Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Motility-related protein (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82 expression inversely correlate with lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (1/129)

Although the mechanisms of action of the transmembrane superfamilies, motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82, are not well known, they are reported to suppress the metastasis of several kinds of cancers. The suppression of cell motility by MRP-1/CD9 may cause suppression of the metastasis. As we could not find any reports concerning the expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in oesophageal cancers we investigated their expression in oesophageal specimens. We conducted immunohistochemical staining for MRP1/CD9 against 108 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma using anti-MRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody M31-15, and for KAI1/CD82 against 104 cases using anti-KAI1/CD82 monoclonal antibody C33. To investigate the gradual expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82, 24 oesophageal dysplasias were immunohistochemically stained using the same method and then investigated. The expression of both MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 were positive on the cell membranes of normal oesophageal epithelial cells, but reduced or negative in the cancer cells. Reduced MRP-1/CD9 expressions significantly correlated to tumour depth (P = 0.0009). We found a significantly greater number of reduced or negative expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in lymph node metastatic cases (P = 0.0003 and P= 0.0129, respectively), but not in distant metastatic cases. The 5-year survival rate of MRP-1/CD9-negative and reduced patients was significantly worse than those of positive patients (n = 108, curative cases, RO). Few cases remained KAI1/CD82-positive (9.6%; 10/104) in oesophageal cancer. Twenty (83.3%) and twenty-two (91.7%) cases out of 24 dysplasias were defined as KAI1/CD82-positive and MRP1/CD9-positive, respectively. The decrease in MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression may facilitate lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Knowing the status of the expression of MRP-1/CD9 appears helpful in predicting the prognosis for each patient.  (+info)

A novel molecular staging protocol for non-small cell lung cancer. (2/129)

A molecular staging protocol using reliable markers is of importance in predicting the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and for instituting their appropriate post-surgical treatment. We analysed tumor tissues from 187 NSCLC patients. The DNA and mRNA were extracted from frozen specimens, and then polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequencing were performed to investigate mutations of p53 from exons 5-8, and mutations of K-ras at exon 1. To determine MRP-1/CD9 gene and KA11/CD82 gene expression, which have been postulated to be metastasis suppressor genes, we have applied quantitative RT-PCR. A Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that nodal status, MRP-1/CD9 and K-ras status were significant factors for prognosis (P<0.0001, P=0.0083 and P=0.0004, respectively). Based on these results, we classified the patients into three groups according to their MRP-1/ CD9 and K-ras status. Patients with both MRP-1/CD9 positive and wild K-ras tumors were defined as group A, patients with either reduced MRP-1/CD9 or mutant K-ras tumors were defined as group B and patients with both reduced MRP-1/CD9 and mutant K-ras tumors were designated as group C. This new classification was significantly correlated with the tumor status and pathological stage (P=0.0098 and P=0.0017, respectively). The overall survival rate of the group A patients was significantly better than the group B patients (59.6% vs 27.9%, P=0.0001) and also that of group B patients was better than the group C patients (27.9% vs 20.0%, P=0.0378). This tendency was also found in patients with 110 node-negative NSCLCs (A vs B vs C=75.8% vs 34.9% vs 0.0%, P<0.0001). A Cox multivariate regression analysis in NSCLC patients demonstrated that an evaluation for both MRP-1/CD9 expression and K-ras mutations had a significant prognostic effect as well as nodal status (P<0.0001).  (+info)

Motility inhibition and apoptosis are induced by metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9, with concurrent glycosylation. (3/129)

Metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9 are considered to suppress the malignancy of various human cancers, although the rationale for this effect is unknown. The present study addresses phenotypic changes in Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line ldlD deficient in UDP-Glc 4-epimerase and expressing CD82 or CD9 by cDNA transfection. Only CD82- or CD9-expressing cells grown in Gal-supplemented medium showed reduced motility and massive cell death, which are characteristic of apoptosis, after a latent period. Under this condition, endogenous GM3 synthesis was observed as a common factor, and N-glycosylation occurred at a high level in CD82 and to a lesser extent in CD9. Thus, the malignancy-suppressing effect of CD82 or CD9 is based partially on cell motility inhibition and apoptosis induction promoted by concurrent GM3 synthesis and N-glycosylation.  (+info)

Suppression of telomerase, reexpression of KAI1, and abrogation of tumorigenicity by nerve growth factor in prostate cancer cell lines. (4/129)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is expressed in the prostate, where it appears to be involved in the control of epithelial cell growth and differentiation. NGF production is decreased in prostate tumors. However, the role of this neurotrophin in the control of proliferation and progression of prostate cancers is still a matter of investigation. Prostate adenocarcinomas are telomerase-positive tumors. Chronic exposure of DU145 and PC3 prostate tumor cell lines to NGF resulted in a dramatic down-regulation of telomerase activity. This effect was correlated in terms of concentrations and time with a remarkable down-regulation of cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo but was not secondary to NGF-induced quiescence. No down-regulation of telomerase activity was, in fact, detectable during serum starvation-induced quiescence. LNCaP cells, which do not express NGF receptors, appear to be insensitive to the actions of NGF. DU145 and PC3 cells do not express the KAI1 metastasis suppressor gene, which is present in the prostate and is progressively lost during the progression of prostate cancers. Chronic NGF treatment strongly induced the reexpression of this gene in these cell lines, and this effect was correlated with the suppression of their invasive potential in vitro. The data presented here suggest that NGF reverts two metastatic prostate cancer cell lines to slowly proliferating, noninvasive phenotypes characterized by a very low telomerase activity and by the expression of the KAI1 metastasis suppressor gene.  (+info)

Frequent loss of KAI1 expression in squamous and lymphoid neoplasms. An immunohistochemical study of archival tissues. (5/129)

The metastasis suppressor gene KAI1 was identified by its ability to inhibit the formation of pulmonary metastases in experimental models for prostatic carcinoma. Down-regulation of this gene may be correlated with the invasive phenotype in melanomas and colon and bladder carcinomas and with the metastatic phenotype in carcinomas of the lung, breast, prostate, and pancreas. The goal of our study was to establish an immunohistochemical method to detect KAI1 expression in archival tissues. Using cell lines with known KAI1 levels and paraffin-embedded KAI1 positive tissues as controls, we observed strong membrane staining in lymphoid follicular centers and squamous epithelia. We then demonstrated the utility of our assay by studying KAI1 expression in 34 lymphoid and 57 squamous lesions. All eight reactive lymph nodes were KAI1 positive. In contrast, three of 13 follicular small cleaved and five of 13 diffuse large cell lymphomas were KAI1 negative. Seventy-nine percent (37 of 47) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas from the lung (n = 15), head and neck (n = 18), and cervix (n = 14) showed extensive KAI1 down-regulation. Loss of KAI1 expression was also found in a subset of 10 high-grade cervical dysplasias. Our data show that (i) immunohistochemistry is a suitable technique for evaluating KAI1 expression in archival tissues; (ii) KAI1 was not expressed in a subset of both low-grade and high-grade lymphomas; and (iii) there was extensive down-regulation of KAI1 in squamous cell carcinomas, suggestive of an important role of the gene in the suppression of invasion in these malignancies.  (+info)

Loss of KAI1 expression in the progression of colorectal cancer. (6/129)

The transmembrane 4 superfamily member KAI1 (CD82) has been shown to inhibit pulmonary metastases in experimental metastasis models of prostate cancer and melanoma. KAI1 expression is decreased in the progression of common solid epithelial tumors of adulthood, including lung, prostate, breast, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. The purpose of our study was to investigate KAI1 expression in the progression of human colorectal cancer. We first analyzed 20 colorectal cancer cell lines by immunoblot techniques. KAI1 was expressed heterogeneously, with the tumor cell lines having a more complex degree of glycosylation compared with that of the normal colonic tissue. KAI1 was highly expressed in the primary SW480 colon cancer cell line but was down-regulated 15-fold in the matched metastatic SW620 cell line. We also investigated KAI1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in tissues from 84 patients with colorectal cancer. Each tissue section was assigned a KAI1 mean score (KMS) from 0 to 300 based on the product of the percentage of cells that stained for KAI1 and the intensity of the stain (1, 2, or 3). In 84 patients with colorectal cancer, KAI1 was expressed at high levels in normal colonic mucosa (KMS 226) but was expressed at lower levels in the primary tumors (KMS 65; P < 0.0001). In a subset of 12 patients with stage IV metastatic disease, we observed a progressive down-regulation of KAI1, from the normal adjacent colonic mucosa (KMS 193) to the primary tumor (KMS 72; P = 0.0001) to the liver metastasis (KMS 25; tumor compared with metastasis, P = 0.0135). We found no correlation between loss of KAI1 expression and stage of disease. In 10 patients, we also noted loss of KAI1 expression in the transition from normal colonic mucosa (KMS 237) to adenoma (KMS 174) to carcinoma (KMS 62; P < 0.0167 for all three comparisons). We conclude that the down-regulation of KAI1 occurs early in the progression of colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Importance of the major extracellular domain of CD9 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor for up-regulation of binding and activity. (7/129)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors. The membrane-anchored form of HB-EGF (proHB-EGF) is mitogenically active to neighboring cells as well as being a precursor of the soluble form. In addition to its mitogenic activity, proHB-EGF has the property of binding to diphtheria toxin (DT), serving as the specific receptor for DT. Tetramembrane-spanning protein CD9, a member of the TM4 superfamily, is physically associated with proHB-EGF at the cell surface and up-regulates both mitogenic and DT binding activities of proHB-EGF. To understand this up-regulation mechanism, we studied essential regions of both CD9 and proHB-EGF for up-regulation. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that not only CD9 but also other TM4 proteins including CD63, CD81, and CD82 associate with proHB-EGF on the cell surface. However, these TM4 proteins did not up-regulate DT binding activity of proHB-EGF. Transfection of a series of chimeric constructs comprising CD9 and CD81 showed that the major extracellular domain of CD9 is essential for up-regulation. Assays of DT binding activity and juxtacrine mitogenic activity of the deletion mutants of proHB-EGF and chimeric molecules, derived from proHB-EGF and TGF-alpha, showed that the essential domain of proHB-EGF for up-regulation is the EGF-like domain. These results indicate that the interaction of the extracellular domains of both molecules is important for up-regulation.  (+info)

Absence of p53-dependent induction of the metastatic suppressor KAI1 gene after DNA damage. (8/129)

The p53 tumor suppressor protein functions to monitor the integrity of the genome. If a damage is detected, p53 binds tightly to specific sequence elements in the DNA and induces the transactivation of genes involved in various growth regulatory processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis. A p53-binding site was recently identified in the promoter region of the metastatic suppressor KAI1 gene, suggesting that this gene was a direct transcriptional target of p53. To test the relevance of this hypothesis, we studied the endogenous KAI1 expression in a series of human cell lines with varying p53 status in response to genotoxic treatment as well as in different cellular models exhibiting an inducible p53 activity. Overall, our data indicate that KAI1 expression is not significantly modulated by p53. This observation provides a direct evidence that the presence of a p53-binding site in regulatory domains is not a sufficient criteria to define a p53-transcriptional target gene.  (+info)

*CD81

1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ... HIV gag proteins use tetraspanin enriched microdomains (containing minimally CD81, CD82, CD63) as a platform for virion ...

*Duffy antigen system

The protein is also known to interact with the protein KAI1 (CD82) a surface glycoprotein of leukocytes and may have a role in ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. Its ... The Duffy antigen is expressed in greater quantities on reticulocytes than on mature erythrocytes. While the Duffy antigen is ...

*CD19

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... CD19 has been shown to interact with: CD81, CD82 Complement receptor 2, and VAV2. Mutations in CD19 are associated with severe ... yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. The CD19 gene encodes ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...

*CD82 (gene)

1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... CD82 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD82 genome location and CD82 ... CD82 (Cluster of Differentiation 82) is a human protein encoded by the CD82 gene. This metastasis suppressor gene product is a ... CD82 CD82 molecule". Imai, T; Kakizaki M; Nishimura M; Yoshie O (August 1995). "Molecular analyses of the association of CD4 ...

*CD49d

... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell ... Mannion BA, Berditchevski F, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Hemler ME (1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1), CD82, ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ... antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y ( ...

*CD20

B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... and CD82) at the surface of a B cell line JY". Journal of Immunology. 157 (7): 2939-46. PMID 8816400. Kanzaki M, Lindorfer MA, ... CD20 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...

*CD63

1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Hammond, C; Denzin L K; Pan M; Griffith J M; Geuze H J; Cresswell P (Oct 1998). "The tetraspan protein CD82 is a resident of ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... CD63 has been shown to interact with CD117 and CD82. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135404 - ...

*CD53

1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...

*CD9

... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823. Charrin S, Le Naour F, Oualid M, ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Higashihara M, Takahata K, Yatomi Y, Nakahara K, Kurokawa K (1990). "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen ...

*Complement receptor 2

... because CR2 binds to antigens through attached C3d (or iC3b or C3dg) when the membrane IgM binds to the antigen. This results ... and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823. Yefenof E, Klein G, Jondal M, ... in the B cell having greatly enhanced response to the antigen. Complement receptor 2 has been shown to interact with CD19. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - KAI1, a metastasis suppressor gene for prostate cancer on human chromosome 11p11.2. AU - Dong, Jin Tang. AU - Lamb, Pattie W.. AU - Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.. AU - Vukanovic, Jasminka. AU - Ichikawa, Tomohiko. AU - Isaacs, John Tod. AU - Barrett, J. Carl. PY - 1995/5/12. Y1 - 1995/5/12. N2 - A gene from human chromosome 11p11.2 was isolated and was shown to suppress metastasis when introduced into rat AT6.1 prostate cancer cells. Expression of this gene, designated KAI1, was reduced in human cell lines derived from metastatic prostate tumors. KAI1 specifies a protein of 267 amino acids, with four hydrophobic and presumably transmembrane domains and one large extracellular hydrophilic domain with three potential N-glycosylation sites. KAI1 is evolutionary conserved, is expressed in many human tissues, and encodes a member of a structurally distinct family of leukocyte surface glycoproteins. Decreased expression of this gene may be involved in the malignant progression of ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sharon Needles - Kai Kai Lyrics. Verse 1: Im just a boy boy Who dresses like a girl girl Whos looking for a toy In this boy driven world Just because I wear paint Do
Sabbato, 16 01 2010 11:47 Se perissoteroys apo 200.000 nekroys anerxontai pleon oi ektimhseis gia ton ariqmo twn qymatwn sthn Aith apo to fobero seismo ths perasmenhs Triths, enw se perissoteroys apo 1,5 ekat. ypologizontai oi astegoi. Dramatikh einai h katastash stoys dromoys ths prwteyoysas Port-O-Prens, opoy polla atoma paramenoyn egklwbismena sta xalasmata, traymaties keitontai sto edafos dipla se atafa ptwmata, anqrwpoi sygkroyontai gia ligo faghto kai nero, enw shmeiwnontai klopes kai lehlasies. Megales einai oi kaqysterhseis sthn paradosh ths anqrwpistikhs bohqeias ejaitias toy anyparktoy kratikoy mhxanismoy kai twn katestrammenwn ypodomwn. Shmera metabainei sthn Aith h Amerikanida YPEJ Xilari Klinton gia na epopteysei thn organwsh bohqeias kai na synanthqei me ton proedro Rene Prebal, enw ayrio qa episkeftei th xwra o GG toy OHE Mpan Ki Moyn. Gia th xeiroterh katastrofh poy exei antimetwpisei pote sthn istoria toy o OHE, kanei logo to Grafeio Syntonismoy Anqrwpistikwn Ypoqesewn (OCHA). O ...
Kai Zhang is part of Stanford Profiles, official site for faculty, postdocs, students and staff information (Expertise, Bio, Research, Publications, and more). The site facilitates research and collaboration in academic endeavors.
Kattints és vásárolj kedvező áron - Amix Fat táplálékkiegészítő és tartozékai árak - Válogass számos shaker bolt kínálatából - Szűkítsd tovább keresésed:
Oh Kai, here we go... Cant get.much worse thats for sure. And maybe w omg on st through the endzone isnt the best ko. High and barely in, daring them to run.. and getting shut down before the twenty is even ...
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The Center for Enabling New Technologies Through Catalysis (CENTC) is looking for undergraduates for its summer research program. The program gives preference to rising junior and seniors and has locations at 14 different universities and national labs. Applications are due February 25, 2013.. ...
At the beginning of each long holiday break I like to do an intensive couple of weeks of base building aerobic exercise. I have rekindled my confidence in riding and have managed to do 14 days of two hour plus rides in all directions and terrain from base Avoca ...
Ez nagyon helyes! Cuki sapi, ruha kis cipő. Minden a helyén van! Ezt az öltözéket egy kislány is megirigyelhetné:). VálaszTörlés ...
Kérlek tiszteld az én és az oldalamon szerepelő (linkelt) társaim munkáit. Ha felhasználod őket, kérlek említsd meg a forrásodat ...
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Kancerogènas (2) [lot. cancer - vėžys + gr. genos - giminė, kilmė] - kancerogèninė mẽdžiaga - cheminis junginys, pvz., aromatinis aminas, įjungiantis vienvalentį cheminį radikalą į organinio junginio molekulę, tam tikromis sąlygomis skatinantis navikų susidarymą organizme. Tai kenksmingi cheminiai junginiai: verdant sunaikinami vitaminai, kepant skyla riebalai. Termiškai apdorotose daržovėse suyra 90 proc. vitaminų. Virtose bulvėse,…
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Kai discusses some of the CFML coding differences between Railo and ColdFusion: Passing by references and by value, Date Parsing and dates in conditional statements.
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Lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide; it is the second most common cancer, comprising 1.69 million deaths worldwide per year. Among these, 85% of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Metastasis is common in NSCLC patients and are responsible for most deaths. Kang-Ai 1 (KAI1), a tumor metastasis suppressor gene also known as Cluster of Differentiation 82 (CD82), is a member of the membrane tetraspanin protein family, which are capable of inhibiting the metastatic process in NSCLC. KAI1/CD82 suppresses metastasis via multiple mechanisms regulating inhibition of cell motility, adhesion, fusion, and proliferation. KAI1 may attenuate signaling to shut down metastatic colonization through attenuation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on the differential expression of KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor gene that can inhibit cancer
PLU1 is a candidate oncogene that encodes H3K4 (Lys4 of histone H3) demethylase. In the present study, we found that ectopic expression of PLU1 enhanced the invasive potential of the weakly invasive cells dependent on its demethylase activity. PLU1 was shown to repress the expression of the KAT5 gene through its H3K4 demethylation on the promoter. The regulation of KAT5 by PLU1 was suggested to be responsible for PLU1-induced cell invasion. First, knockdown of KAT5 similarly increased the invasive potential of the cells. Secondly, knockdown of PLU1 in the highly invasive cancer cells increased KAT5 expression and reduced the invasive activity. Thirdly, simultaneous knockdown of KAT5 partially relieved the suppression of cell invasion imposed by PLU1 knockdown. Finally, we found that CD82, which was transcriptionally regulated by KAT5, might be a candidate effector of cell invasion promoted by PLU1. The present study demonstrated a functional contribution of PLU1 overexpression with concomitant ...
Here, we have described the use of a rat sarcoma cell model to identify a potential metastasis suppressor protein, 4.1B. These rat sarcoma cells exhibited in vitro behaviour that can be related to their metastatic potential. First, the cells had significantly different arrangements of F-actin, which could influence their metastatic potential because cytoskeletal regulation is a key determinant of invasion. Second, the metastatic cells showed increased chemotaxis towards PDGF-IGF; chemotaxis towards blood vessels might be important during intravasation (Wyckoff et al., 2000). Last, the metastatic cell populations contained a larger subpopulation of fast-migrating cells. Enhanced cell motility is a common feature of metastatic cells and has been described by several groups. A recent in vivo study has shown that metastatic tumour cells move 4.5 times as frequently as non-metastatic tumour cells in the same tumour microenvironment (Sahai et al., 2005). It has been suggested that only a subpopulation ...
Metastasis is a complicated multistage process that requires the coordination of multiple genes, including both metastasis stimulating genes and metastasis suppressor genes (22) . Genomic instability is one of the driving forces for tumor progression and metastasis development. Among all genetic alterations, inactivation of metastasis suppressor genes is one important factor contributing to the formation of tumor metastasis. Chromosome 11, in particular 11p, is one of the most common regions undergoing genetic alterations in human breast cancer (3, 4, 5) . A previous study demonstrated that a breast cancer metastasis gene or genes exists on chromosome 11 by the fact that the introduction of a normal copy of chromosome 11 into malignant breast cancer cells significantly suppressed their metastatic ability (6) .. The KAI1 gene, located on human chromosome 11p11.2, was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for human prostate cancer (7) . Down-regulation of the KAI1 protein was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - KAI1 expression is up-regulated in early pancreatic cancer and decreased in the presence of metastases. AU - Guo, Xiaozhong. AU - Friess, Helmut. AU - Graber, Hans U.. AU - Kashiwagi, Mikiya. AU - Zimmermann, Arthur. AU - Korc, Murray. AU - Büchler, Markus W.. PY - 1996/11/1. Y1 - 1996/11/1. N2 - KAI1 is a metastasis suppressor gene for prostate cancer that is located on chromosome 11p11.2-13. Using Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization, we studied expression of KAI1 mRNA in specimens from 14 normal pancreases and 27 primary pancreatic cancers, and then correlated the findings with the clinical and histopathological parameters of the patients. Northern blot analysis showed increased steady-state levels of KAI1 mRNA expression in 24 of 27 (89%) pancreatic cancer samples. In situ hybridization showed enhanced KAI1 mRNA levels in the pancreatic cancer cells in 82% cancer tissues. The stroma surrounding the cancer mass and normal pancreatic tissue adjacent to the cancer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EGF induces microRNAs that target suppressors of cell migration. T2 - MiR-15b targets MTSS1 in breast cancer. AU - Kedmi, Merav. AU - Ben-Chetrit, Nir. AU - Körner, Cindy. AU - Mancini, Maicol. AU - Ben-Moshe, Noa Bossel. AU - Lauriola, Mattia. AU - Lavi, Sara. AU - Biagioni, Francesca. AU - Carvalho, Silvia. AU - Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas. AU - Schmitt, Fernando. AU - Wiemann, Stefan. AU - Blandino, Giovanni. AU - Yarden, Yosef. PY - 2015/3/17. Y1 - 2015/3/17. N2 - Growth factors promote tumor growth and metastasis. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a set of 22 microRNAs (miRNAs) before promoting the migration of mammary cells. These miRNAs were more abundant in human breast tumors relative to the surrounding tissue, and their abundance varied among breast cancer subtypes. One of these miRNAs, miR-15b, targeted the 3′ untranslated region of MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor protein 1). Although xenografts in which MTSS1 was knocked down grew more slowly in mice ...
A widely expressed transmembrane Glycoprotein that functions as a Metastasis suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of Human Neoplasms ...
The major factor in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients is metastasis. There exists a relative lack of specific therapeutic approaches to control metastasis, and this is a fruitful area for
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Uvod: Plućna hipertenzija je hemodinamsko i patofiziološko stanje povećanog srednjeg arterijskog pritiska u plućnoj arteriji, preko 25mmHg u miru, procenjenog kateterizacijom desnog srca. Prikaz bolesnika: Pacijentkinja starosti 44 godine dolazi na kardiološki pregled 13 godina nakon što joj je postavljena dijagnoza primarne plućne hipertenzije. Na koronarnim arterijama nisu viđene promene. Isključeno je postojanje sistemske bolesti vezivnog tkiva. Od tada do danas je na istoj terapiji niskim dozama antagonista Ca (Nifelat 2x10mg) uz oralnu antikoagulantnu terapiju, stabilnog stanja, bez progresije tegoba. Zamara se isključivo pri većem fizičkom naporu, ponekad oseća ubrzani srčani rad i nesvesticu. Objektivno čujan sistolni šum uz naglašen drugi ton nad plućnom arterijom, elektrokardiogram sinusni ritam, inkompletni blok desne grane. Ehokardiografski pregled pokazuje znake plućne hipertenzije. Zaključak: Mali broj bolesnika sa plućnom hipertenzijom koja se odlikuje ...
Increased KAI1 levels in AICD transgenic mice. (A) The AICD transgenic mice, but not the control or Fe.27 mice, show expression of KAI1 gene. Membrane fractions
KAI Pharmaceuticals (now Amgen) was developing KAI 1455, a selective epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC) activator, to prevent ischaemic injury during surgical
On PTC day, Prof, radiologist and doctors were prepared for the procedure in the early morning. We were accompanied Kai Xin till the procedure room. Wao, the room is extremely cool. At that time, Kai Xin was quite sleepy because doctor has given her sedation with oral medicine. The procedure started 8.30 in the morning. Fortunately, after an hour time the surgeon told us that the stent position is not in critical position and it was move into intestine route. The stent will not come out because it has moved to the intestine deadlock position. Most importantly, it wouldnt implicate the liver normal function for future times. Again, it makes us happy and feel released after we heard that ...
Bench and Squats Thought Id open this post up with a picture of Kai Greene aka Mr. Getting It Done. Another year with no win for Kai at the Olympia,… Read more ». ...
Thn apofasistikothta toy na synexisei sto dromo twn metarryqmisewn, wste na apallagei h xwra apo ta baridia poy thn kratane pisw ejefrase o prwqypoyrgos K. Karamanlhs, se synenteyjh toy ston thleoptiko staqmo MEGA gia tis eyrwekloges kai sto dhmosiografo Giannh Pretenterh. O k. Karamanlhs anefere epishs oti xreiazetai ypeyqynh kai staqerh politikh gia na bgoyme apo thn krish, tonise oti einai poly sobarh ypoqesh oi Eyrwekloges, enw xarakthrise ws synqhmatologia aney periexomenoy h yperaploysteytikh, tis dhlwseis toy proedroy toy PASOK peri dhmochfismatikoy xarakthra twn eklogwn. Oi eyrwekloges, eipe o k. Karamanlhs, einai mia sobarh ypoqesh, giati einai shmantikos o rolos toy Eyrwkoinoboylioy kai ths eyrwpaikhs poreias. Prosqese oti epeidh den epilegetai kybernhsh kai prwqypoyrgos, synhqws parathreitai xalaroterh chfos, alla ayto den shmainei oti h eklogikh anametrhsh den exei sobaro politiko periexomeno kai den toy apodidw jexwristh shmasia. Bgainoyn, shmeiwse, politika mhnymata kai ...
From NCBI Gene:. This metastasis suppressor gene product is a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily. Expression of this gene has been shown to be downregulated in tumor progression of human cancers and can be activated by p53 through a consensus binding sequence in the promoter. Its expression and that of p53 are strongly correlated, and the loss of expression of these two proteins is associated with poor survival for prostate cancer patients. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Kai Zinn is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Live Dissection of Drosophila Embryos: Streamlined Methods for Screening Mutant Collections by Antibody Staining
Hi! Im Kai. Im a New Age Spirituality & Illness blogger, and a Resilience Coach. Ive been in the mind, body, Spirit field for the last 17 years, and I help Spiritual Spoonies & people dealing with illness navigate the Dark Night of their Soul. When Im not coaching clients, I like to
Honua Kai | BIG 1st Floor lawn~Konea 142 ~1 min to Pools/Beach! Quiet & Private!. My name is Trevor Alt and this is KONEA 142. Aloha and welcome to the KIN...
Svetainės jw.org medicinos skiltis yra informacijos šaltinis, skirtas visų pirma gydytojams ir kitiems sveikatos priežiūros specialistams. Šioje skiltyje neteikiamos medicininės konsultacijos ar gydymo rekomendacijos ir ji neatstoja tinkamai kvalifikuoto sveikatos paslaugų teikėjo. Nurodyta klinikinė literatūra nėra išleista Jehovos liudytojų. Joje nušviečiamos kraujo perpylimo alternatyvos, kurios gali būti apsvarstytos. Kiekvienam kvalifikuotam sveikatos priežiūros paslaugų teikėjui tenka atsakomybė būti susipažinusiam su nauja informacija, aptarti su pacientu gydymo variantus ir padėti pacientui apsispręsti atsižvelgiant į jo medicininę būklę, pageidavimus, vertybes ir įsitikinimus. Kai kurios išvardytos strategijos kai kuriems pacientams gali būti netinkamos arba nepriimtinos.. Pacientams: dėl medicininių būklių arba gydymo visada kreipkitės konsultacijos į gydytoją arba kitą kvalifikuotą sveikatos priežiūros specialistą. Jeigu įtariate, kad ...
Gy rey Annam ria, Gere Attila, K kai Zolt n, Sipos L szl s Moln r P l: Ken margarinok b r lat ra kik pzett szak rt i panel teljes tm ny nek m r se ...
Authors: Pornsuriya, Chaninun; Soytong, Kasem; Poeaim, Supattar; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Khumkomkhet, Primmala; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Wang, Hong Kai; Hyde, Kevin David ...
Authors: Trottestam, Helena; Berglöf, Elisabet; Horne, AnnaCarin; Onelöv, Erik; Beutel, Karin; Lehmberg, Kai; Sieni, Elena; Silfverberg, Thomas; Aricò, Maurizio; Janka, Gritta; Henter, Jan‐Inge ...
... ,美術,Kai Althoff/ Glenn Brown/ Dana Schutz/ Balthasar Burkhard,Parkett Verlag,,誠品網路書店,9783907582350
Žmogaus papilomos viruso (ŽPV) ginekologiškai aukštos rizikos genotipų (16,18,26,31,33,35,39,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,69,73,82) nustatymas PGR ...
Sveitainės tikslas suteikti bendruomenei informaciją apie potencialiai žalingą stiprių elektromagnetinių laukų poveikį, praktiškai patarti, kaip elgiantis mažinti riziką.
Siekiame užtikrinti, kad visi, pabėgę nuo gimtojoje šalyje patiriamo smurto, persekiojimo, karo ar stichinės nelaimės, turėtų teisę prašyti prieglobsčio ir surastų saugią užuovėją.. Nuo 1950 m.(??) sprendėme krizines situacijas įvairiuose žemynuose, teikdami gyvybiškai svarbią pagalbą pabėgėliams, prieglobsčio prašytojams, šalies viduje perkeltiems asmenis ir asmenims be pilietybės, kurių dauguma neturėjo į ką kreiptis pagalbos.. Milijonams savo namus palikti priverstų žmonių padedame išsigelbėti ir susikurti šviesesnę ateitį.. ...
ups -- online free healing our world the other. Please resolve whether or nt you are interested 2000s to see impressionistic to set on your whale that this number maintains a title of yours. Kai Lim; Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
Justin Medlock. Justin Medlock. Justin Medlock.Think UCLA kicker Kai Forbath has heard the name a few times?Oh, pretty much in every conversation I have had in the last few months, said Forbath,
Two lines of evidence in our current study suggest that surface TEMs can serve as exit gateways for HIV-1. First, most cell surface punctae where either Gag or Env clusters in both HeLa cell and in Jurkat T lymphocytes are also occupied by one of the tetraspanins (Figs. 6-8⇑⇑ and 10). Second, cellular TSG101 and VPS28, the components of the cellular budding machinery responsible for viral egress (Morita and Sundquist, 2004), when recruited to the plasma membrane in cells producing HIV-1, accumulate at CD63-containing TEMs (Fig. 8). Furthermore, we find that distortion of TEM distribution in virus-producing cells by an anti-CD9 antibody (K41) correlates with inhibition of HIV-1 release (unpublished data).. In a study where we used the FlAsH technique for successive dual-color labeling (Gaietta et al., 2002) of Gag in various virus-secreting cell types, we observed localization of newly synthesized Gag at distinct areas on the plasma membrane (Rudner et al., 2005). We also documented that ...
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. It can bind as a monomer or as a homodimer to hormone response elements upstream of several genes to enhance the expression of those genes. The specific functions of this protein are not known but it has been shown to interact with NM23-2 a nucleoside diphosphate kinase involved in organogenesis and differentiation as well as with NM23-1 the product of a tumor metastasis suppressor candidate gene. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Intensive Caring - PLU nurses take their skills to cardiac patients at their homes By Barbara Clements Leo Rivas, a Pacific Lutheran University nursing student, had stopped by for a
Knight JF, Sung VYC, Kuzmin E, Couzens AL, de Verteuil DA, Ratcliffe CDH, Coelho PP, Johnson RM, Samavarchi-Tehrani P, Gruosso T, Smith HW, Lee W, Saleh SM, Zuo D, Zhao H, Guiot MC, Davis RR, Gregg JP, Moraes C, Gingras AC, Park M. KIBRA (WWC1) Is a Metastasis Suppressor Gene Affected by Chromosome 5q Loss in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cell Rep. 2018 03 20; 22(12):3191-3205 ...
Miss Cora and I went to Victoria for Grandma Avelles first funeral, along with a good portion of the family. Although my family has the talent for having fun in almost any situation, it was very sad to say goodbye to a woman who has been so important in our lives. I kept expecting her to just walk in the room. Instead we told stories of her antics over the years. Such a hilarious woman, such a loving woman. I cant believe how much I miss her already. It was fun to talk to my cousin Cara about her recent conversations with Grandma about little Cora. She told me that they spent about half an hour talking about Cora, and laughing at her photos and our descriptions of her little personality. Ive been told many times how much she was looking forward to meeting her new great grand-daughter, as well as her new great grand-son (my nephew, Kai). I guess now I am grateful that she gets to see us all from above and that she wont be missing out. But I know that we will certainly be missing out ...
Buy Adaptable Baby Grasshopper art prints by Pam Kai at Imagekind.com. Shop Thousands of Canvas and Framed Wall Art Prints and Posters at Imagekind.
... is a Nation contributing editor, a Pulitzer Prize-winning historian and the author, most recently, of Crossing Mandelbaum Gate: Coming of Age Between the Arabs and Israelis, 1956-1978.
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GasFlo Products is dedicated to provide to the Specialty Gas, and other Industries quality products, delivered on time, that are safe to use, environmentally acceptable and competitively priced. As the global marketplace grows and changes, GasFlo Products will meet the challenges of our customers in providing practical and effective ways to improve productivity, customer service and global supply capabilities. Our commitment to raising standards for quality will strengthen the loyalty of longtime customers and attract new ones. Our continued growth comes from a clear sighted focus on what we do best, and our long term success will come from listening to our customers, employees, and partners ...
Zdravlje i medicina, Lijekovi i lijecenje, baza bolesti i stručni savjeti iz oblasti medicine. Pročitajte sve novosti u vezi zdravlja, dijete, trudnoće, ginekologije, analiza
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Cistična fibroza (CF) ili mukoviscidoza je genetski poremećaj koji se nasleđuje autozomno recesivno i najviše remeti funkciju disanja, ali se javljaju i poremećaji funkcije pankreasa, jetre i creva. Najčešće dovodi do čestih zapaljenja i insuficijencije pluća i pankreasa. Drugi simptomi mogu biti infekcije sinusa, slabiji rast i razvoj i infertilitet usled začepljenja semenovoda. Karakteriše se abnormalnim transportom hlorida i natrijuma preko epitela, dovodeći do pojave gustog viskoznog sekreta.[1] Uzrok CF je mutacija gena za protein-cistično fibroznim regulatorom transmembranske provodnosti (engl. CFTR). Ovaj protein je potreban za regulaciju sastava znoja, digestivnih tečnosti i mukusa. CFTR reguliše prenos hloridnih i natrijumovih jona preko epitelnih membrana, kao što su alveolarni epitel koji se nalazi u plućima. Većina ljudi bez CF imaju dve radne kopije CFTR gena, i obe kopije moraju nedostajati da bi se razvila CF, usled recesivne prirode ovog poremećaja. CF nastaje ...
Volcanologists say a "hazardous explosion" could be imminent, as thousands flee the area around Mount Mayon in the Philippines ...
Aww... people fav your fics but dont reveiw? Thats mean. O.O I do that sometimes... oops... Meh, nothing I can do about it now. Poor Kai. He really likes Tala, doesnt he? I hope they get together, I love Kai/Tala. And update soon please. When I saw there was no little arrow thingy I felt so depressed. Great fic ...
At Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft LLP, we put over 225 years of legal experience and innovation to work for you today. As one of the worlds leading advisors to corporations and financial institutions, we have earned a reputation for crafting innovative business and financial solutions and developing precedent-setting legal strategies to achieve our clients goals. Find out what makes us different.. ...
Pa-čių ma-ža-usių-jų iki-mo-kyk-li-nu-kų gru-pė-je ge-riau-siai įver-tin-ti Plun-gės lop-še-lio-dar-že-lio „Sau-lu-tė" skai-to-vai Jus-tė Va-si-liaus-kai-tė (6 m.) ir Lu-kas Sa-vi-nas (5 m.) iš „Nykš-tu-kų" ir „Meš-ku-čių" gru-pių. Jie at-li-ko me-ni-nio ug-dy-mo mo-ky-to-jos Ja-ni-nos Nor-ke-vi-čie-nės pa-sa-ko-ji-mą „Pa-si-va-ka-ro-ji-mas", su-kur-tą re-mian-tis lie-tu-vių liau-dies iš-min-ti-mi ir po-sa-kiais. Ant-ro-ji vie-ta ati-te-ko Plun-gės lop-še-lio-dar-že-lio „Rū-te-lė" pen-kia-me-čiams „Ait-va-riu-kų" gru-pės ug-dy-ti-niams: Mar-ty-nai Uk-ri-nai-tei, Jo-rū-nei Kau-nai-tei, Ug-nei Do-mar-kai-tei, Aus-tė-jai Mikš-tai-tei, Jus-tui Go-tau-tui, Mant-vy-dui Va-lu-čiui, Pi-jui Pie-kui ir Pi-jui Pau-laus-kui. Jie skai-to-vų kon-kur-sui pa-ren-gė kom-po-zi-ci-ją „Daug šne-kie-dams, su-si-bar-si ne-nu-orie-dams". Vai-kus pa-ruo-šė mo-ky-to-ja As-ta Vyš-niaus-kie-nė. Tre-čio-sios vie-tos skir-tos dvi: Plun-gės ...
Rate This Movie SYNOPSIS: Some terrible things happened to Kai Koss when he was a child. Returning back home after twenty years so that he may bury his mother only begins to awaken the memory of some of these horrible things. Kai finds however that most of the small town is suspicious of his arrival, and most arent too happy about it. Worst …. Read More » ...
Higienos serijos siurbliai Tapflo specialiai suprojektuoti naudoti tokiose pramonės šakose kaip: maisto, alaus, farmacijos, kosmetikos. Pagrindiniu privalumu šių siurblių yra oro paskirstymo sistema be lubrikanto, nereikalaujantys priežiūros atbuliniai vožtuvai ir galimybė visiškai kontroliuoti visas dalis, kurios yra sąlytyje su skysčiu.. Kai kuriuose siurblių modeliuose naudojamos medžiagos atitinka FDA reikalavimus. Modeliai su papildoma 0,8 ir Ra 0,5 danga tiekiami pagal kliento užsakymą. ...
Kak Wan pun tak tahu apa nak jadi dengan Kai tu. Usia dah 30, kahwinnya tidak. Kawan pun tak ramai, bertindik pula tu...dia buat agama macam mainan agaknya, bos kita tu. Kalau baik, sangat baik. Kalau angin dia datang, ini ha, Kak Wan yang kena tempias sorang-sorang. "Kak Wan kembali duduk di kerusinya. Keluhan berat dilepaskan. Nampak sangat yang Kak Wan ni benar-benar runsingkan Kai Khalid tu. ...
Zur Untersuchung des NO/cGMP-Signalweges im kardiovaskulären System werden transgene Modelle generiert. Dazu werden das Tetrazyklin-abhängige Tet-Off-System und entsprechende Transgene unter Kontrolle des induzierbaren TRE-Promotors kombiniert. Mit diesem Modell, ist es uns möglich, die NO-Synthase I (nNOS) in glatten Muskelzellen des Gefäßsystems (SM22α-Promotor) induzierbar zu exprimieren. Parallel dazu wollen wir die Interaktionen der nNOS und des L-Typ Calciumkanals (Cav1.2) analysieren. Die Untersuchungen beinhalten molekularbiologische, Bild gebende und physiologische Methoden. Wir erhoffen uns dadurch Einblicke in die Funktion der jeweiligen Effektoren im kardiovaskulären System zu gewinnen und, darauf basierend, neue Möglichkeiten für therapeutische Ansätze zu entdecken.. ...
We study the effects of patriotism on tax compliance. In particular, we assume that individuals feel a (random draw of) warm glow from honestly paying their tax
Kardiotrofin-1 (CT-1) je citokin. On je srčani hipertrofni faktor sa 21.5 kDa, i član IL-6 citokinske familije. CT-1 je povezan sa patofiziologijom srčanih bolesti[1], kao što su hipertenzija, miokardijalna infarkcija, valvularna srčana mana, and kongestivna srčana slabost. Ovaj protein deluje putem interakcije sa glikoproteinom 130 (gp130)/leukemijskim inhibitornim faktorom receptor beta (LIFR) heterodimera. Dodatno, CT-1 aktivira fosfatidilinozitol 3-kinazu (PI-3 kinaza) u srčanim mišićima i pojačava DNK-vezivanje transkripcionog faktora NF-κB. CT-1 je visoko izražen u srcu, skeletalnim mišićima[2], prostati i jajnicima, i u manjoj meri u plućima, bubrezima, pankreasu, timusu, testisima i tankim crevima.[3][4][5]. ...
Popular television actor Sushant Singh Rajput, who is making his Bollywood debut with Rock On! (2008) director Abhishek Kapoors next film Kai Po Che!, is set to enthrall the audience with a traditional Gujarati garba in the film.
MUD! Of course it had to be MUD! What else could it have been? Large grassy fields? A thick forest? Even a string of shale would have been better then this. Kai
Marshall JC, Lee JH, Steeg PS.Womens Cancers Section, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA, of the tumor metastatic process is a new, thought provoking molecular target for the treatment of cancer. The Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor gene stands as a validated molecular target owing to its reduced expression in many aggressive human tumors, and the reduction in metastatic potential in vivo upon re-expression in multiple cell lines. Several compounds have been identified which elevate Nm23-H1 expression in vitro including indomethacin, gamma Linolenic Acid, trichostatin A, 5-aza-deoxycytidine, and high dose medroxyprogesterone acetate. Using a model of lung metastatic colonization by MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells, we demonstrated that high dose MPA reduced the formation of overt lung metastases by 37-46% and those metastases that formed were statistically smaller. A Phase II clinical trial of high dose MPA, alone ...
Associate Professor of Biology Jacob Egge works with students during a summer semester research project. (Photo by PLU Photographer John Froschauer) Faculty-Student Research Provides a Cornerstone of the PLU Mission
Kai Chow (later Puyang) is one of the six counties on the southern tip of Hopei (Hebei) province (In 1987 Puyang was located in Henan [Honan] Province), China, where the General Conference Mennonite Church conducted mission work. Kai Chow was more commonly known by the name "Pu-yang," which was the proper government designation. This county was the largest of the six counties occupied by the mission and was central geographically. It had a population of approximately one-half million and an area 1,000 square miles. Besides the county seat there were some 50 larger market towns and hundreds of small villages.. In 1911 H. J. Brown and his wife, Maria Brown, purchased property in Kai Chow and started independent mission work, which in 1914 was taken over by the General Conference Mennonite Mission Board. In 1916 the first boys school buildings were completed, and in 1918 a large church building, seating 800, was erected and a girls school begun. In 1940 the mission property consisted of about 20 ...
Yōkai are, to borrow Michael Dylan Fosters own terminology in this fascinating study, the "monsters" of Japanese folklore. In Western traditions we might think of ghosts, phantoms, banshees, spirits, boggarts, hobgoblins, fairies, and so on. In other words, these are the various beings that inhabit the supernatural world, characterized more by their mischievousness (and often downright malevolence) than by any benign or talismanlike qualities.. Of course, such supernatural beings only exist in relation to the real, human world, reinforcing its values. Fosters approach is to divide the book into four main chapters, each exploring yōkai through the lens of a different trope and a particular historical period. Thus Foster convincingly presents the development of yōkai culture as a reflection of wider societal changes and, in particular, the tensions that emerged from an engagement with Western intellectual and cultural traditions, with the process of modernization and the embracing of postwar ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
If you, like me, have been pleasantly surprised and totally hooked on  When a Snail Falls in Love, then you also know that the lead actor Wang Kai is easy on the eyes and easy to fall in love with. Whether you were already familiar with him, even already mildly stalking him (cough, cough, me…), or are experiencing the Wang Kai swoon effect for the first time, you should know there are as many good reasons to fall for this Chinese actor as there are times
Non-metastatic 23 [NM23/nucleoside diphosphate kinases ( NDPK)] genes are the first discovered metastasis suppressor genes. More than two decades of research has demonstrated their roles in a variety
Calyx [ CALYX, n. plu. calyxes. The outer covering of a flower, being the termination of the cortical epidermis or outer bark of the plant, which, in most plants, incloses and supports the bottom of the corol. In Linnes system, it comprehends the perianth, ... ]
Our observations identify NM23-H1 as the archetype of a metastasis suppressor gene acting as repressor of the early stages of the invasive program in primary tumors. We propose that NM23-H1 functions as a barrier against the conversion of in situ carcinoma into invasive carcinoma. Our data support the notion that NM23-H1 silencing induces an invasive phenotype linked to partial EMT associated with the β-catenin nuclear translocation and upregulation of TCF/LEF-1-mediated transcription, a molecular signature of the Wnt pathway (32). EMT is a major switch to exacerbate the metastatic behavior by generating migratory and invasive signals, as well as anticancer drug resistance phenotypes (33). We found that NM23-H1 is reduced at the invasive front of human primary tumors concomitantly with reduced membrane-bound E-cadherin, further supporting the biological significance of our experimental data. Collectively, our data identify NM23-H1 as a critical regulator of E-cadherin-mediated intercellular ...
... Experience (Inc.) a dungeon crawler, where every step you take might lead to sudden death.
Honua Kai Resort*2nd floor**** Great location**quite section of resort**. Aloha and welcome to Maui! ***ALL POOLS ARE OPEN*** . **We do not advertise on Cr...
Template:Filename yra pagrindinis Openbox konfigūracinis failas. Jis naudojamas tvarkant klaviatūros nuorodas, temas, virtualius darbastalius ir kitas savybes. Template:Filename valdo Openbox programų menu, kuris pasirodo, kai paspaudžiate ant savo darbastalio. Numatytos menu programos yra labai retos, bet menu struktūra yra labai lengvai keičiama, taikantis prie Jūsų poreikių. Jeigu norite sužinoti daugiau apie menu, peržiūrėkite menu skyrių žemiau arba aplankykite Openbox tinklapį. Template:Filename Numatytas paleidimo failas, kuris nustato kelis dalykus Jums. Jūs galite naudoti šį skriptą paleisti panelę, nustatyti darbastalio foną ar kitus dalykus. Daugiau dėtalių Openbox Wiki. ...
Decorative, post-top lantern with LED package with electronic driver. Class I electrical, IP66, IK08. Base in cast aluminium, powder coated silver-grey. Canopy in round shape, made from aluminium textured silver-grey (close to RAL9006). UV stabilised polycarbonate clear diffuser with anti-glare prisms. Internal wide street reflector. Equipped with power reduction circuit, effective 3 hours before and 5 hours after a calculated midnight. It can be deactivated at installation with an easily accessible internal switch. Supplied complete in one box. Complete with 4000K ...
The Price Look-Up code is used to make checkout and inventory easier for supermarkets. Some use it to differentiate between organic and conventional produce.
If you would like to learn more about birthing at home in Maryland and surrounding states, this web site was created for you! Links to resources, FAQs, local homebirth midwives and more!
Erik Mongrain mokytis groti gitara pradėjo nuo 14 metų. Būdamas berniuku labiau domėjosi sportu, bet pasirinko gitarą ir pradėjo savarankiškai mokytis muzikinės klausos. Erik pradėjo nuo elektrinės gitaros, bet išgirdęs Johann Sebastian Bach muziką susidomėjo klasikine gitara ir akustine gitara. Erikas pradėjo mokytis skaityti muzikos ir kurti ją. Erik Mongrain įkvėpė ankstesnė Metallica, Jimi Hendrix ir Kurt Cobain kūryba. Kai jam buvo 18, Erik išgirdo gitaristą Don Ross ir pasakė: „Tai yra naujas atradimas man. Aš galiausiai radau savo nišą". Po to Erik buvo stipriai įtakotas Michael Hedges kūrybos.. ...
Affiliation:国立感染症研究所,その他部局等,その他, Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology), Keywords:SNPs,genotyping,ゲノム,多菌型,ハンセン病,らい菌,少菌型, # of Research Projects:1, # of Research Products:11
Free shipping BOTH ways, 365-day return policy, 24/7 customer service. Millions of mens shoes, womens shoes, girls shoes, boys shoes, handbags, mens clothing, womens clothing, Uggs, Nike shoes!
Free shipping BOTH ways, 365-day return policy, 24/7 customer service. Millions of mens shoes, womens shoes, girls shoes, boys shoes, handbags, mens clothing, womens clothing, Uggs, Nike shoes!
Answer 1 of 14: Http://www.kauaibeachscoop.com/south-shore/lawai-bay#scoop! Lawai Bay - Kauai This beach backs up to the Allerton Garden, or sometimes called the National Botanical Garden and is a breathtaking view of the south. Sunsets are great here. Access...
The breed was developed in Wasilla, Alaska, from the early 1970s to 1988 by Linda S. Spurlin and her family. The breed was developed with Siberian and Alaskan Huskies, using Schipperke and American Es...
Senov je 35. Istorini dokument , susijusi su ba nytiniu celibatu, studijos b t pamokan ios, bet per ilgos. Pasitenkinsime keliais od iais. Pirmaisiais krik ionyb s am iais Ba ny ios t vai ir ra ytojai liudija, jog Rytuose ir Vakaruose tarp vent j tarnautoj buvo paplitusi savanori ka celibato praktika (20), nes jis labai tiko visi kai atsiduoti Kristui ir jo Ba ny iai. Vakar Ba ny ioje 36. Nuo VI am iaus prad ios i celibato praktika Vakar Ba ny ioje buvo stiprinama, pl tojama ir patvirtinama vairi vietini susirinkim , taip pat popie i i tarm mis (21). V lesniais imtme iais ba nytin celibat skatindavo, gindavo ir atnaujindavo pirmiausia auk iausieji Dievo Ba ny ios ganytojai ir mokytojai, tik jimo paveldo bei krik ioni kosios dorov s serg tojai ir ai kintojai, net ir tada, kai susilaukdavo pasiprie inimo i pa ios dvasininkijos, ir dorovinis visuomen s nuosmukis neb davo palankus heroji kiems doryb s aktams. pareigojimas laikytis celibato v liau buvo patvirtintas Tridento Susirinkimo (22) ir ...
4IHA: Crystal structures of two phytohormone signal-transducing alpha / beta hydrolases: karrikin-signaling KAI2 and strigolactone-signaling DWARF14.
Caglayan, Evren; Kappert, Kai; Odenthal, Margarete; Südkamp, Michael; Hackbusch, Daniel; Vantler, Marius; Rosenkranz, Stephan et al. (PLoS ONE, 2010) Link to Published Version ...
... Skirta efektyviam atsistatymui po fizinių krūvių, bei liesos raumenų masės išlaikymui ir vystymui. Tinka tiek megėjui, tiek profesionalui, tiek profilaktiškai norint praturtinti savo mitybą. Instantized BCAA
Tibor Kempf, Matthias Eden, Jens Strelau, Marian Naguib, Christian Willenbockel, Jörn Tongers, Jörg Heineke, Daniel Kotlarz, Jian Xu, Jeffery D. Molkentin, Hans W. Niessen, Helmut Drexler, Kai C. Wollert ...
Victor I. Chang, Tiffany Lin, Sophie Chu, Christy Lin and Kai Hua Yu of LCS & Partners on the potential impact of recent developments
*Dam takin kumthar kan chuang kai a; mahse, reilo teah chanchin duhawm lo tak, drug overdose avanga thihna leh an thi chiah lo a nih pawhin buaipuiawm taka
b-adrenergikoi ipodoxeis, iparxoun stin kardia stous pneumones kai allou. stin kardia prokaloun au3isi tou kardiakou ri8mou kai au3isi tis sistaltikotitas tou miokardiou. (8etiki inotropos kai xronotropos drasi) stous pneumones i diegersi ton b ipodoxeon prokalei diastoli ton leion miikon inon ton brogxon =, brogxodiastoli. oi b - blockers anastelloun tous b ipodoxeis prokalontas miosi tou ri8mou kai tis dinamis sistolis ara miomeni artiriaki piesi,enw stous pneumones prokaloun sispasi ton lion miikon inon kai vrogxospasmo (pou einai enas apo tous 3 basikous paragontes tou as8matos) me lia logia, an xereis oti enas as8enis sou exei as8ma kai dias tou b-blockers, mallon en ta paeis je polla kala me tin iatriki. plus, enen kan farmako protis grammis gia tin ipertasi oi b-blockers anymore. auta, sorry giato lecture, e8imi8ika tes palies kales meres :P. ...
CD9, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of proteins participates in the regulation of cell adhesive functions such as cell migration. The mechanisms underlying CD9 mediated cell migration are not known. In the current study, we investigated the molecular basis for the CD9 promoted cell migration. Our findings show that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors, wortamannin and LY294002 inhibited CD9 promoted cell motility in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast, inhibitors targeting protein kinase C or mitogen-activated protein kinase had no effect on CD9 driven CHO cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PI-3K activity in CHO cells by dominant/negative PI-3K cDNA transfection abolished CD9 mediated pro-migratory effects. Consistent with these observations, CD9 expression in CHO cells and in the rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells induced enhanced phosphorylation of PI-3K substrate, Akt. In CHO cells, CD9 expression also enhanced protein levels and tyrosine phosphorylation
Early studies pointed to the potential of tetraspanins to associate with a wide variety of partner proteins in a tetraspanin web. Not only do tetraspanins associate with each other, but they also associate with many Ig superfamily proteins, proteoglycans, complement regulatory proteins, integrins, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signaling enzymes (for review see Boucheix and Rubinstein, 2001). Assembly of the tetraspanin web is based on multiple levels of interactions (Serru et al., 1999; Stipp et al., 2001a,b; and references therein). The first level includes primary interactions between specific tetraspanins and other proteins. These interactions are direct, and resist disruption by detergents such as Brij96, digitonin, and/or Triton X-100 (see examples below). Second level interactions are indirect, more numerous, and much more sensitive to disruption by Brij96, digitonin, and/or Triton X-100. Soluble second level complexes (maintained in detergents such as Brij56, Brij99, and ...
Tetraspanins are a superfamily of glycoproteins that function as organisers of membranes by clustering with each other to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, into which certain other receptors and signalling proteins are recruited and regulated. Tetraspanin microdomains have been implicated in a range of biological processes including cell signalling, adhesion, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The tetraspanin CD37 was recently shown to negatively regulate the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1, which is essential for innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to firstly develop a cell line model system to investigate the mechanism by which tetraspanins inhibit dectin-1, and to secondly extend this work to the dectin-1-related CLEC-2, which is essential for platelet thrombus formation and stability. Using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay in the Jurkat T-cell line, transient over-expression ...
Book now at Kai | Sheraton Grand at Wild Horse Pass in Chandler, explore menu, see photos and read 1615 reviews: My wife and I have been coming here for our Anniversary for the past 6 years. The food is amazing, the staff is fantastic, and you will find no finer ...
One of the key concepts in tetraspanin functions is the formation of a tetraspanin network (or web) by tetraspanins and their partner proteins (Rubinstein et al., 1996; Maecker et al., 1997; Hemler, 2005). Studies have been performed to delineate the levels and strengths of interactions in these networks (Claas et al., 2001; Charrin et al., 2003; Yang et al., 2004). The existing data indicate that there are three levels of interactions: the primary interaction between a tetraspanin and its partner, the secondary interaction between the primary complexes, and the tertiary interaction between these secondary complexes (Hemler, 2003; Levy and Shoham, 2005; Martin et al., 2005). However, most of the existing studies relied on examinations of the tetraspanin complexes based on their detergent resistance, which are relatively nonspecific and insensitive. Our current structural data and molecular model of the UP tetraspanin complexes have revealed in molecular details several levels of interactions in ...

Antigens, CD82 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAntigens, CD82 - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Antigens, CD82. A widely expressed transmembrane Glycoprotein that functions as a Metastasis suppressor protein. It is ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/antigens-cd82.html

anti-CD82 antibody | Rabbit anti-Mouse CD82 antigen Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001129527.1anti-CD82 antibody | Rabbit anti-Mouse CD82 antigen Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001129527.1

Rabbit anti-Mouse CD82 antigen Polyclonal Antibody-NP_001129527.1 (MBS1488866) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary ... anti-CD82 antibody :: Rabbit anti-Mouse CD82 antigen Polyclonal Antibody. Catalog #. MBS1488866 .mycenter { display: block; ... Rabbit anti-mouse CD82 antigen polyclonal Antibody. Product Synonym Names C33 antigen; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; ... CD82 antigen UniProt Synonym Protein Names C33 antigen; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1 ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Polyclonal/CD82-antigen/CD82/datasheet.php?products_id=1488866

Browsing  by Keywords CD82 antigenBrowsing by Keywords "CD82 antigen"

Background: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the ...
more infohttp://repository.bilkent.edu.tr/browse?type=subject&value=CD82%20antigen

Protein Links for PubMed (Select 1401919) - Protein - NCBIProtein Links for PubMed (Select 1401919) - Protein - NCBI

RecName: Full=CD82 antigen; AltName: Full=C33 antigen; AltName: Full=IA4; AltName: Full=Inducible membrane protein R2; AltName ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein?LinkName=pubmed_protein&from_uid=1401919

CD82 Gene - GeneCards | CD82 Protein | CD82 AntibodyCD82 Gene - GeneCards | CD82 Protein | CD82 Antibody

CD82 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... CD82 Antigen 2 3 4 * Kangai 1 (Suppression Of Tumorigenicity 6, Prostate; CD82 Antigen (R2 Leukocyte Antigen, Antigen Detected ... Protein details for CD82 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P27701-CD82_HUMAN. Recommended name:. CD82 antigen ... GeneCards Summary for CD82 Gene CD82 (CD82 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD82 include Prostate ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD82&many_orthologs=all

CD82 Gene - GeneCards | CD82 Protein | CD82 AntibodyCD82 Gene - GeneCards | CD82 Protein | CD82 Antibody

CD82 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... CD82 Antigen 2 3 4 * Kangai 1 (Suppression Of Tumorigenicity 6, Prostate; CD82 Antigen (R2 Leukocyte Antigen, Antigen Detected ... Protein details for CD82 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P27701-CD82_HUMAN. Recommended name:. CD82 antigen ... GeneCards Summary for CD82 Gene CD82 (CD82 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD82 include Prostate ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CD82&ortholog=all

CD82 (CD82 molecule)CD82 (CD82 molecule)

CD82 molecule), Authors: Yanhui H Zhang, Mekel M Richardson, Feng Zhang, Xin A Zhang. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... CD82 Mutations. ICGC Data Portal. CD82 TCGA Data Portal. CD82 Broad Tumor Portal. CD82. OASIS Portal. CD82 [ Somatic mutations ... CD82 [ NCBI-GEO ] CD82 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ] CD82 [ SEEK ] CD82 [ MEM ] Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse). CD82 [ ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_CD82.html

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD82 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD82 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=103141009

CD82 (human)CD82 (human)

Names/Synonyms: 4F9; C33; C33 antigen; CD82; CD82 antigen; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal ... CD82 a widespread transmembrane protein of the tetraspanin family. A metastasis-suppressor whose decreased expression may be ... R2 leukocyte antigen; SAR2; ST6; suppression of tumorigenicity 6; Suppressor of tumorigenicity 6 protein; Tetraspanin-27; Tspan ... and antibody IA4)); CD82 molecule; GR15; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; KAI1; kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/proteinAction.action?id=17653

OriGene - Cd82 (NM 001136055) cDNA CloneOriGene - Cd82 (NM 001136055) cDNA Clone

Cd82 (untagged) - Mouse CD82 antigen (Cd82), transcript variant 2, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... Cd82 Rat Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. RN200770. Cd82 (untagged ORF) - Rat Cd82 molecule (Cd82), (10 ug). $390. 3 ... Cd82 Human Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. SC107926. CD82 (untagged)-Human CD82 molecule (CD82), transcript variant ... Cd82 (untagged) - Mouse CD82 antigen (Cd82), transcript variant 2, (10ug), NM_001136055.2, 10ug. $390. 4 weeks. ...
more infohttp://www.origene.com/Mouse_cDNA/MC208262.aspx

tsp-8 (F33C8.3) Result Summary | BioGRIDtsp-8 (F33C8.3) Result Summary | BioGRID

R2 LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN, ANTIGEN DETECTED BY MONOCLONAL AND ANTIBODY IA4)) (KAI1; OMIM:600623), Which When Mutated Leads To ... CD82 ANTIGEN (R2 LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN, ANTIGEN DETECTED BY MONOCLONAL AND ANTIBODY IA4)) (KAI1; OMIM:600623), which when mutated ...
more infohttps://thebiogrid.org/46464/summary/caenorhabditis-elegans/tsp-8.html

Anti-CD82 antibody [C33] (Allophycocyanin) (ab205506) | AbcamAnti-CD82 antibody [C33] (Allophycocyanin) (ab205506) | Abcam

Mouse monoclonal CD82 antibody [C33] conjugated to APC. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human CD82. C91/PL (Human HTLV-1+ T cell line). ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd82-antibody-c33-allophycocyanin-ab205506.html

HOGENOM: RAT3 PE1308HOGENOM: RAT3 PE1308

CD82 antigen;AltName: Full=Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1 DE homolog;AltName: CD_antigen=CD82; (RAT3.PE1308). GN Name=Cd82; ... Cd82; CD82_RAT; Q6IN14_RAT; AF049882; BC072498; CH473949; KW Complete proteome; Direct protein sequencing; Glycoprotein; ... DR RGD; 69070; Cd82. DR eggNOG; maNOG05616; -. DR InParanoid; O70352; -. DR OrthoDB; EOG444KMB; -. DR ArrayExpress; O70352; -. ... CC Rattus norvegicus chromosome 3 RGSC3.4 sequence 1..171063335 annotated CC by Ensembl CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:CD82_RAT CC ...
more infohttp://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/cgi-bin/acnuc-search-id?query=RAT3_PE1308&db=HOGENOM&ident=ACNUC1829

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

CD82. CD82 ANTIGEN. -. Disease : Chemicals : Biological Phenomena : Anatomy : Organisms Disease. → Tree View ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?omimid=600623&taxonomy=human

Gendoo - Relevant featuresGendoo - Relevant features

Antigens, CD CD抗原 RNA, Messenger メッセンジャーRNA Antigens, CD82 CD82抗原 ...
more infohttp://gendoo.dbcls.jp/cgi-bin/gendoo.cgi?geneid=4071&taxonomy=human

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte positive for CD82 antigen (cell). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte positive for CD82 antigen (cell). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=117413009

RNA-seq liver transcriptome analysis reveals an activated MHC-I pathway and an inhibited MHC-II pathway at the early stage of...RNA-seq liver transcriptome analysis reveals an activated MHC-I pathway and an inhibited MHC-II pathway at the early stage of...

In addition, TAP binding protein, another molecule involved in MHC class I antigen loading [44, 49, 51, 53], and MHC class I ... In MHC-I antigen processing pathway, antigenic peptides are degraded in the cytoplasm by proteasome, then translocated into the ... In mammals, antigen processing and presentation are essential for triggering the downstream cellular and/or humoral immune ... The MHC antigen processing-associated genes from zebrafish have been extensively characterized. However, little is known about ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-13-319

CD81 - WikipediaCD81 - Wikipedia

1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ... HIV gag proteins use tetraspanin enriched microdomains (containing minimally CD81, CD82, CD63) as a platform for virion ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CD81

Anti-CD82 antibody - C-terminal (ab135779) | AbcamAnti-CD82 antibody - C-terminal (ab135779) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal CD82 antibody validated for WB, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to ... Kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... Anti-CD82 antibody - C-terminal (ab135779) at 1/100 dilution + Mouse liver lysate at 12.5 µg. Predicted band size: 29 kDa. ... Lane 2 : 293 cell lysates, transiently transfected with the CD82 gene Lysates/proteins at 2 µg per lane.. Predicted band size: ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/CD82-antibody-C-terminal-ab135779.html?utm_source=biocompare&utm_medium=paid_referral&utm_term=1ry_120336_135779&utm_campaign=editorial

Structural organization and interactions of transmembrane domains in tetraspanin proteins | BMC Structural Biology | Full TextStructural organization and interactions of transmembrane domains in tetraspanin proteins | BMC Structural Biology | Full Text

... and CD82 are components of a surface tetraspan network connected to HLA-DR and VLA antigens. Eur J Immunol 1996, 26: 2657-2665. ... 2-4]). Mammalian tetraspanins such as CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82, CD151, rds/peripherin, and uroplakins Ia and Ib have been most ... Cannon KS, Cresswell P: Quality control of transmembrane domain assembly in the tetraspanin CD82. EMBO J 2001, 20: 2443-2453. ... The importance of TM domain interactions in intramolecular organization was demonstrated in a study showing that CD82 fragment ...
more infohttps://bmcstructbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6807-5-11

CD82 Antibody (C-Terminus) - Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P - Buy Now! |AbgentCD82 Antibody (C-Terminus) - Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P - Buy Now! |Abgent

CD82 Antibody (C-Terminus), Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P (ALS11674), Abgent ... CD82 antigen, C33 antigen, IA4, Inducible membrane protein R2, Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1, Suppressor of tumorigenicity 6 ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Immunology , CD82 Antibody (C-Terminus) CD82 Antibody (C-Terminus). Rabbit Polyclonal ... CD82 Antibody (C-Terminus) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/ALS11674-Anti-CD82-Antibody-C-Terminus-ALS11674

CD82 FISH Probe - (FA0278) - Products - AbnovaCD82 FISH Probe - (FA0278) - Products - Abnova

C33 antigen,CD82 antigen,R2 leukocyte antigen,inducible membrane protein R2,kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate ... CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and antibody IA4)),suppression of tumorigenicity 6,suppress ...
more infohttp://www.abnova.com/products/products_detail.asp?catalog_id=FA0278

NAVER Academic > Search...NAVER Academic > Search...

Adenocarcinoma, metabolism, pathology, Alternative Splicing, Animals, Antigens, CD, Antigens, CD82, Cadherins, Cell Division, ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/search.naver?field=3&query=CANCER+RESEARCH+63%EA%B6%8C+21%ED%98%B8&page=5

Gentaur antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for AntibodiessGentaur antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodiess

C33 antigen,CD82,CD82 antigen,Homo sapiens,Human,IA4,Inducible membrane protein R2,KAI1,Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1,SAR2,ST6 ... Cd4] T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4 (T-cell differentiation antigen L3T4) (T-cell surface antigen T4/Leu-3) (CD antigen CD4). ... CD4] T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4 (T-cell surface antigen T4/Leu-3) (CD antigen CD4). ... TPBG 5T4] Trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4 oncofetal antigen) (5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein) (5T4 oncotrophoblast ...
more infohttps://www.antibody-antibodies.com/gene.php?title_uniprot=T4+Suppressor+of+prr+%28Stp%29&uniprot_id=P62765
  • In relation to cancer, CD82 function is to inhibit tumor invasion and suppresses tumor metastasis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The metastasis-suppressive effect of CD82 can be observed in the animal studies of cancer metastasis by re-introducing CD82 expression in various metastatic cancer cell lines such as prostate cancer AT6.1, prostate cancer LNCaP, fibroblastoma HT1080, melanoma MDA-MB-435, breast cancer LCC6, liver cancer MHCC97-H, and lung cancer LLC lines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The observations of CD82-mediated suppression of cancer metastasis in animal models are supported by a variety of clinical studies on the human cancers from prostate, breast, ovary, colon, lung, stomach, liver, and other organs. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Diseases associated with CD82 include Prostate Cancer and Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma . (genecards.org)
  • CD82 undergoes two types of post-translational modifications: glycosylation at its large extracellular loop and palmitoylation at the cysteine residues in or near cytoplasmic domains. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in which it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several pathways involved in acute phase response, complement activation, immune/defense response, and antigen processing and presentation were remarkably affected at the early stage of WED immunization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CD1 molecules, like MHC I and II, play an equally important role in the immune system by presenting lipid, glycolipid and lipopeptide antigen to T and NKT cells. (novusbio.com)