Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
CD9 is expressed in extravillous trophoblasts in association with integrin alpha3 and integrin alpha5. (1/315)The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein, which may be related to Schwann cell migration and adhesion. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade into the endometrium during implantation and placentation. CD9 was detected immunohistochemically on the extravillous trophoblasts in the cell columns of first trimester placentae, but not on villous trophoblasts. In the second and third trimester, CD9 was highly expressed on the extravillous trophoblasts in the basal plate of placentae, and in the chorion laeve in the fetal membrane of term placentae. The molecular mass of CD9 in the chorion laeve was shown to be 27 kDa by Western blotting. The mRNA of CD9 was also detected in the chorion laeve by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Proteins were purified from chorion laeve by affinity chromatography with anti-integrin alpha3 and alpha5 monoclonal antibodies and Western blotting, revealed that CD9 was associated with both integrins. These findings indicate that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule present in the extravillous trophoblasts. Since it is associated with integrin alpha5 which has been proposed to regulate trophoblast invasion, CD9 may be implicated in trophoblast invasion at the feto-maternal interface. (+info)
CD9 is involved in invasion of human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo cells. (2/315)The CD9 molecule is expressed on human extravillous trophoblasts, which invade the endometrium during implantation and placentation. To elucidate the role of CD9 in trophoblastic function, we investigated the expression of CD9 protein and mRNA in BeWo cells, a human trophoblast-like choriocarcinoma cell line, using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). When BeWo cells were cultured with anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), their invasion through the extracellular matrices was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Cell proliferation and human chorionic gonadotrophin production were unaffected. On the other hand, culture in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha3, alpha5 and beta1, which partially block the interaction with the extracellular matrices, inhibited BeWo cell invasion. Anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody had a stimulatory effect on BeWo cell invasion in the presence of anti-integrin alpha3 antibody. In contrast, it had no effect in the presence of mAb against integrins alpha5 and beta1, which were also highly expressed on BeWo cells. These findings suggest that CD9 has a function connected with the invasive properties of BeWo cells, which is partially mediated by integrin alpha5beta1. This may relate to the involvement of CD9 in trophoblastic invasion. (+info)
Motility-related protein (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82 expression inversely correlate with lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (3/315)Although the mechanisms of action of the transmembrane superfamilies, motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82, are not well known, they are reported to suppress the metastasis of several kinds of cancers. The suppression of cell motility by MRP-1/CD9 may cause suppression of the metastasis. As we could not find any reports concerning the expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in oesophageal cancers we investigated their expression in oesophageal specimens. We conducted immunohistochemical staining for MRP1/CD9 against 108 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma using anti-MRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody M31-15, and for KAI1/CD82 against 104 cases using anti-KAI1/CD82 monoclonal antibody C33. To investigate the gradual expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82, 24 oesophageal dysplasias were immunohistochemically stained using the same method and then investigated. The expression of both MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 were positive on the cell membranes of normal oesophageal epithelial cells, but reduced or negative in the cancer cells. Reduced MRP-1/CD9 expressions significantly correlated to tumour depth (P = 0.0009). We found a significantly greater number of reduced or negative expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in lymph node metastatic cases (P = 0.0003 and P= 0.0129, respectively), but not in distant metastatic cases. The 5-year survival rate of MRP-1/CD9-negative and reduced patients was significantly worse than those of positive patients (n = 108, curative cases, RO). Few cases remained KAI1/CD82-positive (9.6%; 10/104) in oesophageal cancer. Twenty (83.3%) and twenty-two (91.7%) cases out of 24 dysplasias were defined as KAI1/CD82-positive and MRP1/CD9-positive, respectively. The decrease in MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression may facilitate lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Knowing the status of the expression of MRP-1/CD9 appears helpful in predicting the prognosis for each patient. (+info)
Stromal cell CD9 regulates differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. (4/315)CD9 belongs to the transmembrane 4 superfamily, and has been shown to influence cell proliferation, motility, and adhesion. We show here that ligation of CD9 modifies proliferation and/or differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Pluripotent EML-C1 hematopoietic cells were cocultured with MS-5 stromal cells in the presence of KMC8.8, an anti-CD9 antibody. Numbers of recovered EML-C1 cells were slightly reduced and the antibody caused the hematopoietic cells to migrate beneath the adherent stromal cell layer. Of particular interest, EML-C1 cells recovered from CD9-ligated cultures had undifferentiated properties. Separate pretreatment of the two cell types with antibody showed that stromal-cell CD9 mediated these responses. Spontaneous expression of erythroid marker was completely blocked and there was a shift towards undifferentiated clonogenic progenitors. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that stromal-cell CD9 associates with the beta1 subunit of integrin, as well as a novel 100 kD protein. Antibody cross-linking of cell surface CD9 increased the amount of 100 kD protein that was subsequently coprecipitated with CD9. These observations show that stromal-cell CD9 influences physical interactions with hematopoietic cells and may be one factor that determines the degree of stem cell differentiation. (+info)
Apoptosis of erythroid precursors under stimulation with thrombopoietin: contribution to megakaryocytic lineage choice. (5/315)Although the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on megakaryocyte production is well established, its role in the commitment of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors to the megakaryocytic lineage remains to be determined. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the determination process of megakaryocytic lineage as a terminal differentiation pathway under stimulation with TPO. Day 7 cultured cells grown by TPO derived from cord blood CD34+ cells were divided into four subpopulations on the basis of CD34 and CD41 expression. The CD34-/CD41- cells showed the labeling pattern of anti-CD42b and anti-CD9 antibodies closer to that of the CD34+/CD41- cells than the CD34+/CD41+ cells. Replating experiments revealed that approximately 40% of the CD34-/CD41- cells proliferated in response to a combination of growth factors, and more than 80% of them were pure erythroid precursors. However, this subpopulation failed to grow/survive and fell into apoptosis in the presence of TPO alone. In contrast, the CD34+/CD41+ cells, which predominantly contained megakaryocytic precursors, exerted a low but significant proliferative potential in the presence of TPO. The insufficient response to TPO of the CD34-/CD41- cells may result from the apparently low expression of c-MpI, as determined by flow cytometric analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Therefore, these results suggest that the apoptosis of hematopoietic precursors other than megakaryocytic precursors is related to the determination of the terminal differentiation under the influence of TPO. (+info)
CD9 is expressed on the cell surface of human granulosa cells and associated with integrin alpha6beta1. (6/315)The CD9 molecule is a 24-27 kDa cell surface glycoprotein which is reported to be involved in cell adhesion and migration. Recently, CD9 was shown to be associated with beta1-related integrins. We have previously found that integrin alpha6beta1 is expressed on human granulosa cells (GC) and regulates luteinization of GC in concert with its ligand laminin. In this study, we examined the expression of CD9 in human ovary and the relationship between CD9 and integrin alpha6beta1 in GC. By immunohistochemistry, CD9 was detected on GC in a small antral follicle of <1 mm in diameter. In growing follicles, CD9 was moderately expressed on both GC and theca interna cells (TI). The expression intensity of CD9 on GC increased in preovulatory follicles. In the early luteal phase, CD9 was expressed in both luteinizing GC and TI. The expression intensity on large luteal cells decreased in the mid-luteal phase. In the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy, CD9 continued to be expressed on large luteal cells, but not on small luteal cells. By flow cytometry, CD9 was detected on the cell surface in approximately 90% of the isolated GC from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The molecular weight of CD9 in the isolated GC was shown to be 26.5 kDa by Western blotting. CD9 mRNA was also detected in the isolated GC and CL by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The proteins purified from GC by immunoaffinity chromatography using anti-integrin alpha6 monoclonal antibodies were shown by Western blotting to include CD9 as well as integrin beta1. These findings suggest that CD9 is a differentiation-related molecule of GC and TI and that it is associated with integrin alpha6beta1 on the cell surface of GC, suggesting that CD9 is implicated in the function of human GC in cooperation with integrin alpha6beta1. (+info)
A novel molecular staging protocol for non-small cell lung cancer. (7/315)A molecular staging protocol using reliable markers is of importance in predicting the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and for instituting their appropriate post-surgical treatment. We analysed tumor tissues from 187 NSCLC patients. The DNA and mRNA were extracted from frozen specimens, and then polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequencing were performed to investigate mutations of p53 from exons 5-8, and mutations of K-ras at exon 1. To determine MRP-1/CD9 gene and KA11/CD82 gene expression, which have been postulated to be metastasis suppressor genes, we have applied quantitative RT-PCR. A Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that nodal status, MRP-1/CD9 and K-ras status were significant factors for prognosis (P<0.0001, P=0.0083 and P=0.0004, respectively). Based on these results, we classified the patients into three groups according to their MRP-1/ CD9 and K-ras status. Patients with both MRP-1/CD9 positive and wild K-ras tumors were defined as group A, patients with either reduced MRP-1/CD9 or mutant K-ras tumors were defined as group B and patients with both reduced MRP-1/CD9 and mutant K-ras tumors were designated as group C. This new classification was significantly correlated with the tumor status and pathological stage (P=0.0098 and P=0.0017, respectively). The overall survival rate of the group A patients was significantly better than the group B patients (59.6% vs 27.9%, P=0.0001) and also that of group B patients was better than the group C patients (27.9% vs 20.0%, P=0.0378). This tendency was also found in patients with 110 node-negative NSCLCs (A vs B vs C=75.8% vs 34.9% vs 0.0%, P<0.0001). A Cox multivariate regression analysis in NSCLC patients demonstrated that an evaluation for both MRP-1/CD9 expression and K-ras mutations had a significant prognostic effect as well as nodal status (P<0.0001). (+info)
Motility inhibition and apoptosis are induced by metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9, with concurrent glycosylation. (8/315)Metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9 are considered to suppress the malignancy of various human cancers, although the rationale for this effect is unknown. The present study addresses phenotypic changes in Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line ldlD deficient in UDP-Glc 4-epimerase and expressing CD82 or CD9 by cDNA transfection. Only CD82- or CD9-expressing cells grown in Gal-supplemented medium showed reduced motility and massive cell death, which are characteristic of apoptosis, after a latent period. Under this condition, endogenous GM3 synthesis was observed as a common factor, and N-glycosylation occurred at a high level in CD82 and to a lesser extent in CD9. Thus, the malignancy-suppressing effect of CD82 or CD9 is based partially on cell motility inhibition and apoptosis induction promoted by concurrent GM3 synthesis and N-glycosylation. (+info)
Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)
In this article, we have examined the motility-related results of weak power frequency magnetic areas (MFs) on the epidermal development element receptor (EGFR)-private motility system, including the F-actin cytoskeleton, development of invasive protrusions and the amounts of transmission substances in human being amniotic epithelial (FL) cells. F-actin content material and unique distributions. These results had been also connected with adjustments in proteins content material or distribution patterns of the EGFR downstream motility-related signaling substances. All of these results are comparable to those pursuing skin development aspect (EGF) pleasure of the cells and are period reliant. These outcomes recommend that power regularity MF publicity acutely impacts the migration/motility-related actin cytoskeleton reorganization that is certainly governed by the EGFR-cytoskeleton signaling path. As a result, upon the MF publicity, cells are likely altered to end up being set to transfer into a ...
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Ação Direta, Based On A Lie, End Of Freedom @ Casal Joves, La Roca Des Vallès SPA 06 October 2001 - bacteria.nl
RoCa and Company: Guest Blogger: Brandi from Don't Disturb This Groove
Intergenic Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism Upstream of rocA Alters Toxin Production and Enhances Virulence in...
In this study, we describe a naturally occurring intergenic VNTR polymorphism located upstream of rocA that abolished production of the RocA sensor kinase and decreased CovR phosphorylation, thereby derepressing CovR-regulated virulence factors, such as cytotoxins SPN and SLO, and enhancing virulence for mice. It is not uncommon for intergenic polymorphisms to affect the transcription of downstream genes in S. pyogenes. For example, deletion of the hasA upstream region results in enhanced hasA expression and increased production of hyaluronic acid capsule (33). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream of nga significantly alter nga expression and virulence (13, 14).. In our current study, we show that rocA upstream VNTR polymorphisms abolished RocA production without significantly altering rocA transcription. This suggests that these VNTR polymorphisms likely affect RocA production at the translational level. Our hypothesis is that these VNTR polymorphisms impair translation by ...
Remnant ROCOR: 06/14
You are mistaken. ROCA PSEA could not sinned by default or change of its own previous decisions. Constant practice of any ecclesiastical authority in time to vary between the extremes and acrivia economia on the same issue. After retiring in split MP Metropolitan Laurus Group, formed in 2007 ROCA PSEA (now - it ROCOR Synod chaired by th en. Agafangel: in While the "fragments" of the ROCA as RPATs "ROCA (V)", RTOC IRPTSZ, RosPTs, etc., etc., etc. are schisms and parasinagogi), before taking the "sekachevtsev" are inseparable canonical continuation of that same Supreme Church Authority ROCA authorization th Patriarch Tikhon and educated at Metropolitan. Antonia by Decree # 362. Consequently, since the ROCA PSEA was a same old laws supreme ecclesiastical authority ROCA, it was not obliged to comply strictly with first developed their own decisions, and if necessary they could alter, amend or repeal all. So if the ROCA PSEA decided to take sekachevtsev-general without any yakih, it would not be a ...
CD82 Antibody, anti-human, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Nederland
Clone REA221 recognizes CD82, a member of the four transmembrane domain, tetraspanin family. Tetraspanins contain short, cytoplasmic amino and carboxyl termini and two extracellular loops of unequal sizes and can be distinguished from other membrane proteins, with same topology, due to conserved residues within the transmembrane domains and in the larger extracellular loops. CD82 interacts with other tretaspanins and membrane proteins, thus regulating several functions such as signal transduction. On the surface of tumor cells, CD82 interacts with integrins and is suggested to serve as a supressor of tumor metastasis. In addition, on immune cells such as T cells, CD82 associates with CD81, CD4, or CD8 and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), components of the antigen-processing and presentation pathway and tetraspanin CD63, in dendritic cells. Expression of CD82 is found on dendritic cells, monocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, epithelial, and endothelial cells.Additional information: Clone
Targeting the Tetraspanins with Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology: Focus on Tspan8/Co-029
Tetraspanins are exposed at the surface of cellular membranes, which allows for the fixation of cognate antibodies. Developing specific antibodies in conjunction with genetic data would largely contribute to deciphering their biological behavior. In this short review, we summarize the main functions …
The flagellum in bacterial pathogens: For motility and a whole lot more | USC Research Bank - University of the Sunshine Coast
The bacterial flagellum is an amazingly complex molecular machine with a diversity of roles in pathogenesis including reaching the optimal host site, colonization or invasion, maintenance at the infection site, and post-infection dispersal. Multi-megadalton flagellar motors self-assemble across the cell wall to form a reversible rotary motor that spins a helical propeller - the flagellum itself - to drive the motility of diverse bacterial pathogens. The flagellar motor responds to the chemoreceptor system to redirect swimming toward beneficial environments, thus enabling flagellated pathogens to seek out their site of infection. At their target site, additional roles of surface swimming and mechanosensing are mediated by flagella to trigger pathogenesis. Yet while these motility-related functions have long been recognized as virulence factors in bacteria, many bacteria have capitalized upon flagellar structure and function by adapting it to roles in other stages of the infection process. Once at their
IM1755U, CD9-FITC Conjugated Antibody, ALB6, 2 mL, ASR - Beckman Coulter
CD9 (p24 antigen) is a single transmembrane polypeptide of 24 kDa related to the tetraspanin (TM4) family. Like other tetraspanins (e.g. CD63, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, among the 20 known members), CD9 structure is composed of 4 transmembrane domains, with intracellular N and C termini. First discovered on a lymphoblastic cell line of pre-B phenotype, CD9 was then found on platelets and within their α-granules, on monocytes, pre-B cells, eosinophils, basophils and activated T cells. The CD9 molecule associates with other surface proteins such as the α6/β4 integrin (CD49f/CD104 molecule) and HLA-DR, suggesting a role in adhesion, signal transduction and cell motility.
Serotype M3 capsule expression is derepressed by RocA M | Open-i
izumo sperm-egg fusion 1 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com
human CD231 antigen Summary Report | CureHunter
Seminars | Mizuguchi Laboratory | Page 2
The tetraspanin D6.1A and its molecular partners on rat carcinoma cells | Biochemical Journal
Tetraspanins function as molecular organizers of multi-protein complexes by assembling primary complexes of a relatively low mass into extensive networks involved in cellular signalling. In this paper, we summarize our studies performed on the tetraspanin D6.1A/CO-029/TM4SF3 expressed by rat carcinoma cells. Primary complexes of D6.1A are almost indistinguishable from complexes isolated with anti-CD9 antibody. Indeed, both tetraspanins directly associate with each other and with a third tetraspanin, CD81. Moreover, FPRP (prostaglandin F2α receptor-regulatory protein)/EWI-F/CD9P-1), an Ig superfamily member that has been described to interact with CD9 and CD81, is also a prominent element in D6.1A complexes. Primary complexes isolated with D6.1A-specific antibody are clearly different from complexes containing the tetraspanin CD151. CD151 is found to interact only with D6.1A if milder conditions, i.e. lysis with LubrolWX instead of Brij96, are applied to disrupt cellular membranes. CD151 ...
A new panel of epitope mapped monoclonal antibodies recognising the prototypical tetraspanin CD81. - Nuffield Department of...
Background: Tetraspanins are small transmembrane proteins, found in all higher eukaryotes, that compartmentalize cellular membranes through interactions with partner proteins. CD81 is a prototypical tetraspanin and contributes to numerous physiological and pathological processes, including acting as a critical entry receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antibody engagement of tetraspanins can induce a variety of effects, including actin cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of MAPK-ERK signaling and cell migration. However, the epitope specificity of most anti-tetraspanin antibodies is not known, limiting mechanistic interpretation of these studies. Methods: We generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for CD81 second extracellular domain (EC2) and performed detailed epitope mapping with a panel of CD81 mutants. All mAbs were screened for their ability to inhibit HCV infection and E2-CD81 association. Nanoscale distribution of cell surface CD81 was investigated by scanning electron
Tetraspanin CD9 in cell migration | Biochemical Society Transactions
Tetraspanin CD9 is associated with integrin adhesion receptors and it was reported that CD9 regulates integrin-dependent cell migration and invasion. Pro- and anti-migratory effects of CD9 have been linked to adhesion-dependent signalling pathways, including phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). In the present paper, we describe a novel mechanism whereby CD9 specifically controls localization of talin1, one of the critical regulators of integrin activation, to focal adhesions: CD9-deficiency leads to impaired localization of talin1 to focal adhesions and correlates with increased motility of breast cancer cells.. ...
General Roca Department, Argentina Hourly Weather Forecast | Weather Underground
'I paid Roca three million euros for occupancy licences' claims builder in Malaya case | Olive Press News...
IN a shock revelation in the ongoing Malaya case a builder has confessed he paid Juan Antonio Roca three million euros for occupancy licences. Fidel San Roman - who faces a nine year prison sentence and 48 million euro fine on charges of bribery and money laundering - ratified all of the payments, one by one, that the prosecutor argued he had made to Roca in exchange for occupancy licences on Marbella apartments.. He told the court that between February and December 2005 he paid the former town planning chief more than three million euros in seven payments of white money taken out of the accounts of his various companies.. "When the homes were ready to be handed over to the buyers, the Town Hall told us that the money was needed, and if it wasnt paid, things could not move forward," explained the 72-year-old. This directly contradicts Rocas earlier claims that payments he received from Roman, as well as Aifos and Construcciones Salamanca, were not made for favours but for advisory ...
Exo-Flow96 Tetra IP Kit | System Biosciences
Streamline affinity-based exosome immunopurification. With magnetic beads already pre-coupled to antibodies to the tetraspanin proteins CD63, CD81, and CD9, and delivered in a 96-well format, SBIs Exo-Flow96 Tetra IP Kit simplifies high-throughput, antibody-based exosome isolation. Our magnetic bead-coupled anti-CD9 antibodies are extensively validated, and the high-quality Exo-Flow IP kit components ensure reliable, reproducible affinity-based exosome purification directly from serum or plasma. Exosomes can also be purified from other biofluids such as media, urine, and CSF, but must first be concentrated using either ExoQuick-TC® or ultracentrifugation ...
Exo-Flow32 Tetra IP Kit | System Biosciences
Streamline affinity-based exosome immunopurification. With magnetic beads already pre-coupled to antibodies to the tetraspanin proteins CD63, CD81, and CD9, and delivered in a 32-well format, SBIs Exo-Flow32 Tetra IP Kit simplifies high-throughput, antibody-based exosome isolation. Our magnetic bead-coupled anti-CD9 antibodies are extensively validated, and the high-quality Exo-Flow IP kit components ensure reliable, reproducible affinity-based exosome purification directly from serum or plasma. Exosomes can also be purified from other biofluids such as media, urine, and CSF, but must first be concentrated using either ExoQuick-TC® or ultracentrifugation ...
CD151 � a membrane protein via X-ray crystallography
Tetraspanins are family of small membrane proteins and they are involved in multitude of biological process. Structurally theyare characterized by having four transmembrane domains, short inner and outer loops, one large extra cellular loop containsCCG motif and N and C terminal. Iconic features of these proteins are formation of Tetraspanin Enriched Micro domains(TEMs) by interacting among themselves and with other transmembrane and cytosolic proteins. These domains provide asignaling platform for many important cellular functions such as immune response induction, fertilization, viral infection,maintenance of skin integrity and malignant process. Tetraspanin CD151 is frequently over expressed on cancer cells and isfunctionally linked to cancer metastasis. CD151 forms direct and stable and interaction with integrin molecules and regulatesthe cellular functions. Increasing evidence emerging from in vitro, in vivo and clinical analyses associates that CD151partnership with integrins ?6?1 and ...
Juxtacrine signalling | definition of Juxtacrine signalling by Medical dictionary
Contralmirante Cordero (General Roca, Río Negro, Argentina) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map, Location, Weather and Web...
Barrio Isla 10 (General Roca, Río Negro, Argentina) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map, Location, Weather and Web Information
Probable tetraspanin elisa and antibody
Anti-CD63 [LAMP3] monoclonal Antibody | Monoclonal Antibodies - Ximbio
Tetraspanin-29 | Profiles RNS
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Candace S. Seu, Ph.D. | Lewis Roca Rothgerber Christie LLP
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Go to Carla Roca Bayerri.
CD53 antibody | acris-antibodies.com
Regulation of C-type lectin-like receptors dectin-1 and CLEC-2 by tetraspanins - eTheses Repository
Tetraspanins are a superfamily of glycoproteins that function as organisers of membranes by clustering with each other to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, into which certain other receptors and signalling proteins are recruited and regulated. Tetraspanin microdomains have been implicated in a range of biological processes including cell signalling, adhesion, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The tetraspanin CD37 was recently shown to negatively regulate the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1, which is essential for innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to firstly develop a cell line model system to investigate the mechanism by which tetraspanins inhibit dectin-1, and to secondly extend this work to the dectin-1-related CLEC-2, which is essential for platelet thrombus formation and stability. Using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay in the Jurkat T-cell line, transient over-expression ...
Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor Signaling in Flow-Induced Arterial Remodeling | Circulation Research
Evidence suggests flow-induced arterial remodeling involves factors released from cells that are intrinsic to the vessel wall and recruited from the bloodstream. Understanding the molecular details has been hampered by the need to study the process in vivo. The present findings suggest that HB-EGF, which has primarily been studied in epithelial and tumor cells, plays a pivotal role in low FINR of the mouse carotid artery. Sustained low flow activated or increased the following elements within the HB-EGF signaling pathway: ROS, the ROS-sensitive HB-EGF sheddase TACE, expression of pro-HB-EGF, HB-EGF immunoreactivity, the HB-EGF receptor EGFR, ERK1/2, and the transcription factor NF-κB. These changes were associated with proliferation, increased leukocyte density, wall hypertrophy, and lumen narrowing. Heterozygous and homozygous deletion of HB-EGF alleles caused "dose-dependent-like" inhibition of FINR (although inhibition of lumen narrowing was in some situations spared (see below), where ...
The inner loop of tetraspanins CD82 and CD81 mediates interactions with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 Gag protein
The tetraspanin superfamily proteins play important roles in organizing membrane protein complexes, modulating integrin function, and controlling T cell adhesion. Tetraspanins such as CD82 contain two extracellular loops with its N terminus, C terminus, and inner loop exposed to the cytoplasm. The m …
TspanC8 tetraspanins differentially regulate the cleavage of ADAM10 substrates, Notch activation and ADAM10 membrane...
Jouannet S., Saint-Pol J., Fernandez L., Nguyen V., Charrin S., Boucheix C., Brou C., Milhiet P.E., Rubinstein E.. The metalloprotease ADAM10 mediates the shedding of the ectodomain of various cell membrane proteins, including APP, the precursor of the amyloid peptide Aβ, and Notch receptors following ligand binding. ADAM10 associates with the members of an evolutionary conserved subgroup of tetraspanins, referred to as TspanC8, which regulate its exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that 4 of these TspanC8 (Tspan5, Tspan14, Tspan15 and Tspan33) which positively regulate ADAM10 surface expression levels differentially impact ADAM10-dependent Notch activation and the cleavage of several ADAM10 substrates, including APP, N-cadherin and CD44. Sucrose gradient fractionation, single molecule tracking and quantitative mass-spectrometry analysis of the repertoire of molecules co-immunoprecipitated with Tspan5, Tspan15 and ADAM10 show that these two tetraspanins differentially regulate ...
Epidermal growth factor-like growth factors. I. Breast malignancies and other epithelial proliferations in transgenic mice. -...
Research Areas - Shoshana Levy, Ph.D., Stanford Division of Oncology - Faculty Research Laboratories - Stanford University...
Abstract Our research is aimed at understanding the mechanism of action of tetraspanins. This is a multi-gene family, which has shown remarkable conservation over evolution and whose members are expressed in mammals, insects and nematodes. Tetraspanins are also widely expressed in most cell types, forming molecular associations with different proteins in the different cell types. The tetraspanin CD81 was originally identified in our laboratory as a receptor that controls cell growth. To better define the role of CD81 we created CD81-deficient mice. These mice have impairments in their immune, nervous and reproductive systems. CD81 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of two major human diseases: hepatitis C virus (HCV) and malaria. CD81 is the putative receptor for HCV, CD81 is also required for infection by malaria. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in the liver to merozoites, the stage that infects red blood cells, this maturation step is CD81-dependent.. Recent Studies CD81 is a widely ...
Internetquellen-Führer: Suche - Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Biologie (vifabio)
Tetraspanins are membranes proteins involved in every aspect of cell-cell interaction, including adhesion, fusion, differentiation and extracellular vesicle production. As the principal components of a type of membrane microdomain, they have therapeutic and diagnostic potential in a wide range of diseases and new imaging techniques are beginning to reveal the fine detail of these microdomains and their biophysical properties. In this Focussed Meeting, the roles of tetraspanins in cancer, development, infection and immunity will be highlighted. In addition, the role of tetraspanins in the formation and function of extracellular vesicles will be explored and an optional half-day workshop will be held, providing hands-on experience of vesicle purification and characterisation. ... [Information of the supplier] ...
CD53 - Wikipedia
Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play a role in growth regulation. Familial deficiency of this gene has been linked to an immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. Cluster of differentiation Tetraspanin GRCh38: Ensembl ...
IZUMO1 - Izumo sperm-egg fusion protein 1 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - IZUMO1 gene & protein
Essential sperm cell-surface protein required for fertilization by acting as a ligand for IZUMO1R/JUNO receptor on egg. The IZUMO1:IZUMO1R/JUNO interaction is a necessary adhesion event between sperm and egg that is required for fertilization but is not sufficient for cell fusion. The ligand-receptor interaction probably does not act as a membrane fusogen.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Scientists Clarify Editing Error Underlying Genetic Neurodegenerative Disease - Redorbit
When Krainer and postdoctoral researcher Xavier Roca, Ph.D., analyzed SpliceRack, a comprehensive database of all ~200,000 known, functional splice sites found at the beginning of every intron in human genes, they were surprised to find many of these sites that didnt appear to have the right sequence of RNA bases to match U1. Experimental testing of particular examples of these sites showed, however, that they were in fact recognized by U1 and effectively used. These "atypical" sites, in other words, could be spliced to make the correct messenger RNA, despite the apparent mismatch ...
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Tetraspanin CD151 Is a Negative Regulator of FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation | The Journal of Immunology
To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a regulatory function of tetraspanin CD151 in mast cells. Moreover, it is one of the first reports, to our knowledge, addressing the signaling mechanism of modulation of mast cell activation by any member of the tetraspanin family. In the present study, we demonstrated that CD151 deficiency exacerbated late-phase allergic inflammation in mice in vivo and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production by cultured BMMCs ex vivo. Moreover, BMMCs deficient in CD151 showed enhanced and sustained FcεRI-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation compared with WT cells. Conversely, CD151 deficiency had no effect on mast cell degranulation or the acute phase of PCA. Thus, our data demonstrate that the tetraspanin CD151 functions to selectively inhibit late-phase anaphylaxis responses and the de novo synthesis of cytokines by activated mast cells.. Mast cells possess mechanisms for fine tuning cellular activation that allow initial FcεRI-mediated signaling ...
Lysophosphatidylcholine Increases Expression of Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor in Human T...
Accumulation of T lymphocytes has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions, and T-cell-derived factors appear to modulate atherosclerotic progression.1 2 3 4 5 6 The present in vitro study demonstrates that lyso-PC can selectively upregulate the expression of HB-EGF and IL-2 receptors in T lymphocytes and suggests that this polar phospholipid increase in inflammatory and atherosclerotic lesions27 28 may be an important stimulus for T cells in atherogenesis in vivo.. Recent studies have demonstrated that human T lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood can synthesize HB-EGF.6 Expression of HB-EGF has been shown in macrophages and SMCs in atherosclerotic lesions,20 and T lymphocytes isolated from atherosclerotic plaques have been shown to produce HB-EGF.29 Lyso-PC, therefore, may be a relevant stimulus to induce the expression of HB-EGF in atherosclerotic lesions, in addition to other pathophysiological stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor,30 thrombin,31 and platelet-activating factor.32 ...
Primer registro de maderas gimnospérmicas de la Formación Roca Blanca (Jurásico Inferior), provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina
GNAEDINGER, Silvia y HERBST, Rafael. First Record Of Gymnosperm Woods From The Roca Blanca Formation (Lower Jurassic), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana [online]. 2009, vol.46, n.1, pp. 59-71. ISSN 0002-7014.. Three fossil wood species are recognised from the Liassic (Sinemurian- Toarcian) Roca Blanca Formation: Agathoxylon protoaraucana (Brea) Gnaedinger and Herbst nov. comb., Prototaxoxylon pintadense Gnaedinger and Baieroxylon sp. cf. B. chilensis Torres and Philippe. For their secondary anatomical structures these species have close affinities with the Coniferales (Araucariaceae), Taxales and Ginkgoales? respectively. Also, comparisons of Agathoxylon protoaraucana (Brea) Gnaedinger and Herbst and extant Araucaria araucana (Molina) K. Koch showed that both have identical anatomical characters, which suggests a very conservative group.. Palabras clave : Fossil wood; Anatomy; Roca Blanca Formation; Liassic; Patagonia. ...
Residues SFQ (173-175) in the large extracellular loop of CD9 are required for gamete fusion | Development
Previous work demonstrated that egg surface CD9 is essential for sperm-egg fusion (Kaji et al., 2000; Le Naour et al., 2000; Miyado et al., 2000), but nothing is known about how CD9 acts in this system. Egg CD9 could bind in trans to a counter-receptor on sperm as suggested for CD81 on astrocytes interacting with neurons (Kelic et al., 2001). Alternatively, CD9 may function by cis interactions on the egg surface with other egg surface molecules. One egg protein suggested to interact in a physiologically significant way with CD9 is the integrin α6β1 (Chen et al., 1999; Miyado et al., 2000). However, eggs lacking α6β1 fuse normally with sperm, so a role for this integrin in gamete fusion is in doubt (Miller et al., 2000).. The anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody KMC8 blocks sperm-egg fusion (Chen et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2000), and we found that KMC8 binds to constructs containing CD9 EC2, suggesting a role for EC2 in the fusion process. The EC2 constructs, preincubated with sperm, had no ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Evidence Showing that Tetraspanins Inhibit HIV-1-Induced Cell-Cell Fusion at a Post-Hemifusion Stage
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission takes place primarily through cell-cell contacts known as virological synapses. Formation of these transient adhesions between infected and uninfected cells can lead to transmission of viral particles followed by separation of the cells. Alternatively, the cells can fuse, thus forming a syncytium. Tetraspanins, small scaffolding proteins that are enriched in HIV-1 virions and actively recruited to viral assembly sites, have been found to negatively regulate HIV-1 Env-induced cell-cell fusion. How these transmembrane proteins inhibit membrane fusion, however, is currently not known. As a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of fusion repression by tetraspanins, e.g., CD9 and CD63, we sought to identify the stage of the fusion process during which they operate. Using a chemical epistasis approach, four fusion inhibitors were employed in tandem with CD9 overexpression. Cells overexpressing CD9 were found to be sensitized to inhibitors
Structural organization and interactions of transmembrane domains in tetraspanin proteins | BMC Structural Biology | Full Text
We hypothesized that the first two transmembrane domains of tetraspanins might interact with each other because: a) consecutive TM domains frequently associate in known protein 3D structures , and b) they both contain a series of highly conserved amino acids - several Gly residues and an Asn residue (Figure 1). Conserved Gly residues are a frequent theme in the organization of interacting transmembrane domains. Analysis of 3D helix packing in polytopic membrane proteins reveals that Gly residues tend to localize in buried positions, especially at the helix-helix interfaces and helix crossing points [37, 38]. Due to the absence of a side chain, Gly provides a flat surface for packing of a side chain from another residue, without loss of side-chain entropy upon interaction. The most common Gly-containing motif is GxxxG [39, 40]. In glycophorin A (GpA), the major glycoprotein in erythrocyte cell membranes, Gly79 and Gly83 are part of the LIxxGVxxGVxxT sequence that promotes homodimerization of ...
TSPAN8 Antibody, anti-human, REAfinity™ - Recombinant antibodies - MACS Antibodies - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Ísland
Clone REA443 recognizes the human tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein which is also known as transmembrane 4 superfamily member 3 (TM4SF3) or tumor-associated antigen CO-029. TSPAN8 is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, which is a group of cell surface glycoproteins that contain four transmembrane domains and two conserved extracellular loops. Tetraspanins interact and form complexes with a wide variety of proteins, including other members of the tetraspanin family, integrins, receptors, and signaling molecules. Through these interactions, they play important roles in fundamental cellular processes such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. It is suggested that TSPAN8 is widely expressed in various tissues, including in the digestive tract, connective tissue, bone, muscle, and kidney. TSPAN8 has also been intensively studied in the field of cancer. It has been shown to be highly expressed in colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic carcinoma cells along
Despite being implicated in multiple types of human epithelia-origin cancer, laminin-binding (LB) integrins (e.g., α3α1 and α6β4) have rarely been investigated for their roles in human ovarian tumors. More recently, we and others have shown that CD151, a member of the tetraspanin family, not only forms tight surface complexes with these adhesion receptors, but also mediates the malignancy of human carcinomas largely in a LB integrin-dependent manner. Here we report our studies on the role of CD151 in human ovarian cancer. Initially, we stained human ovarian tumor tissue microarrays with CD151-specific antibody. Our data showed that the majority of ovarian tumors exhibited a reduced expression of CD151 protein, compared to the fallopian tube, implying a putative suppressing role of this tetraspanin in ovarian cancer. With this hint we next evaluated the impact of CD151 ablation on the behaviors and proliferation of cultured human ovarian cancer cells. While CD151 removal had a minimal impact ...
CD82 a widespread transmembrane protein of the tetraspanin family. A metastasis-suppressor whose decreased expression may be involved in malignant progression. Suppresses tumor metastasis of many cancers including cancers of the prostate, bladder, colon, cervix, liver, and lung (NSCLC). It is a target of estrogen receptor-mediated gene repression and is downregulated in primary human breast cancer. May be a prognostic marker for lung cancer and tumor metastatic potential. Interacts with cell surface proteins including integrins, cadherins, CD4, CD8, IGSF8. Modulates EGFR signaling. May suppress invasion by inhibiting integrin-dependent crosstalk with c-Met receptor and Src kinases. Its regulation of c-Met signaling apparently affects cancer cell migration. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
GPR56 - Wikipedia
G protein-coupled receptor 56 also known as TM7XN1 is a protein encoded by the ADGRG1 gene. GPR56 is a member of the adhesion GPCR family. Adhesion GPCRs are characterized by an extended extracellular region often possessing N-terminal protein modules that is linked to a TM7 region via a domain known as the GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN) domain. GPR56 is expressed in liver, muscle, neural, and cytotoxic lymphoid cells in human as well as in hematopoietic precursor, muscle, and developing neural cells in the mouse. GPR56 has been shown to have numerous role in cell guidance/adhesion as exemplified by its roles in tumour inhibition and neuron development. More recently it has been shown to be a marker for cytotoxic T cells and a subgroup of Natural killer cells. GPR56 binds transglutaminase 2 to suppress tumor metastasis and binds collagen III to regulate cortical development and lamination. GPR56 couples to Gαq/11 protein upon association with the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81. Forced GPR56 ...
CDCP1 a transmembrane protein containing three extracellular CUB domains involved in cell adhesion and cell matrix association. May play a role in the regulation of anchorage versus migration or proliferation versus differentiation depending upon its phosphorylation status. Interacts with N- and P-cadherin, syndecans 1 and 4, the serine protease ST14, SRC and PKCG. Highly expressed in mitotic cells with low expression during interphase. Detected at highest levels in skeletal muscle and colon with lower levels in kidney, small intestine, placenta and lung. Up-regulated in a number of human tumor cell lines, as well as in colorectal cancer, breast carcinoma and lung cancer. Its expression level is correlated with the metastatic ability of carcinoma cells. May be a novel marker for leukemia diagnosis and for immature hematopoietic stem cell subsets. Belongs to the tetraspanin web involved in tumor progression and metastasis. Also expressed in cells with phenotypes reminiscent of mesenchymal stem ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Izumo Taisha Seimon Toriimae Izumo Soba Dokoro Tanakaya Official Web Site
The alpha 3 beta 1 integrin is known variously as: very late (activation) antigen 3 ('VLA-3'), very common antigen 2 ('VCA-2 ... Hirano T, Higuchi T, Ueda M, Inoue T, Kataoka N, Maeda M, Fujiwara H, Fujii S (February 1999). "CD9 is expressed in ... CD49c antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA3 Info with links in the Cell ... "Entrez Gene: ITGA3 integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)". Park KR, Inoue T, Ueda M, Hirano T, ...
1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... 1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi: ... 2000). "Importance of the major extracellular domain of CD9 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of heparin- ... 1991). "A new superfamily of lymphoid and melanoma cell proteins with extensive homology to Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm23". ...
... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... CD9 CD9 molecule". Le Naour F, Rubinstein E, Jasmin C, Prenant M, Boucheix C (2000). "Severely Reduced Female Fertility in CD9- ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, Nakahara K, Kurokawa K (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen ...
1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... Horejsí V, Vlcek C (1991). "Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, CD53 and ...
"The primary structure of the human leukocyte antigen CD37, a species homologue of the rat MRC OX-44 antigen". The Journal of ... Horejsí V, Vlcek C (August 1991). "Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, ... Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... Angelisová P, Hilgert I, Horejsí V (1994). "Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/ ...
Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (46): 30537 ... yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. The CD19 gene encodes ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
These genes belong to a specific gene family; they are a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of genes. CEAs ... Waterhouse R, Ha C, Dveksler GS (January 2002). "Murine CD9 is the receptor for pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17". J. Exp. ... Khan WN, Hammarström S (1989). "Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family: molecular cloning of cDNA for a PS beta G/FL-NCA ... Khan WN, Osterman A, Hammarström S (May 1989). "Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for a carcinoembryonic antigen-related ...
... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... CD29 has been shown to interact with ACTN1; CD46, CD9, FHL2, Filamin, FLNB, CD81, GNB2L1, ITGB1BP1, LGALS8, MAP4K4, NME1, PKC ... CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ...
Heat shock protein 47
Hattori T, Takahash K, Yutani Y, Fujisawa T, Nakanishi T, Takigawa M (2001). "Rheumatoid arthritis-related antigen 47kDa (RA- ... "Cell surface colligin/Hsp47 associates with tetraspanin protein CD9 in epidermoid carcinoma cell lines". Journal of Cellular ... "Isolation and characterization of a rheumatoid arthritis-specific antigen (RA-A47) from a human chondrocytic cell line (HCS-2/8 ...
Charrin S, Le Naour F, Oualid M, Billard M, Faure G, Hanash SM, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (Apr 2001). "The major CD9 and CD81 ... 1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... CD81 has been shown to interact with TSPAN4, CD19, CD9, PTGFRN, CD117 and CD29. Benzyl salicylate and terfenadine have been ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ...
Marginal zone B-cell
The MZ B cells within this region typically express high levels of IgM, CD21, CD1, CD9 with low to negligible levels of ... The MZ B cells are especially well positioned as a first line of defense against systemic blood-borne antigens that enter the ... It is believed they are especially reactive to bacterial cell wall components and self-antigens which are the products of aging ...
Stem cell marker
CK19, Cytokeratin 19, K19) Kit L-selectin (CD62L) Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT ... Kanatsu-Shinohara M, Toyokuni S, Shinohara T (January 2004). "CD9 is a surface marker on mouse and rat male germline stem cells ... May 2006). "Lack of expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 on candidate stem cell ... Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ...
1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1998). "Expression of tetra-spans transmembrane family (CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 and CD82) in normal and neoplastic human ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...
Charrin S, Le Naour F, Oualid M, Billard M, Faure G, Hanash SM, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (2001). "The major CD9 and CD81 ... Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... comparison with CD9, CD63, and alpha5beta1 integrin". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45 (4): 515-25. doi:10.1177/002215549704500404. ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID ...
... was first identified as a tumor antigen on human ovarian cancer in the 1980s. Since then, CD47 has been found to be ... Longhurst CM, White MM, Wilkinson DA, Jennings LK (1999). "A CD9, alphaIIbbeta3, integrin-associated protein, and GPIb/V/IX ... 1994). "Rh-related antigen CD47 is the signal-transducer integrin-associated protein". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (3): 1567-70. PMID ... Brown E, Hooper L, Ho T, Gresham H (1991). "Integrin-associated protein: a 50-kD plasma membrane antigen physically and ...
Complement receptor 2
... because CR2 binds to antigens through attached C3d (or iC3b or C3dg) when the membrane IgM binds to the antigen. This results ... "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... in the B cell having greatly enhanced response to the antigen. Complement receptor 2 has been shown to interact with CD19. ...
1990). "The CD59 antigen is a structural homologue of murine Ly-6 antigens but lacks interferon inducibility". Eur. J. Immunol ... It may also signal the cell to perform active measures such as endocytosis of the CD59-CD9 complex. Mutations affecting GPI ... CD59 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD59 genome location and CD59 gene ... 1990). "Isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding CD59 antigen of human lymphocytes". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 213 ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
ATP1B3 - Википедия
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11. CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
CD74 - Википедия
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CXCR5 - Википедия
CD97 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Меланотрансферрин - Википедия
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
CLEC12A - Википедия
Faktor aktivacije B-ćelija
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
C-C chemokine receptor type 6
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom. ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
Integrin beta 3
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
CD36 - Википедия
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
CD117 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
CD1 (a-c, 1A, 1D, 1E) • CD2 • CD3 (γ, δ, ε) • CD4 • CD5 • CD6 • CD7 • CD8 (a) • CD9 • CD10 • CD11 (a, b, c) • CD13 • CD14 • ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
CD117 - Wikipédia
ICAM-1 - Википедия
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD9 - CD9 antigen - Bos taurus (Bovine) - CD9 gene & protein
sp,P30932,CD9_BOVIN CD9 antigen OS=Bos taurus OX=9913 GN=CD9 PE=2 SV=2 ... CD9 antigen1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on statements in scientific articles for which there is ... "Molecular cloning of the bovine CD9 antigen from ocular ciliary epithelial cells.". Martin-Alonso J.M., Hernando N., Ghosh S., ... "Molecular cloning of the bovine CD9 antigen from ocular ciliary epithelial cells.". Martin-Alonso J.M., Hernando N., Ghosh S., ...
Gentaur Molecular :GenWay \ CD9 - Mouse monoclonal [MEM - 61] to CD9; p24; Leukocyte antigen MIC3; Motility-related protein;...
... to CD9; p24; Leukocyte antigen MIC3; Motility-related protein; MRP-1; Tetraspanin-29; Tspan-29 Monoclonal \ 20-272-192352 for ... CD9 - Mouse monoclonal [MEM - 61] to CD9; p24; Leukocyte antigen MIC3; Motility-related protein; MRP-1; Tetraspanin-29; Tspan- ... CD9 - Mouse monoclonal [MEM - 61] to CD9; p24; Leukocyte antigen MIC3; Motility-related protein; MRP-1; Tetraspanin-29; Tspan- ... CD9 - Mouse monoclonal [MEM - 61] to CD9; p24; Leukocyte antigen MIC3; Motility-related protein; MRP-1; Tetraspanin-29; Tspan- ...
CD9 - Beckman Coulter
... p24 antigen) is a single transmembrane polypeptide of 24 kDa related to the tetraspanin (TM4) family. Like other tetraspanins ( ... e.g. CD63, CD81, CD82, CD37, CD53, among the 20 known members), CD9 structure is composed of 4 transmembrane domains, with ... CD9 Antigen. CD9 (p24 antigen) is a single transmembrane polypeptide of 24 kDa related to the tetraspanin (TM4) family. Like ... The CD9 molecule associates with other surface proteins such as the α6/β4 integrin (CD49f/CD104 molecule) and HLA-DR, ...
CD9 ELISA & Assay Kits
Compare and order CD9 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products ... 5H9 antigen , BA-2/p24 antigen , CD9 antigen , CD9 antigen (p24) , cell growth-inhibiting gene 2 protein , leukocyte antigen ... CD9 Antigen Profile Antigen Summary This gene encodes a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the ... CD9 in Response to Water Deprivation * CD9 in Response to Water Deprivation ...
CD9 Rat anti-Mouse, BB700, Clone: KMC8 (also known as KMC 8), BD Optibuild | Fisher Scientific
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD9 Rat anti-Mouse, BB700, Clone: KMC8 (also known as KMC 8), BD ... Antigen. CD9. Concentration. 0.2mg/mL. Formulation. Aqueous buffered solution containing ≤0.09% sodium azide.. ... The KMC8 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD9 which is also known as Tetraspanin-29 (Tspan29). CD9 is a 24-kDa member ... CD9 has been found to be associated with integrins and other cell-surface receptors. It appears to play roles in signal ...
CD9 - Tetraspanin - Alligator sinensis (Chinese alligator) - CD9 gene & protein
endothelial and epithelial cells. CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion - Polo-Like Kinases and Aurora Kinases in Cancer Therapy
... impartial antigens are crucial for PIV-induced security, Mouse monoclonal to CD9.TB9a reacts with CD9 ( p24), a member of the ... CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion. To further understand the systems of formalin-inactivated stage I (PI) vaccine. To further ... CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion, expressed on platelets and weakly on B-cells. It also expressed on eosinophils, Hoechst ... CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion, expressed on platelets and weakly on B-cells. It also expressed on eosinophils, migration ...
endothelial and epithelial cells. CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion
CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion Supplementary MaterialsSupporting Information. key next step in the development of this. ... CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion, expressed on platelets and weakly on B-cells. It also expressed on eosinophils, migration ... CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion, expressed on platelets and weakly on B-cells. It also expressed on eosinophils, migration ... CD9 antigen modulates cell adhesion, migration and platelet activation. GM1CD9 triggers platelet activation resulted in ...
Recombinant Anti-CD9 antibody [EPR2949] KO Tested (ab92726) | Abcam
Knockout Tested Rabbit recombinant monoclonal CD9 antibody [EPR2949]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol. See IHC antigen retrieval protocols. ... All lanes : Anti-CD9 antibody [EPR2949] (ab92726) at 1/1000 dilution. Lane 1 : Wild-type A549 whole cell lysate. Lane 2 : CD9 ... ab92726 was shown to recognize CD9 in wild-type A549 cells as signal was lost at the expected MW in CD9 knockout cells. ...
Proteomics Analysis of Cells in Whole Saliva from Oral Cancer Patients via Value-added Three-dimensional Peptide Fractionation...
CD9 CD9 antigen (4/56). Multipass membrane protein. Involved in platelet activation and aggregation. Involved in cell adhesion ... Lymphocyte antigen Ly-6D (1/19). Cell membrane; lipid anchor; GPI anchor. May be involved in cell-cell adhesion and signal ... CD82 antigen (3/9). Multipass membrane protein. Associates with CD4 or CD8 and delivers costimulatory signals for the TCR/CD3 ... 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain (4/9). Single pass type II membrane protein. Involved in sodium-independent, high affinity ...
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Human Cytomegalovirus Reprograms Monocyte Differentiation toward an M1 Macrophage | The Journal...
CD9 antigen (p24). CD9. 39389_at. −2.7. CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). CD86. 36270_at. −3.4. ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen). CD80. 35015_at. 4.7. ... CD209 antigen-like. CD209L. 39270_at. nc. CD36 antigen (collagen type I receptor, thrombospondin receptor). CD36. 36656_at. nc ... CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). CD47. 37890_at. 1.9. ...
CD9 - Wikipedia
CD9 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... CD9 CD9 molecule". Le Naour F, Rubinstein E, Jasmin C, Prenant M, Boucheix C (2000). "Severely Reduced Female Fertility in CD9- ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, Nakahara K, Kurokawa K (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen ...
ENSDARG00000044990 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger Institute
JCI - Chaperone protein HSC70 regulates intercellular transfer of Y chromosome antigen DBY
CD9) (23) was confirmed by flow cytometry (Supplemental Figure 3). Subsequently, the pelleted fractions were loaded to antigen- ... A role for intercellular antigen transfer in the recognition of EBV-transformed B cell lines by EBV nuclear antigen-specific ... One drawback of our model with retrovirally transduced antigen is the induced overexpression of the target antigen. High ... Therefore, it remains controversial whether intercellular antigen transfer is a sole consequence of cell death-mediated antigen ...
The Role of PAR2 in TGF-β1-Induced ERK Activation and Cell Motility.
Antigens, Cd9. A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 ... A B7 antigen subtype that inhibits the costimulation of T-cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production and development ... Spontaneously and After Stimulation by an CMV Antigen ... antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and ...
Gastric Cancers Overexpress S100A Calcium-binding Proteins | Cancer Research
Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Reparative Potential in Ischemic Heart Disease | Revista Española de...
CD9 CD45 Leukocyte common antigen (LCA) CD90 Thymus cell antigen-1 (Thy-1) CD56 Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) ... Lin antigens consist of the following group of lineage markers: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, NK1.1, B220, Ter-119, and Gr-1 ( ... neuronal nuclear antigen; Ngn-3, neurogenin 3; Nkx2.5, NK2 homeobox 5; OCN, osteocalcin; OPN, osteopontin; Pax-6, paired box ... neuronal nuclear antigen; Ngn-3, neurogenin 3; Nkx2.5, NK2 homeobox 5; OCN, osteocalcin; OPN, osteopontin; Pax-6, paired box ...
KEGG BRITE: CD Molecules - Homo sapiens (human)
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 beta chain K06460 CD9; CD9 antigen K01389 MME; neprilysin [EC:188.8.131.52] K05718 ITGAL; integrin ... CD79A antigen K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen K05412 CD80; CD80 antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K06510 ... CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06719 CD300; CD300 antigen K06721 CLEC10A; C-type lectin ... CD96 antigen K08446 ADGRE5; CD97 antigen K06519 SLC3A2; solute carrier family 3, member 2 K06520 CD99; CD99 antigen K06521 ...
CD9 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - USA
Expression of CD9 is found on platelets, pre-B cells, fibroblasts, eosinophils, macrophages, basophils, epithelial cells, ... CD9 associates with other tetraspanin members, cell adhesion molecules such as EpCAM, integrin subsets, transmembrane proteins ... Further expression is reported on malignant cells and tumor cell lines where CD9 is involved in supressor functions, inhibition ... Through diverse interactions or via direct stimulation, CD9 influences various cellular functions including cell adhesion, ...
Hirschsprung Disease Is Linked to Defects in Neural Crest Stem Cell Function | Science
Macrophage‑derived exosomes attenuate the susceptibility of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs...
CD9, CD9 antigen; CD63, CD63 antigen; Exo, exosomal; MFI, mean fluorescence intensity; PHM, primary human macrophages; Rab5B, ... CD9, CD63 and Rab5B, which are used as exosomal markers, were expressed on the THP-1- and PHM-derived exosomes (Fig. 1A). ... The membranes were then probed with the primary antibodies against CD9 (1:1,000; cat. no. ab92726; Abcam), CD63 (1:1,000; cat. ...
KEGG BRITE: Exosome - Homo sapiens (human)
MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06460 CD9; CD9 antigen K06497 CD63; CD63 ... K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; MHC class I antigen K06751 MHC1; ... 928 CD9; CD9 molecule 967 CD63; CD63 molecule 975 CD81; CD81 molecule 3688 ITGB1; integrin subunit beta 1 4240 MFGE8; milk fat ... antigen K06508 CD81; CD81 antigen K05719 ITGB1; integrin beta 1 K17253 MFGE8; lactadherin K06490 ICAM1; intercellular adhesion ...
Tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 Modulate HIV-1-Induced Membrane Fusion | The Journal of Immunology
C33 antigen and M38 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to syncytium formation by human T cell leukemia ... B, CD9 and CD81 knocking-down was also assessed by Western blot analysis in total lysates with the anti-CD9 VJ1/20 or the anti- ... CD9 and CD81 localize at cell-to-cell contacts and Abs anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 increase syncytia formation in a HeLa cell model ... Effect of CD9 and CD81 knocking-down on HIV-1 entry in the HeLa model. Negative siRNA control, CD9 siRNA, or CD81 siRNA ...
European Patent Disclosures
Secreted proteins having homology to human CD9 antigen, encoding gene sequences; for diagnostics and therapeutics. ... Flt-3 ligand-encoding gene sequences used in combination with antigen or cytokine genes as a vaccine enhancer. ... Moraxella cattarrhalis antigens, encoding genes, recombinant production methods; for diagnostics and therapeutics. ... Expression of a highly antigenic surface antigen in cancer cells expressing modified a2-8 polysialic acid residues. ...
Other CD Antigens | ProSpec
The tetraspanin CD9 mediates lateral association of MHC class II molecules on the dendritic cell surface. - Semantic Scholar
I-A and I-E molecules engaged in lateral interactions not observed on other antigen-presenting cells such as B blasts. Because ... Conversely, expression of exogenous CD9 in B cells induced MHC II interactions. CD9 is thus necessary for the association of ... Instead, it reflected the selective expression of the tetraspanin CD9 at the DC surface. I-A and I-E molecules coprecipitated ... The association of heterologous MHC II molecules was abrogated in DCs from CD9(-/-) mice. ...
Trimeric - definition of trimeric by The Free Dictionary
HLA class I and II antigens are partially co-clustered in the plasma membrane of human lymphoblastoid cells | PNAS
The tetraspanin CD9 mediates lateral association of MHC class II molecules on the dendritic cell surface ... HLA class I and II antigens are partially co-clustered in the plasma membrane of human lymphoblastoid cells. Attila Jenei, ... Alteration of antigen-independent immunologic synapse formation between dendritic cells from HLA-B27-transgenic rats and CD4+ T ... Dynamics of molecules involved in antigen presentation: effects of fixation. B.George Barisas, William F Wade, Thomas M Jovin, ...
Anti-CD9 Antibody | Mouse anti-Human Monoclonal FITC Flo | LSBio
CD9 antibody LS-C534129 is an FITC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to CD9 from human. It is reactive with human, bovine, ... CD9 , 5H9 antigen , BA2 , BA-2/p24 antigen , CD9 antigen , CD9 antigen (p24) , DRAP-27 , MIC3 , MRP-1 , Leukocyte antigen MIC3 ... CD9 antibody LS-C534129 is an FITC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to CD9 from human. It is reactive with human, bovine, ... Recognizes CD9, a 24kD surface glycoprotein expressed by platelets, monocytes, some lymphocytes and endothelial cells. CD9 is a ...
CD81TetraspaninCD63MoleculeCD82AntibodyTransmembraneTetraspaninsProteinTumorGeneCD53ProteinsAntibodiesMembranePlateletsGlycoproteinIntegrinsDifferentiationThereby promotiExosomesMoleculesVariety of antigensMacrophagesSurfaceEpithelialGENESProstate-specifiAdhesionModulatesFlow CytometryPlateletWestern blotExpressionCellsEmbryonic antigenSpecificity
- The major CD9 and CD81 molecular partner. (wikipedia.org)
- Tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 are molecular partners of trimeric FcsRI on human antigen-presenting cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Thus the tetraspanin CD151 associates directly with the integrins α3β1 and α6β1 ( 3 , 15 ), whereas CD9 and CD81 have been shown to associate with two molecules with immunoglobulin domains, CD9P-1 and EWI-2 ( 3 , 16 - 18 ). (mcponline.org)
- CD81 can also affect cognate B-T cell interactions because anti-CD81 increases IL-4 synthesis by T cells responding to antigen presented by B cells but not by monocytes. (nih.gov)
- Here, we reveal the presence of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) containing the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, CD81, and CD82 at the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
- EWI-2 is a major CD9 and CD81 partner and member of a novel Ig protein subfamily. (hcdm.org)
- CD63 has been shown to associate with CD9, CD81, VLA-3, and VLA-6. (biolegend.com)
- CD63 antigen associates non-covalently with CD9, CD81 and the integrins VLA-3, VLA-4 and VLA-6. (leicabiosystems.com)
- The tetraspanins Cd9 , Cd81 , and Cd82 were also associated with the late, sustained response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Some members of the tetraspanin family, such as CD63 , CD81, and CD9, are enriched in exosomes and have been recognized as exosome markers . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Some are involved in oncogenesis and in the control of metastasis: CD9, CD81, CD82, C0/029, and CD151 can all modulate cancer cell motility both in vitro and in vivo (reviewed in references 5 and 49). (asm.org)
- For example, CD81 is a receptor for hepatitis C virus and for malarial parasites ( 11 , 41 ), and CD9 is a coreceptor for diphtheria toxin ( 21 ). (asm.org)
- Deneka M, Pelchen-Matthews A, Byland R, Ruiz-Mateos E, Marsh M. In macrophages, HIV-1 assembles into an intracellular plasma membrane domain containing the tetraspanins CD81, CD9, and CD53. (springer.com)
- Exosomes are 50-90 nm diameter vesicles containing antigen presenting molecules (MHC class I, class II, CD1, hsp70-90) tetraspan molecules (CD9, CD63, CD81), adhesion molecules (CD11b, CD54) and CD86 costimulatory molecules [ 17 - 19 ] i.e the necessary machinery required for generating potent immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
- CD9 (p24 antigen) is a single transmembrane polypeptide of 24 kDa related to the tetraspanin (TM4) family. (beckman.com)
- The KMC8 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD9 which is also known as Tetraspanin-29 (Tspan29). (fishersci.com)
- Clone REA1071 recognizes the human CD9 antigen, a 25 kDa cell surface glycoprotein which is also known as tetraspanin-29 (Tspan-29). (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD9 belongs to the tetraspanin family of integral proteins, which are characterized by the presence of four conserved transmembrane domains, a small and two large extracellular loops. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- CD9 associates with other tetraspanin members, cell adhesion molecules such as EpCAM, integrin subsets, transmembrane proteins (EWI-2 and EWI-F), choline receptors, and G-proteins. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- The tetraspanin CD9 mediates lateral association of MHC class II molecules on the dendritic cell surface. (semanticscholar.org)
- Kotha J, Zhang C, Longhurst CM, Lu Y, Jacobs J, Cheng Y, Jennings LK: Functional relevance of tetraspanin CD9 in vascular smooth muscle cell injury phenotypes: a novel target for the prevention of neointimal hyperplasia. (exbio.cz)
- Unternaehrer JJ, Chow A, Pypaert M, Inaba K, Mellman I: The tetraspanin CD9 mediates lateral association of MHC class II molecules on the dendritic cell surface. (exbio.cz)
- Finally we demonstrated that epithelial cell adhesion molecule and CD9 form a new primary complex in the tetraspanin web. (mcponline.org)
- CD9, a 24 kDa tetraspanin membrane protein, is known to regulate cell adhesion and migration, cancer progression and metastasis, immune and allergic responses, and viral infection. (nature.com)
- CD9 (TSPAN29) is a 24 kDa tetraspanin protein that contains four putative transmembrane domains, short N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains, a small intracellular loop, and two extracellular loops [ 8 ]. (nature.com)
- CD9 is a type 3 integral protein belonging to the tetraspanin family. (hcdm.org)
- A novel cysteine cross-linking method reveals a direct association between claudin-1 and tetraspanin CD9. (hcdm.org)
- Toyo-oka K, Yashiro-Ohtani Y, Park CS, Tai XG, Miyake K, Hamaoka T, Fujiwara H. Association of a tetraspanin CD9 with CD5 on the T cell surface: role of particular transmembrane domains in the association. (hcdm.org)
- Shi W, Fan H, Shum L, Derynck R. The tetraspanin CD9 associates with transmembrane TGF-alpha and regulates TGF-alpha-induced EGF receptor activation and cell proliferation. (hcdm.org)
- The cDNA encoding the corresponding antigen was cloned from megakaryoblastic leukemia cells and shown to be a member of the transmembrane 4 or tetraspanin family ( 10 ). (asm.org)
- Discrimination of biclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative neoplasias by tetraspanin antigen expression. (springer.com)
- Pattern of expression of tetraspanin antigen genes in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. (springer.com)
- CD9 is a 24kDa member of the tetraspanin family, whose members are characterized by the presence of 4 hydrophobic transmembrane domains. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Horejsí V, Vlcek C. Novel structurally distinct family of leucocyte surface glycoproteins including CD9, CD37, CD53 and CD63. (hcdm.org)
- CD63 is a 53 kD type III lysosomal glycoprotein also known as LIMP, LAMP-3, gp55, and melanoma-associated antigen (ME491). (biolegend.com)
- CD63 antigen is a member of the TM4 superfamily with its structure consisting of four transmembrane regions, short cytoplasmic N and C-termini and two extracellular regions. (leicabiosystems.com)
- CD63 antigen is widely distributed on the surface and interior of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells such as most sweat glands, islets of Langerhans, pituitary, pancreas, peribronchial glands, Paneth cells and prostate glands. (leicabiosystems.com)
- It is reported that CD63 antigen may play a role as a tumor suppressor gene, as its expression in human melanoma cells reduces tumor spread and metastasis. (leicabiosystems.com)
- The blotting membrane was blocked and incubated with CD9 antibody at 1:1000 and CD63 antibody at 1:1000 at 4[degrees]C overnight and incubated with secondary antibody for 1 h at 37[degrees]C. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This study has been a natural continuation of our previously published research concerning the significance and the usefulness of GLUT-1, CD9, and CD63 in GIST. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The CD9 molecule associates with other surface proteins such as the α6/β4 integrin (CD49f/CD104 molecule) and HLA-DR, suggesting a role in adhesion, signal transduction and cell motility. (beckman.com)
- Use exosomes to deliver protein, RNA, DNA, or small molecule cargo to antigen-presenting cells with XStamp-CD40L. (systembio.com)
- Recognizes the human tetraspan CD9 molecule of about 24kD. (lsbio.com)
- Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
- Indeed a high level of the tetraspanins CD9 and CD82/KAI-1 on tumor cells is associated with a favorable prognosis in breast, lung, colon, prostate, and pancreas cancers. (mcponline.org)
- Furthermore using in vitro and in vivo experimental models, CD9 and CD82 have been shown to act as "metastasis suppressors," whereas CD151 was shown to increase the metastatic potential ( 1 , 4 , 12 - 14 ). (mcponline.org)
- The ALB6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was first reported as specific for CD9 (p24) on platelets, capable of modulating aggregation of platelets activated with various agonists. (beckman.com)
- The KMC8 antibody reportedly blocks certain CD9 functions and activates macrophages. (fishersci.com)
- CD9 antibody LS-C534129 is an FITC-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to CD9 from human. (lsbio.com)
- CD9 antibody LS-C35419 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD9. (lsbio.com)
- The rat monoclonal antibody EM-04 recognizes an extracellular epitope of CD9 antigen, a 24 kDa transmembrane protein expressed on platelets, monocytes, pre-B lymphocytes, granulocytes and activated T lymphocytes. (exbio.cz)
- These mice do exhibit diminished antibody responses to protein antigens. (nih.gov)
- Mouse anti‐CD9 (TG30) monoclonal antibody (Millipore, cat. (currentprotocols.com)
- kind gift from Martin Pera)-a commercially available alternative, which detects the same antigen is the antibody TG343 (Millipore, cat. (currentprotocols.com)
- Anti-mouse CD9 antibody noticeably prevented the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE −/− mice and Ldlr −/− mice. (nature.com)
- Splenic B-cells play a necessary role in diabetes pathogenesis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes ( 1 - 3 ) by secreting an antibody that is required for diabetes initiation ( 4 ) but also by presenting self-antigens including insulin to autoreactive T-cells ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- MZBs are located within the marginal sinus of the spleen ( 9 , 13 ) and exhibit an activated effector phenotype, as indicated by their ability to generate rapid antibody responses to antigens and blood-borne pathogens ( 14 - 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- WB result of CD9 antibody (60232-1-Ig, 1:2000) with si-Control and si-CD9 transfected HeLa cells. (ptglab.com)
- A375 cells, A549 cells, HeLa cells, L02 cells, and HepG2 cells were subjected to SDS PAGE followed by western blot with 60232-1-Ig (CD9 antibody) at dilution of 1:3000 incubated at room temperature for 1.5 hours. (ptglab.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human ovary tumor tissue slide using 60232-1-Ig (CD9 antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 (under 10x lens. (ptglab.com)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human ovary tumor tissue slide using 60232-1-Ig (CD9 antibody) at dilution of 1:2000 (under 40x lens. (ptglab.com)
- Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native CD9. (abnova.com)
- Surface staining of NALM-6 human pre-B cell leukemia cell line with CD9 monoclonal antibody, clone MEM - 61 (Cat # MAB0874) FITC. (abnova.com)
- Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against a partial-length human CD9 DNA using DNAx™ Immune technology. (abnova.com)
- Western Blot analysis of CD9 expression in transfected 293T cell line by CD9 MaxPab polyclonal antibody. (abnova.com)
- We raised a monoclonal antibody against hESCs, designated anti-stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-5, which binds a previously unidentified antigen highly and specifically expressed on hPSCs-the H type-1 glycan. (nextbigfuture.com)
- CD9 Antibody (602.29 cl. (uiowa.edu)
- This anti-CD9 antibody enhances monocyte fusion (see PMID: 19489128) and the binding of S. Typhi to macrophages (see PMID: 28602860). (uiowa.edu)
- The eBioSN4 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD9. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Binding of the eBioSN4 monoclonal antibody partially cross-blocks binding of another anti-human CD9 monoclonal antibody, MM2/57. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD9 is a 24-kDa member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also called the tretraspanin family. (fishersci.com)
- CD9 is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins and other transmembrane 4 superfamily proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Motility related protein-1 (MRP-1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is identical to the CD9 antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
- Similar to other tetraspanins, CD9 generally does not function as a cell-surface receptor, but rather as an organizer of multimolecular complexes, including integrins, immunoglobulin superfamily members such as EWI-F and EWI-2, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, claudin-1, and other tetraspanins [ 10 ]. (nature.com)
- The vesicles derived from mammalian cells contain a family of integral membrane proteins that cross four times the lipid bilayer and are called tetraspanins [ 11 ], including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. (hindawi.com)
- Tetraspanins form multimolecular complexes with each other and with other membrane proteins, including integrins, major histocompatibility complex antigens, signaling complexes, and cell-associated growth factors. (asm.org)
- CD9 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Publications] Haraguchi M: 'Motility related protein 1(MRP1/CD9) expression in colon cancer. (nii.ac.jp)
- The vesicular structures of exosomes were identified by electron microscopy, and exosomal marker protein CD9 and tumor susceptibility gene (TSG 101) were confirmed by western blot analysis. (nih.gov)
- This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. (wikipedia.org)
- EVs derived from antigen presenting cells (APCs) that are loaded with either peptide or whole protein antigens are reported to induce anti-tumor immunity in animal models but show only modest improvements in cancer patients ( 2 , 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
- A CD9, alphaIIbbeta3, integrin-associated protein, and GPIb/V/IX complex on the surface of human platelets is influenced by alphaIIbbeta3 conformational states. (hcdm.org)
- The immunogen of 60232-1-Ig is CD9 Fusion Protein expressed in E. coli. (ptglab.com)
- Angelisova P, Vlcek C, Stefanova I, Lipoldova M, Horejsi V. The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens. (springer.com)
- Proteins identified as programmed cell death 6-interacting protein (PDCD6IP), fatty acid synthase (FASN), CD-9 antigen (CD9), and alpha-enolase (ENO1), all of which had significant changes in abundance, were chosen for additional biomarker analysis. (thermofisher.com)
- GA733 tumor-associated antigen gene family may function as growth factor receptors. (mcponline.org)
- Further expression is reported on malignant cells and tumor cell lines where CD9 is involved in supressor functions, inhibition of cell invasion and metastasis. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- For the development of immunotherapy using MAGE peptides, the identification of additional tumor antigens is required. (nii.ac.jp)
- Prostate‑specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been validated as an important tumor marker for prostate cancer progression including angiogenesis and metastasis. (nih.gov)
- In previous studies, we showed that various types of cultured tumor cells transfected with MRP-1/CD9 cDNA have low motility and diminished metastatic potential to the lung. (aacrjournals.org)
- These observations support the proposal that nano-sized EVs can be used as carriers to deliver soluble antigens in tumor models ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Similarly, tumor-infiltrating NK cells can trigger stimulating interactions via "cell cross-talk" with dendritic cells (DCs), possibly facilitating tumor antigen presentation and induction of tumor antigen-directed T-cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
- CD antigens are used widely for research, immunotherary, tumor and drug target. (sinobiological.com)
- Fifteen patients fullfilling the inclusion criteria (stage IIIB and IV, HLA-A1 + , or -B35 + and HLA-DPO4 + leukocyte phenotype, tumor expressing MAGE3 antigen) were enrolled from 2000 to 2002 and received four exosome vaccinations. (biomedcentral.com)
- CD9 is a member of the tetraspan gene family. (lsbio.com)
- In consideration of these findings, we have now applied reverse transcription-PCR to determine MRP-1/CD9 gene expression in lung cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- We found that 67 patients had MRP-1/CD9 -positive tumors, and that gene expression was reduced in the tumors of the remaining 42 individuals. (aacrjournals.org)
- significant cross-reactivity is observed with soluble antigens or other vesicleassociated proteins (Fig 4). (sambomed.co.kr)
- Herein, we identify the secretion of CD9 positive extracellular vesicles (EV) by LNCaP and DUCaP PCa cells in response to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and use nano-LC-MS/MS to identify the proteins present in these EV. (izon.com)
- Plates are coated with antibodies against exosome surface antigens, present on overell exosome population. (sambomed.co.kr)
- Towards this end, here we describe a methodology to detect pluripotency associated cell surface antigens with the monoclonal antibodies TG30 (CD9) and GCTM-2 via fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for the identification of pluripotent TG30 Hi -GCTM-2 Hi hESCs using positive selection. (jove.com)
- CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
- In platelets, CD9 is expressed in α-granules and through association with the integrin αIIb/βIII plays a role in platelet aggregation, as demonstrated by the use of anti-human CD9 antibodies. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD9 is located in the microvillar membrane of the oocytes and also appears to intervene in maintaining the normal shape of oocyte microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
- Membrane antigen preparation of NALM-6 (human pre-B leukemia cell line). (lsbio.com)
- Functional prostate-specific membrane antigen is enriched in exosomes from prostate cancer cells. (nih.gov)
- Inui S, Higashiyama S, Hashimoto K, Higashiyama M, Yoshikawa K, Taniguchi N. Possible role of coexpression of CD9 with membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and amphiregulin in cultured human keratinocyte growth. (hcdm.org)
- First discovered on a lymphoblastic cell line of pre-B phenotype, CD9 was then found on platelets and within their α-granules, on monocytes, pre-B cells, eosinophils, basophils and activated T cells. (beckman.com)
- Mouse monoclonal to CD9.TB9a reacts with CD9 ( p24), a member of the tetraspan ( TM4SF ) family with 24 kDa MW, expressed on platelets and weakly on B-cells. (technumber.com)
- Recognizes CD9, a 24kD surface glycoprotein expressed by platelets, monocytes, some lymphocytes and endothelial cells. (lsbio.com)
- The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
- Brackman D, Lund-Johansen F, Aarskog D. Expression of leukocyte differentiation antigens during the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: comparison with the maturation of normal monocytic and granulocytic bone marrow cells. (springer.com)
- To ensure complete removal of teratoma-forming cells, we identified additional pluripotency surface markers (PSMs) exhibiting a large dynamic expression range during differentiation: CD9, CD30, CD50, CD90 and CD200. (nextbigfuture.com)
- CD9 is found on the surface of exosomes and it can modulate cell adhesion and migration and also trigger platelet activation and aggregation. (wikipedia.org)
- Target exosomes to antigen-presenting cells with the pre-built XStamp-CD40L Lentivector Construct. (systembio.com)
- Exosomes made from cells transfected or transduced with the XStamp-CD40L Lentivector will now be targeted to cells expressing CD40, primarily antigen-presenting cells. (systembio.com)
- Interestingly, CD169 −/− mice demonstrated an enhanced response to antigen-pulsed exosomes. (bloodjournal.org)
- This is the first report of a role for CD169 in the capture of exosomes and its potential to mediate the immune response to exosomal antigen. (bloodjournal.org)
- Exosomes are a potential source of self-antigen for modulating the immune response against self-tissues, including tumors. (bloodjournal.org)
- CD9 is found on the surface of exosomes. (uiowa.edu)
- Through diverse interactions or via direct stimulation, CD9 influences various cellular functions including cell adhesion, aggregation, migration, clustering of MHC molecules in dendritic cells (DCs), and provides costimulatory signal during T cell activation. (miltenyibiotec.com)
- Both in DC lysates and on the surface of living cells, I-A and I-E molecules engaged in lateral interactions not observed on other antigen-presenting cells such as B blasts. (semanticscholar.org)
- The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
- In contrast, Mtb MVs are predicted to impair MHC-II expression and antigen presentation by uninfected macrophages as well as inhibit CD4+ T cell activation in the lung. (nih.gov)
- 13 CD169 + macrophages directly present captured antigen to T cells or natural killer (NK) T cells 17 and are adept at transferring antigen to CD8α + DC and B cells. (bloodjournal.org)
- The common serum marker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), cannot differentiate between patients at risk of metastatic disease and those with benign hypertrophy, leading to over-diagnosis and over-treatment. (thermofisher.com)
- siRNA knockdown of endogenous CD9 in LNCaPs reduced cellular proliferation and expression of AR and prostate specific antigen (PSA) however knockdown of AR did not alter CD9 expression, also implicating CD9 as an upstream regulator of AR. (izon.com)
- More recently we used immunohistochemical procedures, immunoblotting, and reverse transcription-PCR to demonstrate that the level of MRP-1/CD9 expression was inversely related to the clinical stage of a given carcinoma of the breast. (aacrjournals.org)
- Our data suggest that low MRP-1/CD9 expression by tumors of the lung may be associated with poor prognosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- CD9 expression increased in arterial tissues from humans and rats with age, and in atherosclerotic plaques in humans and mice. (nature.com)
- CDla + precursors give rise to cells characterized by the expression of Birbeck granules, the Lag antigen and E-cadherin, three markers specifically expressed on Langerhans cells in the epidermis. (psu.edu)
- Furthermore, CD9 expression has been associated with a malignant phenotype, including expression on 90% of non T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and on 50% of chronic lymphocytic and acute myeloblastic leukemias. (fishersci.co.uk)
- CD9 Regulates Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Trafficking in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Kim YJ, Yu JM, Joo HJ, Kim HK, Cho HH, Bae YC, Jung JS: Role of CD9 in proliferation and proangiogenic action of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (exbio.cz)
- CD9 is upregulated in senescent endothelial cells, neointima hyperplasia, and atherosclerotic plaques. (nature.com)
- CD9 knockdown in senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly rescued senescence phenotypes, while CD9 upregulation in young cells accelerated senescence. (nature.com)
- In contrast, the CD14 + progenitors mature into CDla + DC lacking Birbeck granules, E-cadherin, and Lag antigen but expressing CD2, CD9, CD68, and the coagulation factor XIlla described in dermal dendritic cells. (psu.edu)
- CONCLUSIONS- These data are consistent with MZBs contributing to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes as antigen-presenting cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, MZBs are able to act as efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs), providing cognate help to naïve CD4 + T-cells ( 18 ) and, in this way, may connect innate with adaptive immune responses ( 9 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
- SSEA-5 was found to proceed the loss of other known stem cell markers and the combination of SSEA-5 with either CD9 and CD90 or CD50 and CD200 was superior in identifying and eliminating rare undifferentiated human ES cells from differentiated cell populations than the use of other established stem cell markers. (thermofisher.com)
- Additionally, it has been demonstrated that CD9 is able to provide a co-stimulatory signal for T cells independently of CD28, in the absence of antigen-presenting cells. (fishersci.co.uk)
- Therefore, it is conceivable that antigen spreading initiated by the specific T cells and/or intervention of alternate effectors also elicited by mature DC [ 11 , 12 ] might account for this apparent discrepancy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Recently we demonstrated that proHB-EGF and CD9 form a complex with integrin alpha3betal at cell-cell contact sites of Vero cells. (nii.ac.jp)