Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/4475)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (2/4475)

The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (3/4475)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (4/4475)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Fas/Apo [apoptosis]-1 and associated proteins in the differentiating cerebral cortex: induction of caspase-dependent cell death and activation of NF-kappaB. (5/4475)

The developing cerebral cortex undergoes a period of substantial cell death. The present studies examine the role of the suicide receptor Fas/Apo[apoptosis]-1 in cerebral cortical development. Fas mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in subsets of cells within the developing rat cerebral cortex during the peak period of apoptosis. Fas-immunoreactive cells were localized in close proximity to Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing cells. The Fas-associated signaling protein receptor interacting protein (RIP) was expressed by some Fas-expressing cells, whereas Fas-associated death domain (FADD) was undetectable in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas activation, was also expressed in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Fas expression was more ubiquitous in embryonic cortical neuroblasts in dissociated culture compared to in situ within the developing brain, suggesting that the environmental milieu partly suppresses Fas expression at this developmental stage. Furthermore, FADD, RIP, and FLIP were also expressed by subsets of dissociated cortical neuroblasts in culture. Fas activation by ligand (FasL) or anti-Fas antibody induced caspase-dependent cell death in primary embryonic cortical neuroblast cultures. The activation of Fas was also accompanied by a rapid downregulation of Fas receptor expression, non-cell cycle-related incorporation of nucleic acids and nuclear translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Together, these data suggest that adult cortical cell number may be established, in part, by an active process of receptor-mediated cell suicide, initiated in situ by killer (FasL-expressing) cells and that Fas may have functions in addition to suicide in the developing brain.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (6/4475)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand. (7/4475)

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand.  (+info)

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (8/4475)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

Background:Apoptosis or programmed cell death has been shown to play an important role in the progression from polyps to carcinomas. Fas/APO-1 is a cell surface protein that can induce apoptosis in...
Accepted name: Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase. Reaction: ATP + [Fas-activated serine/threonine protein] = ADP + [Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein]. Other name(s): FAST; FASTK; STK10. Systematic name: ATP:[Fas-activated serine/threonine protein] phosphotransferase. Comments: This enzyme is activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis. Following Fas ligation, the enzyme, which is constitutively phosphorylated, is dephosphorylated, and it is the dephosphorylated form that causes phosphorylation of TIA-1, a nuclear RNA-binding protein. Phosphorylation of TIA-1 precedes the onset of DNA fragmentation.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 170347-50-9. References:. 1. Tian, Q., Taupin, J., Elledge, S., Robertson, M. and Anderson, P. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST) phosphorylates TIA-1 during Fas-mediated apoptosis. J. Exp. Med. 182 (1995) 865-874. [PMID: 7544399]. 2. Li, W., Simarro, M., Kedersha, N. and Anderson, P. FAST is a ...
Caspase 3 is an essential death factor for the Fas-mediated cell death, and its inactivation in cells is initiated by an interaction with p21 on mitochondria or with IAP family member ILP. Survivin is also a member of IAP family and is specifically expressed during embryogenesis and in tumor cells and suppresses cell death signaling. In our current study, we demonstrated that Survivin translocation into the nucleus is dependent on Fas stimulation and cell proliferation. Survivin also interacts with the cell cycle regulator Cdk4, leading to Cdk2/Cyclin E activation and Rb phosphorylation. As a result of Survivin/Cdk4 complex formation, p21 is released from its complex with Cdk4 and interacts with mitochondrial procaspase 3 to suppress Fas-mediated cell death. Here, we propose that Survivin supports procaspase 3/p21 complex formation as a result of interaction with Cdk4 resulting in suppression of cell death signaling.
Results. No significant differences in serum sFas levels were detected between anti-TNF-α-naive patients with RA and controls. After anti-TNF-α treatment, serum sFas levels significantly increased in patients with RA compared to both anti-TNF-α-naive patients and controls. Increased sFas levels inversely correlated with disease activity variables (DAS28-ESR: r = −0.739, CRP: r = −0.636, both p , 0.001). No significant differences in sFasL levels were detected in patients with RA before and after anti-TNF-α treatment. ...
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a multifunctional protein, whose primary role is the NADPH-mediated synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, into long-chain saturated fatty acids. The protein consists of two identical, multifunctional 272 kDa polypeptides. FAS is expressed at high levels in liver, brain, breast, and lung. Studies have reported the in-frame fusion of FAS with estrogen receptor alpha in some cancer cell lines, and FAS expression is upregulated in breast cancer. FAS is also known as OA-519, SDR27X1, and short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 27X, member 1.. ...
Yan, Q., McDonald, J. M., Zhou, T. and Song, Y. (2013), Structural insight for the roles of fas death domain binding to fadd and oligomerization degree of the fas-fadd complex in the death-inducing signaling complex formation: A computational study. Proteins, 81: 377-385. doi: 10.1002/prot.24193 ...
A pharmaceutical composition containing an anti-human Fas antibody having apoptosis inducing activity and a compound having a folate antagonist activity or a dihydrofolate reductase inhibiting activity, as active ingredients for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of an autoimmune disease or rheumatoid arthritis. According to the present invention, the amount of the anti-Fas antibody to be used can be reduced and thereby the possibility that a patient may become tolerant to anti-Fas antibody as a result of the production of antibodies against the anti-Fas antibody in the patients body or the like can be decreased, and thus is provided a pharmaceutical composition which can be used for a long time.
Androgen-independent prostate carcinomas are resistant to chemotherapy and cell lines derived from androgen-independent prostate carcinomas such as DU 145 cells are highly resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The incubation of DU 145 cells with anti-Fas IgM agonistic antibody of Fas receptor fails to activate JNK, a stress kinase involved in regulating apoptosis. We have previously shown that JNK activation is sufficient and necessary to promote Fas-mediated apoptosis in DU 145 cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which JNK activation and apoptosis are abrogated. HSP27 is overexpressed in DU 145 cells and has previously been reported to sequester DAXX and prevent JNK activation in cells treated with anti-Fas IgM. However, we find no evidence that HSP27 interacts with DAXX in DU 145 cells. Instead, we find that FADD does not interact with caspase-8 and this results in defective death-inducing signalling complex formation following Fas receptor activation.
Increased circulating IL-7 levels have been described in HIV-infected individuals as well as in other lymphopenic patients and the concentrations of IL-7 in serum correlated with the levels of CD4+ T cell depletion (29, 30, 31, 32, 33). Although the mechanism underlying the elevated IL-7 concentration is not completely understood, whether it is an increased production or a decreased consumption due to T cell depletion and IL-7Rα down-regulation, the increase of IL-7 has been interpreted as a mechanism that might counteract T cell depletion (22, 29, 46). High IL-7 levels may stimulate the regeneration of the T cell pool by promoting maintenance and proliferation at various stages of T cell differentiation.. IL-7 acts as a survival factor for resting naive and memory T cells through maintaining a balanced activity of several antiapoptotic and proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and through the regulation of metabolic processes (21). However, little is known about the effect of IL-7 on ...
Activation of Fas receptor by Fas ligand causes caspase 8 activation and apoptosis in cells and is an important mechanism by which normal tissue homeostasis and function are maintained. Activation of caspase 8 is preceded by the formation of a death-inducing signalling complex (DISC), and a number of redundant mechanisms regulate DISC formation in vivo. Fas receptor is widely expressed in tissues, and dysfunction of the regulatory mechanisms in Fas receptor signalling has been reported in several diseases including autoimmune disease and cancer. This review aims to identify and discuss the various mechanisms employed by cells to alter their sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis by regulating DISC formation. We also discuss a number of defects identified with Fas receptor signalling and the associated pathologies.
Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, can induce apoptosis when activated by Fas ligand binding or anti-Fas antibody crosslinking. Genetic studies have shown that a defect in Fas-mediated apoptosis resulted in abnormal development and function of the immune system in mice. A point mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of Fas (a single base change from T to A at base 786), replacing isoleucine with asparagine, abolishes the signal transducing property of Fas. Mice homozygous for this mutant allele (lprcg/lprcg mice) develop lymphadenopathy and a lupus-like autoimmune disease. Little is known about the mechanism of signal transduction in Fas-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we used the two-hybrid screen in yeast to isolate a Fas-associated protein factor, FAF1, which specifically interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of wild-type Fas but not the lprcg-mutated Fas protein. This interaction occurs not only in yeast but also in mammalian cells. When transiently expressed in L ...
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity constitutes an important component of specific effector mechanisms in immuno-surveillance against virus-infected or transformed cells. Two mechanisms appear to account for this activity, one of which is the perforin-based process. Independently, a FAS-based mechanism involves the transducing molecule FAS (also designated APO-1) and its ligand (FAS-L). The human FAS protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that belongs to a family of receptors that includes CD40, nerve growth factor receptors and tumor necrosis factor receptors. The FAS antigen is expressed on a broad range of lymphoid cell lines, certain of which undergo apoptosis in response to treatment with antibody to FAS. These findings strongly imply that targeted cell death is potentially mediated by the intercellular interactions of FAS with its ligand or effectors, and that FAS may be critically involved in CTL-mediated cytotoxicity.. ...
Principal Investigator:HANO Takuzo, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2003, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Circulatory organs internal medicine
Affiliation:Urology,Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Med. Assistant Professor,医学部,助手, Research Field:Urology, Keywords:JTE-522,anti-Fas monoclonal antibody,selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor,renal cell carcinoma,テレビ会議,Percutaneous surgery,凍結治療,凍結手術,TELEMEDICINE,選択的COX-2阻害剤, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:0
Mouse Monoclonal FAS antibody for Func, FACS, ELISA, WB. Published in 2 Pubmed References. Order this anti-FAS antibody. | Product number ABIN967518
Complete information for FASN gene (Protein Coding), Fatty Acid Synthase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A Configuration 1b clinical study with asymp- tomatic merciful patients with listless non-Hodgkin lymphoma is planned. 2 Materials 1 J Thorac Oncol 7:841849 Murray N, Sheepish Pater J, Hodson I et al (1993) Note of timing in the course of thoracic irradiation in the combined modality treatment of restrictive condition cheap cell lung cancer J Clin Oncol 26:657664 Van Cutsem E, Adam NB et al (2006) Towards a pan-Europen consensus on the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases They can also activate apoptosis by undeviatingly binding to surface-bound Fas molecules on the target cells [url=]purchase skelaxin 400mg line[/url]. At the As with varied other infections, bacteremic infections point of listing, most often at immature breaks or lesions in the skin or can be prevented through adherence of precise sterile procedures mucosal surfaces, broadening is time again established in the submu- including hand ...
Cell detachment upregulates Fas expression in HUVECs. (A) Detachment induces cell surface levels of Fas. HUVECs were kept adherent or in suspension for 12 h. FA
FAIM (Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule) was identified as a protein that was inducibly expressed in B lymphocytes resistant to Fas-mediated…
Treat cell suspension (2 x 106-1 x 107 thymocytes/ml) with 2-20 µg/ml Jo2 mAb. Negative controls should consist of cells cultured in medium without the addition of anti-Fas and medium containing a hamster isotype control (clone Ha4/8, Cat. No. 553961) at the same concentration as the anti-Fas mAb. If Protein G (1-2 µg/ml) is added along with Jo2, then add controls containing (1) Protein G alone and (2) Protein G plus the Ha4/8 mAb ...
In contrast to apoptosis induced by some anticancer drugs as well as other stimuli, such as UV irradiation, anti-CD3 stimulation, and mitogen treatment (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59), Tet induced T cell apoptosis through a mechanism independent of Fas/FasL interaction. This conclusion was supported by several observations. First, the expression of Fas/FasL mRNA was not enhanced by Tet treatment (our unpublished observations). Second, Tet did not increase Fas/FasL expression on the T cell surface (Fig. 5⇑). Third, both Fas-sensitive and Fas-resistant T cells showed comparable susceptibility to Tet-induced apoptosis (Fig. 6⇑). Lastly, Tet-induced activation of caspase-3 appeared to have similar kinetics and intensity in Fas-sensitive and Fas-resistant T cells (Fig. 8⇑). This observation suggests that Tet can activate the T cell death machinery without the participation of cell surface Fas/FasL molecules. Treatment with Tet might be useful in autoimmune disorders caused by mutations in Fas or FasL ...
Blocking the Fas/FasL interaction in vivo rescues isotype-switched B cells in μMT mice. A neutralizing recombinant FasIg protein was purified and engineered in
Doxycycline (DC) has been shown to possess non-antibiotic properties including Fas/Fas Ligand (FasL)-mediated apoptosis against several tumor types in the concentration range of 10-40 µg/mL. However, the effect of DC in apoptotic signaling at much low concentrations was not studied. The present study investigated the attenuation effect of low dose of DC on FasL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cell by the methods of MTT assay, fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry analysis, and western blotting. In the present findings we showed that low concentration of DC (|2.0 µg/mL) exhibited protective effects against FasL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. FasL treatment to HeLa cells resulted in a concentration-dependent induction of cell death, and treatment with low concentrations of DC (0.1-2 µg/mL) significantly (p | 0.001) attenuated the FasL-induced cell death as measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Further, the FasL-induced apoptotic features
758 Fas is a well characterized member of the death receptor family and its expression correlates with overall patient survival in Cholangiocarcinoma (Shimonishi et al;Hepatology 2000). Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is an anti-apoptotic protein that blocks the activation of caspase 8 and apoptosis signaling through death inducing signaling complex (DISC). In our laboratory, we have established a unique Cholangiocarcinoma system with two cell populations that are sensitive (high surface Fas expression) or resistant (low surface Fas expression) to Fas-induced apoptosis (Pan et al; 1999; Am J Path). Fas sensitive, but not Fas resistant cells, undergo apoptosis when exposed to calmodulin (CaM) antagonists via a mechanism similar to Fas-induced death signaling. In an attempt to delineate the role of CaM in Fas mediated signaling, we previously demonstrated a direct interaction between CaM and Fas (Ahn et a; J Biol Chem. 2004) and that CaM is recruited to Fas-induced DISC ...
An imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis is important in tumor progression. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has vasoconstricting and mitogenic activities and may be involved in apoptosis regulation. We found that ET-1 and FasL systems were colocalized in human colon tumors and that ET-1 was secreted by human (HT-29, SW480) and rat (PROb, REGb) colon carcinoma cell lines. Bosentan, a mixed endothelin-A- and -B- (ET(A)/ET(B)) receptor antagonist, potentiated FasL- (APO-1, CD95) induced apoptosis in these cells. The specific inhibition of enzymes involved in ceramide production did not restore survival of cells exposed to FasL and bosentan. Inhibition of PKC with bisindolylmaleimide IX enhanced FasL-induced apoptosis in HT-29, PROb and REGb cells in the absence of bosentan. These results suggest that ET-1 is an autocrine survival factor able to protect colon carcinoma cells against FasL-induced apoptosis, involving the protein kinase C (PKC) but not the sphingomyelin-ceramide signaling transd
The eye is a privileged site that cannot tolerate destructive inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cells entering the anterior chamber of the eye in response to viral infection underwent apoptosis that was dependent on Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand (FasL) and produced no tissue damage. In contrast, viral infection in gld mice, which lack functional FasL, resulted in an inflammation and invasion of ocular tissue without apoptosis. Fas-positive but not Fas-negative tumor cells were killed by apoptosis when placed within isolated anterior segments of the eyes of normal but not FasL-negative mice. FasL messenger RNA and protein were detectable in the eye. Thus, Fas-FasL interactions appear to be an important mechanism for the maintenance of immune privilege. ...
About 50% of spinal motoneurons undergo programmed cell death (PCD) after target contact, but little is known about how this process is initiated. Embryonic motoneurons coexpress the death receptor Fas and its ligand FasL at the stage at which PCD is about to begin. In the absence of trophic factors, many motoneurons die in culture within 2 d. Most (75%) of these were saved by Fas-Fc receptor body, which blocks interactions between Fas and FasL, or by the caspase-8 inhibitor tetrapeptide IETD. Therefore, activation of Fas by endogenous FasL underlies cell death induced by trophic deprivation. In the presence of neurotrophic factors, exogenous Fas activators such as soluble FasL or anti-Fas antibodies triggered PCD of 40-50% of purified motoneurons over the following 3-5 d; this treatment led to activation of caspase-3, and was blocked by IETD. Sensitivity to Fas activation is regulated: motoneurons cultured for 3 d with neurotrophic factors became completely resistant. Levels of Fas expressed by
The CD4 receptor contributes to T-cell activation by coligating major histocompatibility complex class II on antigen presenting cells with the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex, and triggering a cascade of signaling events including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Paradoxically, CD3 cross-linking prior to TCR stimulation results in apoptotic cell death, as does injection of anti-CD4 antibodies in vivo of CD4 ligation by HIV glycoprotein (gp) 120. In this report we investigate the mechanism by which CD4 cross-linking induces cell death. We have found that CD4 cross-linking results in a small but rapid increase in levels of cell surface Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family implicated in apoptotic death and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Importantly, CD4 cross-linking triggered the ability of Fas to function as a death molecule. Subsequent to CD4 cross-linking, CD4+ splenocytes cultured overnight became sensitive to Fas-mediated death. Death was ...
We generated Fas-activated serine threonine phosphoprotein (FAST)-deficient mice (FAST−/−) to study the in vivo role of FAST in immune system function. In a model of house dust mite-induced allergic pulmonary inflammation, wild type mice develop a mixed cellular infiltrate composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. FAST−/− mice develop airway inflammation that is distinguished by the near absence of neutrophils. Similarly, LPS-induced alveolar neutrophil recruitment is markedly reduced in FAST−/− mice compared with wild type controls. This is accompanied by reduced concentrations of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and -23) and chemoattractants (MIP-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Because FAST−/− neutrophils exhibit normal chemotaxis and survival, impaired neutrophil recruitment is likely to be due to reduced production of chemoattractants within the pulmonary parenchyma. Studies using bone marrow chimeras implicate lung resident ...
The cell surface receptor Fas (FasR, Apo-1, CD95) and its ligand (FasL) are mediators of apoptosis that have been shown to be implicated in the peripheral deletion of autoimmune cells, activation-induced T cell death, and one of the two major cytolytic pathways mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T cells. To gain further understanding of the Fas system., we have analyzed Fas and FasL expression during mouse development and in adult tissues. In developing mouse embryos, from 16.5 d onwards, Fas mRNA is detectable in distinct cell types of the developing sinus, thymus, lung, and liver, whereas FasL expression is restricted to submaxillary gland epithelial cells and the developing nervous system. Significant Fas and FasL expression were observed in several nonlymphoid cell types during embryogenesis, and generally Fas and FasL expression were not localized to characteristic sites of programmed cell death. In the adult mouse, RNase protection analysis revealed very wide expression of both Fas and FasL. ...
The cell surface receptor Fas (FasR, Apo-1, CD95) and its ligand (FasL) are mediators of apoptosis that have been shown to be implicated in the peripheral deletion of autoimmune cells, activation-induced T cell death, and one of the two major cytolytic pathways mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T cells. To gain further understanding of the Fas system., we have analyzed Fas and FasL expression during mouse development and in adult tissues. In developing mouse embryos, from 16.5 d onwards, Fas mRNA is detectable in distinct cell types of the developing sinus, thymus, lung, and liver, whereas FasL expression is restricted to submaxillary gland epithelial cells and the developing nervous system. Significant Fas and FasL expression were observed in several nonlymphoid cell types during embryogenesis, and generally Fas and FasL expression were not localized to characteristic sites of programmed cell death. In the adult mouse, RNase protection analysis revealed very wide expression of both Fas and FasL. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of UCP2 reduces Fas-mediated liver injury in ob/ob mice and reveals importance of cell-specific UCP2 expression. AU - Fülöp, Péter. AU - Derdák, Zoltán. AU - Sheets, Anthony. AU - Sabo, Edmond. AU - Berthiaume, Eric P.. AU - Resnick, Murray B.. AU - Wands, Jack R.. AU - Paragh, G.. AU - Baffy, György. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. N2 - Fatty liver is vulnerable to conditions that challenge hepatocellular energy homeostasis. Lipid-laden hepatocytes highly express uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial carrier that competes with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by mediating proton leak. However, evidence for a link between UCP2 expression and susceptibility of liver to acute injury is lacking. We asked whether absence of UCP2 protects ob/ob mice from Fas-mediated acute liver damage. UCP2-deficient ob/ob mice (ob/ob:ucp2-/-) and UCP2-competent littermates (ob/ob:ucp2+/+) received a single dose of agonistic anti-Fas antibody (Jo2). Low-dose Jo2 (0.15 mg/kg ...
Increasing resistance to chemotherapeutic regimes remains a serious problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia. We have shown that phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibition significantly sensitises the AML derived cell line, HL60 to chemotherapeutic drug- and Fas-induced apoptosis. PI3-kinase inhibition significantly potentiates cytotoxic drug-induced c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, reported to be a requirement for apoptosis. However, JNK inhibition does not enhance cell viability following treatment with drug and inhibitor. Furthermore, PI3-kinase inhibition significantly increases sensitivity to apoptosis mediated by an exogenous receptor agonist, again by a JNK independent mechanism. These results suggest that PI3-kinase inhibitors could be of significant therapeutic importance, lowering the threshold for apoptosis induced by both chemotherapy and cell-mediated immune response.
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This study demonstrates that the weakening of upstream tumor hypoxia by supplemental oxygenation decreases the intensity of the downstream A2AR-mediated immunosuppression in the TME. This, in turn, releases the restraints of the otherwise inhibited antitumor activities of T and NK cells and enables tumor regression and survival.. These previously unappreciated and potentially medically valuable immunoenhancing antitumor effects of 60% oxygen were observed because of the assumption that oxygenation must be combined with the parallel activities of tumor-reactive T and NK cells. Indeed, these data demonstrate that the tumor-regressing effects of respiratory hyperoxia are dependent on the presence of T and NK cells. In accordance with earlier studies focused on the mechanisms of cytotoxicity, these data suggest that the improved tumor rejection could be accounted for by exocytosis of perforin-containing granules and by FAS-mediated cytotoxicity of antitumor T and NK cells unleashed by the weakening ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of cytolytic T cell subsets on intracellular infection. AU - Stenger, Steffen. AU - Mazzaccaro, Richard J.. AU - Uyemura, Koichi. AU - Cho, Sungae. AU - Barnes, Peter F.. AU - Rosat, Jean Pierre. AU - Sette, Alessandro. AU - Brenner, Michael B.. AU - Porcelli, Steven A.. AU - Bloom, Barry R.. AU - Modlin, Robert L.. PY - 1997/6/13. Y1 - 1997/6/13. N2 - In analyzing mechanisms of protection against intracellular infections, a series of human CD1-restricted T cell lines of two distinct phenotypes were derived. Both CD4-CD8- (double-negative) T cells and CD8+ T cells efficiently lysed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The cytotoxicity of CD4-CD8- T cells was mediated by Fas-FasL interaction and had no effect on the viability of the mycobacteria. The CD8+ T cells lysed infected macrophages by a Fas-independent, granule-dependent mechanism that resulted in killing of bacteria. These data indicate that two phenotypically distinct subsets of ...
We experienced a case exhibiting various autoimmune disorders. The percentage of double negative T cells (2.75% of TCRαβ+ T lymphocytes; 2.18% of total lymphocytes) met the diagnostic criteria for ALPS (ie, more than 2.5% of TCRαβ+ lymphocytes and 1.5% of total lymphocytes, respectively). The patients serum levels of IgG (1018 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), IgA (81 mg/dL), vitamin B12 (309 pg/mL; normal range, 233-914), soluble FASL (449.82 pg/mL; normal range, 451.6 ± 35.7), and interleukin (IL)-10 (6.49 pg/mL; normal range, 8.6 ± 9.6) were not elevated. However, there was a modest elevation in the patients IL-18 level (520.0 pg/mL; normal range, 126.0 ± 44.5). The relative proportion of lymphocyte subpopulation was within the normal range (T cells [CD3+CD19−], 73.1%; B cells [CD3−CD19+] 14.7%). Finally, the diagnosis of ALPS was denied, based on the findings of FAS-dependent apoptosis4,9 and mutational screening of FAS and FAS-L were negative. We also conducted genomic sequencing of ...
Chen Zhigang, Wenlu Li, Fuming Qiu, Qi Huang, Zhou Jiang, Jun Ye, Pu Cheng, Cho Low, Yikun Guo, Xinchi Yi, Wenteng Chen, Yongpin Yu, YueHua Han, Jun Wu, Shenghang Jin, Dong Kong, Jian ...
We have previously reported that T cells, primarily CD8+ T lymphocytes, undergo apoptosis in the tumor environment and in the peripheral circulation of patients with malignant diseases, including SCCHN, melanoma, and ovarian cancers (14, 16, 24). Sensitivity of CD8+ T cells to spontaneous apoptosis or death induced by a variety of extrinsic signals (VP-16, starvation, Fas cross-linking) is a generalized phenomenon. Further, we have established that apoptosis of CD8+ T cells takes place through both death receptor-mediated and mitochondria-mediated pathways (14). The proportions of CD8+ T cells binding Annexin V are markedly elevated in patients with cancer relative to normal controls (13, 14). However, not all CD8+ T cells are equally sensitive to apoptosis, as effector CD8+CD45RA−CD27− or CD8+CD28− cells are preferentially targeted for demise in patients with cancer (16, 17). This extensive spontaneous apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression found in ...
Clone REA738 recognizes the human CD95 antigen, also known as Fas and Apo-1, which is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFR) and is found on the surface of many normal and neoplastically transformed cells. Its ligand, CD95L (FasL/Apo-1L), is able to induce apoptosis in CD95-expressing cells upon binding. CD95 and CD95L are up-regulated on lymphocytes upon activation and are known to play a key role in the regulation of an inflammatory response: Juxtocrine
CD95, also known as FAS or Apo-1, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFR) and is found on the surface of many normal and neoplastically transformed cells. Its ligand, CD95L (FASL/Apo-1L), is able to induce apoptosis in CD95-expressing cells upon binding. CD95 and CD95L are up-regulated on lymphocytes upon activation and are known to play a key role in the regulation of an inflammatory response: Juxtocrine
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FAIM (1-90) was crystallized and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 A; the crystal belonged to space group P3(1), with unit-cell parameters a=b=58.02, c=71.11 A, alpha=beta=90, gamma=120 degrees ...
Eric_Atkinson at wrote: : Hi Everybody: : I am writing a grant proposal as part of my Ph.D. Candidacy Exam. Part of it : involves studying the mechanisms of Fas antigen (APO-1) signaling initiation of : apoptosis. Does anybody know where I would be able to obtain anti-fas : antibodies? Are there any commercially available, or do the people who have : them make them readily available to other researchers? Any information would : be greatly appreciated. : Thanks, : Eric Atkinson If I were on your committee I would ask you: suppose the antibody is unavailable. Tell me how you would go about making it. Therefore, dont worry about where you are going to get the Ab; that is trivial, if it is available no one is going to doubt that you can get it. But be prepared to say how youre going to make it if necessary. Good Luck. J. Woodward Univ. of Kentuck ...
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anti-Fas (human), mAb (APO-1-1) (AG-20B-0079PF) is a monoclonal Antibody specific for human Fas with a IgG1 isoytpe. Works in functional, FACS and immunohistochemistry applications. Important for apoptosis, cell death and cancer research.
regulates nuclear translocation and the activation of NFKB upon FAS activation or LPA stimulation, and antagonizes FAS-induced apoptosis and further enhances the antiapoptotic effect of LPA in cells that express high levels of TRIP6 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human FAS. Recombinant protein corresponding to human FAS. (PAB29420) - Products - Abnova
Elle est Euthanasie, la supr me infirmi re Elle survient, temps, pour arr ter ce jeu Pr s du soldat bless dans la boue des rizi res Chez le vieillard glac dans la chambre sans feu La Mort... La Mort... Le Temps, cest le tic-tac monstrueux de la montre La Mort, cest linfini dans son ternit Mais quadvient-il de ceux qui vont sa rencontre ? Comme on gagne sa vie, nous faut-il m riter La Mort... La Mort...
Everyone lost the interest in speaking. This battalion had been a cannon fodder battalion, their battle general had been average, their soldiers skill level was still back in the ear of ling power, their equipment was terrible. But this battalion had displayed an admirable battle spirit, one worthy of respect. No one retreated, no one fled, everyone charged into the jinzhi knowing they would die ...
Commander FAS anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-FAS anticorps.
Sentetik organik boyay c maddeler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n); bu fas l n 3 numaral notunda belirtilen m stahzarlardan esas sentetik organik boyay c maddeler olan m stahzarlar; fluoresanl ayd nlatma maddeleri veya l minofor olarak kullan lan sentetik organik r nler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n ...
Sentetik organik boyay c maddeler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n); bu fas l n 3 numaral notunda belirtilen m stahzarlardan esas sentetik organik boyay c maddeler olan m stahzarlar; fluoresanl ayd nlatma maddeleri veya l minofor olarak kullan lan sentetik organik r nler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n ...
This synthetic peptide is phosphorlated on Y232 of human FAS and is used as the immunogen for PAB8128. (P1589) - Products - Abnova
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The Fas receptor, also known as Fas, FasR, apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor ... Thus, the name Fas is derived from FS-7-associated surface antigen. The Fas receptor is a death receptor on the surface of ... Lichter P, Walczak H, Weitz S, Behrmann I, Krammer PH (September 1992). "The human APO-1 (APT) antigen maps to 10q23, a region ... Inazawa J, Itoh N, Abe T, Nagata S (November 1992). "Assignment of the human Fas antigen gene (Fas) to 10q24.1". Genomics. 14 ( ...
... working together as potential promoters of the expression of CD95 (FasR). CD95 is a protein involved in mediated cell death of ... Mycoplasma crocodyli is much less virulent than M. alligatoris, lacking the genes for adhesins, variable surface antigens, and ... Hunt, M. E.; Brown, D. R. (2005-12-01). "Mycoplasma alligatoris Infection Promotes CD95 (FasR) Expression and Apoptosis of ... increasing CD95 expression leading to cell death. Experimental inoculation of American alligators (Alligator mississippienis), ...
Antigen-specific memory T cells specific to viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both central memory T cells ( ... but they also express large amounts of CD95, IL-2Rβ, CXCR3, and LFA-1, and show numerous functional attributes distinctive of ... After antigen clearance, some of these effector cells form memory T cells, either in a randomly determined manner or are ... Through frequent antigen exposure, the population of memory T cells accumulates. This is the memory generation stage, which ...
CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ...
... antigens, cd95 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198 - antigens, cd98 MeSH D23.050.301. - antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH ... antigens, cd95 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd98 MeSH D23. - antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH D23.101 ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-464. doi ... 2000). "LUCA-15-encoded sequence variants regulate CD95-mediated apoptosis". Oncogene. 19 (33): 3774-3781. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...
In the absence of FDC and helper T cell stimulation, centroblasts are unable to differentiate and will undergo CD95-mediated ... Centroblasts do not express immunoglobulins and are unable to respond to the follicular dendritic cell antigens present in the ... allowing the B cell receptor to potentially gain stronger affinity for an antigen. ...
The serotype identifies the B*44 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B. B44 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B12, and is ... "HLA B44 is associated with decreased severity of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in patients with CD95 defects (ALPS ... November 1988). "HLA antigens in ankylosing spondylitis associated with Crohn's disease. Increased frequency of the HLA ... Tissue Antigens. 75 (4): 291-455. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01466.x. PMC 2848993. PMID 20356336. derived from IMGT/HLA ...
... +Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD40LG genome location and CD40LG ... Cleary AM, Fortune SM, Yellin MJ, Chess L, Lederman S (October 1995). "Opposing roles of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and CD40 in the death ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total ...
Because it infects red blood cells as a result of the affinity for the P antigen, parvovirus causes complete cessation of red ... CD95, and CCR4; lower expression of CD45RA (mean age: 45 years); and expression of the IL‐2/STAT5 pathway. Higher frequency of ... In humans, the P antigen (also known as globoside), one of many cellular receptors that contribute to a person's blood type, is ... Several kinectin-derived peptides can be processed and presented by HLA I and can induce antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses ...
1(3):186-92 Kabelitz D, Janssen O. (1997), Antigen-induced death of T-lymphocytes. Front Biosci. 2:d61-77 Green DR, Droin N, ... AICD (activation-induced cell death) is programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptors (Fas, CD95) and Fas ... 1999é, The role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem 274:1541-1548 (Cell biology). ... ligands (FasL, CD95 ligand). AICD is a negative regulator of activated T lymphocytes that results from repeated stimulation of ...
... blocks the CD95-ligand (CD95L) from binding to the CD95-receptor (CD95), which induces apoptosis. In oncology, this ... Lakins MA, Ghorani E, Munir H, Martins CP, Shields JD (2018). "Cancer-associated fibroblasts induce antigen-specific deletion ... Asunercept (INN; development code APG101) is a soluble CD95-Fc fusion protein which is in clinical development for the ... a CD95-Fc fusion protein, in healthy volunteers and two glioma patients". Int Immunopharmacol. 13 (1): 93-100. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 - antigens, cd40 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.195 - antigens, cd95 MeSH ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 - receptors, antigen, t- ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776.543.550 ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 - antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 - antigens, cd11c ...
TNFRSF25 is activated by a monogamous ligand, known as TL1A (TNFSF15), which is rapidly upregulated in antigen presenting cells ... Apo-1/CD95)". Immunity. 6 (1): 79-88. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80244-7. PMID 9052839. Kitson J, Raven T, Jiang YP, Goeddel DV ... Similarly, because TNFRSF25 activation is antigen dependent, costimulation of TNFRSF25 together with an autoantigen or with a ... This receptor is expressed preferentially by activated and antigen-experienced T lymphocytes. TNFRSF25 is also highly expressed ...
1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi: ... 2002). "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ...
APO-1/CD95) death domain". Nature. 384 (6610): 638-41. Bibcode:1996Natur.384..638H. doi:10.1038/384638a0. PMID 8967952. S2CID ... on the cell surface from presenting antigens to immune cells. Many of these malignancies have a subset of cases harboring ... cell apoptosis that occurs via the CD95 pathway, a transmembrane protein, is found to be vital in controlling the proliferation ...
A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... "CDw150 associates with src-homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase and modulates CD95-mediated apoptosis". Journal of ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... "Protein kinase C-delta is a negative regulator of antigen-induced mast cell degranulation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 ...
These tumor antigens are either TSA (Tumor-specific antigen) or TAA (Tumor-associated antigen). Tumor-specific antigens (TSA) ... Peter ME, Hadji A, Murmann AE, Brockway S, Putzbach W, Pattanayak A, Ceppi P (April 2015). "The role of CD95 and CD95 ligand in ... Oncofetal antigens are tumor-associated antigens expressed by embryonic cells and by tumors. Examples of oncofetal antigens are ... role of antigen load, antigen-presenting cells, and cytokines". Journal of Immunology. 163 (1): 130-6. PMID 10384108. Scheffer ...
Parlato S, Giammarioli AM, Logozzi M, Lozupone F, Matarrese P, Luciani F, Falchi M, Malorni W, Fais S (October 2000). "CD95 ( ... Lakins MA, Ghorani E, Munir H, Martins CP, Shields JD (2018). "Cancer-associated fibroblasts induce antigen-specific deletion ... or CD95, is the most intensely studied member of the death receptor family. The gene is situated on chromosome 10 in humans and ... CD95)-Fas ligand interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (30): 18827-33. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.30.18827. PMID 9228058. Yu KY, Kwon B, Ni ...
CD95 defects), type 1b (Fas ligand defects), type 2a (CASP10 defects), type 2b (CASP8 defects) (b) APECED (autoimmune ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell ... CD95) molecules expressed on the target cell. However, this Fas-Fas ligand interaction is thought to be more important to the ... The antigen could be any exogenous antigen, such as viral proteins, or an endogenous protein. Recently, a number of possible ... Most cytotoxic T cells express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigen. An antigen is a molecule capable ...
CD154 knockout mice are incapable of producing IgG, IgE, or IgA as a response to antigens. Microvesicles can also transfer ... Microvesicles from various tumor types can express specific cell-surface molecules (e.g. FasL or CD95) that induce T-cell ... This mechanism of action can be used in processes such as antigen presentation, where MHC molecules on the surface of ... For example, those released from antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as B cells and dendritic cells, are enriched in proteins ...
"Identification of interaction partners of the cytosolic polyproline region of CD95 ligand (CD178)". FEBS Lett. 519 (1-3): 50-8 ... "Serological identification and bioinformatics analysis of immunogenic antigens in multiple myeloma". Cancer Immunol. Immunother ... "Identification of interaction partners of the cytosolic polyproline region of CD95 ligand (CD178)". FEBS Lett. 519 (1-3): 50-8 ...
The B cell can present antigens to helper T cells. If an activated T cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the ... CD95 and IL-1". Nature. 385 (6616): 540-4. doi:10.1038/385540a0. PMID 9020361. S2CID 4366355. Hu HM, O'Rourke K, Boguski MS, ... The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects ... Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen-presenting cells and is required for their ...
"Expression of the Grb2-related protein of the lymphoid system in B cell subsets enhances B cell antigen receptor signaling ... "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ...
... is essential for T cell proliferation when the T cell receptor is stimulated by antigen. In contrast, FADD has no effect ... Scaffidi, C.; Schmitz, I.; Krammer, P. H.; Peter, M. E. (1999). "The role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis". ... Huang B, Eberstadt M, Olejniczak ET, Meadows RP, Fesik SW (1996). "NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death ... Pruul H, McDonald PJ (1995). "Cytotoxicity-dependent APO-1 (Fas/CD95)-associated proteins form a death-inducing signalling ...
... which subsequently enables antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of ... CD95/Fas-ligation, and NK or LAK attack limit cytotoxic efficacy". Journal of Translational Medicine. 20 (1): 151. doi:10.1186/ ... In contrast to NKT cells, NK cells do not express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pan T marker CD3 or surface immunoglobulins ... MHC class I molecules are the main mechanism by which cells display viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T cells. A common ...
Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptor (Fas, CD95)and Fas ... 1(3):186-92 Kabelitz D, Janssen O. (1997), Antigen-induced death of T-lymphocytes. Front Biosci. 2:d61-77 "Oncosis". Retrieved ... ligand (FasL, CD95 ligand). It occurs as a result of repeated stimulation of specific T-cell receptors (TCR) and it helps to ...
"Src-related protein tyrosine kinases are physically associated with the surface antigen CD36 in human dermal microvascular ... "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ...
Bezouska K, Nepovím A, Horváth O, Pospísil M, Hamann J, Feizi T (March 1995). "CD 69 antigen of human lymphocytes is a calcium- ... identification and characterization of a novel receptor-induced mechanism and relationship to CD95-transduced signalling". ... Hamann J, Fiebig H, Strauss M (June 1993). "Expression cloning of the early activation antigen CD69, a type II integral ... Ziegler SF, Ramsdell F, Alderson MR (September 1994). "The activation antigen CD69". Stem Cells. 12 (5): 456-65. doi:10.1002/ ...
... has been a target of attention in recent years for cancer immunotherapy, as it is an antigen that is expressed mostly ... An example of a TNF receptor is Fas (CD95), which recruits activator caspases like caspase-8 upon binding TNF at the cell ... In acquiring the humoral response to tumour antigens such as survivin, CD4+ T cells are activated to induce B cells to produce ... There has been much evidence accumulated over the years that shows survivin as a strong T-cell-activating antigen, and clinical ...
By binding to receptors on antigen presenting cells, IVIG can increase the expression of the inhibitory Fc receptor, FcgRIIB, ... October 1998). "Inhibition of toxic epidermal necrolysis by blockade of CD95 with human intravenous immunoglobulin". Science. ... except that the donor has high titers of antibody against a specific organism or antigen in their plasma. Some agents against ... unable to respond to antigens as they normally should - resulting in an increased rate or increased severity of infections. In ...
Engels N, Wollscheid B, Wienands J (July 2001). "Association of SLP-65/BLNK with the B cell antigen receptor through a non-ITAM ... "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ... Pandey P, Kharbanda S, Kufe D (September 1995). "Association of the DF3/MUC1 breast cancer antigen with Grb2 and the Sos/Ras ... Nel AE, Gupta S, Lee L, Ledbetter JA, Kanner SB (August 1995). "Ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) induces ...
List of target antigens in pemphigus GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000178209 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Identification of the cytolinker plectin as a major early in vivo substrate for caspase 8 during CD95- and tumor necrosis ...
Fas (CD95, APO-1) antigen expression and function in murine mast cells. Journal of Immunology, 159 (8). pp. 4006-4014. ... Fas (CD95, APO-1) antigen expression and function in murine mast cells ... CD95, APO-1), thus providing an additional pathway that could contribute to the regulation of mast cell numbers. Surface ...
CD95 antigen. *Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6). *Fas AMA. *Fas antigen ...
Antigens, CD44 [‎1]‎. Antigens, CD95 [‎1]‎. Antigens, Human Platelet [‎2]‎. Antigua and Barbuda [‎27]‎. ...
Expression of CD95 antigen and Bcl-2 protein in non-Hodgkins lymphomas and Hodgkins disease. American Journal of Pathology. ... Expression of CD95 antigen and Bcl-2 protein in non-Hodgkins lymphomas and Hodgkins disease. In: American Journal of ... Expression of CD95 antigen and Bcl-2 protein in non-Hodgkins lymphomas and Hodgkins disease. / Nguyen, Phuong L.; Harris, ... Nguyen, P. L., Harris, N. L., Ritz, J., & Robertson, M. J. (1996). Expression of CD95 antigen and Bcl-2 protein in non- ...
16] These cells can capture antigen and migrate to lymphoid organs, where they present the antigens to naive T cells. [17] ... 35, 36, 37] However, although dendritic cells express CD95, CD95 ligation does not induce apoptosis. [38] ... Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. J Exp Med. 1993 Aug 1. 178(2):509-19. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Dendritic cells express CD95, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R3 in comparative levels. Similar to the role of CD95L, that of TRAIL- ...
apoptosis (APO-1) antigen ligand 1; Apoptosis antigen ligand; APT1LG1CD95L; APTL; CD178 antigen; CD178; CD95L; CD95-L; Fas ... The specific receptor for FasL is Fas (CD95, Apo-1), a 45 kDa type I transmembrane protein that is a member of the TNF receptor ... antigen ligand; Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6); Fas Ligand; FASLCD95 ligand; FASLG; TNFSF6; TNFSF6FasL; tumor necrosis ...
The Fas receptor, also known as Fas, FasR, apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor ... Thus, the name Fas is derived from FS-7-associated surface antigen. The Fas receptor is a death receptor on the surface of ... Lichter P, Walczak H, Weitz S, Behrmann I, Krammer PH (September 1992). "The human APO-1 (APT) antigen maps to 10q23, a region ... Inazawa J, Itoh N, Abe T, Nagata S (November 1992). "Assignment of the human Fas antigen gene (Fas) to 10q24.1". Genomics. 14 ( ...
Antigens, Surface ; Antigens, CD95 ; Animals ; Tumor Cells, Cultured. ...
CD and related antigens Blood group antigens Premixed antibody combinations Serum, plasma, and secreted proteins ... Anti-Hu CD95 Purified Low Endotoxin. -134%. CloneEOS9.1 Reg. statusRUO ...
Apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells after serum withdrawal is mediated by Fas antigen (CD95) and Fas ligand. Biol Reprod 64, ...
Blood cells with receptors for the apoptotic marker CD95 (Fas antigen) can be identified in peripheral blood using flow ... تعبير الواسمة CD95 في الكريّات البيض لدى الرضَّع سيئي التغذية أثناء دخولهم المستشفى وخلال فتـرة النموّ التدارُكي ... CD95 expression in white blood cells of malnourished infants during hospitalization and catch-up growth ... CD95 counts in the 3 types of white blood cells were significantly higher in PEM infants and showed improvement after ...
The Fas/CD95 receptor regulates the death of autoreactive B cells and the selection of antigen-specific B cells ... FAS inactivation releases unconventional germinal center B cells that escape antigen control and drive IgE and autoantibody ... Tumor B cells from non-Hodgkins lymphoma are resistant to CD95 (Fas/Apo-1)-mediated apoptosis ...
APG101 blocks the CD95 ligand and thereby prevents the activation of the CD95 signaling pathway, which leads to a reduction in ... Vaccinations and Antigens Medscape: Vaccinations are of course a part of immunotherapy. What is their status? ... By doing so, it blocks the signaling pathway between CD95 ligand and receptor. The interaction between the CD95 ligand and the ... Wick: APG101 is a protein that simulates the cell-death receptor CD95 and binds with a stable antibody fragment. ...
B) Each subpopulation expressed different amounts of Foxp3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CD31, HLA-DR, CD95 and ... CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells down- regulate co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Eur J Immunol 2000;30:1538- ... cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and HLA-DR, and Ki-67, a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating cells (figure 1B ...
Lymphocyte antigen CD95 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD95 (substance). ...
To date, it is clear that certain anti-human CD1b, CD14, CD18, CD44, CD45, CD47, CD49c, CD61, CD68, CD91, CD95, CD163 and ... Technical Abstract: The latest human lekocyte differentiation antigen (HLDA8) workshop included an Animal Homologues section. ... mw of antigen, and, if available, reaction with cloned swine gene product. ...
Bone-marrow collected from BALB/c mice, or from iNOS-, CD95-, or CD95L-deficient mutants (and wild-type controls), was cultured ... Overall, PGE2 and isoproterenol shared a requirement for four effector elements (iNOS, CD95L, CD95, and terminal caspases), ... and the ligand for death receptor CD95 (CD95L). We examined the roles of iNOS, cAMP-mediated signaling, caspases, and CD95L/ ... CD95 in suppression of eosinopoiesis by PGE2 and other agents signaling through cAMP. ...
... antigen-dependent or antigen-independent cytokine production and lytic activity). Transplantation of islet cells into rhesus ... Figure 2(d) shows that most DP T cells in the peripheral blood, spleen, and liver expressed [CD28.sup.+][CD95.sup.+] (central ... 46] J. T. White, E. W. Cross, and R. M. Kedl, "Antigen-inexperienced memory [CD8.sup.+] T cells: where they come from and why ... reported that [CD4.sup.dim][CD8.sup.bright] T cells are an enriched antiviral subpopulation and recognize an antigen-specific ...
Antigens, CD95. 1. + 379. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors. 1. + 380. DNA Repair Enzymes. 1. + ...
Cross linking of CD95 antigen on activated cells can elicit apoptosis. ... Cross linking of CD95 antigen on activated cells can elicit apoptosis. ... antigen (Fas/APO-1) that is a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor (TNF/NGF) superfamily. It is associated ... antigen (Fas/APO-1) that is a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor (TNF/NGF) superfamily. It is associated ...
Tumors often lose expression of MHC molecules and/or antigens. However, NK cells can lyse tumor cells in a non-MHC-restricted ... RT upregulates cell death receptors such as Fas/CD95 and MHC-I... ... Tumor cells killed by radiation therapy (RT) are a potentially good source of antigens for dendritic cell (DC) uptake and ... With the growing use of prostate-specific antigen testing, the frequency of prostate cancer has progressively increased in ...
Muller, M.; Scaffidi, C.; Galle, P. R.; Stremmel, W.; Krammer, P. H.: ¬The¬ role of p53 and the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) death system ... Tissue Antigens 2000: 240-247 (56). I am interested in this work. ... Scaffidi, C.; Schmitz, I.; Krammer, P. H.; Peter, M. E.: ¬The¬ role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis. J. Biol ... Medema, J. P.; Scaffidi, C.; Krammer, P. H.; Peter, M. E.: Bcl-xL acts downstream of caspase-8 activation by the CD95 death- ...
CD95 (human) , FASLG receptor (human) , apo-1 antigen (human) , apoptosis-mediating surface antigen FAS (human). ...
TNFRSF6/FAS-mediated apoptosis may have a role in the induction of peripheral tolerance, in the antigen-stimulated suicide of ... Fas antigen ligand(Fas ligand);CD95 ligand(CD95-L); CD: CD178; Organism:. Mouse (Mus musculus). ...
CD178 Antigen .. CD95 Antigen Ligand .. CD95 Ligand .. CD95L .. Fas Ligand .. Fas Ligand (FasL) .. FasL Protein .. TNF ... Antigen, CD178 .. Antigens, CD178 .. CD178 Antigens .. Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 6 .. 1.00. ... CD254 Antigen .. OPGL Protein .. Osteoclast Differentiation Factor .. Osteoprotegerin Ligand .. RANKL Protein .. Receptor ... Antigen, CD254 .. Differentiation Factor, Osteoclast .. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa B Ligand .. Receptor ...
16] These cells can capture antigen and migrate to lymphoid organs, where they present the antigens to naive T cells. [17] ... 35, 36, 37] However, although dendritic cells express CD95, CD95 ligation does not induce apoptosis. [38] ... Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. J Exp Med. 1993 Aug 1. 178(2):509-19. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Dendritic cells express CD95, TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-R3 in comparative levels. Similar to the role of CD95L, that of TRAIL- ...
As the immune status deteriorates, an increase in CD95+ T cells is found; conversely, a low CD95+ T-cell count is found in ... Although infants possess numerous antigen-presenting and effector cells compared with adults, their cytokine production, ... The CD95/Fas receptor/ligand system is necessary for the apoptosis of T cells, and abnormalities in this system are linked with ... IIb/IIIa receptor by the HIV-GP 160/120 antigen. Decreased platelet production is common in HIV infection regardless of the ...
CD95. *CD95. *CD95. *CD95. *CD95 antigen. *CD95 antigen. *CD95 antigen. *CD95 antigen ... Immature Dendritic Cell Therapy Confers Durable Immune Modulation in an Antigen-Dependent and Antigen-Independent Manner in ... Fluorochrome- or biotinlabeled human monoclonal antibodies specific for the following antigens were purchased from BD ... CD95 (DX2), CD1b (SN13), CD8[beta] (SIDI8BEE), HLA-DR (G46-6), CXCR5 (MU5UBEE), and PD-1 (EH12.2H7).. [CD4.sup.hi][CD8.sup.low ...
  • In mice, eosinopoiesis is suppressed in vitro by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and in vivo by diethylcarbamazine, through a proapoptotic mechanism sequentially requiring inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the ligand for death receptor CD95 (CD95L). (
  • It also requires CD95 ligand (CD95L, CD158) at a second critical step, downstream from iNOS [ 4 ], to suppress eosinopoiesis. (
  • Apoptosis can be induced through several death receptors belonging to the TNFR/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily: CD95 (APO-1/Fas) ( 1 , 2 ), TNFR1 ( 3 ), DR3/APO-3 ( 4 ), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR) 1/DR4/APO-2 ( 5 ), TRAILR2/DR5 ( 6 ), and DR6 ( 7 ). (
  • AICD is mediated predominantly by interaction of CD95 with its cognate ligand (CD95 ligand) ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • TCR-stimulated T cells express the CD95 ligand which triggers CD95 by clustering of the receptors. (
  • Upon binding of its ligand CD95L, CD95 interacts with adaptor proteins to form a death-inducing signaling complex to trigger a cell death signal. (
  • The strength of binding (affinity constant) between a receptor (e.g., one antigen-binding site on an antibody) and a ligand (e.g., epitope on an antigen). (
  • The purified ligand is then released by disrupting the antibody-antigen interaction, for example by changing the pH. (
  • CD178, also known as Fas ligand (FasL, Apo-1 Ligand, CD95 Ligand, TNFSF6) is a type-II transmembrane protein that is part of the tumor necrosis factor family (TNF). (
  • This product recognizes the human CD178 cell surface antigen, a 40kDa glycoprotein also known as Fas ligand (CD95L). (
  • Key players in the controlled induction of cell death are the Death Receptors (DR). CD95 is a prototypic DR activated by its cognate ligand CD95L triggering programmed cell death. (
  • The cell surface protein Fas (CD95) and its ligand play a pivotal role in regulating lymphocyte apoptosis, and defective expression of either Fas or Fas ligand results in marked overaccumulation of mature lymphocytes and autoimmune disease in mice. (
  • T-cell receptor-induced apoptosis regulates immune responses and can result from interactions between Fas (Apo1/CD95) and Fas ligand (FasL). (
  • Among these death receptors, Fas/CD95 and its specific ligand FasL/CD95L were demonstrated to be of importance, and it was shown that stimulation of RASFs with FasL initiates proapoptotic signals [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • We examined the roles of iNOS, cAMP-mediated signaling, caspases, and CD95L/CD95 in suppression of eosinopoiesis by PGE2 and other agents signaling through cAMP. (
  • Overall, PGE2 and isoproterenol shared a requirement for four effector elements (iNOS, CD95L, CD95, and terminal caspases), which together define a pathway targeted by several soluble up- and downmodulators of eosinopoiesis, including drugs, mediators of inflammation, and cytokines. (
  • 4) Lastly, a positive correlation was seen between cytotoxic molecules and CD45RO memory marker in CD4⁺ T cells and between caspase-3 and CD95L within CD4⁺ CD95⁺ T cells. (
  • CD95/CD95L interactions play an important role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and survival. (
  • As a consequence, alterations in the CD95/CD95L pathway have been involved in several disease co. (
  • Present on a minority of resting blood lymphocytes, CD95 expression is upregulated on activated T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells, where binding of the antigen by anti-Fas and anti-APO-1 antibodies has been shown to induce apoptosis. (
  • However, the use of monospecific CD95 antibodies is associated with significant off-target toxicity. (
  • This can be achieved by using bispecific antibodies recognizing CD20 and inducing CD95 apoptosis only after initial interaction with the target antigen. (
  • The bispecific antibody for the first in vitro and in vivo studies was produced by chemical hybridization of fragmental parental CD20 and CD95 antibodies. (
  • In in vitro studies, CD20xCD95 bispecific antibodies have been shown to selectively trigger the CD95 death receptor and kill CD20 positive SKW lymphoma cells. (
  • 2. Construction of optimized bispecific antibodies for selective activation of the death receptor CD95. (
  • Such antibodies, which can be produced either by chemical cross-linkage or by recombinant DNA techniques, can be used to link together two different antigens or cells (e.g., a cytotoxic T-cell and a tumor cell). (
  • The ability to produce antibodies against nonself antigens while "tolerating" (not producing antibodies against) self-antigens. (
  • Refers to the type of specific immunity that develops after exposure to a suitable antigen or is produced after antibodies are transferred from one individual to another. (
  • CD95 (APO-1/Fas) is a member of the superfamily that includes the nerve growth factor and tumor necrosis factor receptors, OX40, CD27, CD30, and CD40. (
  • The Fas receptor, also known as Fas, FasR, apoptosis antigen 1 (APO-1 or APT), cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) or tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 (TNFRSF6), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAS gene. (
  • The CD95 recognizes a 48-kdalton (kDa) antigen (Fas/APO-1) that is a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor (TNF/NGF) superfamily. (
  • Expression of APO-1 (CD95), a member of the NFG/TNF superfamily, in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium. (
  • Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (
  • CD178 binds to CD95, a member of the TNFR superfamily, to induce apoptosis. (
  • Clone JD3 recognizes the human DR3 antigen, a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily which is also known as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 25 (TNFRSF25). (
  • CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, which includes the low affinity nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and CD95/Fas. (
  • CD95 apoptosis sensitivity requires formation of a functional receptor associated death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), i.e., a protein complex of CD95 receptors, the adaptor Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD)/MORT1 and caspase-8 (FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme (FLICE), MACH, Mch5). (
  • T cell receptors can recognize antigen fragments bound to the major histocompatibility complex on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. (
  • The extracellular domain is rich in cysteine residue, and shows a similarity to that of human tumor necrosis factor receptors, human nerve growth factor receptor, and human B cell antigen CD40. (
  • Alpha-beta T cell receptors (TCRs) are antigen specific receptors, which are essential to the immune response and are present on the cell surface of T lymphocytes. (
  • The immune system does not normally respond to self antigens. (
  • To this end, we quantified Fas and FasL induction by different stimuli and analyzed the effects of Fas/FasL deficiency during a protective immune response and after exposure to self-antigens. (
  • Flow cytometric estimation of the apoptotic marker CD95 in peripheral neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes was done for 18 infants with non-oedematous protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and 12 oedematous ones, on hospital admission and after supervised nutritional rehabilitation, and compared with 12 matched controls. (
  • The importance of dendritic cells in presenting antigens to T and B lymphocytes is increasingly recognized. (
  • Effective induction of antigen-specific T cell responses requires interaction between dendritic cells and T lymphocytes to prime the latter cells for expansion and subsequent immune responses. (
  • Although circulating T-cell lymphocytes can recognize antigens independently, their number is small. (
  • The first signal may involve the interaction between a major histocompatibility complex peptide complex I and major histocompatibility complex II in an antigen-presenting cell with the T-cell receptor (RCT) on effector lymphocytes. (
  • MyD88-dependent protective immunity elicited by adenovirus 5 expressing the surface antigen 1 from Toxoplasma gondii is mediated by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. (
  • The phenotypic features acquired subsequent to antigen-specific stimulation in vitro were evaluated by means of the kinetic expressions of CD69 and CD25 activation molecules on T lymphocytes and assayed by flow cytometry in response to PPD, Ag85B, and ferritin in PPD-positive healthy control individuals. (
  • Immunity mediated by lymphocytes and characterized by antigen specificity and memory. (
  • Lymphocytes learn to react with antigens during lymphopoiesis in central lymphoid organs, thymus, and bone marrow. (
  • A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. (
  • DR3 is expressed preferentially by activated and antigen-experienced T lymphocytes. (
  • CD3 + TCR-αβ + CD4 - CD8 - ) T cells that have been proposed to derive from CD8 + cells, we decided to explore the role of Fas and FasL in self-antigen-induced CD8 downregulation. (
  • Our data describes how Fas and FasL upregulation differs depending on the setting of CD8 T cell activation and demonstrates that Fas/FasL signaling maintains CD8 expression during repetitive antigen stimulation and following self-antigen encounter. (
  • Binding of CD178 to Fas (CD95) results in the induction of apoptosis. (
  • TNFRSF6/FAS-mediated apoptosis may have a role in the induction of peripheral tolerance, in the antigen-stimulated suicide of mature T-cells, or both. (
  • Mouse anti Human CD95 antibody, clone C02-6C8, recognizes CD95, also known as TNFRSF6, Apo-1 antigen, apoptosis-mediating surface antigen FAS and FASLG receptor. (
  • The latest human lekocyte differentiation antigen (HLDA8) workshop included an Animal Homologues section. (
  • The breast differentiation antigen NY-BR-1, expressed specifically in normal and malignant breast tissue, has also immunogenic properties. (
  • Sandwich ELISA analysis of human CD95 using Mouse anti Human CD95 ( MCA6272GA ) as a capture reagent and biotinylated Mouse anti Human CD95 ( MCA6273B ) as a detection reagent with purified recombinant CD95 as the antigen. (
  • The biotinylated Mouse anti Human CD95 antibody, clone C02-6C8 (MCA6273B) can be used as a detection antibody in a sandwich ELISA with the purified Mouse anti Human CD95 antibody, clone E06-1A9 ( MCA6272GA ) as the capture antibody. (
  • This CD95-mediated apoptosis is at least partially inhibited by expression of the Bcl-2 protooncogene. (
  • To evaluate possible roles of CD95 and Bcl-2 in growth regulation of lymphoid neoplasms, we studied by immunohistochemistry the expression of CD95 and Bcl-2 in 67 B- and 5 T-cell lympbomas, and 10 cases of Hodgkin's disease. (
  • The infrequent expression of CD95 in high-grade B-cell lymphomas suggests an association between loss ofCD95 expression/function and a more aggressive tumor grade. (
  • 80 of the mAb proved to be + on pig cells and are now being analyzed in more depth by confirming appropriate tissue and cell subset expression, effect of activation on expression, mw of antigen, and, if available, reaction with cloned swine gene product. (
  • Up-regulated expression of Fas antigen (CD95) by peripheral naive and memory T cell subsets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A possible mechanism for lymphopenia. (
  • Differential expression of apoptosisrelated Fas antigen on lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. (
  • In the present study, we have analyzed the relative frequency of MAITs and the expression of the cell surface antigens in MAITs to seek a possible link to the disease. (
  • While the expression of CCR5, CCR6, CD95, CD127, and CD150 has increased in untreated subjects compared with that in HDs, CD45RO has declined in untreated subjects in both DN MAITs and CD8 hi MAITs. (
  • Pathogen-induced proapoptotic phenotype and high CD95 (Fas) expression accompany a suboptimal CD8+ T-cell response: reversal by adenoviral vaccine. (
  • Using high-pressure antigen retrieval and tyramide signal amplification, we find moderately high levels of CD16 expression in the parenchyma of normal brains which is not normally observed using standard avidin/biotin complex (ABC) techniques. (
  • It is also obvious that high expression of the CAR can result in antigen-independent CAR signaling, resulting in T cell exhaustion and sub-optimal anti-tumor responses, or lead to the inappropriate acknowledgement of tumor antigen on self-tissue [1, 2]. (
  • Fas antigen is a cell-surface protein that mediates apoptosis. (
  • CD133 antigen , also known as prominin-1 , is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the PROM1 gene . (
  • A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. (
  • Mouse anti-Fas monoclonal antibody has a cytolytic activity on human cells that express the antigen. (
  • Thus, the name Fas is derived from FS-7-associated surface antigen. (
  • The antigen-presenting cell surface contains two peptide-binding proteins: that is, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I and II. (
  • The polypeptide encoded by the cDNA for human cell surface antigen Fas can mediate apoptosis. (
  • Complementary DNAs encoding the cell surface antigen Fas were isolated from a cDNA library of human T cell lymphoma KT-3 cells. (
  • Furthermore, resting CD4 + T cells from mutant A(β)(k) transgenic mice expressed higher levels of cell surface CD95 (Fas, APO-1). (
  • A naive B cell is a mature B cell that has the phenotype surface IgD-positive, surface IgM-positive, CD20-positive, CD27-negative and that has not yet been activated by antigen in the periphery. (
  • The bispecific concept is also applicable to a variety of different target antigens, such as CD19, CD40, tenascin and NG2 and is protected by a granted patent. (
  • Murine WR19L cells or L929 cells transformed with the human Fas antigen cDNA were killed by the anti-Fas antibody in the process known as apoptosis. (
  • Novotarg is Baliopharm`s lead bispecific antibody targeting CD20 and CD95. (
  • CD20 is an established target antigen for antibody-based immunotherapy in cancer (like lymphoma) and B-cell mediated autoimmune disease. (
  • In contrast, cell culture experiments have shown that the bispecific antibody exhibits no toxicity towards cultured CD95 sensitive cell lines, including normal human hepatocytes. (
  • 1. A Recombinant Bispecific CD20×CD95 Antibody With Superior Activity Against Normal and Malignant B-cells. (
  • 3. Target cell-restricted triggering of the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) death receptor with bispecific antibody fragments. (
  • The use of immobilized antibody (or antigen) to select specific antigen (or antibody) from a mixture. (
  • The binding strength between two molecules (e.g., antibody and antigen) taking into account the valency of the interaction. (
  • An artificially produced hybrid antibody in which each of the two antigen-binding arms is specific for a different antigenic epitope. (
  • they are self-renewing, and frequently secrete high levels of antibody, which binds to a range of antigens ("polyspecificity") with a relatively low affinity. (
  • cells have been found to regulate early and not late GC reactions to control antigen-specific antibody and B cell memory space (18, 25). (
  • Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. (
  • The trimeric form induces higher neutralizing antibody titer compared to monomer with as low as 1μg antigen dose. (
  • had been the first ever to describe the immediate immunofluorescence technique using an antibody mounted on a fluorescent dye, fluorescein isocyanate, to localize it is respective antigen inside a freezing cells section (3, 4). (
  • thus HA may be the immunodominant antigen for the induction of antibody replies [6]. (
  • However, throughout their development, B cells are selected depending on their binding capacity to the respective antigen at several B-cell selection checkpoints. (
  • Clinical and parasitological protection in a Leishmania infantum-macaque model vaccinated with adenovirus and the recombinant A2 antigen. (
  • As an extension of the observation that mast cells undergo apoptosis following growth factor deprivation, we hypothesized that mast cells might also undergo apoptosis in response to activation through Fas Ag (CD95, APO-1), thus providing an additional pathway that could contribute to the regulation of mast cell numbers. (
  • In addition to the well-described on-target CTL anti-tumor cytotoxicity, Fas has been ascribed with a distinct function - the induction of bystander tumor cell death even amongst cognate antigen non-expressing (bystander) cells. (
  • CD95 counts in the 3 types of white blood cells were significantly higher in PEM infants and showed improvement after nutritional rehabilitation yet not reaching the control values. (
  • The CD95, clone DX2, is derived from hybridization of mouse Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells from C3H/He mice immunized with L cells transfected with CD95 antigen. (
  • Cross linking of CD95 antigen on activated cells can elicit apoptosis. (
  • Cancer-testis antigens (CTA) comprise a family of proteins, which are physiologically expressed in adult human tissues solely in testicular germ cells and occasionally placenta. (
  • Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) comprise an expanding family of proteins which are normally expressed in human testicular germ cells or placental trophoblast, but not in any other normal tissue. (
  • This model represents the main features of T cell reactivity: freshly isolated PHA-activated T cells cultured in IL-2 for a prolonged period of time develop a CD95 (APO-1/Fas) apoptosis-sensitive phenotype. (
  • Compromised stem cells can mature into antigen-processing cells, and some possess phagocytic capabilities. (
  • They are committed to generating dendritic cells, "professional" antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (
  • These cells can capture the antigen and migrate to the lymphoid organs, where they present the antigens to naïve T cells. (
  • Contrary to conventional T cells, MAITs recognize vitamin B2 metabolites as antigens and promptly produce a plethora of cytokines and chemokines upon activation (Birkinshaw et al. (
  • The lpr mice develop lymphadenopathy and suffer from a systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease, indicating an important role for Fas antigen in the negative selection of autoreactive T cells in the thymus. (
  • Therefore, CD95 mediated apoptosis should be induced only in cells expressing CD20. (
  • Antigen (or autoantigen) engages a B cell receptor directly and also is endocytosed by an antigen presenting cell (typically a dendritic cell, but B cells also serve), in which intracellular degradation generates antigenic peptides. (
  • DR3 is activated by TNFSF15, which is rapidly upregulated in antigen-presenting cells and some endothelial cells following toll-like receptor or Fc receptor activation. (
  • Effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected antigen-presenting cells on T cell activation and antiviral cytokine production. (
  • Ab-mediated cross-linking of CD95 further increased apoptosis in CD4 + T cells from mutant A(β)(k) transgenic mice, but not from wild-type mice, suggesting apoptosis involved CD95 signaling. (
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 (CD152), for example, which is essential for the in vivo suppressive activity of CD4 + CD25 + T cells, was constitutively expressed, and remained strongly upregulated after stimulation. (
  • The cells were nonproliferative to stimulation via their T cell receptor for antigen, but the anergic state was partially reversed by interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-15. (
  • Memory T cells are either CD4 + or the virus-specific CD8 + depending on the type of antigen encountered (MacLeod et al. (
  • In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. (
  • Dominant protection from HLA-linked autoimmunity by antigen-specific regulatory T cells. (
  • Diverse HVS transformed CBL lines in complete volumes of 50 l of Jurkat T cells induced for apoptosis with mouse anti CD95 Fas IgM served as favourable controls. (
  • Jurkat T cells had been incubated with mouse anti CD95 Fas IgM and subjected to annexin V PI staining, FACS evaluation served as being a constructive management. (
  • They recognize peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), that are displayed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • Autoimmune myocarditis develops after the presentation of heart-specific antigens to autoaggressive CD4 + T cells and after inflammation has infiltrated the tissues. (
  • T cell antigen gp39 (CD40L), a cytokine which seems to be important in B-cell development and activation. (
  • Pharmacogenetics studies have found an association between susceptibility to recurrent EM in response to several stimuli and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes of class II, in particular HLA DQB1*0301 [ 23 ]. (
  • Apoptotic signaling through CD95 (Fas/Apo-1) activates an acidic sphingomyelinase. (
  • This enables the adaptor molecule Fas-associated death domain (FADD)/MORT1 ( 12 , 13 ) and the zymogen of caspase-8 (FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme (FLICE), MACH, Mch5) ( 14 , 15 , 16 ) to bind to CD95 via homophilic death domain and death effector domain (DED) interactions, respectively. (
  • The nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs revealed that the molecule coding for the Fas antigen determinant is a 319 amino acid polypeptide (Mr 36,000) with a single transmembrane domain. (
  • Lymphoproliferation disorder in mice explained by defects in Fas antigen that mediates apoptosis. (
  • Mice carrying the lymphoproliferation (lpr) mutation have defects in the Fas antigen gene. (
  • Specifically NY-ESO-1 is able to elicit combined humoral and cell mediated immune response and considered to be the most immunogenic of the above antigens. (
  • Any substance that nonspecifically enhances the immune response to antigen. (
  • Antigens, CD18" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, CD18" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Antigens, CD18" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD18" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (
  • 04). Two of three peripheral T-cell lymphomas - including one anaplastic large cell lymphoma-expressed CD95. (
  • Microglial turnover was assessed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) (DNA damage), BAX (proapoptotic marker), Fas (CD95) (proapoptotic), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (proliferation and DNA repair), Ki-67 (cell proliferation) and BCL-2 (antiapoptosis). (
  • Engagement of CD80/86 on the antigen presenting cell with CD28 on the T cell delivers a costimulatory signal necessary for activation. (
  • CD95, also called "death receptor" induces apoptosis. (