Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

JNK2 is required for efficient T-cell activation and apoptosis but not for normal lymphocyte development. (1/4475)

BACKGROUND: The Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell proliferation and apoptosis, but its function seems to depend on the cell type and inducing signal. In T cells, JNK has been implicated in both antigen-induced activation and apoptosis. RESULTS: We generated mice lacking the JNK2 isozymes. The mutant mice were healthy and fertile but defective in peripheral T-cell activation induced by antibody to the CD3 component of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex - proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were reduced. The proliferation defect was restored by exogenous IL-2. B-cell activation was normal in the absence of JNK2. Activation-induced peripheral T-cell apoptosis was comparable between mutant and wild-type mice, but immature (CD4(+) CD8(+)) thymocytes lacking JNK2 were resistant to apoptosis induced by administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. The lack of JNK2 also resulted in partial resistance of thymocytes to anti-CD3 antibody in vitro, but had little or no effect on apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, dexamethasone or ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation. CONCLUSIONS: JNK2 is essential for efficient activation of peripheral T cells but not B cells. Peripheral T-cell activation is probably required indirectly for induction of thymocyte apoptosis resulting from administration of anti-CD3 antibody in vivo. JNK2 functions in a cell-type-specific and stimulus-dependent manner, being required for apoptosis of immature thymocytes induced by anti-CD3 antibody but not for apoptosis induced by anti-Fas antibody, UVC or dexamethasone. JNK2 is not required for activation-induced cell death of mature T cells.  (+info)

Caspase 3 inactivation to suppress Fas-mediated apoptosis: identification of binding domain with p21 and ILP and inactivation machinery by p21. (2/4475)

The death mediator caspase acts as the dominant regulator during cell death induction. The CPP32 subfamily, including caspase 3 (CPP32/Yama/Apopain), is essential for the cell death signaling. We recently reported that activation of caspase 3 is regulated by complex formation with p21 or ILP. In the present study, we investigated the binding domain with p21 and ILP to further characterize the caspase 3 inactivation machinery. Our results show that caspase 3 contains p21 binding domain in the N-terminus and ILP binding domain in the active site. Further, the caspase 3 binding domain in p21 was independent of the Cdk- or PCNA-binding domain. We also found caspase 3 protection by p21 from the p3-site cleavage serineproteinase contributes to the suppression machinery. Here, we propose the caspase 3 inactivation system by p21 and ILP as new essential system in the regulation of cell death.  (+info)

Activation-dependent transcriptional regulation of the human Fas promoter requires NF-kappaB p50-p65 recruitment. (3/4475)

Fas (CD95) and Fas ligand (CD95L) are an interacting receptor-ligand pair required for immune homeostasis. Lymphocyte activation results in the upregulation of Fas expression and the acquisition of sensitivity to FasL-mediated apoptosis. Although Fas upregulation is central to the preservation of immunologic tolerance, little is known about the molecular machinery underlying this process. To investigate the events involved in activation-induced Fas upregulation, we have examined mRNA accumulation, fas promoter activity, and protein expression in the Jurkat T-cell line treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin (P/I), pharmacological mimics of T-cell receptor activation. Although resting Jurkat cells express Fas, Fas mRNA was induced approximately 10-fold in 2 h upon P/I stimulation. Using sequential deletion mutants of the human fas promoter in transient transfection assays, we identified a 47-bp sequence (positions -306 to -260 relative to the ATG) required for activation-driven fas upregulation. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a previously unrecognized composite binding site for both the Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors at positions -295 to -286. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift analyses of this region documented constitutive binding of Sp1 in unactivated nuclear extracts and inducible binding of p50-p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers after P/I activation. Sp1 and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding was shown to be mutually exclusive by EMSA displacement studies with purified recombinant Sp1 and recombinant p50. The functional contribution of the kappaB-Sp1 composite site in P/I-inducible fas promoter activation was verified by using kappaB-Sp1 concatamers (-295 to -286) in a thymidine kinase promoter-driven reporter construct and native promoter constructs in Jurkat cells overexpressing IkappaB-alpha. Site-directed mutagenesis of the critical guanine nucleotides in the kappaB-Sp1 element documented the essential role of this site in activation-dependent fas promoter induction.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (4/4475)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Fas/Apo [apoptosis]-1 and associated proteins in the differentiating cerebral cortex: induction of caspase-dependent cell death and activation of NF-kappaB. (5/4475)

The developing cerebral cortex undergoes a period of substantial cell death. The present studies examine the role of the suicide receptor Fas/Apo[apoptosis]-1 in cerebral cortical development. Fas mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in subsets of cells within the developing rat cerebral cortex during the peak period of apoptosis. Fas-immunoreactive cells were localized in close proximity to Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing cells. The Fas-associated signaling protein receptor interacting protein (RIP) was expressed by some Fas-expressing cells, whereas Fas-associated death domain (FADD) was undetectable in the early postnatal cerebral cortex. FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas activation, was also expressed in the postnatal cerebral cortex. Fas expression was more ubiquitous in embryonic cortical neuroblasts in dissociated culture compared to in situ within the developing brain, suggesting that the environmental milieu partly suppresses Fas expression at this developmental stage. Furthermore, FADD, RIP, and FLIP were also expressed by subsets of dissociated cortical neuroblasts in culture. Fas activation by ligand (FasL) or anti-Fas antibody induced caspase-dependent cell death in primary embryonic cortical neuroblast cultures. The activation of Fas was also accompanied by a rapid downregulation of Fas receptor expression, non-cell cycle-related incorporation of nucleic acids and nuclear translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Together, these data suggest that adult cortical cell number may be established, in part, by an active process of receptor-mediated cell suicide, initiated in situ by killer (FasL-expressing) cells and that Fas may have functions in addition to suicide in the developing brain.  (+info)

Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the murine genital mucosa does not require perforin-mediated cytolysis or Fas-mediated apoptosis. (6/4475)

The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleukin-12-dependent CD4(+) T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis to mucosal clearance of MoPn by using mice deficient in the molecular mediators of target cell lysis. Animals lacking perforin, Fas, Fas ligand, or both perforin and Fas ligand were infected genitally with C. trachomatis MoPn and monitored for expression of immunity to chlamydial antigens and clearance of MoPn from the genital mucosa. In each case, the profile of spleen cytokine production, the magnitude of the host antibody response, and the kinetics of chlamydial clearance were similar to those of genetically intact controls. Compensatory overproduction of tumor necrosis factor alpha, an alternate mediator of apoptosis in certain cell types, did not appear to account for the ability of mutant mice to resolve Chlamydia infections. These results fail to support CD4(+) T-cell-mediated apoptosis or CD8(+) T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity as being critical to the clearance of C. trachomatis MoPn urogenital infections.  (+info)

In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand. (7/4475)

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand.  (+info)

Fas and Fas ligand interaction induces apoptosis in inflammatory myopathies: CD4+ T cells cause muscle cell injury directly in polymyositis. (8/4475)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of the Fas/Fas ligand (Fas/FasL) system in the inflammatory myopathies. METHODS: Frozen muscle sections obtained from 7 patients with polymyositis (PM), 4 patients with dermatomyositis (DM), and 3 controls were studied by immunochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by DNA electrophoresis and in situ labeling using the TUNEL method. RESULTS: Fas was detected on muscle fibers and infiltrating mononuclear cells (MNC) in 6 PM patients and 2 DM patients. FasL was expressed mainly on CD4+ T cells and some CD8+ T cells, and on macrophages surrounding Fas-positive muscles in 4 PM patients and 1 DM patient. In 3 of the 5 patients with FasL-positive MNC, the TUNEL method showed that both invaded myonuclei and MNC underwent apoptosis. Chromosomal DNA from the muscle tissue of these patients showed ladder formation. CONCLUSION: Fas/FasL is involved in muscle cell apoptosis in at least 2 of the inflammatory myopathies, PM and DM. Although CD8+-mediated cytotoxicity is thought to be the main mechanism of muscle injury in PM, our data suggest that CD4+ T cells also directly cause muscle cell damage.  (+info)

*Index of biochemistry articles

CD4 antigen - CD45 antigen - CD95 antigen - CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - Cell biology - cell cycle ... T-cell antigen receptors - tachykinin - tachykinin receptor - talin protein - tandem repeat sequence - taste bud - TATA box - ... carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS registry number - casein - catabolism - catalyst - catalytic domain ... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ...

*Fas receptor

Chen L, Park SM, Tumanov AV, Hau A, Sawada K, Feig C, Turner JR, Fu YX, Romero IL, Lengyel E, Peter ME (May 2010). "CD95 ... Inazawa J, Itoh N, Abe T, Nagata S (November 1992). "Assignment of the human Fas antigen gene (Fas) to 10q24.1". Genomics. 14 ( ... Huang B, Eberstadt M, Olejniczak ET, Meadows RP, Fesik SW (1996). "NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death ... Krammer PH (2000). "CD95's deadly mission in the immune system". Nature. 407 (6805): 789-95. doi:10.1038/35037728. PMID ...

*List of MeSH codes (D23)

... antigens, cd95 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198 --- antigens, cd98 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain ... antigens, cd95 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198 --- antigens, cd98 MeSH D23.101.100.110.198.500 --- antigens, cd98 heavy chain MeSH ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543)

... antigens, cd30 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.097 -- antigens, cd40 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.852.760.195 -- antigens, cd95 ... antigen, b-cell MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.821.500 -- antigens, cd79 MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.816.824 -- receptors, antigen, ... antigens, cd22 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.124 -- antigens, cd24 MeSH D12.776.543.550.200.131 -- antigens, cd31 MeSH D12.776. ... antigens, cd11a MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.150 -- antigens, cd11b MeSH D12.776.543.750.705.408.100.200 -- antigens, cd11c ...

*Memory T cell

... that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often ... but they also express large amounts of CD95, IL-2Rβ, CXCR3, and LFA-1, and show numerous functional attributes distinctive of ... Antigen-specific memory T cells against viruses or other microbial molecules can be found in both TCM and TEM subsets. Although ... White JT, Cross EW, Kedl RM (2017). "Antigen-inexperienced memory CD8+ T cells: where they come from and why we need them". ...

*Betty Diamond

T. Activated memory B cell sub-sets correlate with disease activity in SLE: Delineation by expression of CD27, IgD, and CD95. ... XBP1 governs late events in plasma cell differentiation and is not required for antigen-specific memory B cell development J ... 109:1625-1633 (2002). Newman, J., Rice, JS., Wang, C., Harris, SL., and Diamond, B. Identification of an antigen-specific B ... 111:275-283 (2003). Wang, C., Khalil, M., Ravetch, J., and Diamond, B. The naïve B cell repertoire predisposes to antigen- ...

*Mycoplasma alligatoris

... working together as potential promoters of the expression of CD95 (FasR). CD95 is a protein involved in mediated cell death of ... Mycoplasma crocodyli is much less virulent than M. alligatoris, lacking the genes for adhesins, variable surface antigens, and ... Hunt, M. E.; Brown, D. R. (2005-12-01). "Mycoplasma alligatoris Infection Promotes CD95 (FasR) Expression and Apoptosis of ... increasing CD95 expression leading to cell death. Experimental inoculation of American alligators (Alligator mississippienis), ...

*RBM5

1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi: ... 2000). "LUCA-15-encoded sequence variants regulate CD95-mediated apoptosis". Oncogene. 19 (33): 3774-81. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ...

*HLA-B44

The serotype identifies the B*44 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B. B44 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B12, and is ... "HLA B44 is associated with decreased severity of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in patients with CD95 defects (ALPS ... November 1988). "HLA antigens in ankylosing spondylitis associated with Crohn's disease. Increased frequency of the HLA ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ...

*CD154

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD40LG genome location and CD40LG ... Cleary AM, Fortune SM, Yellin MJ, Chess L, Lederman S (October 1995). "Opposing roles of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and CD40 in the death ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In total ...

*Activation-induced cell death

1(3):186-92 Kabelitz D, Janssen O. (1997), Antigen-induced death of T-lymphocytes. Front Biosci. 2:d61-77 Green DR, Droin N, ... AICD (activation-induced cell death) is programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptors (Fas, CD95) and Fas ... 1999é, The role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem 274:1541-1548. ... ligands (FasL, CD95 ligand). AICD is a negative regulator of activated T lymphocytes that results from repeated stimulation of ...

*Death receptor 3

TNFRSF25 is activated by a monogamous ligand, known as TL1A (TNFSF15), which is rapidly upregulated in antigen presenting cells ... Apo-1/CD95)". Immunity. 6 (1): 79-88. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80244-7. PMID 9052839. Kitson J, Raven T, Jiang YP, Goeddel DV ... Similarly, because TNFRSF25 activation is antigen dependent, costimulation of TNFRSF25 together with an autoantigen or with a ... This receptor is expressed preferentially by activated and antigen-experienced T lymphocytes. TNFRSF25 is also highly expressed ...

*PRPF40A

1999). "Antigens recognized by autologous antibody in patients with renal-cell carcinoma". Int. J. Cancer. 83 (4): 456-64. doi: ... 2002). "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ...

*Primary immunodeficiency

This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD95 defects), type 1b (Fas ligand defects), type 2a (CASP10 defects), type 2b (CASP8 defects) (b) APECED (autoimmune ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...

*Death domain

Many cancers contain an oncogene that will inhibit the MHC complex on the cell surface from presenting antigens to immune cells ... APO-1/CD95) death domain". Nature. 384 (6610): 638-41. doi:10.1038/384638a0. PMID 8967952. Weber CH, Vincenz C (August 2001). " ... cell apoptosis that occurs via the CD95 pathway, a transmembrane protein, is found to be vital in controlling the proliferation ...

*Cytotoxic T cell

An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response, and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens ... CD95) molecules expressed on the target cell. However, this Fas-Fas ligand interaction is thought to be more important to the ... If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell ... depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). It ...

*INPP5D

A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... "CDw150 associates with src-homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase and modulates CD95-mediated apoptosis". Journal of ... A pathway for regulation of B lymphocyte antigen receptor-induced calcium flux". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (23 ... "Protein kinase C-delta is a negative regulator of antigen-induced mast cell degranulation". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 22 ...

*CD40 (protein)

The B cell can present antigens to helper T cells. If an activated T cell recognizes the peptide presented by the B cell, the ... Malinin NL, Boldin MP, Kovalenko AV, Wallach D (Feb 1997). "MAP3K-related kinase involved in NF-kappaB induction by TNF, CD95 ... The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects ... Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is required for their ...

*FNBP1

"Identification of interaction partners of the cytosolic polyproline region of CD95 ligand (CD178)". FEBS Lett. 519 (1-3): 50-8 ... "Serological identification and bioinformatics analysis of immunogenic antigens in multiple myeloma". Cancer Immunol. Immunother ... "Identification of interaction partners of the cytosolic polyproline region of CD95 ligand (CD178)". FEBS Lett. 519 (1-3): 50-8 ...

*GRAP2

"Expression of the Grb2-related protein of the lymphoid system in B cell subsets enhances B cell antigen receptor signaling ... "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ...

*Seth Lederman

Cleary AM; Fortune SM; Yellin MJ; Chess L; Lederman S (October 1995). "Opposing roles of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and CD40 in the death ... "5c8 Antigen". Google Patents. Google. Retrieved 21 December 2011. "Methods of inhibiting an autoimmune response in a human ... Review Articles Lederman S; Yellin MJ; Covey LR; Cleary AM; Callard R; Chess L (June 1993). "Non-antigen signals for B-cell ... U.S. Patent #6,455,044 B1 (Issued September 24, 2002) "5c8 Antigen", Lederman, S., M.J. Yellin, and L. Chess. U.S. Patent # ...

*FADD

... is essential for T cell proliferation when the T cell receptor is stimulated by antigen. In contrast, FADD has no effect ... Scaffidi, C.; Schmitz, I.; Krammer, P. H.; Peter, M. E. (1999). "The role of c-FLIP in modulation of CD95-induced apoptosis". ... Huang B, Eberstadt M, Olejniczak ET, Meadows RP, Fesik SW (1996). "NMR structure and mutagenesis of the Fas (APO-1/CD95) death ... Pruul H, McDonald PJ (1995). "Cytotoxicity-dependent APO-1 (Fas/CD95)-associated proteins form a death-inducing signalling ...

*Fas ligand

Parlato S, Giammarioli AM, Logozzi M, Lozupone F, Matarrese P, Luciani F, Falchi M, Malorni W, Fais S (October 2000). "CD95 ( ... pathway are the two main mechanisms by which cytotoxic T lymphocytes induce cell death in cells expressing foreign antigens. ... or CD95, is the most intensely studied member of the death receptor family. The gene is situated on chromosome 10 in humans and ... CD95)-Fas ligand interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (30): 18827-33. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.30.18827. PMID 9228058. Yu KY, Kwon B, Ni ...

*Cell death

Activation-induced cell death (AICD) is a programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptor (Fas, CD95)and Fas ... 1(3):186-92 Kabelitz D, Janssen O. (1997), Antigen-induced death of T-lymphocytes. Front Biosci. 2:d61-77 "Oncosis". Retrieved ... ligand (FasL, CD95 ligand). It occurs as a result of repeated stimulation of specific T-cell receptors (TCR) and it helps to ...

*FYN

"Src-related protein tyrosine kinases are physically associated with the surface antigen CD36 in human dermal microvascular ... "Multiple interactions of the cytosolic polyproline region of the CD95 ligand: hints for the reverse signal transduction ...

*Survivin

... has been a target of attention in recent years for cancer immunotherapy, as it is an antigen that is expressed mostly ... An example of a TNF receptor is Fas (CD95), which recruits activator caspases like caspase-8 upon binding TNF at the cell ... In acquiring the humoral response to tumour antigens such as survivin, CD4+ T cells are activated to induce B cells to produce ... There has been much evidence accumulated over the years that shows survivin as a strong T-cell-activating antigen, and clinical ...
Background:Apoptosis or programmed cell death has been shown to play an important role in the progression from polyps to carcinomas. Fas/APO-1 is a cell surface protein that can induce apoptosis in...
Accepted name: Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase. Reaction: ATP + [Fas-activated serine/threonine protein] = ADP + [Fas-activated serine/threonine phosphoprotein]. Other name(s): FAST; FASTK; STK10. Systematic name: ATP:[Fas-activated serine/threonine protein] phosphotransferase. Comments: This enzyme is activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis. Following Fas ligation, the enzyme, which is constitutively phosphorylated, is dephosphorylated, and it is the dephosphorylated form that causes phosphorylation of TIA-1, a nuclear RNA-binding protein. Phosphorylation of TIA-1 precedes the onset of DNA fragmentation.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 170347-50-9. References:. 1. Tian, Q., Taupin, J., Elledge, S., Robertson, M. and Anderson, P. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST) phosphorylates TIA-1 during Fas-mediated apoptosis. J. Exp. Med. 182 (1995) 865-874. [PMID: 7544399]. 2. Li, W., Simarro, M., Kedersha, N. and Anderson, P. FAST is a ...
Results. No significant differences in serum sFas levels were detected between anti-TNF-α-naive patients with RA and controls. After anti-TNF-α treatment, serum sFas levels significantly increased in patients with RA compared to both anti-TNF-α-naive patients and controls. Increased sFas levels inversely correlated with disease activity variables (DAS28-ESR: r = −0.739, CRP: r = −0.636, both p , 0.001). No significant differences in sFasL levels were detected in patients with RA before and after anti-TNF-α treatment. ...
Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a multifunctional protein, whose primary role is the NADPH-mediated synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, into long-chain saturated fatty acids. The protein consists of two identical, multifunctional 272 kDa polypeptides. FAS is expressed at high levels in liver, brain, breast, and lung. Studies have reported the in-frame fusion of FAS with estrogen receptor alpha in some cancer cell lines, and FAS expression is upregulated in breast cancer. FAS is also known as OA-519, SDR27X1, and short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 27X, member 1.. ...
Yan, Q., McDonald, J. M., Zhou, T. and Song, Y. (2013), Structural insight for the roles of fas death domain binding to fadd and oligomerization degree of the fas-fadd complex in the death-inducing signaling complex formation: A computational study. Proteins, 81: 377-385. doi: 10.1002/prot.24193 ...
A pharmaceutical composition containing an anti-human Fas antibody having apoptosis inducing activity and a compound having a folate antagonist activity or a dihydrofolate reductase inhibiting activity, as active ingredients for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of an autoimmune disease or rheumatoid arthritis. According to the present invention, the amount of the anti-Fas antibody to be used can be reduced and thereby the possibility that a patient may become tolerant to anti-Fas antibody as a result of the production of antibodies against the anti-Fas antibody in the patients body or the like can be decreased, and thus is provided a pharmaceutical composition which can be used for a long time.
Androgen-independent prostate carcinomas are resistant to chemotherapy and cell lines derived from androgen-independent prostate carcinomas such as DU 145 cells are highly resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The incubation of DU 145 cells with anti-Fas IgM agonistic antibody of Fas receptor fails to activate JNK, a stress kinase involved in regulating apoptosis. We have previously shown that JNK activation is sufficient and necessary to promote Fas-mediated apoptosis in DU 145 cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which JNK activation and apoptosis are abrogated. HSP27 is overexpressed in DU 145 cells and has previously been reported to sequester DAXX and prevent JNK activation in cells treated with anti-Fas IgM. However, we find no evidence that HSP27 interacts with DAXX in DU 145 cells. Instead, we find that FADD does not interact with caspase-8 and this results in defective death-inducing signalling complex formation following Fas receptor activation.
Activation of Fas receptor by Fas ligand causes caspase 8 activation and apoptosis in cells and is an important mechanism by which normal tissue homeostasis and function are maintained. Activation of caspase 8 is preceded by the formation of a death-inducing signalling complex (DISC), and a number of redundant mechanisms regulate DISC formation in vivo. Fas receptor is widely expressed in tissues, and dysfunction of the regulatory mechanisms in Fas receptor signalling has been reported in several diseases including autoimmune disease and cancer. This review aims to identify and discuss the various mechanisms employed by cells to alter their sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis by regulating DISC formation. We also discuss a number of defects identified with Fas receptor signalling and the associated pathologies.
Principal Investigator:HANO Takuzo, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2003, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Circulatory organs internal medicine
Affiliation:Urology,Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Med. Assistant Professor,医学部,助手, Research Field:Urology, Keywords:JTE-522,anti-Fas monoclonal antibody,selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor,renal cell carcinoma,テレビ会議,Percutaneous surgery,凍結治療,凍結手術,TELEMEDICINE,選択的COX-2阻害剤, # of Research Projects:3, # of Research Products:0
Mouse Monoclonal FAS antibody for Func, FACS, ELISA, WB. Published in 2 Pubmed References. Order this anti-FAS antibody. | Product number ABIN967518
Complete information for FASN gene (Protein Coding), Fatty Acid Synthase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A Configuration 1b clinical study with asymp- tomatic merciful patients with listless non-Hodgkin lymphoma is planned. 2 Materials 1 J Thorac Oncol 7:841849 Murray N, Sheepish Pater J, Hodson I et al (1993) Note of timing in the course of thoracic irradiation in the combined modality treatment of restrictive condition cheap cell lung cancer J Clin Oncol 26:657664 Van Cutsem E, Adam NB et al (2006) Towards a pan-Europen consensus on the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases They can also activate apoptosis by undeviatingly binding to surface-bound Fas molecules on the target cells [url=http://www.nerdgraph.com/wp-content/health-information/actual-results-12/case-6/]purchase skelaxin 400mg line[/url]. At the As with varied other infections, bacteremic infections point of listing, most often at immature breaks or lesions in the skin or can be prevented through adherence of precise sterile procedures mucosal surfaces, broadening is time again established in the submu- including hand ...
Cell detachment upregulates Fas expression in HUVECs. (A) Detachment induces cell surface levels of Fas. HUVECs were kept adherent or in suspension for 12 h. FA
FAIM (Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule) was identified as a protein that was inducibly expressed in B lymphocytes resistant to Fas-mediated…
Treat cell suspension (2 x 106-1 x 107 thymocytes/ml) with 2-20 µg/ml Jo2 mAb. Negative controls should consist of cells cultured in medium without the addition of anti-Fas and medium containing a hamster isotype control (clone Ha4/8, Cat. No. 553961) at the same concentration as the anti-Fas mAb. If Protein G (1-2 µg/ml) is added along with Jo2, then add controls containing (1) Protein G alone and (2) Protein G plus the Ha4/8 mAb ...
In contrast to apoptosis induced by some anticancer drugs as well as other stimuli, such as UV irradiation, anti-CD3 stimulation, and mitogen treatment (54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59), Tet induced T cell apoptosis through a mechanism independent of Fas/FasL interaction. This conclusion was supported by several observations. First, the expression of Fas/FasL mRNA was not enhanced by Tet treatment (our unpublished observations). Second, Tet did not increase Fas/FasL expression on the T cell surface (Fig. 5⇑). Third, both Fas-sensitive and Fas-resistant T cells showed comparable susceptibility to Tet-induced apoptosis (Fig. 6⇑). Lastly, Tet-induced activation of caspase-3 appeared to have similar kinetics and intensity in Fas-sensitive and Fas-resistant T cells (Fig. 8⇑). This observation suggests that Tet can activate the T cell death machinery without the participation of cell surface Fas/FasL molecules. Treatment with Tet might be useful in autoimmune disorders caused by mutations in Fas or FasL ...
Blocking the Fas/FasL interaction in vivo rescues isotype-switched B cells in μMT mice. A neutralizing recombinant FasIg protein was purified and engineered in
758 Fas is a well characterized member of the death receptor family and its expression correlates with overall patient survival in Cholangiocarcinoma (Shimonishi et al;Hepatology 2000). Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is an anti-apoptotic protein that blocks the activation of caspase 8 and apoptosis signaling through death inducing signaling complex (DISC). In our laboratory, we have established a unique Cholangiocarcinoma system with two cell populations that are sensitive (high surface Fas expression) or resistant (low surface Fas expression) to Fas-induced apoptosis (Pan et al; 1999; Am J Path). Fas sensitive, but not Fas resistant cells, undergo apoptosis when exposed to calmodulin (CaM) antagonists via a mechanism similar to Fas-induced death signaling. In an attempt to delineate the role of CaM in Fas mediated signaling, we previously demonstrated a direct interaction between CaM and Fas (Ahn et a; J Biol Chem. 2004) and that CaM is recruited to Fas-induced DISC ...
The CD4 receptor contributes to T-cell activation by coligating major histocompatibility complex class II on antigen presenting cells with the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex, and triggering a cascade of signaling events including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Paradoxically, CD3 cross-linking prior to TCR stimulation results in apoptotic cell death, as does injection of anti-CD4 antibodies in vivo of CD4 ligation by HIV glycoprotein (gp) 120. In this report we investigate the mechanism by which CD4 cross-linking induces cell death. We have found that CD4 cross-linking results in a small but rapid increase in levels of cell surface Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family implicated in apoptotic death and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Importantly, CD4 cross-linking triggered the ability of Fas to function as a death molecule. Subsequent to CD4 cross-linking, CD4+ splenocytes cultured overnight became sensitive to Fas-mediated death. Death was ...
The cell surface receptor Fas (FasR, Apo-1, CD95) and its ligand (FasL) are mediators of apoptosis that have been shown to be implicated in the peripheral deletion of autoimmune cells, activation-induced T cell death, and one of the two major cytolytic pathways mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T cells. To gain further understanding of the Fas system., we have analyzed Fas and FasL expression during mouse development and in adult tissues. In developing mouse embryos, from 16.5 d onwards, Fas mRNA is detectable in distinct cell types of the developing sinus, thymus, lung, and liver, whereas FasL expression is restricted to submaxillary gland epithelial cells and the developing nervous system. Significant Fas and FasL expression were observed in several nonlymphoid cell types during embryogenesis, and generally Fas and FasL expression were not localized to characteristic sites of programmed cell death. In the adult mouse, RNase protection analysis revealed very wide expression of both Fas and FasL. ...
The cell surface receptor Fas (FasR, Apo-1, CD95) and its ligand (FasL) are mediators of apoptosis that have been shown to be implicated in the peripheral deletion of autoimmune cells, activation-induced T cell death, and one of the two major cytolytic pathways mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T cells. To gain further understanding of the Fas system., we have analyzed Fas and FasL expression during mouse development and in adult tissues. In developing mouse embryos, from 16.5 d onwards, Fas mRNA is detectable in distinct cell types of the developing sinus, thymus, lung, and liver, whereas FasL expression is restricted to submaxillary gland epithelial cells and the developing nervous system. Significant Fas and FasL expression were observed in several nonlymphoid cell types during embryogenesis, and generally Fas and FasL expression were not localized to characteristic sites of programmed cell death. In the adult mouse, RNase protection analysis revealed very wide expression of both Fas and FasL. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Lack of UCP2 reduces Fas-mediated liver injury in ob/ob mice and reveals importance of cell-specific UCP2 expression. AU - Fülöp, Péter. AU - Derdák, Zoltán. AU - Sheets, Anthony. AU - Sabo, Edmond. AU - Berthiaume, Eric P.. AU - Resnick, Murray B.. AU - Wands, Jack R.. AU - Paragh, G.. AU - Baffy, György. PY - 2006/9. Y1 - 2006/9. N2 - Fatty liver is vulnerable to conditions that challenge hepatocellular energy homeostasis. Lipid-laden hepatocytes highly express uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), a mitochondrial carrier that competes with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by mediating proton leak. However, evidence for a link between UCP2 expression and susceptibility of liver to acute injury is lacking. We asked whether absence of UCP2 protects ob/ob mice from Fas-mediated acute liver damage. UCP2-deficient ob/ob mice (ob/ob:ucp2-/-) and UCP2-competent littermates (ob/ob:ucp2+/+) received a single dose of agonistic anti-Fas antibody (Jo2). Low-dose Jo2 (0.15 mg/kg ...
This study provides evidence that the functions of caspase-8 in vivo are heterogeneous with regard to both the cellular activity to which caspase-8 contributes and the physiological role of this activity. In mediating cell death induction by receptors of the TNF/NGF family, caspase-8 helps to eliminate injured and infected cells and maintain leukocyte homeostasis. Our finding that caspase-8 deletion in hepatocytes protected these cells from Fas-mediated cytotoxicity further demonstrates, and for the first time in vivo, this immune defense-related apoptotic role. In addition, we showed in this study that caspase-8 serves some function(s) that are nonapoptotic and perhaps even antiapoptotic, and which can play a physiological role other than immune defense. Our findings indicated that in the myeloid lineage caspase-8 is needed both at an early progenitor stage and at a more differentiated monocyte precursor stage. It was also needed in B lymphocyte progenitors. According to a recent study, ...
Increasing resistance to chemotherapeutic regimes remains a serious problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia. We have shown that phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibition significantly sensitises the AML derived cell line, HL60 to chemotherapeutic drug- and Fas-induced apoptosis. PI3-kinase inhibition significantly potentiates cytotoxic drug-induced c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, reported to be a requirement for apoptosis. However, JNK inhibition does not enhance cell viability following treatment with drug and inhibitor. Furthermore, PI3-kinase inhibition significantly increases sensitivity to apoptosis mediated by an exogenous receptor agonist, again by a JNK independent mechanism. These results suggest that PI3-kinase inhibitors could be of significant therapeutic importance, lowering the threshold for apoptosis induced by both chemotherapy and cell-mediated immune response.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effects of cytolytic T cell subsets on intracellular infection. AU - Stenger, Steffen. AU - Mazzaccaro, Richard J.. AU - Uyemura, Koichi. AU - Cho, Sungae. AU - Barnes, Peter F.. AU - Rosat, Jean Pierre. AU - Sette, Alessandro. AU - Brenner, Michael B.. AU - Porcelli, Steven A.. AU - Bloom, Barry R.. AU - Modlin, Robert L.. PY - 1997/6/13. Y1 - 1997/6/13. N2 - In analyzing mechanisms of protection against intracellular infections, a series of human CD1-restricted T cell lines of two distinct phenotypes were derived. Both CD4-CD8- (double-negative) T cells and CD8+ T cells efficiently lysed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The cytotoxicity of CD4-CD8- T cells was mediated by Fas-FasL interaction and had no effect on the viability of the mycobacteria. The CD8+ T cells lysed infected macrophages by a Fas-independent, granule-dependent mechanism that resulted in killing of bacteria. These data indicate that two phenotypically distinct subsets of ...
We experienced a case exhibiting various autoimmune disorders. The percentage of double negative T cells (2.75% of TCRαβ+ T lymphocytes; 2.18% of total lymphocytes) met the diagnostic criteria for ALPS (ie, more than 2.5% of TCRαβ+ lymphocytes and 1.5% of total lymphocytes, respectively). The patients serum levels of IgG (1018 mg/dL), IgM (63 mg/dL), IgA (81 mg/dL), vitamin B12 (309 pg/mL; normal range, 233-914), soluble FASL (449.82 pg/mL; normal range, 451.6 ± 35.7), and interleukin (IL)-10 (6.49 pg/mL; normal range, 8.6 ± 9.6) were not elevated. However, there was a modest elevation in the patients IL-18 level (520.0 pg/mL; normal range, 126.0 ± 44.5). The relative proportion of lymphocyte subpopulation was within the normal range (T cells [CD3+CD19−], 73.1%; B cells [CD3−CD19+] 14.7%). Finally, the diagnosis of ALPS was denied, based on the findings of FAS-dependent apoptosis4,9 and mutational screening of FAS and FAS-L were negative. We also conducted genomic sequencing of ...
We have previously reported that T cells, primarily CD8+ T lymphocytes, undergo apoptosis in the tumor environment and in the peripheral circulation of patients with malignant diseases, including SCCHN, melanoma, and ovarian cancers (14, 16, 24). Sensitivity of CD8+ T cells to spontaneous apoptosis or death induced by a variety of extrinsic signals (VP-16, starvation, Fas cross-linking) is a generalized phenomenon. Further, we have established that apoptosis of CD8+ T cells takes place through both death receptor-mediated and mitochondria-mediated pathways (14). The proportions of CD8+ T cells binding Annexin V are markedly elevated in patients with cancer relative to normal controls (13, 14). However, not all CD8+ T cells are equally sensitive to apoptosis, as effector CD8+CD45RA−CD27− or CD8+CD28− cells are preferentially targeted for demise in patients with cancer (16, 17). This extensive spontaneous apoptosis may be one of the mechanisms responsible for immunosuppression found in ...
FAIM (1-90) was crystallized and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 A; the crystal belonged to space group P3(1), with unit-cell parameters a=b=58.02, c=71.11 A, alpha=beta=90, gamma=120 degrees ...
Eric_Atkinson at darwin.biochem.ualberta.ca wrote: : Hi Everybody: : I am writing a grant proposal as part of my Ph.D. Candidacy Exam. Part of it : involves studying the mechanisms of Fas antigen (APO-1) signaling initiation of : apoptosis. Does anybody know where I would be able to obtain anti-fas : antibodies? Are there any commercially available, or do the people who have : them make them readily available to other researchers? Any information would : be greatly appreciated. : Thanks, : Eric Atkinson If I were on your committee I would ask you: suppose the antibody is unavailable. Tell me how you would go about making it. Therefore, dont worry about where you are going to get the Ab; that is trivial, if it is available no one is going to doubt that you can get it. But be prepared to say how youre going to make it if necessary. Good Luck. J. Woodward Univ. of Kentuck ...
regulates nuclear translocation and the activation of NFKB upon FAS activation or LPA stimulation, and antagonizes FAS-induced apoptosis and further enhances the antiapoptotic effect of LPA in cells that express high levels of TRIP6 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human FAS. Recombinant protein corresponding to human FAS. (PAB29420) - Products - Abnova
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Everyone lost the interest in speaking. This battalion had been a cannon fodder battalion, their battle general had been average, their soldiers skill level was still back in the ear of ling power, their equipment was terrible. But this battalion had displayed an admirable battle spirit, one worthy of respect. No one retreated, no one fled, everyone charged into the jinzhi knowing they would die ...
Commander FAS anticorps monoclonal et polyclonal pour beaucoup dapplications. Selection de fournisseur de qualité pour anti-FAS anticorps.
Sentetik organik boyay c maddeler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n); bu fas l n 3 numaral notunda belirtilen m stahzarlardan esas sentetik organik boyay c maddeler olan m stahzarlar; fluoresanl ayd nlatma maddeleri veya l minofor olarak kullan lan sentetik organik r nler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n ...
Sentetik organik boyay c maddeler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n); bu fas l n 3 numaral notunda belirtilen m stahzarlardan esas sentetik organik boyay c maddeler olan m stahzarlar; fluoresanl ayd nlatma maddeleri veya l minofor olarak kullan lan sentetik organik r nler (kimyasal olarak belirli bir yap da olsun olmas n ...
This synthetic peptide is phosphorlated on Y232 of human FAS and is used as the immunogen for PAB8128. (P1589) - Products - Abnova
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fas/fas ligand pathway, apoptosis, and clonal anergy involved in systemic acetylcholine receptor T cell epitope tolerance. AU - Deng, C.. AU - Goluszko, E.. AU - Christadoss, P.. PY - 2001/3/1. Y1 - 2001/3/1. N2 - The cellular mechanisms of high dose systemic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) T cell epitope, α146-162 peptide-induced tolerance in experimental myasthenia gravis were examined. CD4 cells are the prime target for α146-162 peptide-induced tolerance. The expression of CD69, Fas, and B7.2 molecules on AChR-immune lymphocytes was enhanced within 4-12 h after tolerance induction. A high dose of α146-162 peptide in IFA failed to suppress T cell proliferation and/or clinical myasthenia gravis in lpr and gld mice deficient in Fas and Fas ligand, respectively. A high dose of α146-162 peptide in IFA in AChR-immunized mice induced apoptosis of BV6 cells. Further, reconstitution of IL-2 in vitro-recovered α146-162 peptide tolerized T cell proliferation, IFN-γ, and IL-10 ...
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized by nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. In 1995, defective lymphocyte apoptosis secondary to mutations in the FAS gene was identified as a molecular basis for ALPS.
The purpose of the protocol is to allow for patients, and relatives of patients, who may have the newly described autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, to be evaluated at the NIH Clinical Center. This evaluation will include blood and relevant tissue studies along with long-term clinical evaluations to define the biology, inheritance,clinical spectrum, and natural history of this syndrome. The aim of the research is to understand mechanisms involved in the development of expanded numbers of what is typically a rare population of immune cells (CD4-8-/TCRalpha/beta+ T cells, otherwise referred to as double negative T cells), and how these relate to the development of expanded numbers of immune cells and autoimmune (self against self) responses in patients with ALPS.. In some cases, we may proivide treatment related to ALPS. These treatments are consistent with standard medical practice.. Participants with ALPS will be invited to visit the NIH once a year or more frequently when clinically ...
This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an antibiotic called Fansidar on autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Patients with ALPS have enlarged lymph glands, spleen and/or liver, abnormal blood cell counts and overactive immune function. Current treatments are aimed at suppressing the immune system and improving symptoms, such as anemia (low red blood cell count) and low white blood cell and platelet counts. These treatments, however, are only partially effective and may have complications. Fansidar is a combination of two drugs, sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine, that is used to treat or prevent parasitic infections such as malaria. Recently a child with ALPS who was treated with Fansidar for a different illness had a marked shrinkage of the lymph organs. This study will examine whether Fansidar can shrink the lymph glands or spleen in patients with ALPS.. Patients with ALPS between the ages of 4 and 70 years who have had lymph gland enlargement for at least 1 year and ...
Langan RC, Gill F, Raiji MT, Mullinax JE, Pittaluga S, Pandalai P, Davis J, Perkins K, Avital I, Rudloff U. Autoimmune pancreatitis in the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): a sheep in wolves clothing? Pancreas. 2013 Mar; 42(2):363-6 ...
Teachey DT, Manno CS, Axsom KM, et al: Unmasking Evans syndrome: T-cell phenotype and apoptotic response reveal autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Blood 2005;105:2443-2448. Bader-Meunier B, Rieux-Laucat F, Croisille L, et al: Dyserythropoiesis associated with a fasdeficient condition in childhood. Br J Haematol 2000;108:300-304. Pensati L, Costanzo A, Ianni A, et al: Fas/Apo1 mutations and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in a patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis. Gastroenterology 1997;113: 1384-1389. Cell 1997;89:1067-1076. Stanger B, Leder P, Lee T, Kim E, Seed B: RIP: A novel protein containing a death domain that interacts with fas/APO-1(CD95) in yeast and causes cell death. Cell 1995;81:513-523. Chu K, Niu X, Williams LT: A Fas-associated protein factor, FAF1, potentiates Fas-mediated apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995;92:11894-11898. Barnhart BC, Alappat EC, Peter ME: The CD95 type I/type II model. Semin Immunol 2003;15: 185-193. Siegel RM, Muppidi JR, Sarker M, ...
AICD (activation-induced cell death) is programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptors (Fas, CD95) and Fas ligands (FasL, CD95 ligand). AICD is a negative regulator of activated T lymphocytes that results from repeated stimulation of their T-cell receptors (TCR) and helps to maintain peripheral immune tolerance. Alteration of the process may lead to autoimmune diseases. The AICD effector cell is one that expresses FasL, and apoptosis is induced in the cell expressing the Fas receptor. Both activated T cells and B cells express Fas and undergo clonal deletion by the AICD mechanism. Activated T cells that express both Fas and FasL may be killed by themselves or by each other. The binding of Fas ligand to Fas receptor triggers trimerization of Fas, whose cytoplasmic domain is then able to bind the death domain of the adaptor protein FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain). Procaspase 8 binds to FADDs death effector domain (DED) and proteolytically self-activates as ...
Treatment is most commonly directed at autoimmune disease and may be needed to treat bulky lymphoproliferation. First line therapies include corticosteroids (very active but toxic with chronic use), and IVIgG, which are not as effective as in other immune cytopenia syndromes. Second line therapies include: mycophenolate mofetil (cellcept)[15] which inactivates inosine monophosphate, most studied in clinical trials with responses varying (relapse, resolution, partial response). It does not affect lymphoproliferation or reduce DNTs, with no drug-drug interactions. This treatment is commonly used agent in patients who require chronic treatment based on tolerance and efficacy. It may cause hypogammaglobulinemia (transient) requiring IVIgG replacement. Sirolimus (rapamycin, rapamune) which is a mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor[16] can be active in most patients and can in some cases lead to complete or near-complete resolution of autoimmune disease (,90%)[17][18] With this treatment ...
Although ALPS is frequently caused by mutations in known genes, such as FAS, FASLG or CASP10, in 20-30% of cases the defect is still unknown. It is highly likely that defects in or overexpression of regulators of these genes such as miR-146a22 could result in an ALPS-like phenotype and account for a not yet defined percentage of ALPS-U cases. In the present study we identified an IL12RB1 mutation and the IL12 signaling pathway as such an alternative cause of an ALPS-like phenotype through regulation of FasL expression. Previously it was shown that activation of T and NK cells by IL12 results in upregulation of FasL.23-26,28,42 For instance, Yu et al. showed that dendritic cell-derived IL12 is involved in upregulation of FasL on NK cells leading to cell death.25 Moreover, in the absence of antigen, IL12 induces apoptosis of T cells via upregulation of FasL which can be blocked by anti-FasL antibodies.26 In line with this, we found that primary human T cells deficient in FasL expression were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FAS-ligand regulates differential activation-induced cell death of human T-helper 1 and 17 cells in healthy donors and multiple sclerosis patients. AU - Cencioni, M. T.. AU - Santini, S.. AU - Ruocco, G.. AU - Borsellino, G.. AU - De Bardi, M.. AU - Grasso, M. G.. AU - Ruggieri, S.. AU - Gasperini, C.. AU - Centonze, D.. AU - Barilá, D.. AU - Battistini, L.. AU - Volpe, E.. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Functionally distinct T-helper (Th) subsets orchestrate immune responses. Maintenance of homeostasis through the tight control of inflammatory Th cells is crucial to avoid autoimmune inflammation. Activation-Induced Cell Death (AICD) regulates homeostasis of T cells, and it has never been investigated in human Th cells. We generated stable clones of inflammatory Th subsets involved in autoimmune diseases, such as Th1, Th17 and Th1/17 cells, from healthy donors (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and we measured AICD. We find that human Th1 cells are sensitive, whereas ...
The apoptosis-inducing Fas ligand (FasL) is a type II transmembrane protein that is involved in the downregulation of immune reactions by activation-induced cell death (AICD) as well as in T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Proteolytic cleavage leads to the generation of membrane-bound N-terminal fragments and a soluble FasL (sFasL) ectodomain. sFasL can be detected in the serum of patients with dysregulated inflammatory diseases and is discussed to affect Fas-FasL-mediated apoptosis. Using pharmacological approaches in 293T cells, in vitro cleavage assays as well as loss and gain of function studies in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we demonstrate that the disintegrin and metalloprotease ADAM10 is critically involved in the shedding of FasL. In primary human T cells, FasL shedding is significantly reduced after inhibition of ADAM10. The resulting elevated FasL surface expression is associated with increased killing capacity and an increase of T cells undergoing AICD. Overall, our findings ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous expression of transforming growth factor β1 inhibits growth and tumorigenicity and enhances fas-mediated apoptosis in a murine high- grade glioma model. AU - Ashley, David M.. AU - Kong, Feng M.. AU - Bigner, Darell D.. AU - Hale, Laura P.. PY - 1998/1/15. Y1 - 1998/1/15. N2 - It has been hypothesized that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) may prevent immune-mediated glioma cell elimination; however, previous work has also indicated that increased TGF-β may lead to reduced proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and enhancement of Fas-induced apoptosis. We have investigated the role of TGF-β in the progression of malignant glioma using an immunocompetent murine model. SMA 560 malignant glioma cells were stably transfected with constructs that resulted in over- or underproduction of active TGF-β1. Using these cell lines, we have shown that (a) TGF-β1 inhibits induction of antitumor cytotoxicity when the tumor cells are given s.c. but not when they are given ...
Example of cell death by apoptosis. This is a photomicrograph of tumor tissue of a liver biopsy of a 58 year old man who has a large metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in the liver. This section shows only tumor cells and frequent apoptotic cells evident (dark nuclei) in all areas of the tumor tissue. Haematoxylin and eosin stain, x300 and disturbances of Ca 2+ signaling can also induce apoptosis (MCCONKEY et al. 1990) (Fig. 5). Removal of extracellular Ca 2+can prevent nuclear changes manifest in apoptosis such as apoptotic body formation and DNA degradation, demonstrating Ca2+ requirement in apoptosis (NICOTERA et al. Human soluble Fas ligand binds to Fasbearing cells such as cardiomyocytes and T cells, and produces apoptosis (TANAKA et al. 1995). It has been suggested that soluble Fas ligand may cause systemic tissue damage when released into circulation (NAGATA and GOLSTEIN 1995; TANAKA et al. 1995, 1996) and the ongoing loss of myocytes exerts an essential role in the pathogenesis of ...
A fundamental biological question that remains largely unresolved concerns the mechanism by which binding of ligands to receptors on the cell surface causes transmission of a signal through the plasma membrane. One appealing explanation has been that ligand binding brings receptors together into multimeric complexes. Three reports describe cases in which the opposite approach is taken, and the receptors are bound and lie in wait for the ligand. Siegel et al. and Chan et al. have examined how the Fas and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors signal. They define a protein interaction domain in these receptors that mediates assembly of the receptors into complexes in the absence of ligand. Such association is shown to be necessary for ligand binding and subsequent signaling. The results also explain how abnormal forms of Fas can dominantly prevent Fas-induced signaling in the human disease known as autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. When bound to their cognate receptors, interferons (IFNs) ...
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Evidence suggests that the signalling events which occur after apoptotic stimulation, define two basic mechanisms for the induction of apoptosis. The first is dependent on signalling via the mitochondria and the second is dependent upon signalling directly from the death receptors. After induction of apoptosis, there is a convergence in signalling at the level of caspase activation and subsequent biochemical and morphological changes. Therefore the efficacy of various inhibitors of apoptosis is dependent upon the initiating signal. In order to understand the apoptotic pathway, the mechanisms by which these inhibitors regulate chemical- and receptor-mediated apoptosis must be understood. The anti-apoptotic oncoprotein, Bcl-2, was shown to inhibit both staurosporine and Fas-mediated apoptosis in a manner which was partially dependent upon the level of Bcl-2 protein expressed. During both staurosporine and Fas-induced apoptosis Bcl-2 acted downstream of caspase-8 activation. High levels of Bcl-2 ...
GH is known to reduce adipose tissue in vivo (11) and decrease the expression of FAS in adipocytes (10). GH is also a potent activator of STAT5 in adipocytes (27). Hence, we hypothesized that STAT5 proteins directly modulate FAS expression. Therefore, we examined the regulation of FAS by two STAT5 activators, GH and PRL. As shown in Fig. 1A, we observed that both GH and PRL resulted in a decrease in FAS mRNA in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. GH decreased FAS mRNA by 12 h of treatment, and PRL treatment resulted in decreased expression within 6 h. In an independent experiment, we observed that both GH and PRL also resulted in a decrease in expression of FAS protein levels (Fig. 1B). To demonstrate the specificity of this effect, fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with PRL for 8 h with the various doses indicated in Fig. 1C. There was a notable decrease in FAS protein level with 8.8 nmol/l PRL treatment, and the decrease of FAS protein levels by PRL treatment was dose ...
Results Mean SLE duration was 5,0 [1,0-12,0] years, SLEDAI 2K score - 9 [4-15], SLICC damage index score - 0 [0-1]. SLE pts had lower levels of sFas/APO-1 vs control (669,65 [487,90-791,40] vs 1456,90 [426,50-2060,80] pg/ml, p,0,01) and higher levels of sFasL vs control (0,10 [0,01-0,03] vs 0,07 [0,05-0,10] ng/ml, p,0,05). In SLE pts serum sFas/APO-1 level correlated with platelets absolute count (r=-0,292, p,0,05), creatinine (r=0,538, p,0,0001), urea (r=0,431, p,0,01), uric acid (r=0,698, p,0,000000), proteinuria (r=0,311, p,0,05), cylindruria levels (r=0,365, p,0,05), glomerular filtration rate (r=-0,341, p,0,05) and systolic blood pressure (r=0,327, p,0,05), SLEDAI 2K (r=0,342, p,0,05), antiSSA (r=-0,467, p,0,001), antiSSB (r=-0,338, p,0,05), ACL IgG (r=0,434, p,0,01), CRP concentrations (r=0,446, p,0,01) and ESR (r=0,428, p,0,01). We divided SLE pts into two groups: Group 1 included pts with lupus nephritis (n=24 (50%)), Group 2 - SLE pts without nephritis (n=24 (50%)). Pts from Group 1 had ...
The illustration depicts a wild type mouse and a littermate mutant mouse expressing a constitutive serine phosphorylation mutation in Fas-Associated Death Domain (FADD-D). FADD-D mice exhibit reduced body size. The corresponding confocal images show mislocalization of FADD-D protein. Activated T cells from either wild type or FADD-D mice were stained with FADD antibody (green and pink, respectively) and DAPI (blue).
Fas Ligand antibody [MFL4] (Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6)) for FACS. Anti-Fas Ligand mAb (GTX42337) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
References for Abcams Anti-Fas Ligand antibody [B-R17] (ab47174). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Fas is a type of receptors on the cells surface that belongs to the family of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)[29] commonly highly expressed in cells that are enduring intercellular damages and can induce apoptosis in the Fas-presenting cells when it binds with its specific ligand (the Fas ligand or FasL) on the surface of immunosurveillance lymphocytes such as killer T cells or NK cells.[30] Dormant NK cells contain a significant amount of transmembranal-type FasL in their cytolytic granules on the inner surface of the outer membrane where it is stored differently from the perforin[31] and, possibly, other enzymes of the granule-exocytosis pathway. Once receptors on NK cells recognize alien, infected, or transformed (tumorous) cells, they initiate polar degranulation and release FasL into the synapses between NK cells and the target cells. The FasL binds to the Fas receptor on the target cells, activating a series of caspase enzymes within the cytoplasm of the target cells, which cleave different ...
The I 9.2 cell line is a caspase-8 mutant of the wild-type Jurkat cell line A3 (see ATCC CRL-2570). Wild-type A3 cells were made neomycin resistant and treated with three cycles of exposure to the frameshifting mutagen ICR-191 to isolate clones harboring recessive mutations that were resistant to killing by Fas antibody.  Ref ICR-191 treated clones were serially diluted in 96-well plates in the presence of Fas Antibody for 3 to 5 weeks. Ref  Two of these ICR-191 treated clones have been deposited at the ATCC . They are I 9.2 (ATCC CRL-2571), a clone with a mutation in the cysteine protease caspase-8/FLICE and I 2.1 (ATCC CRL-2572), a clone with a mutation in the adaptor FADD.  
BACKGROUND AIMS: Expansion of anti-CD25 bead-isolated human Tregs culture has paradoxically resulted in reduced suppressive activity, but the mechanism(s) responsible for these observations are poorly defined. METHODS: Magnetic-bead isolated human CD25(+) cells were expanded with anti-CD3/CD28 beads and high doses of rhIL-2. Detection of Fas and Fas ligand (Fas-L) expression, activation of Caspase 8, cell proliferation and cytokine production was evaluated by multi-color fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. The role of Fas-Fas-L-mediated cell death was dissected through the use of agonist or antagonist monoclonal antibodies directed at Fas and Fas-L. RESULTS: Repeated expansion of bead-enriched CD4(+)CD25(+) cells generated a cellular product with markedly reduced suppressive activity and with significantly increased CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells producing interferon-γ and/or interleukin-2. We showed that Fas-Fas-L-mediated apoptosis of CD4(+)FOXP3(high) cells and rapid cell-cycling of CD8
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Principal Investigator:TAKEUCHI Shoji, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Orthopaedic surgery
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Die hier vorliegenden klinischen und experimentellen Arbeiten hatten zum Ziel apoptotische Mechanismen einer Schädigung des unreifen zentralen Nervensystems näher zu charakterisieren. Im tierexperimentellen Teil der Studien wurden apoptotische Faktoren und deren Regulation an zwei unterschiedlichen experimentellen Schädigungsmodellen des unreifen Gehirns (Hypoxie, Trauma) untersucht, mit dem Ziel mögliche neuroprotektive Ansätze zu identifizieren. In einem weiteren Teil der Arbeiten ging es darum, die Darstellung der Hirnschädigung von sehr unreifer Frühgeborenen in der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) histologisch an Autopsiematerial zu vergleichen. An Autopsiefällen mit pontosubikulärer Nekrose (PSN) wurde die Bedeutung der pro-apoptotischen Marker CD95/Fas/Fas Ligand bei einer Hypoxie erarbeitet. Der klinische Teil der Untersuchungen hatte die Identifizierung Apoptose-regulierender Faktoren (lösliche Form von Fas/Fas Ligand, Caspase 3) im Liquor von Patienten mit Hydrozephalus zum ...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Inactivation of caspase-8 on mitochondria of Bcl-xL-expressing MCF7-Fas cells: role for the bifunctional apoptosis regulator protein (2002)
Immune regulation plays a critical role in controlling potentially dangerous inflammation and maintaining health. The Fas ligand/Fas receptor axis has been studied extensively as a mechanism of killin
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Update 2009/12/26) Aaron was kicked from the band before this release and it is actually an old friend of the band called AD that is doing the vocals. (Sorry Aaron if i bashed you for something you didnt record) Thanks to Ethan for the information ...
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FAF1 - FAF1 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human Fas (TNFRSF6) associated factor 1 (FAF1) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
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Acute liver failure caused by viral hepatitis or toxic damage involves both apoptotic and necrotic pathways. IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), a hepatocyte-derived secreted protein, is required for normal liver regeneration. To determine whether IGFBP-1 could prevent liver injury that entails direct stimulation of hepatocyte apoptosis, IGFBP-1-/- mice, IGFBP-1+/+ mice, and mice pretreated with Abs against IGFBP-1 were treated with a normally sublethal dose of Fas agonist. IGFBP-1 deficiency was associated with massive hepatocyte apoptosis and caspase activation within 3 hours of Fas agonist treatment, which could be corrected by pretreatment with IGFBP-1. IGFBP-1-deficient livers had enhanced signaling via the integrin receptor at early times (0.5 to 1 hour) after Fas agonist treatment accompanied by elevated activated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a known target of fibronectin signaling and activator of TGF-β. Within 3 hours of Fas agonist treatment, elevated expression of active ...
THE Fas/APO-1 receptor is one of the major regulators of apoptosis(1-7). We report here that Fas/APO-1-mediated apoptosis requires the activation of a new class of cysteine proteases, including interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme (ICE)(8-10) which are homologous to the product of the Caenorhabditis elegans cell-death gene ced-3 (refs 11, 12). Triggering of Fas/APO-1 rapidly stimulated the proteolytic activity of ICE. Overexpression of ICE, achieved by electroporation and microinjection, strongly potentiated Fas/APO-1-mediated cell death. In addition, inhibition of ICE activity by protease inhibitors, as well as by transient expression of the pox virus-derived serpin inhibitor CrmA or an antisense ICE construct, substantially suppressed Fas/APO-1-triggered cell death. We conclude that activation of ICE or an ICE-related protease is a critical event in Fas/APO-1-mediated cell death.. ...
Covered on Genetics Home Reference: autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromebreast cancerFrom NCBI Gene: Caspase-8 deficiencyHepatocellular carcinomaFamilial cancer of breastLung cancerFrom UniProt: Caspase-8 deficiency (CASP8D): Disorder resembling autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). It is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and defective CD95-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). It leads to defects in activation of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and natural killer cells leading to immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary and herpes simplex virus infections and poor responses to immunization. [MIM:607271] From NCBI Gene: This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain, a large protease subunit, and a small protease subunit. Activation of ...
Starkel, Peter ; Borbath, Ivan ; Horsmans, Yves ; Charette, Nicolas ; De Saeger, C. ; et. al. In the rat DEN model of hepatocarcinogenesis, the ras inhibitor FTS prevents hepatocarcinoma development by apoptosis induction via activation of the Fas/Fas ligand system.43rd Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-the-Liver (Milan (Italy), Apr 23-27, 2008). In: Journal of Hepatology, Vol. 48, p. S137-S137 (2008 ...
Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. In cooperation with mitochondrial PPIF is involved in activating oxidative stress-induced necrosis; the function is largely independent of transcription. Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. Induces the transcription of long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) and lincRNA-Mkln1. LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seem to have to effect on cell-cycle
Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a virtually incurable B cell malignancy of the bone marrow. One important part of tumor progression and an obstacle for successful therapy is resistance to apoptosis. To combat this resistance, the mechanisms of apoptosis and survival in MM must be better defined. In this thesis, we identified Fas up-regulation as a mechanism underlying interferon (IFN)-mediated sensitization to Fas-induced apoptosis in the MM cell line U-266-1970. IFN treatment induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)1 but, intriguingly, also attenuated activation of MM survival factor Stat3. Exploring the role of Stat1 further, we established sub-lines of U-266-1970 with a stable over-expression of Stat1 and of its active mutant Stat1C. These sub-lines displayed a decreased expression and activation of Stat3, and an altered expression of apoptosis-related genes Harakiri, Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. In a drug library screening, Stat1 over-expression was associated with an ...
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This enzyme is activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis. Following Fas ligation, the enzyme, which is constitutively phosphorylated, is dephosphorylated, and it is the dephosphorylated form that causes phosphorylation of TIA-1, a nuclear RNA-binding protein. Phosphorylation of TIA-1 precedes the onset of DNA fragmentation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of endothelial Fas expression as a mechanism of promotion of vascular integrity by mural cells in tumors. AU - Kamei, Ryosuke. AU - Tanaka, Hiroyoshi Y.. AU - Kawano, Takao. AU - Morii, Chiharu. AU - Tanaka, Sayaka. AU - Nishihara, Hiroshi. AU - Iwata, Caname. AU - Kano, Mitsunobu R.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Angiogenesis is a multi-step process that culminates in vascular maturation whereby nascent vessels stabilize to become functional, and mural cells play an essential role in this process. Recent studies have shown that mural cells in tumors also promote and maintain vascular integrity, with wide-reaching clinical implications including the regulation of tumor growth, metastases, and drug delivery. Various regulatory signaling pathways have been hitherto implicated, but whether regulation of Fas-dependent apoptotic mechanisms is involved has not yet been fully investigated. We first compared endothelial FAS staining in human pancreatic ductal ...
Organs suffer damage when they are removed from a donors body and prepared for transplantation. Temporary loss of blood flow deprives them of oxygen and causes cells to die. Using gene therapy, researchers have found a way to prevent this tissue damage.. Low levels of oxygen increase the activity of the Fas gene, which is known to trigger cell death, or apoptosis. Researchers led by John Fung, of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pennsylvania, reasoned that blocking the activity of Fas may prevent cell death and help preserve donated organs. Fungs team delivered antisense DNA which specifically blocks the activity of the Fas gene to mice five days before blocking blood flow to the kidney. The flow was blocked for 90 minutes and then allowed to resume. The loss of blood flow to the kidney for periods as short as 30 minutes dramatically increased the activity of the Fas gene. Substantially fewer dead cells were found in the kidneys of mice that had received the anti-Fas DNA. Normal ...
Hi Everybody: , I am writing a grant proposal as part of my Ph.D. Candidacy Exam. Part of it , involves studying the mechanisms of Fas antigen (APO-1) signaling initiation of , apoptosis. Does anybody know where I would be able to obtain anti-fas , antibodies? Are there any commercially available, or do the people who have , them make them readily available to other researchers? Any information would , be greatly appreciated. , Thanks, , Eric Atkinson , You should be able to find out if it is commercially available if you use Linscotts directory James F. George, Ph.D. University of Alabama at Birmingham 205-934-4261 voice txpljfg at uabcvsr.cvsr.uab.edu ...
Apoptosis is a designed cell death mechanism involved in biological processes. Apoptosis can either be activated by extrinsic pathway or by the intrinsic pathway. A major part of the external apoptosis pathway is the death receptor Fas which, on binding to its associated ligand FasL, they eventually form the death-inducing signaling complex. FasL promotes clustering for open Fas and activates open stable Fas, forming locally stable signaling platforms through neighborhood-induced receptor interactions. The model exhibits a bifurcation called hysteresis, providing an upstream mechanism for bistability and robustness to decide if the cell lives or dies. At low receptor concentrations, the bistability depends on three states of FasL. The irreversible bistability, representing a committed cell death decision, emerges at high receptor concentrations. Furthermore, the model suggests a mechanism by which cells may function as bistable life/death switches which are independent of their downstream ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Background: The Fas (APO-1; CD95) antigen is a type I cell surface glycoprotein that transduces an apoptotic signal after interaction with its natural ligand. Membrane-bound Fas is a cell-surface receptor that transduces apoptosis after interaction with membrane-bound or FasL, while soluble Fas (sFas) binds FasL and inhibits its activity. Increased concentration of sFas has been reported in various diseases, including autoimmune diseases and several cancers, such as hematopoietic malignancy and solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sFas in the presence of bone (BMs) or liver (LMs) metastases in patients with advanced breast cancer (BC).. Patients & methods: In this study, we examined the plasma levels of sFas in 31 women with confirmed BMs (Group 1, N = 16) or LMs (Group 2, N = 15) from BC, and in 18 age- and stage-matched controls in whom the presence of metastases was excluded by whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning, using a commercially available quantitative ...
7-Ketocholesterol predisposes human aorta smooth muscle cells to Fas-mediated death / Mun Chual Rho; Young Kook Kim; Jong Sun Chang; Hyun Sun Lee; Jin Ah Baek; Mi Yeon Chung; H C Lee; H W Lee; B Y Rhim; M A Reidy; K Kim , 2005 ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
The Jurkat cell line was established from the peripheral blood of a 14 year old boy by Schneider et al., and was originally designated JM. The line was cloned from cells obtained from Dr. Kendall Smith and are mycoplasma free. This is a clone of the Jurkat-FHCRC cell line, a derivative of the Jurkat cell line.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Duncan Simpson.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Physics of Living Matter PLM6 series.. ...
Topic For RDA-4 Joint DP W/S The high-level Use Cases we are being required to address by FAs are: 1.Open Access (specific samples / purposes); 2.Reproducibility (of data, results, publications); 3.Provision of Data Management Plan(s). AFAIK, these
TY - JOUR. T1 - FADD/MORT1 is a common mediator of CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-induced apoptosis. AU - Chinnaiyan, Arul M.. AU - Tepper, Clifford G. AU - Seldin, Michael F. AU - ORourke, Karen. AU - Kischkel, Frank C.. AU - Hellbardt, Stefan. AU - Krammer, Peter H.. AU - Peter, Marcus E.. AU - Dixit, Vishva M.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - CD95 (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR-1) are related molecules that signal apoptosis. Recently, a number of novel binding proteins have been proposed to mediate the signaling of these death receptors. Here we report that an N-terminal truncation of one of these candidate signal transducers, FADD/MORT1, abrogates CD95-induced apoptosis, ceramide generation, and activation of the cell death protease Yama/CPP32. In addition, this dominant-negative derivative of FADD (FADD-DN) blocked TNF- induced apoptosis while not affecting NF-κB activation. FADD-DN bound both receptors, and in the case of CD95, it disrupted ...
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is one of the regulation mechanisms of cell homeostasis.. Fas is a transmembrane receptor protein which transmits a cell death signal when cross linked with an antibody or with its physiological ligand-Fas ligand (Fas L).1 Fas and Fas L have a pivotal role in regulating lymphocyte apoptosis and maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis.. Soluble forms of Fas and Fas L may be detectable and measured in the serum,2 and may reflect the activation of this pathway. Moreover, soluble forms of Fas regulate Fas/Fas L mediated apoptosis.3 Raised levels of soluble Fas (sFas) have been shown in various chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögrens syndrome,1 4 5 and in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis.6 These diseases are autoimmune diseases with lymphocyte involvement.. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is another chronic inflammatory rheumatic disorder, with less autoimmune background or lymphocyte involvement. Involvement of apoptosis ...
Vasicinone, a quinazoline alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica Nees. is well known for its bronchodilator activity. However its anti-proliferative activities is yet to be elucidated. Here-in we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of vasicinone and its underlying mechanism against A549 lung carcinoma cells. The A549 cells upon treatment with various doses of vasicinone (10, 30, 50, 70 μM) for 72 h showed significant decrease in cell viability. Vasicinone treatment also showed DNA fragmentation, LDH leakage, and disruption of mitochondrial potential, and lower wound healing ability in A549 cells. The Annexin V/PI staining showed disrupted plasma membrane integrity and permeability of PI in treated cells. Moreover vasicinone treatment also lead to down regulation of Bcl-2, Fas death receptor and up regulation of PARP, BAD and cytochrome c, suggesting the anti-proliferative nature of vasicinone which mediated apoptosis through both Fas death receptors as well as Bcl-2 regulated signaling. ...
The generalized lymphoproliferative disorder (gld) mouse strain is characterized by severe splenomegaly/lymphadenopathy, the production of autoimmune antibodies, and the appearance of CD4/CD8-negative T cells. An additional TNF deficiency of gld/gld mice attenuates the course of the disorder through a yet-unknown mechanism. In this study, we could demonstrate that the reduced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy in B6.gld/gld.TNF-/- mice were correlated with a decreased peripheral T cell proliferation rate and a delayed polyclonal activation. A comparative analysis of naïve T cells and memory/effector T cells showed an age-dependent difference in the T cell activation pattern in the spleen of B6.gld/gld and B6.gld/gld.TNF-/- mice. T cells from B6.gld/gld.TNF-/- spleens and lymph nodes showed significantly higher levels of CCR7 and CD62 ligand on their surface compared with B6.gld/gld mice when mice of the same age were compared. Additionally, we found an increased titer of the Th1 cytokine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypericin induced death receptor-mediated apoptosis in photoactivated tumor cells.. AU - Ali, Seyed Mohamed. AU - Chee, Soo Khee. AU - Yuen, Gan Yik. AU - Olivo, Malini. PY - 2002/6. Y1 - 2002/6. N2 - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease of the head/neck region with a 5-year survival level of approximately 65%. To explore the novel therapeutic strategies in the management of this disease, the potential effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in NPC cells were investigated. PDT, a new mode of treatment, is based on the combined use of light-absorbing compounds and light irradiation. Two human NPC cells such as, poorly differentiated (NPC/CNE2) and moderately differentiated (NPC/TW0-1) and other types of tumor cells like colon (CCL-220.1) and bladder (SD) undergo rapid apoptosis when treated with PDT sensitized with hypericin (HY). It has been shown that this compound has a strong photodynamic effect on tumors and viruses. However, the initiating events of PDT ...
We report the case of a young woman who developed, 3 years after stopping Rituximab (RTX) prescribed for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), a severe immunodeficiency leading to fatal pulmonary Epstein–Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Genetic analysis led us to identify four missense mutations known to affect immune-deficiency–associated genes (FAS-ligand (|i|FASL|/i|) gene (p.G167R); perforin-1 (|i|PRF1|/i| (p.R55C) gene; the Bloom syndrome RecQ-Like helicase (|i|BLM|/i|) gene and the Moesin (|i|MSN|/i|) (p.A122T) gene). The heterozygous mutation in the |i|FASL|/i| gene, not present in the Genome Aggregation Database or ClinVar database, could suggest atypical Autoimmune LymphoProliferative Syndrome and its role in this patient’s immunodepression is discussed. This observation strengthens the role of |i|FASL|/i| gene mutation in severe clinical phenotypes of primary immune deficiency and raises new questions about the genetic background of ITP occurring in young people

Adelaide Research & Scholarship: The FAS antigen (CD95) on human lymphoid cells - epitope analysis with ten antibodiesAdelaide Research & Scholarship: The FAS antigen (CD95) on human lymphoid cells - epitope analysis with ten antibodies

The expression of CD95 antigen was examined on adult and cord blood lymphocytes using a highly sensitive immunofluorescence/ ... The FAS antigen (CD95) on human lymphoid cells - epitope analysis with ten antibodies. ... B cells apparently reacting selectively with CD95 antibodies were sorted and CD95 mRNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA and ... in order to confirm the presence of CD95 in cells which reacted selectively and to explore the possible existence of CD95 ...
more infohttps://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/7878

The Peripheral Deletion of Autoreactive CD8+ T Cells Induced by Cross-presentation of Self-antigens Involves Signaling through...The Peripheral Deletion of Autoreactive CD8+ T Cells Induced by Cross-presentation of Self-antigens Involves Signaling through...

... blocking of TNF together with CD95 prevented deletion induced by antigen injection more profoundly than did blocking of CD95 ... 1996) Homeostatic regulation of CD8+T cells after antigen challenge in the absence of Fas (CD95) Eur J Immunol 26:2903-2910, ... 1996) Expansion or elimination of B cells in vivo: dual roles for CD40- and Fas (CD95)-ligands modulated by the B cell antigen ... 1996) The roles of Fas/APO-1 (CD95) and TNF in antigen-induced programmed cell death in T cell receptor transgenic mice. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/188/2/415

Rapid B cell apoptosis induced by antigen receptor ligation does not require Fas (CD95/APO-1), the adaptor protein FADD/MORT1...Rapid B cell apoptosis induced by antigen receptor ligation does not require Fas (CD95/APO-1), the adaptor protein FADD/MORT1...

CD95/APO-1). Whether B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated apoptosis requires Fas or related molecules is unclear. Here we ... Antigen receptor ligation-induced apoptosis of mature T cells and T cell lines requires autocrine or paracrine activation of ... Antigen receptor ligation-induced apoptosis is thought to play a role in self-tolerance by deleting autoreactive lymphocytes. ... Dissection of pathways leading to antigen receptor-induced and Fas/CD95-induced apoptosis in human B cells.. *Susanne M A Lens ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Rapid-B-cell-apoptosis-induced-by-antigen-receptor-Yoshida-Higuchi/d760f3014fc0ae0a787466edd7d948b34d80b353

Search Results | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansSearch Results | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

cd95 antigens (1) * celiac disease (1) * chemotherapy regimen (1) * cholestasis (1) * coma (1) ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/search-results?q=glutamine&fd_JournalID=90

Effects of CD59 on antitumoral activities of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.Effects of CD59 on antitumoral activities of phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis.

0/Antigens, CD59; 0/Antigens, CD95; 0/Antineoplastic Agents; 0/FAS protein, human; 0/RNA, Messenger; 0/Receptors, Tumor ... Antigens, CD59 / genetics, metabolism*, pharmacology. Antigens, CD95. Antineoplastic Agents / isolation & purification, ... 2869966 - Immunochemical and biochemical analysis of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna.... 12480896 - Binding and ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Effects-CD59-antitumoral-activities-phycocyanin/16271846.html

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor predisposes hepatocytes to Fas-mediated apoptosis.The aryl hydrocarbon receptor predisposes hepatocytes to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

Antigens, CD95 / physiology*. Apoptosis / physiology*. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular. Cell Line, Tumor. Fas Ligand Protein. ... 0/Antigens, CD95; 0/Fas Ligand Protein; 0/Fasl protein, mouse; 0/Membrane Glycoproteins; 0/Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-predisposes-hepatocytes/15550680.html

Electroacupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment through inhibition of NF-κB-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral...Electroacupuncture ameliorates cognitive impairment through inhibition of NF-κB-mediated neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral...

Antigens, CD95 (genetics, metabolism) *Apoptosis. *Brain Ischemia (complications, metabolism, pathology, physiopathology) *Cell ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed23525450.do

Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13
     Summary Report | CureHunterTumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13 Summary Report | CureHunter

CD95 Antigens (fas Receptor) 3. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor) ... many transformed and tumoral cells acting onto two distinct receptors of the Tumoral Necrosis Factor B cell maturation antigen ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD053300-Tumor-Necrosis-Factor-Ligand-Superfamily-Member-13.do

Anti-Human FAS scFv Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P0739 - Creative BioMartAnti-Human FAS scFv Stable Cell Line-CHO CSC-P0739 - Creative BioMart

CD95; Fas AMA; FAS 827dupA; CD95 antigen; FASLG receptor; apoptosis antigen 1; Delta Fas/APO-1/CD95; APO-1 cell surface antigen ... Tested positive against native human antigen.. Product Storage:. It should be stored at -20 °C. Reconstituted protein aliquots ... TNFRSF6/FAS-mediated apoptosis may have a role in the induction of peripheral tolerance, in the antigen-stimulated suicide of ... apoptosis-mediating surface antigen FAS; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6; APT1; FAS1; APO-1; FASTM; ALPS1A ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_174096_309.htm

CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis of T cells exposed to HIV-1  | Open-iCD95/Fas-induced apoptosis of T cells exposed to HIV-1 | Open-i

CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis of T cells exposed to HIV-1 is Type I IFN-dependent.(A) TLR7/9 inhibitors inhibit HIV-1Ba-L-induced ... In vitro IFNα/β stimulation enhanced Bak expression, CD95/Fas expression and CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis in healthy donor T ... In vitro IFNα/β stimulation enhanced Bak expression, CD95/Fas expression and CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis in healthy donor T ... Sensitivity to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis shown for CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors following a 72 hour ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3795023_ppat.1003658.g006&req=4

FAS mRNA colocalizes with Wig-1 protein in SGs. RNA FIS | Open-iFAS mRNA colocalizes with Wig-1 protein in SGs. RNA FIS | Open-i

Antigens, CD95/genetics*/metabolism. *Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics*/metabolism. *Carrier Proteins/genetics/metabolism* ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4150987_onc2013594f6&req=4

Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor...Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor...

Antigens, CD95. MESH. Antigens, Neoplasm/isolation & purification. MESH. Antigens, Surface/genetics. MESH. ... The APO-1 antigen as defined by the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-APO-1 was previously found to be expressed on the cell ... The APO-1 antigen as defined by the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-APO-1 was previously found to be expressed on the cell ... The APO-1 antigen was expressed upon transfection of APO-1 cDNA into BL60-P7 Burkitts lymphoma cells and conferred sensitivity ...
more infohttps://epub.uni-regensburg.de/16492/

Fas Ligand Protein | Profiles RNSFas Ligand Protein | Profiles RNS

Antigens, CD95. *Antigens, CD98. *Antigens, Thy-1. *B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor ... IL-2 and antigen dose differentially regulate perforin- and FasL-mediated cytolytic activity in antigen specific CD4+ T cells. ... Human and mouse colon cancer utilizes CD95 signaling for local growth and metastatic spread to liver. Gastroenterology. 2009 ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/124310

Administration of an antigen at a high dose generates regulatory CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells expressing CD95 ligand and secreting...Administration of an antigen at a high dose generates regulatory CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells expressing CD95 ligand and secreting...

Administration of an antigen at a high dose generates regulatory CD4+ T cells expressing CD95 ligand and secreting IL-4 in the ... Administration of an antigen at a high dose generates regulatory CD4+ T cells expressing CD95 ligand and secreting IL-4 in the ... Administration of an antigen at a high dose generates regulatory CD4+ T cells expressing CD95 ligand and secreting IL-4 in the ... Administration of an antigen at a high dose generates regulatory CD4+ T cells expressing CD95 ligand and secreting IL-4 in the ...
more infohttps://mdanderson.elsevierpure.com/en/publications/administration-of-an-antigen-at-a-high-dose-generates-regulatory-

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD95 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD95 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=103151005

FAS gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIHFAS gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH

CD95 antigen. *Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6). *Fas AMA. *Fas antigen ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/FAS

John J Laterra - Research Output
     - Johns Hopkins UniversityJohn J Laterra - Research Output - Johns Hopkins University

Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen-Targeted Imaging With [18F]DCFPyL in High-Grade Gliomas. Salas Fragomeni, R. A., Menke, J. R ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/john-j-laterra/publications/

all pediatric l1 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineall pediatric l1 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Fas protein, mouse; 0 / Fasl protein, mouse; 0 / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Fabp4 protein, mouse; 0 / Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins ... MeSH-major] Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=all+pediatric+l1+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

stage v wilms tumor drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginestage v wilms tumor drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule- ... MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA-Binding ... HLA-DR Antigens / physiology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.5.1.18 ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=stage+v+wilms+tumor+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Brian Herman - Research Output
     - Experts@MinnesotaBrian Herman - Research Output - [email protected]

Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Log in to Pure. ...
more infohttps://experts.umn.edu/en/persons/brian-herman/publications/?type=%2Fdk%2Fatira%2Fpure%2Fresearchoutput%2Fresearchoutputtypes%2Fcontributiontojournal%2Feditorial

Regulating Vav1 phosphorylation by the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase is a fine-tuning mechanism for the negative regulation of...Regulating Vav1 phosphorylation by the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase is a fine-tuning mechanism for the negative regulation of...

The actin cytoskeleton association is required for caspase 8-independent Fas/CD95 receptor internalization, a critical step for ... N2 - The actin cytoskeleton association is required for caspase 8-independent Fas/CD95 receptor internalization, a critical ... AB - The actin cytoskeleton association is required for caspase 8-independent Fas/CD95 receptor internalization, a critical ... abstract = "The actin cytoskeleton association is required for caspase 8-independent Fas/CD95 receptor internalization, a ...
more infohttps://hungary.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/regulating-vav1-phosphorylation-by-the-shp-1-tyrosine-phosphatase

Differential expression of genes in elastase-induced saccular aneurysms with high and low aspect ratios<...Differential expression of genes in elastase-induced saccular aneurysms with high and low aspect ratios<...

Fas antigen, and CD34 were down-regulated in high-AR aneurysms. Conclusion: In a rabbit model of saccular aneurysm, high AR was ... Fas antigen, and CD34 were down-regulated in high-AR aneurysms. Conclusion: In a rabbit model of saccular aneurysm, high AR was ... Fas antigen, and CD34 were down-regulated in high-AR aneurysms. Conclusion: In a rabbit model of saccular aneurysm, high AR was ... Fas antigen, and CD34 were down-regulated in high-AR aneurysms. Conclusion: In a rabbit model of saccular aneurysm, high AR was ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/differential-expression-of-genes-in-elastase-induced-saccular-ane

Apoptotic regulation of T cells and absence of immune deficiency in vi by Barbara L. Lohman and Raymond M. Welsh"Apoptotic regulation of T cells and absence of immune deficiency in vi" by Barbara L. Lohman and Raymond M. Welsh

... of immune deficiency in which the hosts T cells fail to proliferate in response to T-cell mitogens and fail to make an antigen ... Animals; Antigens, CD95; Apoptosis; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes; Cell Division; Interferon Type II; Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis ... of immune deficiency in which the hosts T cells fail to proliferate in response to T-cell mitogens and fail to make an antigen ...
more infohttps://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1541/
  • The majority of circulating B cells did not react with seven CD95 antibodies, but three antibodies did stain B cells. (edu.au)
  • Because different antibodies stained different proportions of B cells, CD95 epitopes were examined by inhibition, additive binding and protease susceptibility studies using a panel of ten CD95 antibodies. (edu.au)
  • B cells apparently reacting selectively with CD95 antibodies were sorted and CD95 mRNA was reverse transcribed to cDNA and analyzed, in order to confirm the presence of CD95 in cells which reacted selectively and to explore the possible existence of CD95 isoforms. (edu.au)
  • Ex vivo analysis of eight pro- and anti-apoptotic molecules in chronic HIV-1 infection revealed that pro-apoptotic Bak was increased in CD4+ T cells and correlated directly with sensitivity to CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis and inversely with CD4+ T cell counts. (nih.gov)
  • In HIV-1-infected patients, IFNα-stimulated gene expression correlated positively with ex vivo T cell Bak levels, CD95/Fas-mediated apoptosis and viremia and negatively with CD4+ T cell counts. (nih.gov)
  • 2019) CD49b, CD87, and CD95 Are Markers for Activated Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Whereas CD39 Marks Quiescent Normal Fibroblasts in Murine Tumor Models. (miltenyibiotec.com)