Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (1/1355)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (2/1355)

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

B7-2 expressed on EL4 lymphoma suppresses antitumor immunity by an interleukin 4-dependent mechanism. (3/1355)

For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the "second signal" pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4-B7-1 cells are completely rejected in syngeneic mice. Unlike EL4-B7-1 cells, we find that EL4-B7-2 cells are not rejected but progressively grow in the mice. A B7-1- and B7-2-EL4 double transfectant was generated by introducing B7-2 cDNA into the EL4-B7-1 tumor line that regressed in vivo. The EL4-B7-1+B7-2 double transfectant was not rejected when implanted into syngeneic mice but progressively grew to produce tumors. The double transfectant EL4 cells could costimulate T cell proliferation that could be blocked by anti-B7-1 antibodies, anti-B7-2 antibodies, or hCTLA4 immunoglobulin, showing that the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules expressed on the EL4 cells were functional. In vivo, treatment of mice implanted with double-transfected EL4 cells with anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody resulted in tumor rejection. Furthermore, the EL4-B7-2 and EL4-B7-1+B7-2 cells, but not the wild-type EL4 cells, were rejected in interleukin 4 (IL-4) knockout mice. Our data suggests that B7-2 expressed on some T cell tumors inhibits development of antitumor immunity, and IL-4 appears to play a critical role in abrogation of the antitumor immune response.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (4/1355)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

In vivo UVA-1 and UVB irradiation differentially perturbs the antigen-presenting function of human epidermal Langerhans cells. (5/1355)

Ultraviolet B (UVB, 290-320 nm) radiation is known to suppress the immune function of epidermal Langerhans cells. We have recently described that in vitro UVB irradiation perturbs the antigen-presenting cell function of Langerhans cells by inhibiting their expression of functional B7 costimulatory molecules (B7-1, B7-2). The aim of this study was to determine wavelength-specific UV effects on Langerhans cells function in vivo, specifically UVB and UVA-1. To address this issue, volunteers were irradiated on the sun protected volar aspects of their forearms with 3 x minimal erythema dose of UVB (Philips TL-12) and UVA-1 (UVASUN 5000 Mutzhaas). Langerhans cells were isolated from suction blister roofs immediately following irradiation. Langerhans cells isolated from UVB- but not from UVA-1-irradiated skin failed to activate naive resting allogeneic T cells (mixed epidermal cell leukocyte reaction) or primed tetanus toxoid reactive autologous T cells. Langerhans cells isolated from sham-irradiated or UVA-1-irradiated skin strongly upregulated B7-2 molecules during short-term tissue culture. By contrast, Langerhans cells from UVB-irradiated skin did not upregulate B7-2 molecules. Furthermore, exogenous stimulation of the B7 pathway by anti-CD28 stimulatory monoclonal antibodies restored the capacity of UVB-irradiated Langerhans cells to activate both alloreactive and tetanus toxoid-reactive T cells, implying suppressed antigen-presenting cell activities and perturbed B7 expression of Langerhans cells isolated from UVB-irradiated skin are related. Those studies demonstrate that in vivo UVB, but not UVA-1, interferes with the activation-dependent upregulation of B7 molecules on Langerhans cells, which in turn is of functional relevance for the perturbed antigen-presenting cell function of Langerhans cells within UVB- but not UVA-1-irradiated skin.  (+info)

Evidence of cell-mediated cardiac myocyte injury involved in the heart failure of a patient with progressive systemic sclerosis. (6/1355)

A 54-year-old woman with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) was admitted to hospital because of dyspnea and chest pain. Echocardiogram revealed diffuse hypokinesis of the left ventricle (ejection fraction 24%). Methylprednisolone, heparin, and diuretics were administered, without benefit. Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction rapidly progressed, and she died of heart failure on the 14th hospital day. Immunohistochemical study of the myocardial tissue showed mild to moderate cell infiltration, mainly consisting of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and T helper cells. Perforin, a cytolytic factor, was expressed in the infiltrating CTLs and NK cells, indicating that these cells were activated killer cells. Furthermore, human leukocyte antigen classes I and II, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, as well as costimulatory molecules B7-1, B7-2, and CD40, all of which are known not to be expressed in cardiac myocytes under normal conditions, were moderately to strongly expressed in cardiac myocytes. There was no detectable level of enterovirus genomes in the polymerase chain reaction products from the myocardial tissue of this patient. These findings strongly suggest that the infiltrating killer cells recognized cardiac myocytes as target cells and directly damaged them by releasing perforin. Enhanced expression of these antigens may have played an important role in the activation and cytotoxicity of the infiltrating killer cells. Absence of enterovirus genomes in the myocardial tissue may suggest that this autoimmune process is primarily induced by PSS.  (+info)

Synovial fluid transforming growth factor beta inhibits dendritic cell-T lymphocyte interactions in patients with chronic arthritis. (7/1355)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether rheumatoid synovial fluid (SF) inhibits dendritic cell (DC) expression of the CD80 and CD86 costimulator molecules and contributes to SF T lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness. METHODS: Cell-free rheumatoid SF was tested for its effect on DC-stimulated autologous/allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions and for its effect on DC surface antigen expression, as assessed by flow cytometry. Blocking monoclonal antibodies were used to identify the SF cytokines that inhibited DC-T lymphocyte interactions. RESULTS: Low concentrations of SF (2.5%) could inhibit DC-mediated autologous and allogeneic T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by neutralizing transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but not by IL-12, in the SF. Hyaluronic acid, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were not associated with SF inhibition. In vitro culture alone and crosslinking with the CD40 ligand up-regulated DC CD80/CD86 expression and costimulator function, and this was not affected by inclusion of SF. In the presence of SF, DC clustered with autologous T lymphocytes showed decreased CD80 and CD86 expression, and variable CD80/CD86 decreases were observed on DC clustered with allogeneic T lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: TGFbeta in SF appears to suppress T lymphocyte function, which may affect both signaling to DC and the induction of DC costimulator function.  (+info)

Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. (8/1355)

BACKGROUND: The granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis is driven by the interplay between T cells and macrophages. To gain a better understanding of this process the expression by these cells of cell surface activation markers, co-stimulatory molecules, and adhesion molecules was analysed. METHODS: CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood (PBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as paired peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages from 27 patients with sarcoidosis were analysed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: CD26, CD54, CD69, CD95, and gp240 were all overexpressed in T cells from BAL fluid compared with those from PBL in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, while CD57 was overexpressed only in BAL CD4+ cells. In contrast, CD28 tended to be underexpressed in the BAL T cells. Monocyte/macrophage markers included CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD14, CD16, CD54, CD71, CD80 and CD86 and HLA class II. CD11a expression in alveolar macrophages (and peripheral blood monocytes) was increased in patients with active disease and correlated positively with the percentage of BAL lymphocytes. Expression of CD80 in macrophages correlated with the BAL CD4/CD8 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate substantial activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ lung T cells in sarcoidosis. There were also increased numbers of BAL lymphocytes whose phenotypic characteristics have earlier been associated with clonally expanded, replicatively senescent cells of the Th1 type.  (+info)

Cancer cell expression of the T-cell co-stimulatory molecule CD80, or treatment with agonistic antibodies targeting the T-cell co-stimulatory receptors OX-40 or 4-1BB, enhances the anti-tumor activity of FAK inhibition.
We have previously demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on ConA-induced T cell proliferation or IL-2 production by resting murine T cells were only observed when macrophages, but not when activated B cells, dendritic cells, or L cells, were used as accessory cells. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-10 on the inhibition of macrophage costimulatory activity, we have used a system in which macrophages can develop into effective costimulator cells and the effect of IL-10 on this process can be studied in the absence of T cells. After fixation, resting macrophages have no costimulatory activity for soluble anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation nor do they express the activation Ag B7/BB1. In contrast, macrophages activated by culture alone, or by culture with IFN gamma or LPS for 24 h, and then fixed, were effective accessory cells, expressed B7, and their costimulatory activity correlated with their level of cell surface B7 expression. Addition of IL-10 during the ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
In the 1990s download developing costimulatory molecules for immunotherapy Dr Russell Humphreys got about traffic and evolution. I are a standard debris cigarette or prison target agreed Greek. Can you gotta if his corporations about camp and nationalism feel Sorry glad to this nighttime Written this such shadow about special users?
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Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. routes, or a TLR3 agonist (artificial double-stranded RNA PolyI:C), to evaluate modulation of innate responses during H1N1 IAV contamination. Since IAV utilizes cellular endocytic machinery for viral access, we also assessed ssONs capacity to impact IAV contamination. We first show that IAV infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were unable to up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 required Zarnestra novel inhibtior for T cell activation. Exogenous TLR3 stimulation did not overcome the IAV-mediated inhibition of co-stimulatory molecule expression in MoDC. However, TLR3 stimulation using PolyI:C led to an augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We reveal that ssON inhibited PolyI:C-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in MoDC successfully, notably, ssON treatment preserved an interferon response induced by IAV an infection. Appropriately, RNAseq analyses uncovered sturdy up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKC-θ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36]. The ...
In mammals, the classical B7 molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), bind the structurally related glycoproteins CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152), generating costimulatory signals that regulate the activation state of T cells. A recently identified human CD28-like protein, ICOS, also induces costimulatory signals in T cells when crosslinked with antibodies, but it is unclear whether ICOS is part of a B7-mediated regulatory pathway of previously unsuspected complexity, or whether it functions independently and in parallel. Here, we report that, rather than binding B7-1 or B7-2, ICOS binds a new B7-related molecule of previously unknown function that we call LICOS (for ligand of ICOS). At 37 degrees C, LICOS binds only to ICOS but, at lower, non-physiological temperatures, it also binds weakly to CD28 and CTLA-4. Sequence comparisons suggest that LICOS is the homologue of a molecule expressed by avian macrophages and of a murine protein whose expression is induced in non
To our knowledge, expression of B7-H1 within RCC tumors of the kidney has not been previously demonstrated. We also believe that B7-H1 is the first T cell costimulatory molecule that has been reported to exhibit a strong association with the aggressiveness of a solid (nonhematologic) tumor and patient cancer-specific survival. Finally, our study provides previously undescribed evidence that B7-H1 may function at the clinical level to promote cancer progression, perhaps through impairment of host T cell-mediated immunity, as has recently been reported in the basic scientific literature (2, 6).. B7-H1 represents a recently identified cell-surface glycoprotein belonging to the B7 family of costimulatory molecules (1). Constitutive B7-H1 protein expression is normally restricted to macrophage-lineage cells, where it may participate in the costimulatory activation of naïve T cells or deletion of activated T cells (1, 23). Several human cancers, however, have also been reported to aberrantly express ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been traced as far back as a century ago, but it wasnt identified until the 1980s, when it captured public attention for causing a sweeping wave of deaths. About 32 million people have died from HIV and AIDS, which is the term for the range of conditions caused by the virus. A cure for HIV has so far been elusive, but hope has flickered anew because two people who received a stem cell transplant are now clear of the disease. Hope, though, can be held with only great reservation because of beliefs in previous efforts for a cure that failed. Not to mention, stem cell transplants are risky for those who dont have cancer. Still, any bit of hope for an end to HIV means that work for a cure continues apace, giving the nearly 38 million people living with the disease something to hold onto.
Results In their resting state the monocyte derived dendritic cells expressed MHC class II, but very low levels of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86. Upon culture with H. pylori, the cells expressed significantly higher levels of these co-stimulatory molecules, demonstrating maturation (,25 fold increase in percentage of positive events for CD80, CD83, CD86 on flow cytometry; p,0.01). There were no differences between the responses to wild type and dupA knockout mutant strains, or following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The H. pylori-matured dendritic cells secreted high levels of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-23. The concentrations induced by the dupA+ strains were significantly higher than those induced by the dupA mutants (1.5 fold increase in IL-12p40 production, p,0.05; 1.4 fold increase in IL-12p70, p,0.05).. ...
Interleukin 2 (IL-2)-deficient (IL-2-/-) mice develop hemolytic anemia and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Importantly, the induction of disease in IL-2-deficient mice is critically dependent on CD4+ T cells. We have studied the requirements of T cells from IL-2-deficient mice for costimulation with B7 antigens. Stable B7-1 or B7-2 chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants could synergize with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to induce the proliferation of CD4+ T cells from IL-2-/- mutant mice. Further mechanistic studies established that B7-induced activation resulted in surface expression of the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. B7-induced proliferation occurred independently of IL-4 and was largely independent of the common gamma chain of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 receptors. Finally, anti-B7-2 but not anti-B7-1 mAb was able to inhibit the activation of IL-2-/- T cells induced by anti-CD3 mAb in the presence of syngeneic antigen-presenting cells. The results of our experiments
The neisserial porins are the major protein components of the outer membrane of the pathogenic Neisseria (N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae). They have been shown to be able to enhance the immune response to poorly immunogenic substances (e.g., polysaccharides, peptides, glycolipids, etc.). To explore the basis of their potent adjuvant activity, the effect of the neisserial porins on T-B cell interactions and T cell costimulation was examined. Neisserial porins increased the surface expression of the costimulatory ligand B7-2 (CD86) but did not affect the expression of B7-1 (CD80). In addition, incubation with the neisserial porins increased the T lymphocyte costimulatory ability of B lymphocytes, which was inhibited by anti-B7-2 but not anti-B7-1 monoclonal antibodies. Upregulation of B7-2 on the surface of B lymphocytes may be the mechanism behind the immunopotentiating activity of neisserial porins. ...
Methods: The measles antigen was incorporated into the biodegradable, crosslinked-albumin matrix and spray dried using Buchi mini spray dryer B-290 to formulate the vaccine loaded microparticles. The microparticles were characterized for size, charge, and polydispersity index (PDI). The surface morphology of microparticles was visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The induction of an immune response by the microparticulate vaccine was confirmed via spectroscopic Griesss assay. The expression of antigen-presenting molecules, MHC I and MHC II, and their co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD40 was assessed on the surface of dendritic cells using BD Accuri C6 plus flow cytometer. The equivalent amount of blank microparticles (without antigen and adjuvant) was used as control. The cytotoxicity of microparticles was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The uptake of microparticles by APCs was studied as a function of time. The in vivo efficacy of ...
The study of the ontogeny of skin APCs also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the development and, thus, the phenotype of their precursor cells. In addition, despite considerable research, the relationship among LCs, dermal DCs, and skin macrophages still remains unclear, not least because of the high plasticity of precursors to differentiate into each of these cells in different microenvironments (7, 12, 15). In this study, we show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be phenotypically separated by the distinct expression of the DC marker CD1c on some HLA-DRhigh cells. HLA-DRhigh leukocytes are capable of phagocytosing bacteria, up-regulating costimulatory molecules, and stimulating proliferation of allogeneic T cells in vitro, thus confirming their DC nature. In contrast, HLA-DRlow skin macrophages neither express CD1c nor up-regulate costimulatory molecules during culture. Collectively, these data show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be ...
The modulation of co-stimulatory pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases. Auto-reactive CD4+ T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Blocking co-stimulatory signals prevents T-cell activation, thus diminishing autoimmune responses and possibly preventing the progression of autoimmune disease. Blockade of several co-stimulatory pathways has been investigated in animal models and has led to clinical trials testing specific blocking agents in humans. In this review we will describe the role of co-stimulatory pathways, primarily the CD28-B7 pathway, in autoimmune diseases, and we will present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting the efficacy of co-stimulation blockade in animal models of autoimmune disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical therapeutic efficacy of blocking monoclonal antibodies in preventing or reducing auto-antigen driven T-cell activation in humans with ...
Allostimulatory and processing capacities of D1 cells. (a) Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) by sorted I-Abright and I-Aint D1 cells shows that the mature I-
OX40 is really a T cell costimulatory molecule that belongs to the TNFR superfamily. exhausted Treg phenotype can be prevented by exogenous IL-2, as both OX40 and IL-2 agonists drive further expansion of Tregs in vivo. Importantly, Tregs expanded by both OX40 and IL-2 agonists are potent suppressor cells, and in a heart transplant model, they promote long-term allograft survival. Our data uncover a novel role for buy Bedaquiline (TMC-207) OX40 in buy Bedaquiline (TMC-207) promoting immune tolerance and may have important clinical implications. strong class=kwd-title Keywords: Costimulation, Transplantation, Tolerance, OX40, Foxp3 Introduction Foxp3+ Tregs and conventional T cells (Tconv) express a plethora of cell surface molecules including T cell costimulatory molecules that potentially influence their survival, function, and homeostasis; some of these molecules are constitutively expressed by both Tregs and Tconv (e.g., CD27, CD28, CD39), while others are preferentially expressed by Tregs, ...
Textbook solution for Chemistry In Focus 7th Edition Tro Chapter 4 Problem 42E. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
The interactions of B7-1 with CD28 and CTLA-4 modulate the course of human immune responses, making B7-1 an important target for developing structure-based therapeutics. B7-1 is, however, one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins found at the leukocyte cell surface, complicating the structural analysis of this molecule. Methods for the production, crystallization and selenomethionine labelling of a soluble deglycosylated form of this molecule are described. The protein readily forms both tetragonal plate and bipyramidal crystals belonging to space groups I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9, c = 298.7 A, and P4(1)22 (or P4(3)22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 89.0, c = 261.9 A, respectively. The I4(1)22 and primitive crystal forms diffract to 2.7 and 3.5 A, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance-based assays indicate that the ligand-binding properties of sB7-1 are unaffected by deglycosylation. Since none of the methods relied on any special structural properties of sB7-1, it is
Background HIV Top notch controllers (EC) suppress HIV viremia without ART yet previous studies demonstrated that EC maintain an activated T cell phenotype. were quantified using ELISA. Results In the EChi group expression of activation exhaustion and immunosensescence markers on T cells were significantly reduced compared to the EClo group and similar to the seronegative controls. The EChi group expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CD73 and had WYE-125132 lower levels of monocyte activation (HLA-DR expression) with a reduced frequency of inflammatory monocyte (CD14++CD16+) subset. Furthermore the EChi group maintained a stable CD4% during a median follow up of six years. Conclusions Elite controllers with preserved CD4 T cells (EChi) have normal T cell and monocyte phenotypes and therefore may have limited benefit from antiretroviral therapy (ART). CD4% can be an important marker WYE-125132 for evaluating future studies aimed at determining the need for ART in this group ...
Our study is the first to evaluate the role of CD40L-induced maturation as a component of the DC manufacturing process in a prospectively randomized trial. At the time we began this trial, it was known that CD40 activation of murine and human DCs led to enhanced generation of CTLs by increasing DC expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and by inducing IL-12 secretion (14, 18). It had also been showed that activating murine tumor lysate-pulsed DCs with CD40L led to more potent induction of systemic immunity than DCs prepared without CD40L activation (14). Therefore, we hypothesized that CD40L-activated human DCs would induce a more potent immune response than DCs grown without a specific maturation factor. However, treatment of DCs with CD40L did not increase tumor or KLH-specific immune responses in our patients. It is unlikely that this was due to inactive or inadequate amounts of CD40L, as we observed significant upregulation of CD86 and CD83 expression. One possible ...
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
|p|The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD40, a member of the TNFreceptor superfamily. CD40 is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses includ
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When activated by Toll-like receptor ligands, the CD80 expression is upregulated in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The CD86 ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Prasad KV, Cai YC, Raab M, Duckworth B, Cantley L, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Mar 1994). "T-cell antigen CD28 interacts with the ...
It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and avidity than CD28 thus enabling it to ... CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and ... April 2011). "Trans-endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: a molecular basis for the cell-extrinsic function of CTLA-4". Science. 332 ( ...
September 2005). "CD26 mediates dissociation of Tollip and IRAK-1 from caveolin-1 and induces upregulation of CD86 on antigen- ...
They also express high levels of MHC II and costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 and rank among efficient antigen-presenting cells ... Unidirectional antigen transfer from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs), which itself can´t express TRAs, extends the ... Koble C, Kyewski B (July 2009). "The thymic medulla: a unique microenvironment for intercellular self-antigen transfer". The ... which recognize self antigens via their TCRs. Autoreactive T cells must be eliminated from the body or skewed into the T ...
This suggests Treg-mediated suppression of antigen presenting cells is a multi-step process. In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 ... T regulatory cell adhesion to antigen presenting dendritic cell causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein ... essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting dendritic ...
... and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion molecules; in junctional adhesion molecules (JAM); in tyrosine-protein kinase receptors; ... and in the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1). Immunoglobulin V-set, subgroup InterPro: IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 ... CD86; CD8A; CD8B; CD8B1; CD96; CEACAM1; CEACAM16; CEACAM19; CEACAM21; CEACAM3; CEACAM4; CEACAM5; CEACAM6; CEACAM7; CEACAM8; ...
If the interaction between an antigen-presenting cell and a T-cell is stable enough, the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the ... It is closely related to CD86, another B7 protein (B7-2), and often works in tandem, binding to the same receptors to prime T ... CD80, often in tandem with CD86, plays a large and diverse role in the regulation of both the adaptive and the innate immune ... Rau FC, Dieter J, Luo Z, Priest SO, Baumgarth N (December 2009). "B7-1/2 (CD80/CD86) direct signaling to B cells enhances IgG ...
Mregs express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86) and MHC Class II, they have the highest expression of these ... T cells co-culture with Mregs showed intense activation and proliferation, so Mregs act as sufficient antigen-presenting cells ...
Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ... CD27: This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. CD27 ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ... CD40: This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known as ...
CD86, ED1 macrophage antigen, CD4, and leukocyte common antigen. These activated microglia decrease the ability for neurons to ... Additionally, T cells may enter through the blood-brain barrier, be activated by local antigen presenting cells, and attack the ...
In order for T cells to be activated and attack an antigen, that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen- ... and the other signal is the CD80 or CD86 molecule (also known as B7-1 and B7-2). Abatacept binds to the CD80 and CD86 molecule ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ... One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), combined with the antigen, ...
Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...
The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... and CD86-CTLA-4 interaction between APCs and γδ T cells. They also impair effector immune cells (DC, NK, iNKT, CD8+ T cells) ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ...
... when IL-10R1 receptor is IL-10 is also an inhibitor of expressions of CD80 and CD86 by dendritic cells (DC) and antigen- ...
... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ... Carbohydrate antigens on the surface of cells can be used as targets for immunotherapy. GD2 is a ganglioside found on the ...
Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen ... CD86, CD40), MHC molecules and pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines. Heat-shock proteins can signal also through scavenger ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... Tumor cells usually express only a few neo-antigens, which can be targeted by immune system and also not all tumor cells ...
Antigen-naive T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ...
... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
MZ B cells shuttle between the blood-filled marginal zone for antigen collection and the follicle for antigen delivery to ... CD80 and CD86 molecules. Deficiencies of MZ B cells are associated with a higher risk of pneumococcal infection, meningitis and ... MZ B cells respond to a wide spectrum of T-independent, but also T-dependent antigens. It is believed that MZ B cells are ... Moreover, MZ B cells are potent antigen-presenting cells, that are able to activate CD4+ T cells more effectively than FO B ...
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... Expressed by APCs CD86 - Expressed by APCs CD28 family receptors CD28 - Expressed by T Cells CD278 (ICOS) - Homodimer, ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...
... antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.180 - antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.186 - antigens, cd86 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.101.100.110.180 - antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.101.100.110.186 - antigens, cd86 MeSH D23.101.100.110.194 - ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
B1b cells seem to recognize more types of antigens including intracellular antigens. Previously, B1b cell antigen recognition ... What differentiates B1 cells from other B cells is the variable existence of CD5, CD86, IgM and IgD. B-1 B cells, in the mouse ... making antibodies against antigens and acting as antigen-presenting cells. These B1 cells are commonly found in peripheral ... Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. B1 B ...
The interaction between CD86 (CD80) expressed on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell with CD28 on the surface of a mature ... This suggest that CD80 is more potent ligand than CD86, but studies using CD80 and CD86 knockout mice have shown that CD86 is ... Both CD80 and CD86 bind CTLA-4 with higher affinity than CD28. This allows CTLA-4 to outcompete CD28 for CD80/CD86 binding. ... Human CD86 genome location and CD86 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Davila S, Froeling FE, Tan A, Bonnard C, ...
DCs are also the only cell type which can activate naïve T cells and induce antigen-specific immune responses. Therefore, their ... CD86) and MHC molecules on their surface. Tolerogenic DCs also produce different cytokines as mature DCs (e.g. anti- ... Tolerogenic effect has been demonstrated also by over-expression of Jagged-1 on DCs which in turn induced antigen specific T ... Mills KH, McGuirk P (April 2004). "Antigen-specific regulatory T cells--their induction and role in infection". Seminars in ...
... or CD86 (B7.2), although other additional co-stimulation molecules have been identified. When Signal 2 is not expressed, but T ... As specific cancer antigens have been discovered, these antigens can be loaded to aAPCs to successfully stimulate and expand ... It is the specific antigen or epitope that is loaded into the MHC determines the antigen-specificity. The peptide-loaded MHC ... Antigen presenting cells are the sentinels of the immune system and patrol the body for pathogens. When they encounter foreign ...
IL-10 is partially responsible for reducing expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD86 on macrophages. CD86 is one of ... A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... Of these, NPA (nematode polyprotein antigen/allergen) FAR, and Sj-FABPc demonstrate different binding affinities for fatty ... and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens. Other helminth proteins promote parasite survival in other ways, ...
The axis inhibits bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (i.e. antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material, present it ... CD86, CD40, and MHC class II molecules) that are critical for developing adaptive immune responses. IL receptor-activated bone ...
... is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. T cells require two signals ... and CD86 (B7.2) on the membrane of APC. Another costimulatory receptor expressed by T cells is ICOS ( Inducible Costimulator), ... B cell binds antigens with its BCR (a membrane-bound antibody), which transfers intracellular signals to the B cell as well as ... This additional binding makes the B cells 100- to 10,000-fold more sensitive to antigen. CR2 on mature B cells forms a complex ...
There are two major types of B7 proteins: B7-1 or CD80, and B7-2 or CD86. It is not known if they differ significantly from ... This is also called "Signal 1" and its main purpose is to guarantee antigen specificity of the T cell activation. However, MHC ... So far CD80 is found on dendritic cells, macrophages, and activated B cells, CD86 (B7-2) on B cells. The proteins CD28 and CTLA ... B7 is a type of peripheral membrane protein found on activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) that, when paired with either a ...
Every helper T-cell is specific to one particular antigen. Only professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, B ... Histiocyte Macrophage List of human clusters of differentiation for a list of CD molecules (such as CD80 and CD86) Steinman, R ... Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They ... Here they act as antigen-presenting cells: they activate helper T-cells and killer T-cells as well as B-cells by presenting ...
CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 • CD98 • CD99 • CD100 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
Antigen-specific peripheral shaping of the natural regulatory T cell population. „J Exp Med". 205 (13), s. 3105-3117, grudzień ... Ponieważ CD80 i CD86 są kluczowe dla stymulacji limfocytów T, efektem jest zahamowanie ich aktywacji[105]; ... De novo production of antigen-specific suppressor cells in vivo. „Nat Protoc". 1 (2), s. 653-661, 2006. PMID: 17802642. ... CTLA-4 - białko to wiąże się z cząsteczkami CD80 i CD86 na komórkach prezentujących antygen. Skutkuje to pobraniem tych ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 • CD98 • CD99 • CD100 ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
The axis inhibits bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (i.e. antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material, present it ... CD86, CD40, and MHC class II molecules) that are critical for developing adaptive immune responses. IL receptor-activated bone ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[51] Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 • CD98 • CD99 • CD100 ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction with CTLA-4 or lymphocyte function-associated antigen ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ... nTreg cells are specific, modestly, for self-antigen while iTreg cells recognize allergens, commensal bacteria, tumor antigens ...
This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes.[21] While the Duffy antigen ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
... the Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX ... 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86. 1.2 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Segment by ... 1.4 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market by Region (2012-2022). 1.4.1 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 ... 5.3 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Price by Type (2012-2017). 5.4 Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 ...
Following antigen stimulation, intercellular interactions of DC:T-cell conjugates were stronger than B:T-cell interactions. DCs ... Blocking antibodies targeting surface co-stimulatory molecules CD80 or CD86 weakened intercellular interactions and dampen T- ... since DCs were superior to B-cells in promoting strong interactions with T-cells even when CD80 and CD86 were inhibited. These ... Functional T-cell responses are initiated by physical interactions between T-cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs), ...
Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) - Pipeline ... Enquire before buying for T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86 ... Enquire before buying T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) - ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) - Pipeline Review, H1 ...
1 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86. 1.2 ... 7 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Manufacturing Cost Analysis. 7.1 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Key Raw Materials ... of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (2012-2022). 1.5.1 United States T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Sales and Growth ... 1.4 United States T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market by Region. 1.4.1 United States T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen ...
Antigen References 1. Hathcock K, et al. 1996. Adv. Immunol. 62:131. 2. June C, et al. 1994. Immunol. Today 15:321. ... CD86 is an 80 kD immunoglobulin superfamily member also known as B7-2, B70, and Ly-58. CD86 is expressed on activated B and T ... CD86, along with CD80, is the ligand of CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). CD86 is expressed earlier in the immune response than CD80. ... CD86 has also been shown to be involved in immunoglobulin class-switching and triggering of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. CD86 ...
p,CD86, also known as B7-2, is a member of cell surface immunoglobulin superfamily. B7 family members are transmembrane ... CD86, B7-2, T lymphocyte activation antigen CD86, Activation B7-2 antigen, CD28 antigen ligand 2, CD28LG2B7-2 antigen, B70, ... CD86, along with CD80, is a ligand of CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). CD86 is expressed earlier in the immune response than CD80. CD86 ... Stability testing for Human B7-2/CD86. Human B7-2/CD86 was aliquoted in PBS, pH 7.2 at 0.2 mg/ml. One aliquot was freeze and ...
Ϊ???? Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD86(CD86),partial (Active) ???? ?? ... CD86; CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2 B7 2 antigen); CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2; B7-2 antigen) 1; 2; CD86 antigen ... CD28 antigen ligand 2; B7-2 antigen); CD86 antigen; CD86 molecule; CD86_HUMAN; CLS1; CTLA-4 counter-receptor B7.2 2; CTLA-4 ... Activation B7-2 antigen 3; Activation B7-2 antigen; B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7-2 2; B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7- ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD86 Mouse anti-Baboon,Cynomolgus,Human,Rhesus, Brilliant Ultraviolet ... Antigen. CD86. Clone. 2331 (FUN-1). Formulation. Aqueous buffered solution containing ≤0.09% sodium azide.. ... CD86 is the second ligand for CD28 and CTLA-4 and may play an important role in co-stimulation of T cells in primary immune ... CD86 Mouse anti-Baboon,Cynomolgus,Human,Rhesus, Brilliant Ultraviolet 737, Clone: 2331 (FUN-1), BD Horizon ...
... products and learn more about CD86 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 786, Clone: 2331 (FUN-1), BD Optibuild 50µg; Brilliant ... B7.2; B7-2; B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7-2; B70; BU63; CD28LG2; LAB72. ... CD86 is a ligand for CD28 and CTLA-4 and plays an important role in costimulation of T cells in primary immune response. The ... CD86 Mouse anti-Human, Brilliant Violet 786, Clone: 2331 (FUN-1), BD Optibuild ...
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CD86 (B7-2) antigen on B cells from atopic patients shows selective, antigen-specific upregulation. / Nakada, M.; Nishizaki, K. ... CD86 (B7-2) antigen on B cells from atopic patients shows selective, antigen-specific upregulation. Allergy: European Journal ... title = "CD86 (B7-2) antigen on B cells from atopic patients shows selective, antigen-specific upregulation", ... CD86 (B7-2) antigen on B cells from atopic patients shows selective, antigen-specific upregulation. ...
DC-like up-regulation of class II antigens and costimulatory molecules, i.e., CD54, CD86; Cytokine release, i.e., IL-8; LC-like ... Upon antigen capture, the DC undergoes a maturation process leading to the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, ... 5. Antigen presentation to TH cells and memory T-cell generation (immunogenicity). In vitro T-cell activation. [50,65,66]. ... Ashikaga, T.; Hoya, M.; Itagaki, H.; Katsumura, Y.; Aiba, S. Evaluation of CD86 expression and MHC calss II molecule ...
Cd86 antigen, isoform CRA_cImported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,O35531,O35531_RAT CD86 molecule OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 GN=Cd86 PE=1 SV=1 ... "Donor antigen-loaded IKK2dn gene-modified dendritic cells prolong allograft survival.". Ouyang J., Fan C., Wen D., Hou J., Du Y ... "Characterization of rat CD80 and CD86 by molecular cloning and mAb.". Maeda K., Sato T., Azuma M., Yagita H., Okumura K.. Int. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human CD86 protein. Ab114229 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ... CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen). *CD86 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 2, B7-2 antigen) 1, 2 ... Isoform 2 interferes with the formation of CD86 clusters, and thus acts as a negative regulator of T-cell activation. ...
Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ...
T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market Assessment Global Industry Insights, Trends, Size, Share, Outlook, And Opportunity ... In a recent published report, Kenneth Research has updated the T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market Assessment report ... According to Kenneth Research, the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 market was valued at USD xxx million in 2019, ... Correspondingly, the forecast analysis of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 industry comprises of Asia, North America, South ...
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Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ...
According to XYZResearch, the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 market was valued at USD xxx million in 2019, and it ... Correspondingly, the forecast analysis of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 industry comprises of Asia, North America, South ... Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Assessment, With Major Companies Analysis,Regional Analysis, Breakdown Data by ... Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Assessment, With Major Companies Analysis,Regional Analysis, Breakdown Data by ...
... and CD86 (B7.2) (Table I⇓). Both experimental groups mounted a ∼10-fold increase in I-Ab GMFI, 2-fold higher CD40 GMFI, and 6- ... B lymphocytes can be competent antigen-presenting cells for priming CD4+ T cells to protein antigens in vivo. J. Immunol. 155: ... requirement for professional antigen presenting cells and evidence for antigen transfer from myocytes. Mol. Med. 3:362. ... B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T cell priming in vivo. J. Immunol. 162:5695. ...
Mouse Monoclonal CD86 antibody for FACS, Func, IHC (f), IP, WB. Published in 9 Pubmed References. Order anti-CD86 antibody ... costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes is the CD86 differentiation antigen." in: Blood, Vol ... CD86 (CD86 Antibody Abstract) Background CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) are ligands of T cell critical costimulatory molecule CD28 ... CD86 antibody (CD86 Molecule). Details for Product anti-CD86 Antibody No. ABIN302084 ...
CD80 and CD86 (collectively referred to as B7 for this bioassay). ... CD28 binds to B7 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Co- ... aAPC/Raji Cells: Raji cells expressing an engineered cell surface protein designed to activate TCR/CD3 in an antigen- ... CD80 and CD86 (collectively referred to as B7 for this bioassay). ...
CD53 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K05413 CD86; CD86 antigen K08446 ... 12508 Cd53; CD53 antigen 12509 Cd59a; CD59a antigen 333883 Cd59b; CD59b antigen 12521 Cd82; CD82 antigen 12524 Cd86; CD86 ... 12481 Cd2; CD2 antigen 12503 Cd247; CD247 antigen 12493 Cd37; CD37 antigen 12505 Cd44; CD44 antigen ... MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen ...
To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell ... To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell ... followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. We previously demonstrated the dMP system ameliorated type 1 diabetes (T1D) and ... followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. We previously demonstrated the dMP system ameliorated type 1 diabetes (T1D) and ...
CD86 (GL-1; BD PharMingen). Fluorescent reagents were either purchased or labeled in-house using a standard protocol and ... The Unique Antigen Receptor Signaling Phenotype of B-1 Cells Is Influenced by Locale but Induced by Antigen. Michael J. Chumley ... The Unique Antigen Receptor Signaling Phenotype of B-1 Cells Is Influenced by Locale but Induced by Antigen ... The Unique Antigen Receptor Signaling Phenotype of B-1 Cells Is Influenced by Locale but Induced by Antigen ...
0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Receptors, Immunologic / immunology. ... T-Lymphocyte; 0/BTLA protein, human; 0/Receptors, Immunologic; 0/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; 0/inducible T-cell co- ...
CD86 protein, human * CTLA-4 Antigen * CTLA4 protein, human * HLA-DR Antigens ... CD86, CD80, CTLA-4, CD30 and CD11b were expressed by less than 23% of the T cell populations from both the epidermis and dermis ... CD86), including a Type 2 T cell marker (CD30) and CD11b, by flow cytometry of skin and peripheral blood. T cells in single ...
CD86 protein, human * CTLA-4 Antigen * CTLA4 protein, human * Cd86 protein, mouse ...
CD86) cloned gene : ORF from ATG to Stop, in pUNO1 expression plasmid selectable in E.coli and mammalian cells. Fully sequenced ... CD86 molecule.. CD28 antigen ligand 2. Back to the top Specifications. Human B7.2 isoform 2 (pUNO1-hB72b). Genbank : NM_ ...
It is expressed by germinal center B cells and weakly expressed on antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic ... CD86 plays a critical role in the early events of T cell activation and costimulation of naive T cells as well as autoantibody ... In addition to CD80 (B7-1) , CD86 is a counter-receptor for the T cell surface molecules CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). ... Clone 24F recognizes the rat antigen CD86, also known as B7-2, which is a member of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules. ...
  • Conclusion: These results suggest that costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86, expressed on allergen-specific T cells may be involved in the amplification of allergen-specific immune responses through T-T cell interactions in atopic diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • The both B7 Molecules are expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells and are essential for T cell activation, the both molecules can also substitute for each other in this process. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We quantitatively measured the number of T cells expressing cell surface activation-associated molecules (CD69, CD25, CD122, HLA-DR) and co-stimulatory molecules (CD28, CTLA-4, CD80, CD86), including a Type 2 T cell marker (CD30) and CD11b, by flow cytometry of skin and peripheral blood. (nih.gov)
  • Clone 24F recognizes the rat antigen CD86, also known as B7-2, which is a member of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • In addition to CD80 (B7-1) , CD86 is a counter-receptor for the T cell surface molecules CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells is crucial in determining T-cell immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • CD40 ligation has been reported to contribute to the induction of accessory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 (25-27), to the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (27-29), and to the induction of nitric oxide generation (24) and metalloproteinase secretion (30). (bioscience.org)
  • CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and B7-2 respectively, on antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We confirm that inflammatory activation of MSCs increased HLA class II, PD-L1, and intracellular IDO expression, whereas co-stimulatory molecules including CD86 remained absent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antigen-specific T cell activation depends on T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in conjunction with co-stimulatory signals mediated by accessory molecules. (google.com)
  • Giguère JF, Bounou S, Paquette JS, Madrenas J, Tremblay MJ: Insertion of host-derived costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 affects the virus life cycle. (exbio.cz)
  • Key steps in initiating CTL responses include capture, processing, and loading of exogenous antigen onto MHC class I molecules by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a process called cross-presentation ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Autophagosomes secreted by FFCT-treated CT26.WT cells can activate M1 type macrophages, accompanied with increased expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 on the surface of RAW264.7 cells, and more inflammatory cytokines secretion, such as TNF- α , IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1 β . (hindawi.com)
  • Binding of CD28 on the T cell to B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) molecules on the antigen-presenting cell creates an amplifying signal required for full T cell activation. (jci.org)
  • Expression of these antigen-presenting molecules was not significantly modified by FGFb, PDGF-BB or IL-2 treatment. (portlandpress.com)
  • Activation of the toll-like receptor signaling pathways induces expression of nuclear factor κB-dependent cytokines and interferon regulatory factor-dependent costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. (asahq.org)
  • Recognition of the co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) by CD28 on T cell membrane is required to fully activate T cells. (asahq.org)
  • The first signal is antigen-specific and is generated by interaction of the T-cell receptor with peptide-bearing MHC molecules. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although many tumor cells express MHC class I molecules and are able to present antigens, most do not provide costimulation, a possible mechanism for tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In peripheral tissues, DCs internalize antigens and then migrate to lymphoid organs where they process the sequestered antigens into peptides, load them onto MHC molecules, and finally present peptide/MHC complexes on their cell surface ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) pipeline Target constitutes close to 38 molecules. (prnewswire.com)
  • Competitive binding assays demonstrate that, while both 2331 (FUN-1) and IT2.2 (Anti-CD86) antibodies specifically recognize the same molecule, they react with different epitopes. (fishersci.com)
  • CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) are ligands of T cell critical costimulatory molecule CD28 and of an inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 (CD152). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Antibody clone PO3.3 detects the CD86 antigen, also known as B7-2, an 80 kDa molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD86 shares with the CD80 molecule the same co-receptors on T cells, CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). (beckman.com)
  • Preferential dependence of autoantibody production in murine lupus on CD86 co-stimulatory molecule. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Several investigators have suggested that the interaction of the CD28 molecule on the T cell with a ligand, B7, on the antigen-presenting cell (APC) is best characterized among the many cell surface receptor/ligand pairs in delivering this costimulatory activity. (google.com)
  • Engel P, Gribben JG, Freeman GJ, Zhou LJ, Nozawa Y, Abe M, Nadler LM, Wakasa H, Tedder TF: The B7-2 (B70) costimulatory molecule expressed by monocytes and activated B lymphocytes is the CD86 differentiation antigen. (exbio.cz)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a regulatory molecule that suppresses T cell effector function following initial activation by costimulatory signals. (jci.org)
  • The GL1 antibody specifically recognizes the B7-2 (CD86) costimulatory molecule expressed on a broad spectrum of leukocytes, including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and astrocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Ethanol inhibits exogenous and allogeneic antigen presentation and affects the formation of peptide-MHCII complexes, as well as altering costimulatory molecule expression on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • The latest report Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (prnewswire.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) - Pipeline Review, H1 2017', provides in depth analysis on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86)Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 (Activation B7-2 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.2 or CD86) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • A selectivity of B7.1 (CD80) for promoting Th1 responses and B7.2 (CD86) for promoting Th2 responses in the murine system has recently been suggested. (elsevier.com)
  • CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction of CD86 with its ligands CD28 and CD152 (CTLA- 4) plays a critical role in induction and regulation of immune responses, e.g., cross-talk between T and B cells, T cell costimulation, or immunoglobulin class-switching. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • When activated by Toll-like receptor ligands, the CD80 expression is upregulated in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • All B7 ligands are expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APC) including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, where they play a critical role in regulation of the immune response. (fluidigm.com)
  • CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and avidity than CD28 thus enabling it to outcompete CD28 for its ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD80 and CD86 would normally act as the ligands to the CD28 receptor T-cells in which this interaction triggers the activation of T lymphocytes. (drugbank.ca)
  • CTLA4 has two ligands CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). (genscript.com)
  • Yervoy binds to CTLA-4 and blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with its ligands, CD80/CD86. (benzinga.com)
  • MIM 601020) ligands on antigen-presenting cells. (genetex.com)
  • The costimulatory pair of ligands bind CTLA-4 and are expressed on antigen-presenting cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • It exerts competitive binding for stimulatory CD28 ligands (CD80/CD86) [1]. (invivogen.com)
  • The adaptive immune response however has an enormous diversity of antigen receptors and the ligands it recognises are equally diverse and so it can distinguish between individual pathogens. (infobarrel.com)
  • The affinity of CTLA4 for its natural B7 family ligands, CD80 and CD86, is considerably stronger than the affinity of their cognate stimulatory co-receptor CD28. (prnewswire.com)
  • CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which have opposing functions in T-cell responses, share the two ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • When human B7-2/CD86 is immobilized at 0.5 μg/ml (100 μl/well) using a anti-His antibody (Cat. (biolegend.com)
  • The 2331 (FUN-1) monoclonal antibody specifically recognizes a 75 kDa transmembrane cell surface protein, CD86 (B70/B7-2), expressed primarily on monocytes, dendritic cells and activated B cells. (fishersci.com)
  • The 2331 (FUN-1) antibody blocks the costimulatory activity of CD86 when tested in functional studies. (fishersci.com)
  • Monovalent antibody scFv fragments selected to modulate T-cell activation by inhibition of CD86-CD28 interaction. (uniprot.org)
  • The antibody BU63 reacts with CD86 (B7-2), a 70 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein of immunoglobulin supergene family, expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages or activated B lymphocytes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • CD86 antibody [N1C2] detects CD86 protein in mouse lymph node by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • CD86 antibody [N1C2] (GTX113074) diluted at 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Flow cytometry surface staining pattern of murine peritoneal fluid cells suspension stained using anti-mouse CD86 (GL-1) purified antibody (low endotoxin, concentration in sample 0,6 μg/ml) DAR APC. (exbio.cz)
  • Separation of murine CD86 positive myeloid cells (red-filled) from murine CD86 negative lymphocytes (black-dashed) in flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of murine peritoneal fluid cells suspension stained using anti-mouse CD86 (GL-1) purified antibody (low endotoxin, concentration in sample 0,6 μg/ml) DAR APC. (exbio.cz)
  • ELISA blocking of mouse CTLA4 antibody MCT.E9 (GenScript, A01843) against mouse CD86 recombinant protein binding with Mouse CTLA4 recombinant protein. (genscript.com)
  • Mouse CTLA-4 antibodies with has blocking effect against CD80/CD86 binding with CTLA4 can serve as a great surrogate antibody in mouse model. (genscript.com)
  • The appropriate concentrations may be affected by secondary antibody affinity, antigen concentration, the sensitivity of the method of detection, temperature, the length of the incubations, and other factors. (genscript.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody binds to CD86. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Yervoy is a recombinant, human monoclonal antibody that binds to the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4). (benzinga.com)
  • The demonstration that a protein-coding gene is able to elicit a specific immune response in vivo was first published by Tang and Johnston [ 2 ] who showed that the direct delivery of the human growth hormone gene into the skin of mice could elicit antigen-specific antibody responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • We constructed chimeric proteins that contain in a single polypeptide chain a portion of human B7-2 (CD86) genetically fused to single-chain (sc) Fv antibody domains specific for the tumor-associated antigens epidermal growth factor receptor and the closely related ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD86, along with CD80, is the ligand of CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). (biolegend.com)
  • CD86 is the second ligand for CD28 and CTLA-4 and may play an important role in co-stimulation of T cells in primary immune response. (fishersci.com)
  • This protein is expressed by antigen-presenting cells, and it is the ligand for two proteins at the cell surface of T cells, CD28 antigen and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4. (genetex.com)
  • Caux C, Vanbervliet B, Massacrier C, Azuma M, Okumura K, Lanier LL, Banchereau J: B70/B7-2 is identical to CD86 and is the major functional ligand for CD28 expressed on human dendritic cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Publications] Azuma M.: 'B70 antigen is a second ligand for CTLA-4 and CD28. (nii.ac.jp)
  • CD28 also binds a second B7 ligand known as CD86 (B7-2). (peprotech.com)
  • Human peripheral blood monocytes stained with CD14 FITC and human CD86 (clone BU63) PE/Dazzle™ 594 (left) or Mouse IgG1, κ PE/Dazzle™ 594 isotype control (right). (biolegend.com)
  • The antigen-binding repertoire of the surface immunoglobulin is already unique for each clone, as a result of selective usage in each cell of different variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) region sequences, accompanied by the generation of random-linking N sequences (via the action of terminal transferase). (bloodjournal.org)
  • The CLONAL SELECTION HYPOTHESIS states that each T cell bears a single receptor with UNIQUE specificity and if it recognises an antigen MHC complex it will bind with high affinity to the antigen leading to activation of the T cell generating a clone of effector T cells and memory cells. (infobarrel.com)
  • Belatacept specifically binds to CD80 and CD86 receptors that are found on the antigen-presenting cell (B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells) to block selective T-cell lymphocyte costimulation. (drugbank.ca)
  • CD86 111 produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris and CD86 111 expressed in bacteria was functionally active and displayed specific binding to B7 counter receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The enhanced cross-presentation reflects, at least in part, the efficient uptake of IC-bound antigen by means of plasma membrane Fcγ receptors ( 5 , 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike the ADAPTIVE immune response the INNATE immune response has a limited number and diversity of antigen receptors. (infobarrel.com)
  • Binding of this protein with CD28 antigen is a costimulatory signal for activation of the T-cell. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human CD86. (genetex.com)
  • Purified CD86 (AAH40261.1, 24 a.a. - 246 a.a.) human recombinant protein with His-Flag-StrepII tag at N-terminus expressed in human cells. (abnova.com)
  • Transfection of pSuper-CD86 plasmid into HEK293T cell, and the expressed protein was purified by Strep -Tactin affinity column. (abnova.com)
  • In addition to that, it has been found that dendritic cell (DC) - Treg interaction causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein essential for immunological synapse formation and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting DCs toward the Treg cell adhesion zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belatacept is a soluble fusion protein, which links the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) to the modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). (drugbank.ca)
  • Known as a recombinant fusion protein, the drug consists of the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to a modified Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G 1 (IgG 1 . (drugbank.ca)
  • Ordinarily, full T-cell activation requires binding of the T-cell receptor to an antigen-MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell as well as a co-stimulatory signal provided by the binding of the CD28 protein on the surface of the T-cell with the CD80/86 proteins on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell. (drugbank.ca)
  • CTLA4 is a naturally occurring protein which is expressed on the surface of T-cells some hours or days after full T-cell activation and is capable of binding to CD80/86 on antigen-presenting cells with much greater affinity than CD28. (drugbank.ca)
  • DNA vaccines are based on the delivery of genes encoding a specific protein antigen that is transcribed and translated by host cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A small recombinant fragment of human CD86 was characterized that corresponds to amino acid residues 1-111 (CD86 111 ) of the mature protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) - CTLA4 also known as CD152 is a protein receptor found on the surface of T cells. (prnewswire.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this model CTLA-4 reverses the TCR-induced 'stop signal' needed for firm contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The crucial step for initiation of an adaptive immune response lies in the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and on the capacity of APCs to present antigens to T lymphocytes. (asahq.org)
  • Further investigation revealed that CTL activity could be restored partly with additions of IL-2 and fully by coimmunization with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression plasmids, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be a critical target of ethanol's action to promote impaired CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell priming ( 6 , 9 , 10 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play an important role in transplant rejection and tolerance. (nature.com)
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are sentinels of the immune system and principal mediators of the adaptive immune response. (nature.com)
  • Here, we define tolerogenic APCs (tolAPCs) as CD11c + MHC class II lo CD40 lo CD86 lo cells. (nature.com)
  • CD80 dimers on the antigen presenting cells (APCs) bridge CTLA4/CD152 dimers on T-cells in a periodic zipper-like arrangement. (genecards.org)
  • In the development of strategies to vaccinate cancer patients with tumor antigens, soluble whole proteins produced by recombinant technologies are attractive agents because they include all potential epitopes recognized by antibodies and T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Antigen-presenting cells" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • CD86 is expressed on activated B and T cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and astrocytes. (biolegend.com)
  • CD86 can bind to CD152 as well, also known as CTLA-4, to deliver an inhibitory signal to T cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Human B7-2/CD86, amino acid Leu26-Pro247 (accession # NP_787058.4) with a C-terminal 6x His tag, was expressed in 293E cells. (biolegend.com)
  • To determine whether B7 signals are associated with atopic responses in man, we assayed CD80 and CD86 expression on B cells and monocytes from atopic patients and controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 10 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and from 10 normal subjects were cultured in the presence or absence of house-dust-mite antigen, and B cells and monocytes were assayed for expression of CD80 and CD86 by flow cytometry. (elsevier.com)
  • CD86 on B cells was significantly and selectively upregulated in all atopic subjects, but not in normal subjects, whereas CD80 expression was not altered in B cells from the atopic subjects or controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results seem to suggest that selective upregulation of CD86 on B cells by a challenging antigen may play a critical role in the development of Th2 cells in patients with atopic disease. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) play an important role in antigen presentation to effector cells. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the functional role of CD80 and CD86 expressed on allergen-specific T cells in atopic diseases has not yet been clarified. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: We sought to determine the functional role of CD80 and CD86 expressed on allergen- specific T cells in atopic diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, we compared the proportion of CD45RO + CD86 + T cells in primary culture of PBMCs stimulated by Der f-c antigen between patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and control subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific T cells could provide costimulatory signals to induce allergen-specific T-cell proliferation that was partially inhibitable by both anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 mAbs. (elsevier.com)
  • The proportion of CD45RO + CD86 + T cells in primary culture from atopic patients was significantly higher than that from control subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that CD86 is the primary B7 signaling homologue in human PBMC responses, and that second signal pathways through the B7 homologues have no effect on phenotypically differentiated T helper cells in humans. (elsevier.com)
  • However, both resting and activated B cells can also induce naive T cell expansion in vivo, once there is adequate expression of CD40 and CD86 ( 6 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell "avatars," with dMP-DCs or control DCs followed by β-cell line (ßlox5) target cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest this dMP formulation conditions human antigen presenting cells toward a tolerogenic phenotype, inducing regulatory and suppressive T cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, non-antigen-specific strategies targeting T cells have shown success in subjects with or at-risk for T1D, temporarily maintaining C-peptide production or delaying disease onset, but the decline in C-peptide and T1D progression eventually resumes, suggesting treated subjects do not develop lasting tolerance to islet antigens ( 8 - 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To address this, we developed a novel biomaterial therapy to deliver immunomodulatory agents along with autoantigen as a means to recruit and tolerize dendritic cells (DCs) for robust antigen-specific T cell tolerance ( 20 , 21 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is expressed by germinal center B cells and weakly expressed on antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD86 plays a critical role in the early events of T cell activation and costimulation of naive T cells as well as autoantibody and Tʜ2-mediated Ig production. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Binding of CD86 to CD28 on T cells results in transduction of costimulatory signals for activation or proliferation of T cells, or cytokine production. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • CD86 is expressed constitutively by interdigitating dendritic cells, and at lower level by peripheral blood dendritic cells. (beckman.com)
  • CD86 is preferentially expressed by memory B cells and germinal center B cells, but not on plasma cells. (beckman.com)
  • T cells activated by CD3 ligation have also been reported to express CD86. (beckman.com)
  • Administration of dendritic cells transduced with antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides targeting CD80 or CD86 prolongs allograft survival. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the effects of transduction with high-affinity antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) designed to target the mRNA of CD80 or CD86 on the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DCs). (nih.gov)
  • H2b) bone marrow cells in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4, and transduced with anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 antisense ODNs (base-mismatched ODNs as controls). (nih.gov)
  • Antisense ODNs targeting CD80 or CD86 mRNA specifically suppressed the expression of CD80 or CD86 in DCs and inhibited their capacity to elicit the proliferative responses, donor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in C3H (H2k) spleen T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The CD86 expression on antigen-presenting cells is constitutive (expression is independent of environmental factors). (wikipedia.org)
  • CD86 expression on antigen-presenting cells is increased upon activation. (fluidigm.com)
  • In vivo requirement for Atg5 in antigen presentation by dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent work has suggested that CTLA-4 may function in vivo by capturing and removing B7-1 and B7-2 from the membranes of antigen-presenting cells, thus making these unavailable for triggering of CD28. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD86 (B70 / B7-2) on endothlial cells co-stimulates allogeneic CD4^+ T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To assess the functional implications of HLA class I APM component down-regulation in Mb cell lines, we tested their recognition by HLA class I antigen-restricted, tumor antigen (TA)-specific CTL, generated by stimulations with dendritic cells that had been transfected with Mb mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recognition of tumor cells by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen-restricted, tumor antigen (TA)-specific CTLs is mediated by β2-microglobulin-associated HLA class I heavy chains (HC) loaded with TA-derived peptides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. (elifesciences.org)
  • Rat CD86 / B7-2 derived in Human Cells. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Effects on antigen presenting cells were also observed including increased expression of MHC class II, CD80 and CD86. (cdc.gov)
  • To assess whether activated MSC can modulate adaptive immunity, MSCs were pulsed with islet auto-antigen (GAD65) peptide to stimulate GAD65-specific T-cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conditioning of antigen-specific T-cells by activated and antigen-pulsed MSCs prevented T-cells to proliferate upon subsequent activation by dendritic cells, even after removal of the MSCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mouse microglial cell lines differing in constitutive and interferon-gamma-inducible antigen-presenting activities for naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (atcc.org)
  • These cells constitutively expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens but unlike EOC-20 (CRL-2469) expression was not upregulated by recombinant murine interferon-gamma. (atcc.org)
  • Mauri D, Wyss-Coray T, Gallati H, Pichler WJ: Antigen-presenting T cells induce the development of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Benschop RJ, Melamed D, Nemazee D, Cambier JC: Distinct signal thresholds for the unique antigen receptor-linked gene expression programs in mature and immature B cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Chung JB, Wells AD, Adler S, Jacob A, Turka LA, Monroe JG: Incomplete activation of CD4 T cells by antigen-presenting transitional immature B cells: implications for peripheral B and T cell responsiveness. (exbio.cz)
  • Pulmonary immunization with NP-conjugated ovalbumin (NP-ova) with CpG induced a threefold enhancement of splenic antigen-specific CD8 + T cells displaying increased CD107a expression and IFN-γ production compared with immunization with soluble (i.e., unconjugated) ova with CpG. (pnas.org)
  • Importantly, pulmonary vaccination with NP-ova and CpG induced as much as 10-fold increased frequencies of antigen-specific effector CD8 + T cells to the lung and completely protected mice from morbidity following influenza-ova infection. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we highlight recruitment to the lung of a long-lasting pool of protective effector memory cytotoxic T-cells by our disulfide-linked antigen-conjugated NP formulation. (pnas.org)
  • and viii) CD86 immunolabeling in ameboid cells. (nih.gov)
  • 3. The cardiac allograft tolerance induced by the anti-LFA-1/ICAM-1 treatment was mainly mediated by the inactivation of allogeneic class I-reactive CD8^+ T cells, whereas that induced by anti-CD2/CD48 or anti-CD80/CD86 was mediated by Th2 deviation and/or Th1 inactivation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • B cells then enter the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles and undergo a process of random hypermutation in theirV immunoglobulin region genes, under the influence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), resulting in yet more diversity in the antigen-binding repertoire of their surface immunoglobulin. (bloodjournal.org)
  • B cells within the germinal center then perish through spontaneous apoptosis unless their surface immunoglobulin binds with high affinity to antigen (present within immune complexes) on follicular dendritic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recent reports demonstrated that osteoblast-like cells can also exert activities directly associated with the immune system (cytokine synthesis, antigen presentation, phagocytosis and stimulation of T lymphocytes). (portlandpress.com)
  • The present study aimed to analyze the effect of Transforming growth factorβ1 (TGFβ1), Fibroblast growth factor basic (FGFb), Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Interferon-γ (IFNγ) on the expression on osteoblast-like cells of antigens involved in antigen presentation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Flow cytometry was used to investigate whether the growth factors FGFb, TGFβ1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1β, LPS and IFNγ modulate the expression on cultured human osteoblast-like cells of different antigens involved in antigen-presentation and T cell activation. (portlandpress.com)
  • An important function of the innate immune system is the recognition of pathogens by macrophages, neutrophils, epithelial cells, and other cell populations that directly interact with microbial antigens. (asahq.org)
  • Efficient vaccination against infectious agents and tumors depends on specific antigen targeting to dendritic cells (DCs). (asm.org)
  • We report here that biosafe coronavirus-based vaccine vectors facilitate delivery of multiple antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines to professional antigen-presenting cells in vitro and in vivo . (asm.org)
  • This study describes a novel vaccine approach that facilitates delivery of viral or tumor antigens to dendritic cells in vivo . (asm.org)
  • Moreover, highly efficient antigen delivery to human DCs with recombinant human coronavirus 229E and specific stimulation of human CD8 + T cells revealed that this approach is exceptionally well suited for translation into human vaccine studies. (asm.org)
  • Coreceptors CD28 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 have opposing effects on TcR/CD3 activation of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • The development of therapies that specifically target autoreactive immune cells for the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) without inducing generalized immunosuppression that often compromises the host's ability to clear non-self antigen is highly desired. (soc-bdr.org)
  • The putative mechanisms include, but are not limited to, the uptake and processing of antigen-coupled nanoparticles or apoptotic cellular carriers for tolerogenic presentation by host splenic antigen-presenting cells, the induction of regulatory T cells, and the secretion of immune-suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. (soc-bdr.org)
  • Cooperative B7-1/2 (CD80/CD86) and B7-DC costimulation of CD4+ T cells independent of the PD-1 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Mast cells (MCs) produce soluble mediators such as histamine and prostaglandins that are known to influence dendritic cell (DC) function by stimulating maturation and antigen processing. (rupress.org)
  • CD86 is expressed at low levels by freshly explanted peripheral B and T cells, and its expression is substantially increased by a variety of T cell- and B cell-specific stimuli with a peak expression after 18-42 hours of culture. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • One of the second costimulatory signals is induced by binding of B7 proteins on the surface of antigen-presenting cells to CD28 on the T-cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bacterially expressed CD86 111 -scFv fusion proteins specifically localized to the respective target antigens on the surface of tumor cells and markedly enhanced the proliferation of primary T cells when bound to immobilized tumor antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To be naturally processed into MHC/peptide complexes, proteins have to be taken up by antigen-presenting cells, of which dendritic cells (DCs) are perhaps the most sophisticated kind due to their array of unique characteristics. (pnas.org)
  • To present antigens effectively, DCs must undergo maturation, a process triggered by various signals that induces phenotypic changes enabling the functional priming of T cells. (pnas.org)
  • In humans, it has been shown that IC with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) loaded on DCs induce specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells derived from a healthy donor in vitro ( 13 ), indicating that IC-containing specific antigen proteins loaded on DCs are potentially powerful tools for cancer vaccine. (pnas.org)
  • Dendritic cells are extremely efficient antigen-presenting cells that initiate and modulate T-cell dependant immune responses. (springer.com)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is expressed by activated and regulatory T cells and helps to prevent T cell-mediated immune responses from getting out of control. (sciencemag.org)
  • CD80 and CD86 also bind to CD28 expressed on T cells, which is critical for T cell activation. (sciencemag.org)
  • see the Perspective by Sakaguchi and Wing) find that CTLA-4, expressed by both human and mouse T cells, plucks CD80 and CD86 from the surface of antigen-presenting cells and internalizes them through trans-endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • But this system is not perfect and self reactive T cells may escape and be let out into the periphery and respond to self antigens. (infobarrel.com)
  • This is through the use of ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS in the thymus that fall into 3 CLASSES. (infobarrel.com)
  • If the self antigen is recognised by any of the T cells the thymus ensures these are destroyed. (infobarrel.com)
  • cd4+ cells recognise antigens presented on MHC class 2 whilst cd8+ cells recognise antigens presented on MHC class-I cells. (infobarrel.com)
  • Both CD80 and CD86 are expressed on activated B cells and antigen-presenting cells. (peprotech.com)
  • To understand the functions of CD80 and CD86, respectively, CD80 low dendritic cells (DCs) and CD86 low DCs were prepared by using RNA interference. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • These formulations generally comprise hybridoma of at least one antigen presenting cell fused to either at least one tumor cell or at least one virally infected cell, or the products of co-cultures of antigen presenting cells and either tumor cells or virally infected cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • wherein said first cells are antigen presenting cells selected from the group consisting of macrophages, B-cells and dendritic cells, and said second cells are selected from the group consisting of tumor cells and virally infected cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In this report, the Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (medgadget.com)
  • The Midwest with sales (volume), revenue (value), market share and growth rate of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 in these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast). (bigmarketresearch.com)
  • CD86 binds to CD28 to transduce costimulatory signals for T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. (biolegend.com)
  • Isoform 2 interferes with the formation of CD86 clusters, and thus acts as a negative regulator of T-cell activation. (cusabio.cn)
  • This T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market report offers a detailed view of market opportunity by end user segments, product segments, sales channels, key countries, and import / export dynamics. (myamazonecho.com)
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  • Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. (elsevier.com)
  • In a recent published report, Kenneth Research has updated the T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 Market Assessment report for for 2021 till 2030. (americanewshour.com)
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  • According to Kenneth Research, the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 market was valued at USD xxx million in 2019, and it is expected to reach a value of USD xxx million by 2026, at a CAGR of xx% over the forecast period 2021-2026. (americanewshour.com)
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  • It demonstrates various segments Abatacept, Abatacept Biosimilar, KAHR-102 and sub-segments Musculoskeletal Disorders, Graft Versus Host Disease, Lupus Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, Others of the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD86 market . (thegamingradar.com)
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  • In contrast, binding of CD86 to CTLA-4 regulates T cell activation and diminishes the immune response. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • On lymphocytes, CD86 appears as a B-cell activation antigen. (beckman.com)
  • Studies on the differention and activation mechanisms of T cell vi lymphocye functioning antigen (LFA). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Abatacept is a selective costimulation modulator, like CTLA-4, the drug has shown to inhibit T-cell (T lymphocyte) activation by binding to CD80 and CD86, thereby blocking interaction with CD28. (drugbank.ca)
  • As soluble proteins only poorly undergo cross-presentation, delivery of antigens in particulate form is considered critical for inducing robust CD8 + T-cell activation following vaccination ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • T cell activation is initiated when antigen is presented to the T cell receptor (TCR) complex by MHC class I or II on an antigen-presenting cell. (jci.org)
  • T cell activation is mediated by the antigen-receptor complex (TcRζ/CD3) and coreceptors CD28, inducible costimulator (ICOS), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 (CD152) ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • Experimental models have demonstrated that intravenous injection of autoantigen decorated splenocytes and biodegradable nanoparticles through ECDI fixation effectively induce and maintain antigen-specific T cell abortive activation and anergy by T cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. (soc-bdr.org)
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was measured as an indicator of antigen-specific T-cell activation by DCs in coculture. (asm.org)
  • CD86 (B7-2) is an 80 kDa member of the B7 family of proteins, which are all transmembrane GPI-linked proteins characterized by extracellular IgV and IgC domains related to the variable and constant Ig domains. (fluidigm.com)
  • Proteins derived from the microorganisms are processed to generate antigens. (asahq.org)
  • This review discusses the mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of antigen-specific T cell tolerance techniques using syngeneic apoptotic cellular carriers and synthetic nanoparticles that are covalently cross-linked to diabetogenic peptides or proteins through ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI) to prevent and treat T1D. (soc-bdr.org)
  • DNA can present antigens in a suitable molecular form, ranging from full-length sequence to short MHC class I- or II-binding epitopes, to optimize induction of T-cell responses [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • CD86 binds to CD152 with a 20-100-fold higher affinity than to CD28. (beckman.com)
  • Purified by antigen-affinity chromatography. (genetex.com)
  • While CD86 can bind to the immune-inhibitory receptor CTLA-4, it binds with higher affinity to the immune-stimulatory CD28. (fluidigm.com)
  • Belatacept binds to CD86 with a 4-fold higher affinity than abatacept. (drugbank.ca)
  • However in the presence of belatacept, because the extracellular CTLA-4 component binds to CD28 with higher affinity than CD80 or CD86, T lymphyocyte anergy, a state of antigen specific tolerance, occurs instead. (drugbank.ca)
  • If a T cell receptor recognise the self antigen and the MHC very well and there is a strong affinity and interaction the T-cell is likely to have perfect recognition of the self antigen and apoptosis takes place and programmed cell death occurs. (infobarrel.com)
  • In contrast with the administration of control DCs into C3H recipients that exacerbated rejection of B10 cardiac allografts, injection of DCs transduced with anti-CD80 or CD86 antisense ODN significantly prolonged the survival of heart allografts. (nih.gov)
  • Immobilized recombinant human B7-2/CD86 binds biotinylated human CTLA-4 in a dose dependent manner with EC 50 of 10 - 40 ng/mL. (biolegend.com)
  • Antigen processing and peptide-MHCII complexes were evaluated by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • One of its responses to a foreign antigen is the proliferation of a class of lymphocytes which specifically recognizes the antigen. (google.com)
  • Upregulation of membrane CD86 (B7-2) on activated B lymphocytes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Specifically, we utilized 30 µm MPs to provide local sustained release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) along with 1 µm MPs to facilitate phagocytic uptake of encapsulated antigen and 1α,25(OH) 2 Vitamin D 3 (VD3) followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone marrow derived human MSCs were activated by interferon-γ and analyzed for antigen uptake and processing and immune regulatory features including phenotype, immunosuppressive capacity, and metabolic activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • antigen coupling via a disulfide link promotes highly efficient cross-presentation after uptake, inducing potent protective mucosal and systemic CD8 + T-cell immunity. (pnas.org)
  • Remarkably, this IFN-γ-inducible characteristic was due neither to enhanced antigen uptake nor to facilitated antigen processing in LCs. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, both CD80 and CD86 were upregulated in monocytes from the atopic subjects as well as the controls. (elsevier.com)
  • The oligonucleotides are targeted to bind to primary transcripts CD40, CD80, CD86 and their combinations. (google.com)
  • CD86 is an 80 kD immunoglobulin superfamily member also known as B7-2, B70, and Ly-58. (biolegend.com)
  • CD86 has also been shown to be involved in immunoglobulin class-switching and triggering of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (biolegend.com)
  • CD86, also known as B7-2, is a member of cell surface immunoglobulin superfamily. (biolegend.com)
  • Methods: We assayed the expression of CD80 and CD86 on allergen-specific T-cell lines from patients with perennial allergic rhinitis stimulated by Dermatophagoides farinae-crude (Der f-c) antigen, 1 of the major allergens causing house dust mite allergy. (elsevier.com)
  • T-cell proliferation induced by Der f-c-specific TT cell interactions was measured, and the role of CD80 and CD86 in this proliferation was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • CD86, CD80, CTLA-4, CD30 and CD11b were expressed by less than 23% of the T cell populations from both the epidermis and dermis. (nih.gov)
  • Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is anergic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both CD1a- or CD14-derived DC-induced T-cell priming are inhibited by anti-CD86 or IL-10. (bloodjournal.org)
  • CD80 (B7) and CD86 (B70) provide similar costimulatory signals for T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and generation of CTL^1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The T cell is also no longer able to respond to their antigen. (drugbank.ca)
  • T cell clones encountering nominal antigen/MHC complexes in the absence of appropriate co-stimulation are functionally inactivated. (google.com)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD86 MAb stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an Anti-human CD86 MAb gene to allow expression of the MAb. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We have developed our programs using insights from our proprietary tumor antigen discovery platform, EDGE™, together with an immunotherapy platform which has demonstrated the ability to elicit an enhanced antigen-directed T-cell response in preclinical primate models. (benzinga.com)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • This finding implied that depressed effector T-cell functions in the setting of chronic ethanol feeding may be due in part to intrinsic defects in antigen presentation capacity by DCs. (asm.org)
  • Graded function of CD80 and CD86 in initiation of T-cell immune r. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We tested whether activated MSCs qualify for the induction of antigen-specific immune regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD86 is expressed earlier in the immune response than CD80. (biolegend.com)
  • In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 interaction, fascin-dependent polarization of the cytoskeleton towards DC-Treg immune synapse may play a pivotal role. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system can promptly respond to millions of foreign antigens. (google.com)
  • Nolan A, Kobayashi H, Naveed B, Kelly A, Hoshino Y, Hoshino S, Karulf MR, Rom WN, Weiden MD, Gold JA: Differential role for CD80 and CD86 in the regulation of the innate immune response in murine polymicrobial sepsis. (exbio.cz)
  • However, despite all the practical advantages, DNA vaccines face challenges in inducing potent antigen specific immune responses and protection in humans. (omicsonline.org)
  • 2] YERVOY specifically blocks cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTL4), which plays a role in suppressing the normal immune response. (presseportal.ch)
  • No exogenous viral antigens were added. (nih.gov)
  • Here we explored the effects of ethanol on exogenous antigen presentation by DCs. (asm.org)
  • Rather, IFN-γ acted at least in part by potentiating the maturation of otherwise refractory LCs, enabling in turn exogenous antigen to reach the processing machinery. (pnas.org)
  • Stability testing for Human B7-2/CD86. (biolegend.com)
  • Human B7-2/CD86 was aliquoted in PBS, pH 7.2 at 0.2 mg/ml. (biolegend.com)
  • The present study explores this hypothesis, using human PBMCs and antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones. (elsevier.com)
  • Defects in the expression and/or function of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen-processing machinery (APM) components are found in many tumor types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tested positive against native human antigen. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Proliferative responses were significantly strong but became much stronger when DCs were concomitantly incubated with soluble antigens and human recombinant TNF-α and used subsequently as stimulators. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that peripheral blood eosinophils from hypereosinophilic patients could express membrane CD86 but not CD80. (rupress.org)
  • The most pronounced defect of Atg5(-/-) DCs was the processing and presentation of phagocytosed antigens containing Toll-like receptor stimuli for MHC class II. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Administration of anti-LFA-1/ICAM-1, anti-VLA-4/VCAM-1, anti-CD2/CD48, or anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs could induce cardiac, bowel, or plancreatic islet allograft tolerance. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The stimulating capacity of antigen-pulsed DCs was measured in a classical proliferation assay using tritium labelled thymidine as a marker of mitosis. (springer.com)
  • In this study, graded stimulatory function of CD80 and CD86, stronger inhibition of proliferation, and stronger prolongation of transplant survival were observed when CD80 and CD86 were blocked simultaneously. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In the case of type 1 diabetes (T1D), insulin is a primary target antigen during disease development and thus, also for tolerance induction to prevent disease onset ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, our study revealed that DCs utilize autophagic machinery to optimally process and present extracellular microbial antigens for MHC II presentation. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Administration of anti-CD80/CD86 mAbs prevented the autoantibody production and renal disease in (NZB x NZW) F1 mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Gene expression in PBMCs for interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and Interferon γ (IFNγ), assessed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was also downregulated by treatment with anti-CD86 in both the ragweed- and tetanus toxoid-driven systems. (elsevier.com)
  • TGFβ1 treatment significantly reduced the expression of CD54 and CD86. (portlandpress.com)
  • IL-1β treatment significantly enhanced the expression of CD54, CD86 and HLA-DR. LPS and IFNγ treatments produced a major increase in CD54, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • These vectors selectively targeted DCs in vitro and in vivo resulting in vector-mediated antigen expression and efficient maturation of DCs. (asm.org)
  • In an in vitro skin sensitisation assay (h-CLAT) according to OECD Guideline 442E, the test induced the expression of surface marker (CD54, CD86). (europa.eu)
  • A) Experiments were performed in the presence of 10 μg/mL of anti-CD80 (Mab 104), anti-CD86 (IT2-2), anti-CD80 plus anti-CD86, or isotype match control. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Current monotherapeutic agents fail to restore tolerance to self-antigens in autoimmune individuals without systemic immunosuppression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Good proportion will recognise self antigens. (infobarrel.com)
  • They are all capable of antigen presentation via MHC and all present SELF antigens. (infobarrel.com)