increase CD98 expression. Thus, the pro-adhesive activity of TSP1 for breast carcinoma cells is controlled by several signals that regulate activity of the alpha3beta1 integrin.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of U937-dependent T-cell co-stimulation. (4/114)

U937 cells provide a co-stimulatory signal for CD3-mediated T-cell activation which is independent of the CD28/CD80/CD86 interaction. This study set out to identify which molecules contribute to this co-stimulatory activity. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the known accessory molecules CD11a, CD18, CD54 and CD45, all inhibited T-cell proliferation. Although CD11a/18 mAb inhibited U937/T-cell cluster formation as well as proliferation, CD45 enhanced the size of the clusters formed, suggesting that this was not the only mechanism of inhibition. The alternative co-stimulatory pathway provided by U937 cells preferentially stimulated a response in the CD18+ T-cell population, and this reflected the reduced sensitivity of CD8+ T cells to CD28-mediated activation. Monoclonal antibodies to three molecules, CD53, CD98 and CD147, also inhibited U937-dependent T-cell proliferation. The mAb to CD98 and CD147 were inhibitory when prepulsed on to the U937 cells, suggesting an effect mediated by these molecules on the antigen-presenting cell.  (+info)

Identification of a membrane protein, LAT-2, that Co-expresses with 4F2 heavy chain, an L-type amino acid transport activity with broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids. (5/114)

We have identified a new human cDNA, L-amino acid transporter-2 (LAT-2), that induces a system L transport activity with 4F2hc (the heavy chain of the surface antigen 4F2, also named CD98) in oocytes. Human LAT-2 is the fourth member of the family of amino acid transporters that are subunits of 4F2hc. The amino acid transport activity induced by the co-expression of 4F2hc and LAT-2 was sodium-independent and showed broad specificity for small and large zwitterionic amino acids, as well as bulky analogs (e.g. BCH (2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid)). This transport activity was highly trans-stimulated, suggesting an exchanger mechanism of transport. Expression of tagged N-myc-LAT-2 alone in oocytes did not induce amino acid transport, and the protein had an intracellular location. Co-expression of N-myc-LAT-2 and 4F2hc gave amino acid transport induction and expression of N-myc-LAT-2 at the plasma membrane of the oocytes. These data suggest that LAT-2 is an additional member of the family of 4F2 light chain subunits, which associates with 4F2hc to express a system L transport activity with broad specificity for zwitterionic amino acids. Human LAT-2 mRNA is expressed in kidney >>> placenta >> brain, liver > spleen, skeletal muscle, heart, small intestine, and lung. Human LAT-2 gene localizes at chromosome 14q11.2-13 (13 cR or approximately 286 kb from marker D14S1349). The high expression of LAT-2 mRNA in epithelial cells of proximal tubules, the basolateral location of 4F2hc in these cells, and the amino acid transport activity of LAT-2 suggest that this transporter contributes to the renal reabsorption of neutral amino acids in the basolateral domain of epithelial proximal tubule cells.  (+info)

Identification and functional characterization of a Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter with broad substrate selectivity. (6/114)

We have isolated a cDNA from rat small intestine that encodes a novel Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter with distinctive characteristics in substrate selectivity and transport property. The encoded protein, designated L-type amino acid transporter-2 (LAT-2), shows amino acid sequence similarity to the system L Na+-independent neutral amino acid transporter LAT-1 (Kanai, Y., Segawa, H., Miyamoto, K., Uchino, H., Takeda, E., and Endou, H. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 23629-23632) (50% identity) and the system y+L transporters y+LAT-1 (47%) and KIAA0245/y+LAT-2 (45%) (Torrents, D., Estevez, R., Pineda, M., Fernandez, E., Lloberas, J., Shi, Y.-B., Zorzano, A., and Palacin, M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32437-32445). LAT-2 is a nonglycosylated membrane protein. It requires 4F2 heavy chain, a type II membrane glycoprotein, for its functional expression in Xenopus oocytes. LAT-2-mediated transport is not dependent on Na+ or Cl- and is inhibited by a system L-specific inhibitor, 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH), indicating that LAT-2 is a second isoform of the system L transporter. Compared with LAT-1, which prefers large neutral amino acids with branched or aromatic side chains, LAT-2 exhibits remarkably broad substrate selectivity. It transports all of the L-isomers of neutral alpha-amino acids. LAT-2 exhibits higher affinity (Km = 30-50 microM) to Tyr, Phe, Trp, Thr, Asn, Ile, Cys, Ser, Leu, Val, and Gln and relatively lower affinity (Km = 180-300 microM) to His, Ala, Met, and Gly. In addition, LAT-2 mediates facilitated diffusion of substrate amino acids, as distinct from LAT-1, which mediates amino acid exchange. LAT-2-mediated transport is increased by lowering the pH level, with peak activity at pH 6.25, because of the decrease in the Km value without changing the Vmax value. Because of these functional properties and a high level of expression of LAT-2 in the small intestine, kidney, placenta, and brain, it is suggested that the heterodimeric complex of LAT-2 and 4F2 heavy chain is involved in the trans-cellular transport of neutral amino acids in epithelia and blood-tissue barriers.  (+info)

Identification of an amino acid transporter associated with the cystinuria-related type II membrane glycoprotein. (7/114)

We identified an amino acid transporter that is associated with the cystinuria-related type II membrane glycoprotein, rBAT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter). The transporter designated BAT1 (b(0, +)-type amino acid transporter 1) from rat kidney was found to be structurally related to recently identified amino acid transporters for system L, system y(+)L, and system x(-)C, which are linked, via a disulfide bond, to the other type II membrane glycoprotein, 4F2hc (4F2 heavy chain). In the nonreducing condition, a 125-kDa band, which seems to correspond to the heterodimeric complex of BAT1 and rBAT, was detected in rat kidney with anti-BAT1 antibody. The band was shifted to 41 kDa in the reducing condition, confirming that BAT1 and rBAT are linked via a disulfide bond. The BAT1 and rBAT proteins were shown to be colocalized in the apical membrane of the renal proximal tubules where massive cystine transport had been proposed. When expressed in COS-7 cells with rBAT, but not with 4F2hc, BAT1 exhibited a Na(+)-independent transport of cystine as well as basic and neutral amino acids with the properties of system b(0,+). The results from the present investigation were used to establish a family of amino acid transporters associated with type II membrane glycoproteins.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transporter functioning as a heterodimer with 4F2hc instead of rBAT. A new candidate gene for cystinuria. (8/114)

We have cloned a transporter protein from rabbit small intestine, which, when coexpressed with the 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc) in mammalian cells, induces a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity. This protein (4F2-lc6 for the sixth member of the 4F2 light chain family) consists of 487 amino acids and has 12 putative transmembrane domains. At the level of amino acid sequence, 4F2-lc6 shows significant homology (44% identity) to the other five known members of the 4F2 light chain family, namely LAT1 (4F2-lc1), y(+)LAT1 (4F2-lc2), y(+)LAT2 (4F2-lc3), xCT (4F2-lc4), and LAT2 (4F2-lc5). The 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex-mediated transport process is Na(+)-independent and exhibits high affinity for neutral and cationic amino acids and cystine. These characteristics are similar to those of the b(0,+)-like amino acid transport activity previously shown to be associated with rBAT (protein related to b(0,+) amino acid transport system). However, the newly cloned 4F2-lc6 does not interact with rBAT. This is the first report of the existence of a b(0,+)-like amino acid transport process that is independent of rBAT. 4F2-lc6 is expressed predominantly in the small intestine and kidney. Based on the characteristics of the transport process mediated by the 4F2hc/4F2-lc6 complex and the expression pattern of 4F2-lc6 in mammalian tissues, we suggest that 4F2-lc6 is a new candidate gene for cystinuria.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157)

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.625 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.300 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.374.750.500.250 -- ... antigens, cd98 MeSH D12.776.157.530.200.500.500.500.250 -- ... leukocyte l1 antigen complex MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.100 -- calgranulin a MeSH D12.776.157.125.750.500.200 -- calgranulin ...

*CD98

... Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at ... 4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein encoded by the SLC3A2 gene CD98 light subunit protein encoded by the SLC7A5 gene Cluster of ... CD98 is a glycoprotein that is a heterodimer composed of SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 that forms the large neutral amino acid transporter ... Lemaître G, Gonnet F, Vaigot P, Gidrol X, Martin MT, Tortajada J, Waksman G (2005). "CD98, a novel marker of transient ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.374.750.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500.500.500.500 -- antigens, cd98 light chains MeSH D12.776.543.585.200.500 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ...

*APC Family

These glycoproteins include the CD98 heavy chain protein of Mus musculus (gbU25708) and the orthologous 4F2 cell surface ... antigen heavy chain of Homo sapiens (spP08195). The latter protein is required for the activity of the cystine/glutamate ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 ... cd98 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.625 --- antigens, cd98 light ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*SLC3A2

4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC3A2 (solute carrier family 3 member 2) ... SLC3A2 comprises the heavy subunit of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT1) that is also known as CD98 (cluster of ... Lemaître G, Gonnet F, Vaigot P, Gidrol X, Martin MT, Tortajada J, Waksman G (2005). "CD98, a novel marker of transient ... A functional LAT1 transporter is composed of two proteins encoded by two distinct genes: 4F2hc/CD98 heavy subunit protein ...

*

... is one of the six Taiwanese Hokkien vowels as written in the Peh-oe-ji (POJ) orthography. It is a normal o followed by Unicode U+0358 ͘ COMBINING DOT ABOVE RIGHT, and is not to be confused with the Vietnamese Ơ. It is pronounced [ɔ]. This letter is not well-supported by fonts and is often typed as either o· (using the interpunct), o• (using the bullet), oo, or ou. Because Taiwanese is a tonal language the standard letter without a diacritic represents the vowel in the first tone, the other four possible tone categories require one of the following four tonal symbols to be written above it. Ó͘ ó͘ (second tone) Ò͘ ò͘ (third tone) Ô͘ ô͘ (fifth tone) Ǒ͘ ǒ͘ (sixth tone) Ō͘ ō͘ (seventh tone) The character was introduced by the Xiamen-based missionary Elihu Doty in the mid-nineteenth century, as a way to distinguish the Minnan vowels /o/ and /ɔ/ (the latter becoming ⟨o͘⟩). Since then it has become established in the Peh-oe-ji orthography, with only occasional ...
The CD71 antigen is known as the transferrin receptor. It mediates cellular iron uptake via internalization and recycling. It is a type II membrane glycoprotein, characterized as a disulfide-bound dimer of two identical subunits of 95 kDa each.
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the mouse stromal membrane-associated protein-1. This similarity suggests that this human gene product is also a type II membrane glycoprotein involved in the erythropoietic stimulatory activity of stromal cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
1. Bian Z, Guo Y, Ha B, Liu Y (2012) Regulation of the Inflammatory Response: Enhancing Neutrophil Infiltration under Chronic Inflammatory Conditions. J Immunol. 188(2):844-53. Epub 2011 Dec 7.. 2. Zen K, Guo YL, Li LM, Bian Z, Zhang CY and Liu Y (2011) Cleavage of the CD11b extracellular domain by the leukocyte serprocidins is critical for neutrophil detachment during chemotaxis. Blood 5;117(18):4885-94.. 3. Chen C, Soto I, Guo YL and Liu Y (2011) Control of secondary granule release in neutrophils by Ral GTPase. J. Biol. Chem. 286(13):11724-33. 4. Zen K, Liu DQ, Li LM, Chen CX, Guo YL, Ha B, Chen X, Zhang ZY, Liu Y (2009) The heparan sulfate proteoglycan form of epithelial CD44V3 serves as a CD11b/CD18 counter-receptor during PMN transepithelial migration. J. Biol. Chem. 284(6):3768-76.. 5. Zen K, Liu DQ, Guo YL, Wang C, Shan J, Fang M, Zhang CY and Liu Y (2008) CD44v4 is a major E-selectin ligand that mediates breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. PLoS ONE. 19;3(3):e1826.. 6. Zen K. ...
Our goal is to inspire parents to become knowledgable partners who can work with their childrens physicians to improve childrens health.
xCT, encoded by the gene SLC7A11, is a member of the heterodimeric amino acid transporter family. Proteins within this family are linked to one another via a
Direct interactions were evident between nerve fibres in the central cornea and epithelial CD11c+ DCs and sub-basal Iba-1+ macrophages. The most distinctive association between nerves and macrophages was noted between stromal Cx3cr1+ Iba-1+ MHC class II+ macrophages and peri-limbal nerve trunks. WT BALB/c mice had a greater number of neuro-immune interactions (2.3±0.3 (mean±SEM)/100µm) than C57BL/6J mice (1.5±0.1/100µm). Lectin staining revealed that macrophage processes intimately interdigitated between Schwann cells. There was no topographical difference in the circumferential distribution (i.e. temporal-nasal, superior-inferior) of macrophage-nerve fibre interactions.. ...
It should be noted that the functionally defined L-type amino acid transport activities as described in this and many other studies may result from a mixture of functionally similar amino acid transporters that share common features such as Na+ dependence, BCH sensitivity, and neutral amino acid substrate preference. To date, at least four members of this family, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4, have been cloned (Bodoy et al., 2005). LAT1 and LAT2 are heterodimeric transporters that require coexpression of both LAT and 4F2hc for function and exhibit trans-stimulation (Verrey, 2003). In contrast, LAT3 and LAT4 are structurally distinct from LAT1 and LAT2 and are functional independent of 4F2hc (Babu et al., 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). It has been shown that different LAT subtypes exhibit distinct expression profiles across tissues and species (Verrey, 2003; Bodoy et al., 2005). Moreover, different LAT subtypes show differences in substrate specificity, transport kinetics, and other properties such as ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc) is a multifunctional transmembrane comprising scaffolding proteins whose extracellular website binds with light chain amino acid transporters (Lats) to form the heterodimeric amino acid transporters (HATs). Compact disc98-reliant amino acidity transportation 548-62-9 improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion by a system that will not really need the Compact disc98hc cytoplasmic end. Both these systems of improved renal tubular epithelial cell expansion are mediated by Erk and g38 MAPK signaling. Although improved amino transportation substantially triggered mTor signaling, this path do not really alter cell expansion. Therefore, these research demonstrate that in IMCD cells, the cytoplasmic and extracellular domain names of Compact disc98hc regulate cell expansion by specific systems that are mediated by common MAPK signaling paths. Intro The heterodimeric amino acidity transporters are made up of Rabbit Polyclonal to CST11 a type II transmembrane proteins ...
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T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017 Size and Share Published in 2017-06-13 Available for US$ 3500 at Researchmoz.us
The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and is a component of the heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor T1R1+3. The T1R1+3 receptor responds to L-amino acids but not to D-enantiomers or other compounds. Most amino acids that are perceived as sweet activate T1R1+3, and this activation is strictly dependent on an intact T1R1+3 heterodimer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010 ...
To evaluate the expression of alanine-serine-cysteine-transporter 2 (ASCT2) and L-type amino acid transporter1 (LAT1) in prostate cancer (PCa) and their impact on uptake of 18F-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-fluciclovine) which is approved for the detection of recurrent PCa. Twenty-five hormone-naïve patients with histologically confirmed PCa underwent PET/CT before prostatectomy. Dynamic imaging was performed immediately after injection of 368 ± 10 MBq of 18F-fluciclovine and the uptake in PCa was expressed as SUVmax at six sequential 4-min time frames and as tracer distribution volume (VT) using Logan plots over 0-24 min. The expression of ASCT2 and LAT1 was studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing three cores per carcinoma lesion. The TMA slides were scored independently by two trained readers based on visual intensity of ASCT2/LAT1 expression on a four-tiered scale. The correlations between ASCT2/LAT1 staining intensity, SUVmax/VT, and
The report provides comprehensive information on the "T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28)", targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The report also covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases. Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in T Cell Specific Surface Glycoprotein CD28 (TP44 or CD28) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects.. Global Markets Directs report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Directs proprietary databases, company/university websites, clinical trial registries, conferences, SEC filings, investor presentations and ...
Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain (CD3E) ELISA Kit can measure Human T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain in serum, blood, plasma, cell culture supernatant and other related supernatants and tissues.
Affiliation:Chubu University,教授, Research Field:Virology,Respiratory organ internal medicine,Virology,Orthopaedic surgery,Orthopaedic surgery, Keywords:FRP-1,CD98,HIV,パラミクソウイルス,パラインフルエンザウイルス,LAT-1,RNAウイルス,ADAM,モノクローナル抗体,細胞融合, # of Research Projects:34, # of Research Products:0
Buy SLC7A7 elisa kit, Monkey Y+L amino acid transporter 1 (SLC7A7) ELISA Kit-NP_001119578.1 (MBS7228917) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
How much of Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid is present in Beans, kidney, all types, mature seeds harvested, canned food in details, quantity how high or low Leucine (Leu or L) α-amino acid nutrient content it has.
Book an online appointment with Dr. Lisa Kang, DDS, (Dentist) - New York, NY. Read patients review, ratings. Also view insurance networks of doctors.
Reverse transcription-PCR was performed based on the method of Sugawara et al., 59 with slight modifications, using 1 μg of total RNA isolated from human cornea (kindly provided by Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The forward and reverse primers were 5′-TCT CAC TGC TTA ACG GCG TGT G-3′, and 5′-TCC CTG GCC AAG TCT AAC AAT G-3′, respectively. These primers correspond to the nucleotide positions 110-132 and 606-628 in hLAT1 cDNA, respectively. RT-PCR was performed with a commercial kit (GeneAmp; Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The conditions for reverse transcription were as follows: denaturation of the template RNA for 10 minutes at 70°C and reverse transcription for 60 minutes at 42°C. The conditions for PCR amplification were as follows: denaturation for 1 minute at 94°C; annealing for 1 minute at 58°C, and extension for 1 minute at 72°C, 37 cycles; final extension for 10 minutes at 72°C. The resultant product (∼520 bp) was subcloned in pGEM-T vector and sequenced from ...
A4GALT encodes a type II membrane glycosyltransferase and results in Pk and P1 antigens of the P Non-ABO blood group along with B3GALNT1. ...
Gerresheimer has a very broad standard product range for ophthalmic applications for the pharmaceutical market and we can easily cover our customers needs. Using our ideas and extensive experience to produce high-quality and user-friendly packaging solut
So I won the pumpkin competition. Yay. To be truthful I won my DIVISION of the pumpkin competition... there were three categories - best dressed, best painted and best carved. And I took best carved. Of course all the other carved pumpkins that had been entered were carved by people to whom I am old enough to have fathered. And, as Rich so astutely stated, "joel youre the only person I know who can stay up all night in a cut-throat competition with a five year old". Well...I didnt KNOW they were going to all be five years old, did I! See the fun gals at the Visitors Service Bureau said that it was a tough competition. I thought pumpkins would be coming from all over the mid west. Pumpkins submitted by Madame Tussauds. So I wanted to make sure I stepped up to the plate. To be honest, it was a lot of fun, and everybody made a big fuss about the pumpkins... so it was worth it...AND Janice inspired a brilliant plan which Ill tell you about in a bit. For those of you that wondered - the ...

PDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic ScholarPDF] Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. | Semantic Scholar

... also named CD98)] is involved in other cell functions that might be related to integrin activation. This review covers the ... In addition to the role in amino acid transport, one HSHAT [the heavy subunit of the cell-surface antigen 4F2 ( ... biochemistry, human genetics, and cell physiology of HATs, including the multifunctional character of CD98. ... Surface Antigen CD98(4F2): Not a Single Membrane Protein, But a Family of Proteins with Multiple Functions. Rosa Devés, C. A. R ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Heteromeric-amino-acid-transporters%3A-biochemistry%2C-Chillar%C3%B3n-Roca/9d7fb82ef12d96940f9f0250932186321cae1e95

SLC3A2 | SpringerLinkSLC3A2 | SpringerLink

4F2hc; 4F2 heavy chain; CD98hc; CD98 heavy chain; FRP-1; Solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid ... Surface antigen CD98 (4F2): not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple functions. J Membr Biol. 2000 ... 4F2hc; 4F2 heavy chain; CD98hc; CD98 heavy chain; FRP-1; Solute carrier family 3 (activators of dibasic and neutral amino acid ... and CD98-xCT during infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, and CD98-xCT is essential for the postentry ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_101895

Transporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)  | Open-iTransporter expression and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) | Open-i

Antigens, CD98 Light Chains/metabolism*. *Boron Compounds/metabolism*. *Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins/metabolism* ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4376436_cas0106-0279-f5&req=4

CIL:34182, Homo sapiens, endocrine-paracrine cell of prostate gland, basal cell of prostate epithelium, luminal cell of...CIL:34182, Homo sapiens, endocrine-paracrine cell of prostate gland, basal cell of prostate epithelium, luminal cell of...

Tissue section of human prostate containing adenocarcinoma that has been immunostained for the cell-surface antigen CD98. ... Tissue section of human prostate containing adenocarcinoma that has been immunostained for the cell-surface antigen CD98. ... This image is part of a large collection of images generated from numerous specimens to characterize the distribution of CD98 ... This image is part of a large collection of immunohistochemistry images of cell-surface antigens generated by the SCGAP ...
more infohttp://cellimagelibrary.org/images/34182

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD98 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD98 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=103154002

Life Science - Application Area - University of Michigan Office of Technology TransferLife Science - Application Area - University of Michigan Office of Technology Transfer

Monoclonal Antibody UM7F8, Specific for the Human Cell Surface Antigen CD98 (4F2). 0949 - Monoclonal antibody UM7F8 specific ... It can be used as a diagnostic test to detect and measure the concentration of specific proteins, antibodies or antigens in ... The microscale Western blot can also be used to purify, characterize, and quantify antigens for... Read More ...
more infohttp://inventions.umich.edu/categories/585_application-area/586_life-science?limit=50&offset=500&query=

Anne Juggernauth - Technology Manager - University of Michigan Office of Technology TransferAnne Juggernauth - Technology Manager - University of Michigan Office of Technology Transfer

Monoclonal Antibody UM7F8, Specific for the Human Cell Surface Antigen CD98 (4F2). 0949 - Monoclonal antibody UM7F8 specific ... Antigen for Pax2 Monoclonal Antibody Generation. 3764 - Pax-2 belongs to a family of homebox genes that contain a paired domain ... This fusion protein can be used as an antigen for immunization to produce antibodies specific for the... Read More ...
more infohttp://inventions.umich.edu/managers/321_anne-juggernauth

intestinal neoplasms benign drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineintestinal neoplasms benign drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

MeSH-major] Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / ... CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. GPI-Linked Proteins. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Humans. ... RCCs from a well characterized tissue bank were immunohistochemically quantified for embryonic transmembrane antigen CD98hc ( ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=intestinal+neoplasms+benign+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

The light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit | The EMBO JournalThe light subunit of system bo,+ is fully functional in the absence of the heavy subunit | The EMBO Journal

Devés R and Boyd CA (2000) Surface antigen CD98(4F2): not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple ... Rossier G, Meier C, Bauch C, Summa V, Sordat B, Verrey F and Kuhn LC (1999) LAT2, a new basolateral 4F2hc/CD98‐associated amino ... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98) ... type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein‐associated amino acid transporter family. EMBO J, 18, 49-57. ...
more infohttp://emboj.embopress.org/content/21/18/4906?ijkey=087a1321e2730e5dfb76da604ca2c0288e551eab&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

CD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LatvijaCD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Latvija

The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ... Through its nutrient function, CD98 can contribute to the survival and growth of many cell types. CD98hc functions in ... Clone REA387 recognizes the human CD98 antigen, a single-pass type II membrane glycoprotein. ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LV-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd98-antibodies-human-rea387.html

CD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - LëtzebuergCD98 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Lëtzebuerg

The CD98 heterodimer consists of a 80-85 kDa heavy chain (CD98hc, also known as 4F2 antigen heavy chain or FRP-1) that is ... CD98 is broadly expressed on non-hematopoietic cells and also on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes. ... Through its nutrient function, CD98 can contribute to the survival and growth of many cell types. CD98hc functions in ... Clone REA387 recognizes the human CD98 antigen, a single-pass type II membrane glycoprotein. ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/LU-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd98-antibodies-human-rea387.html

Pediatrics - Research Output
     - Italian Ministry of HealthPediatrics - Research Output - Italian Ministry of Health

4F2 monoclonal antibody recognizes a surface antigen on spread human fibroblasts of embryonic but not of adult origin. Azzarone ... CD98 Antigens Cell Line 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and early organ damage in primary hypertension. ...
more infohttps://moh-it.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/pediatrics/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Farticle&ordering=title&descending=false&page=2

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, CD98 CD98抗原 Selectins セレクチン Adhesins, Bacterial 細菌付着因子 ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=8406&taxonomy=human

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD98 antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD98 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117425007

Oncotarget | SLC3A2, antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancerOncotarget | SLC3A2, antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer

... antigen of mAb 3G9, promotes migration and invasion by upregulating of mucins in gastric cancer ... Malignant transformation of NIH3T3 cells by overexpression of early lymphocyte activation antigen CD98. Biochem Biophys Res ... MAb 3G9 identified SLC3A2 as target antigen. To identify the target antigen recognized by 3G9, the whole cell lysate of MGC-803 ... The expression of mAb 3G9 antigen is related to migration and invasion ability in GC cells. MAb 3G9 was generated by using five ...
more infohttp://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=19529&path%5B%5D=62419

市場調査レポート | がんCD抗原阻害市場調査レポート | がんCD抗原阻害

調査レポート】がんCD抗原阻害剤の世界市場及びパイプライン2015 , 発行日:42217 , 商品コード:KUIK51101 , 発行/調査会社:KuicK Research , Cancer CD Antigens Inhibitors ... Cancer CD98 Antigen Inhibitors Clinical Pipeline by Company, Indication & Phase. 34.1 Phase-I ... Cancer CD Antigens Clinical Pipeline Dominated by CD20 Antigen: 44 Drugs. • Cancer CD Antigens Clinical Pipeline is Represented ... Mechanism of CD Antigen Cancer Therapeutics. • Cancer CD
more infohttps://www.marketreport.jp/kuik51101

JCI -
Tumor VEGF:VEGFR2 autocrine feed-forward loop triggers angiogenesis in lung cancerJCI - Tumor VEGF:VEGFR2 autocrine feed-forward loop triggers angiogenesis in lung cancer

... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4F2 antigen (CD98 ... Briefly, 3-μm-thick sections of FFPE tumors were deparaffinized, and antigen retrieval was performed by boiling the section in ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/65385

Automated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System ImagingAutomated Synthesis of 18F-Fluoropropoxytryptophan for Amino Acid Transporter System Imaging

... one form of 4F2 antigen or CD98 antigen, preferentially transports large neutral amino acids, such as leucine, isoleucine, ... K. Kaira, N. Oriuchi, H. Imai et al., "L-type amino acid transporter 1 and CD98 expression in primary and metastatic sites of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/492545/

Amino Acid Transport Across the Mammalian Intestine - Comprehensive PhysiologyAmino Acid Transport Across the Mammalian Intestine - Comprehensive Physiology

Surface antigen CD98(4F2): Not a single membrane protein, but a family of proteins with multiple functions. J Membr Biol 173: ... Nakamura E, Sato M, Yang H, Miyagawa F, Harasaki M, Tomita K, Matsuoka S, Noma A, Iwai K, Minato N. 4F2 (CD98) heavy chain is ... Pfeiffer R, Rossier G, Spindler B, Meier C, Kuhn L, Verrey F. Amino acid transport of y+L‐type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 ... Tsumura H, Suzuki N, Saito H, Kawano M, Otake S, Kozuka Y, Komada H, Tsurudome M, Ito Y. The targeted disruption of the CD98 ...
more infohttp://www.comprehensivephysiology.com/WileyCDA/CompPhysArticle/refId-c170041.html

Ping Yin - Fingerprint
     - Northwestern ScholarsPing Yin - Fingerprint - Northwestern Scholars

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Ping Yin is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
more infohttps://www.scholars.northwestern.edu/en/persons/ping-yin/fingerprints/

CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(Biotin)[MEM-108]

Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 and T43 antibody. *CD 98 antibody ... Anti-CD98 antibody [MEM-108] (Biotin) (ab26009)参考文献. ab26009 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications. ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. * ... 小鼠单克隆抗体[MEM-108] to CD98 (Biotin) ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain antibody. *4F2 heavy chain ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/cd98-antibody-mem-108-biotin-ab26009.html

CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]|Abcam中国|Anti-CD98抗体(CF405M)[FG1/8]

Antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 4F2 TRA1.10 TROP4 and T43 antibody. *CD 98 antibody ... ab123635, at 5 µl/106 cells, staining CD98 in normal Human peripheral blood cells by Flow Cytometry. Cells in the leukocyte ... Antigen defined by monoclonal antibody 4F2 heavy chain antibody. * ... 小鼠单克隆抗体[FG1/8] to CD98 (CF405M) ... 4F2 cell-surface antigen heavy chain antibody. *4F2 heavy chain ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.cn/cd98-antibody-fg18-cf405m-ab123635.html

Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin - EXBIO AntibodiesAnti-Hu CD98 Biotin - EXBIO Antibodies

Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD98 Biotin ... Cai S, Bulus N, Fonseca-Siesser PM, Chen D, Hanks SK, Pozzi A, Zent R: CD98 modulates integrin beta1 function in polarized ... Dalton P, Christian HC, Redman CW, Sargent IL, Boyd CA: Differential effect of cross-linking the CD98 heavy chain on fusion and ... Liu X, Charrier L, Gewirtz A, Sitaraman S, Merlin D: CD98 and intracellular adhesion molecule I regulate the activity of amino ...
more infohttps://www.exbio.cz/research-product/antibodies/cd-and-related-antigens/anti-hu-cd98-biotin

Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable...Increased expression of system large amino acid transporter (LAT)-1 mRNA is associated with invasive potential and unfavorable...

... cloning and characterization of a transporter for large neutral amino acids activated by the heavy chain of 4 F2 antigen (CD98 ... Takeuchi H, Kubota T, Kitai R, Nakagawa T, Hashimoto N: CD98 immunoreactivity in multinucleated giant cells of glioblastomas: ... CD98) in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Oncol Rep. 2011, 26: 931-937.PubMedGoogle Scholar. ... CD98 expression is associated with poor prognosis in resected non-small cell lung cancer with lymph node metastasis. Ann Surg ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-13-509
  • Genetic disruption of the multifunctional CD98/LAT1 complex demonstrates the key role of essential amino acid transport in the control of mTORC1 and tumor growth. (springer.com)
  • Liu X, Charrier L, Gewirtz A, Sitaraman S, Merlin D: CD98 and intracellular adhesion molecule I regulate the activity of amino acid transporter LAT-2 in polarized intestinal epithelia. (exbio.cz)