Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Motility-related protein (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82 expression inversely correlate with lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. (1/129)

Although the mechanisms of action of the transmembrane superfamilies, motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) and KAI1/CD82, are not well known, they are reported to suppress the metastasis of several kinds of cancers. The suppression of cell motility by MRP-1/CD9 may cause suppression of the metastasis. As we could not find any reports concerning the expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in oesophageal cancers we investigated their expression in oesophageal specimens. We conducted immunohistochemical staining for MRP1/CD9 against 108 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma using anti-MRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody M31-15, and for KAI1/CD82 against 104 cases using anti-KAI1/CD82 monoclonal antibody C33. To investigate the gradual expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82, 24 oesophageal dysplasias were immunohistochemically stained using the same method and then investigated. The expression of both MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 were positive on the cell membranes of normal oesophageal epithelial cells, but reduced or negative in the cancer cells. Reduced MRP-1/CD9 expressions significantly correlated to tumour depth (P = 0.0009). We found a significantly greater number of reduced or negative expression of MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 in lymph node metastatic cases (P = 0.0003 and P= 0.0129, respectively), but not in distant metastatic cases. The 5-year survival rate of MRP-1/CD9-negative and reduced patients was significantly worse than those of positive patients (n = 108, curative cases, RO). Few cases remained KAI1/CD82-positive (9.6%; 10/104) in oesophageal cancer. Twenty (83.3%) and twenty-two (91.7%) cases out of 24 dysplasias were defined as KAI1/CD82-positive and MRP1/CD9-positive, respectively. The decrease in MRP-1/CD9 and KAI1/CD82 expression may facilitate lymph node metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Knowing the status of the expression of MRP-1/CD9 appears helpful in predicting the prognosis for each patient.  (+info)

A novel molecular staging protocol for non-small cell lung cancer. (2/129)

A molecular staging protocol using reliable markers is of importance in predicting the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and for instituting their appropriate post-surgical treatment. We analysed tumor tissues from 187 NSCLC patients. The DNA and mRNA were extracted from frozen specimens, and then polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequencing were performed to investigate mutations of p53 from exons 5-8, and mutations of K-ras at exon 1. To determine MRP-1/CD9 gene and KA11/CD82 gene expression, which have been postulated to be metastasis suppressor genes, we have applied quantitative RT-PCR. A Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that nodal status, MRP-1/CD9 and K-ras status were significant factors for prognosis (P<0.0001, P=0.0083 and P=0.0004, respectively). Based on these results, we classified the patients into three groups according to their MRP-1/ CD9 and K-ras status. Patients with both MRP-1/CD9 positive and wild K-ras tumors were defined as group A, patients with either reduced MRP-1/CD9 or mutant K-ras tumors were defined as group B and patients with both reduced MRP-1/CD9 and mutant K-ras tumors were designated as group C. This new classification was significantly correlated with the tumor status and pathological stage (P=0.0098 and P=0.0017, respectively). The overall survival rate of the group A patients was significantly better than the group B patients (59.6% vs 27.9%, P=0.0001) and also that of group B patients was better than the group C patients (27.9% vs 20.0%, P=0.0378). This tendency was also found in patients with 110 node-negative NSCLCs (A vs B vs C=75.8% vs 34.9% vs 0.0%, P<0.0001). A Cox multivariate regression analysis in NSCLC patients demonstrated that an evaluation for both MRP-1/CD9 expression and K-ras mutations had a significant prognostic effect as well as nodal status (P<0.0001).  (+info)

Motility inhibition and apoptosis are induced by metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9, with concurrent glycosylation. (3/129)

Metastasis-suppressing gene product CD82 and its analogue CD9 are considered to suppress the malignancy of various human cancers, although the rationale for this effect is unknown. The present study addresses phenotypic changes in Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell line ldlD deficient in UDP-Glc 4-epimerase and expressing CD82 or CD9 by cDNA transfection. Only CD82- or CD9-expressing cells grown in Gal-supplemented medium showed reduced motility and massive cell death, which are characteristic of apoptosis, after a latent period. Under this condition, endogenous GM3 synthesis was observed as a common factor, and N-glycosylation occurred at a high level in CD82 and to a lesser extent in CD9. Thus, the malignancy-suppressing effect of CD82 or CD9 is based partially on cell motility inhibition and apoptosis induction promoted by concurrent GM3 synthesis and N-glycosylation.  (+info)

Suppression of telomerase, reexpression of KAI1, and abrogation of tumorigenicity by nerve growth factor in prostate cancer cell lines. (4/129)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is expressed in the prostate, where it appears to be involved in the control of epithelial cell growth and differentiation. NGF production is decreased in prostate tumors. However, the role of this neurotrophin in the control of proliferation and progression of prostate cancers is still a matter of investigation. Prostate adenocarcinomas are telomerase-positive tumors. Chronic exposure of DU145 and PC3 prostate tumor cell lines to NGF resulted in a dramatic down-regulation of telomerase activity. This effect was correlated in terms of concentrations and time with a remarkable down-regulation of cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo but was not secondary to NGF-induced quiescence. No down-regulation of telomerase activity was, in fact, detectable during serum starvation-induced quiescence. LNCaP cells, which do not express NGF receptors, appear to be insensitive to the actions of NGF. DU145 and PC3 cells do not express the KAI1 metastasis suppressor gene, which is present in the prostate and is progressively lost during the progression of prostate cancers. Chronic NGF treatment strongly induced the reexpression of this gene in these cell lines, and this effect was correlated with the suppression of their invasive potential in vitro. The data presented here suggest that NGF reverts two metastatic prostate cancer cell lines to slowly proliferating, noninvasive phenotypes characterized by a very low telomerase activity and by the expression of the KAI1 metastasis suppressor gene.  (+info)

Frequent loss of KAI1 expression in squamous and lymphoid neoplasms. An immunohistochemical study of archival tissues. (5/129)

The metastasis suppressor gene KAI1 was identified by its ability to inhibit the formation of pulmonary metastases in experimental models for prostatic carcinoma. Down-regulation of this gene may be correlated with the invasive phenotype in melanomas and colon and bladder carcinomas and with the metastatic phenotype in carcinomas of the lung, breast, prostate, and pancreas. The goal of our study was to establish an immunohistochemical method to detect KAI1 expression in archival tissues. Using cell lines with known KAI1 levels and paraffin-embedded KAI1 positive tissues as controls, we observed strong membrane staining in lymphoid follicular centers and squamous epithelia. We then demonstrated the utility of our assay by studying KAI1 expression in 34 lymphoid and 57 squamous lesions. All eight reactive lymph nodes were KAI1 positive. In contrast, three of 13 follicular small cleaved and five of 13 diffuse large cell lymphomas were KAI1 negative. Seventy-nine percent (37 of 47) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas from the lung (n = 15), head and neck (n = 18), and cervix (n = 14) showed extensive KAI1 down-regulation. Loss of KAI1 expression was also found in a subset of 10 high-grade cervical dysplasias. Our data show that (i) immunohistochemistry is a suitable technique for evaluating KAI1 expression in archival tissues; (ii) KAI1 was not expressed in a subset of both low-grade and high-grade lymphomas; and (iii) there was extensive down-regulation of KAI1 in squamous cell carcinomas, suggestive of an important role of the gene in the suppression of invasion in these malignancies.  (+info)

Loss of KAI1 expression in the progression of colorectal cancer. (6/129)

The transmembrane 4 superfamily member KAI1 (CD82) has been shown to inhibit pulmonary metastases in experimental metastasis models of prostate cancer and melanoma. KAI1 expression is decreased in the progression of common solid epithelial tumors of adulthood, including lung, prostate, breast, esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. The purpose of our study was to investigate KAI1 expression in the progression of human colorectal cancer. We first analyzed 20 colorectal cancer cell lines by immunoblot techniques. KAI1 was expressed heterogeneously, with the tumor cell lines having a more complex degree of glycosylation compared with that of the normal colonic tissue. KAI1 was highly expressed in the primary SW480 colon cancer cell line but was down-regulated 15-fold in the matched metastatic SW620 cell line. We also investigated KAI1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in tissues from 84 patients with colorectal cancer. Each tissue section was assigned a KAI1 mean score (KMS) from 0 to 300 based on the product of the percentage of cells that stained for KAI1 and the intensity of the stain (1, 2, or 3). In 84 patients with colorectal cancer, KAI1 was expressed at high levels in normal colonic mucosa (KMS 226) but was expressed at lower levels in the primary tumors (KMS 65; P < 0.0001). In a subset of 12 patients with stage IV metastatic disease, we observed a progressive down-regulation of KAI1, from the normal adjacent colonic mucosa (KMS 193) to the primary tumor (KMS 72; P = 0.0001) to the liver metastasis (KMS 25; tumor compared with metastasis, P = 0.0135). We found no correlation between loss of KAI1 expression and stage of disease. In 10 patients, we also noted loss of KAI1 expression in the transition from normal colonic mucosa (KMS 237) to adenoma (KMS 174) to carcinoma (KMS 62; P < 0.0167 for all three comparisons). We conclude that the down-regulation of KAI1 occurs early in the progression of colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Importance of the major extracellular domain of CD9 and the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor for up-regulation of binding and activity. (7/129)

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of growth factors. The membrane-anchored form of HB-EGF (proHB-EGF) is mitogenically active to neighboring cells as well as being a precursor of the soluble form. In addition to its mitogenic activity, proHB-EGF has the property of binding to diphtheria toxin (DT), serving as the specific receptor for DT. Tetramembrane-spanning protein CD9, a member of the TM4 superfamily, is physically associated with proHB-EGF at the cell surface and up-regulates both mitogenic and DT binding activities of proHB-EGF. To understand this up-regulation mechanism, we studied essential regions of both CD9 and proHB-EGF for up-regulation. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that not only CD9 but also other TM4 proteins including CD63, CD81, and CD82 associate with proHB-EGF on the cell surface. However, these TM4 proteins did not up-regulate DT binding activity of proHB-EGF. Transfection of a series of chimeric constructs comprising CD9 and CD81 showed that the major extracellular domain of CD9 is essential for up-regulation. Assays of DT binding activity and juxtacrine mitogenic activity of the deletion mutants of proHB-EGF and chimeric molecules, derived from proHB-EGF and TGF-alpha, showed that the essential domain of proHB-EGF for up-regulation is the EGF-like domain. These results indicate that the interaction of the extracellular domains of both molecules is important for up-regulation.  (+info)

Absence of p53-dependent induction of the metastatic suppressor KAI1 gene after DNA damage. (8/129)

The p53 tumor suppressor protein functions to monitor the integrity of the genome. If a damage is detected, p53 binds tightly to specific sequence elements in the DNA and induces the transactivation of genes involved in various growth regulatory processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis. A p53-binding site was recently identified in the promoter region of the metastatic suppressor KAI1 gene, suggesting that this gene was a direct transcriptional target of p53. To test the relevance of this hypothesis, we studied the endogenous KAI1 expression in a series of human cell lines with varying p53 status in response to genotoxic treatment as well as in different cellular models exhibiting an inducible p53 activity. Overall, our data indicate that KAI1 expression is not significantly modulated by p53. This observation provides a direct evidence that the presence of a p53-binding site in regulatory domains is not a sufficient criteria to define a p53-transcriptional target gene.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Defining Regulatory Elements in the Human KAI1 (CD 82) Metastasis Suppressor Gene. AU - Gao, Allen C.. AU - Lou, Wei. AU - Dong, Jin Tang. AU - Barrett, J. Carl. AU - Danielpour, David. AU - Isaacs, John T.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - The human KAI1 metastasis suppressor gene encodes for a 267 amino acid plasma membrane glycoprotein, which has four transmembrane domains and one large and one small extracellular domain. Plasma membrane expression of KAI1 is downregulated during the progression of several cancers to a metastatic state, including prostate, lung, and pancreatic cancers. To elucidate the mechanisms for this downregulation, an understanding of its transcriptional regulation is critical. Therefore, a set of luciferase reporter gene plasmid constructs were generated containing various 5′ flanking regions to the transcription initiation site, with or without the first exon and a portion of the first intron of the KAI1 gene. These constructs were transfected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - KAI1, a metastasis suppressor gene for prostate cancer on human chromosome 11p11.2. AU - Dong, Jin Tang. AU - Lamb, Pattie W.. AU - Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.. AU - Vukanovic, Jasminka. AU - Ichikawa, Tomohiko. AU - Isaacs, John Tod. AU - Barrett, J. Carl. PY - 1995/5/12. Y1 - 1995/5/12. N2 - A gene from human chromosome 11p11.2 was isolated and was shown to suppress metastasis when introduced into rat AT6.1 prostate cancer cells. Expression of this gene, designated KAI1, was reduced in human cell lines derived from metastatic prostate tumors. KAI1 specifies a protein of 267 amino acids, with four hydrophobic and presumably transmembrane domains and one large extracellular hydrophilic domain with three potential N-glycosylation sites. KAI1 is evolutionary conserved, is expressed in many human tissues, and encodes a member of a structurally distinct family of leukocyte surface glycoproteins. Decreased expression of this gene may be involved in the malignant progression of ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Correction. T2 - De-acetylation and degradation of HSPA5 is critical for E1A metastasis suppression in breast cancer cells [Oncotarget. 5, 21, (2014) (10558-70)] doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.2510.. AU - Chang, Yi Wen. AU - Chen, Hsin An. AU - Tseng, Chi Feng. AU - Hong, Chih Chen. AU - Ma, Jui Ti. AU - Hung, Mien Chie. AU - Wu, Chih Hsiung. AU - Huang, Ming Te. AU - Su, Jen Liang. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Present: Due to an error made during the assembly of Figure 1A. The data of migration and invasion ability of HS578T groups and HBL100 groups are exist in the same excel file and we misplaced the histogram of HS578T groups as the HBL100 groups histogram, caused the inadvertently duplication during the preparation and assembly of Figure 1A. We apologize for our careless mislabelling and this error has been corrected now. The experimental results and conclusions of this article are not affected by this modification. We deeply regret this error and apologize to the scientific ...
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Abraam: ho prôtos en patriarchais: eis hon apesemnuneto dêmos ho tôn Hebraiôn to proteron, prin ê theou aposkirtêsai kai genesthai toutou allotrioi kai to tou monogenous huiou autou haima eph heautous epispasasthai. houtos ek men tês Chaldaiôn gês hupêrchen hormômenos, tôn peri ta meteôra kai tous asteras ton bion holon katanaliskontôn. askêtheis oun kata ton patrion nomon tas tôn epouraniôn asterôn kinêseis kai stochasamenos hôs ouk en toutois histatai to megalourgon tês phainomenês tautêsi ktiseôs, all echei tina ton dêmiourgon ton kai kinounta kai dieuthunonta tên enarmonion tôn asterôn poreian kai tou kosmou pantos tên katastasin, kai dia tou megethous kai tês kallonês tôn ktismatôn ton genesiourgon autôn, hôs enên, theôrêsas ouk estê mechri toutôn, oude tên ephesin eis tauta katedapanêsen, alla tôn ouraniôn hapsidôn huperartheis kai pasan diabas tên noêtên te kai huperkosmion sumpêxin ouk apestê tou zêtoumenou, heôs hou ho pothoumenos ...
A while back, I stumbled onto a little known fact. Conventionally raised produce has a 4-digit PLU code, and (wonder of wonders!) genetically modified produce has a 5-digit PLU code beginning with the number 8.
Sharon Needles - Kai Kai Lyrics. Verse 1: Im just a boy boy Who dresses like a girl girl Whos looking for a toy In this boy driven world Just because I wear paint Do
Kai is the best of the best, a 28 year GM engineer and manager who in his spare time, dating from his many decades ago frame-off restoring his 1966 Corvette, and still to to this day his loving fast cars, boats, snowmobiles and more, is a TRUE GEARHEAD - found in his garage every second he can. I am so fortunate to call Kai
Available on cassette and digital at www.anaott.bandcamp.com.. The modular synthesizer offers an inexhaustible variety of possible interconnections. Amongst gate and trigger, inbetween 0 and 5 volt, Kai Niggemann and Nils Quak did experiment with their instruments in may 2016 at Makroscope. This recording is a documentation of their individual approach to the modular sound. Kai played his Buchla 200e Electric Music Box, while Nils utilized a Eurorack Modular System, a Ciat Lonbarde Plumbutter as well as Native Instruments Reaktor ...
Dane (Toddler/Little Kid) by See Kai Run Kids at Zappos.com. Read See Kai Run Kids Dane (Toddler/Little Kid) product reviews, or select the size, width, and color of your choice.
This is the SUKI! page of Kai Ataki. Follow this popular creator on Tokyo Otaku Mode! Kai Ataki has posted 0 works and has 0 followers.
The Alaskan Klee Kai Assocation of America is dedicated to studying the health and medical needs of the Alaskan Klee Kai. We encourage breeders to health test their breeding dogs to ensure the quality and health of their puppies.
Tergurid (INN) je serotoninski antagonist. On se koristi za lečenje hiperprolaktinemije. Tergurid je oralni, potentni antagonist 5-HT2B i 5-HT2A serotoninskih receptora. Serotonin stimuliše proliferaciju glatkih mišićnih ćelija plućnih arterija, i indukuje fibrozu u zidu plućnih arterija. Ova dva efekta zajedno uzrokuju vaskularno remodelovanje i sužavanje plućnih arterija. Te promene dovode do povećanog vaskularnog otpora i PAH-a. Usled moguće antiproliferativne i antifibrotičke aktivnosti tergurida, ovaj potencijalni lek nalazi primenu u tretmanu vakularnog remodelovanja plućnih arterija i usporavanju progresa bolesti. Maja 2008, tergurid je odobren kao orfanski lek za tretman pulmonarne arterijske hipertenzije.[1] Maja 2010 Pfizer je kupio globalna prava na ovaj lek.[2] ...
A novel in vivo screening approach has identified KLF17 as a key metastasis suppressor gene that acts through regulation of Id1 transcription factor-dependent induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Sabbato, 16 01 2010 11:47 Se perissoteroys apo 200.000 nekroys anerxontai pleon oi ektimhseis gia ton ariqmo twn qymatwn sthn Aith apo to fobero seismo ths perasmenhs Triths, enw se perissoteroys apo 1,5 ekat. ypologizontai oi astegoi. Dramatikh einai h katastash stoys dromoys ths prwteyoysas Port-O-Prens, opoy polla atoma paramenoyn egklwbismena sta xalasmata, traymaties keitontai sto edafos dipla se atafa ptwmata, anqrwpoi sygkroyontai gia ligo faghto kai nero, enw shmeiwnontai klopes kai lehlasies. Megales einai oi kaqysterhseis sthn paradosh ths anqrwpistikhs bohqeias ejaitias toy anyparktoy kratikoy mhxanismoy kai twn katestrammenwn ypodomwn. Shmera metabainei sthn Aith h Amerikanida YPEJ Xilari Klinton gia na epopteysei thn organwsh bohqeias kai na synanthqei me ton proedro Rene Prebal, enw ayrio qa episkeftei th xwra o GG toy OHE Mpan Ki Moyn. Gia th xeiroterh katastrofh poy exei antimetwpisei pote sthn istoria toy o OHE, kanei logo to Grafeio Syntonismoy Anqrwpistikwn Ypoqesewn (OCHA). O ...
KAI FU, Basing on our experienced manufacture technique and continuous research for innovation, and fitting with specialized, enterprise & integrated...
KAi??pa Levitra Soft Utan Recept Generisk Levitra Soft http://www.studentspringbreak.com/spring-break/how-much-allopurinol-can-you-take.html promet
Kai Zhang is part of Stanford Profiles, official site for faculty, postdocs, students and staff information (Expertise, Bio, Research, Publications, and more). The site facilitates research and collaboration in academic endeavors.
Kattints és vásárolj kedvező áron - Amix Fat táplálékkiegészítő és tartozékai árak - Válogass számos shaker bolt kínálatából - Szűkítsd tovább keresésed:
Oh Kai, here we go... Cant get.much worse thats for sure. And maybe w omg on st through the endzone isnt the best ko. High and barely in, daring them to run.. and getting shut down before the twenty is even ...
face=SPIonic](/Ermippoj d e)n toi=j Bi/oij ei)j tou=ton a)nafe/rei to\ lego/menon u(po/ tinwn peri\ Swkra/touj. e)/faske ga/r, fasi, triw=n tou/twn e(/neka xa/rin e)/xein th=, Tu/xh, : Prw=ton me\n o(/ti a)/nqrwpoj e)geno/mhn kai\ ou) qhri/on, ei)=ta o(/ti a)nh\r kai\ ou) gunh/, tri/ton o(/ti (/Ellhn kai\ ou) ba/rbaroj. [/face ...
At the beginning of each long holiday break I like to do an intensive couple of weeks of base building aerobic exercise. I have rekindled my confidence in riding and have managed to do 14 days of two hour plus rides in all directions and terrain from base Avoca ...
Your experience is our focus. We are now introducing our Bonjour Global eshops for your better shopping experience.. Please select country below :. ...
The Center for Enabling New Technologies Through Catalysis (CENTC) is looking for undergraduates for its summer research program. The program gives preference to rising junior and seniors and has locations at 14 different universities and national labs. Applications are due February 25, 2013.. ...
Kérlek tiszteld az én és az oldalamon szerepelő (linkelt) társaim munkáit. Ha felhasználod őket, kérlek említsd meg a forrásodat ...
Kérlek tiszteld az én és az oldalamon szerepelő (linkelt) társaim munkáit. Ha felhasználod őket, kérlek említsd meg a forrásodat ...
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Kancerogènas (2) [lot. cancer - vėžys + gr. genos - giminė, kilmė] - kancerogèninė mẽdžiaga - cheminis junginys, pvz., aromatinis aminas, įjungiantis vienvalentį cheminį radikalą į organinio junginio molekulę, tam tikromis sąlygomis skatinantis navikų susidarymą organizme. Tai kenksmingi cheminiai junginiai: verdant sunaikinami vitaminai, kepant skyla riebalai. Termiškai apdorotose daržovėse suyra 90 proc. vitaminų. Virtose bulvėse,…
Kai discusses some of the CFML coding differences between Railo and ColdFusion: Passing by references and by value, Date Parsing and dates in conditional statements.
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Kai kurie įrodymai iš tiesų leidžia spręsti, jog kūno svorio padidėjimo šventiniu laikotarpiu poveikis išlieka visus metus.
Maybe TN isnt voting for any of the suspicious people (I mean that in the way of the top people that everyone is considering- Jan, Kai, myself and...
Lung cancer is the most frequent malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide; it is the second most common cancer, comprising 1.69 million deaths worldwide per year. Among these, 85% of lung cancers are non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Metastasis is common in NSCLC patients and are responsible for most deaths. Kang-Ai 1 (KAI1), a tumor metastasis suppressor gene also known as Cluster of Differentiation 82 (CD82), is a member of the membrane tetraspanin protein family, which are capable of inhibiting the metastatic process in NSCLC. KAI1/CD82 suppresses metastasis via multiple mechanisms regulating inhibition of cell motility, adhesion, fusion, and proliferation. KAI1 may attenuate signaling to shut down metastatic colonization through attenuation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on the differential expression of KAI1/CD82, a tumor metastasis suppressor gene that can inhibit cancer
PLU1 is a candidate oncogene that encodes H3K4 (Lys4 of histone H3) demethylase. In the present study, we found that ectopic expression of PLU1 enhanced the invasive potential of the weakly invasive cells dependent on its demethylase activity. PLU1 was shown to repress the expression of the KAT5 gene through its H3K4 demethylation on the promoter. The regulation of KAT5 by PLU1 was suggested to be responsible for PLU1-induced cell invasion. First, knockdown of KAT5 similarly increased the invasive potential of the cells. Secondly, knockdown of PLU1 in the highly invasive cancer cells increased KAT5 expression and reduced the invasive activity. Thirdly, simultaneous knockdown of KAT5 partially relieved the suppression of cell invasion imposed by PLU1 knockdown. Finally, we found that CD82, which was transcriptionally regulated by KAT5, might be a candidate effector of cell invasion promoted by PLU1. The present study demonstrated a functional contribution of PLU1 overexpression with concomitant ...
Here, we have described the use of a rat sarcoma cell model to identify a potential metastasis suppressor protein, 4.1B. These rat sarcoma cells exhibited in vitro behaviour that can be related to their metastatic potential. First, the cells had significantly different arrangements of F-actin, which could influence their metastatic potential because cytoskeletal regulation is a key determinant of invasion. Second, the metastatic cells showed increased chemotaxis towards PDGF-IGF; chemotaxis towards blood vessels might be important during intravasation (Wyckoff et al., 2000). Last, the metastatic cell populations contained a larger subpopulation of fast-migrating cells. Enhanced cell motility is a common feature of metastatic cells and has been described by several groups. A recent in vivo study has shown that metastatic tumour cells move 4.5 times as frequently as non-metastatic tumour cells in the same tumour microenvironment (Sahai et al., 2005). It has been suggested that only a subpopulation ...
Metastasis is a complicated multistage process that requires the coordination of multiple genes, including both metastasis stimulating genes and metastasis suppressor genes (22) . Genomic instability is one of the driving forces for tumor progression and metastasis development. Among all genetic alterations, inactivation of metastasis suppressor genes is one important factor contributing to the formation of tumor metastasis. Chromosome 11, in particular 11p, is one of the most common regions undergoing genetic alterations in human breast cancer (3, 4, 5) . A previous study demonstrated that a breast cancer metastasis gene or genes exists on chromosome 11 by the fact that the introduction of a normal copy of chromosome 11 into malignant breast cancer cells significantly suppressed their metastatic ability (6) .. The KAI1 gene, located on human chromosome 11p11.2, was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor gene for human prostate cancer (7) . Down-regulation of the KAI1 protein was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - KAI1 expression is up-regulated in early pancreatic cancer and decreased in the presence of metastases. AU - Guo, Xiaozhong. AU - Friess, Helmut. AU - Graber, Hans U.. AU - Kashiwagi, Mikiya. AU - Zimmermann, Arthur. AU - Korc, Murray. AU - Büchler, Markus W.. PY - 1996/11/1. Y1 - 1996/11/1. N2 - KAI1 is a metastasis suppressor gene for prostate cancer that is located on chromosome 11p11.2-13. Using Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization, we studied expression of KAI1 mRNA in specimens from 14 normal pancreases and 27 primary pancreatic cancers, and then correlated the findings with the clinical and histopathological parameters of the patients. Northern blot analysis showed increased steady-state levels of KAI1 mRNA expression in 24 of 27 (89%) pancreatic cancer samples. In situ hybridization showed enhanced KAI1 mRNA levels in the pancreatic cancer cells in 82% cancer tissues. The stroma surrounding the cancer mass and normal pancreatic tissue adjacent to the cancer ...
Genetic studies in Arabidopsis implicate an α/β-hydrolase, KARRIKIN-INSENSITIVE 2 (KAI2) as a receptor for karrikins, germination-promoting butenolide small molecules found in the smoke of burned plants. However, direct biochemical evidence for the interaction between KAI2 and karrikin and for the mechanism of downstream signaling by a KAI2-karrikin complex remain elusive. We report crystallographic analyses and ligand-binding experiments for KAI2 recognition of karrikins. The karrikin-1 (KAR1) ligand sits in the opening to the active site abutting a helical domain insert but distal from the canonical catalytic triad (Ser95-His246-Asp217) of α/β-hydrolases, consistent with the lack of detectable hydrolytic activity by purified KAI2. The closest approach of KAR1 to Ser95-His246-Asp217 is 3.8 Å from His246. Six aromatic side chains, including His246, encapsulate KAR1 through geometrically defined aromatic-aromatic interactions. KAR1 binding induces a conformational change in KAI2 at the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EGF induces microRNAs that target suppressors of cell migration. T2 - MiR-15b targets MTSS1 in breast cancer. AU - Kedmi, Merav. AU - Ben-Chetrit, Nir. AU - Körner, Cindy. AU - Mancini, Maicol. AU - Ben-Moshe, Noa Bossel. AU - Lauriola, Mattia. AU - Lavi, Sara. AU - Biagioni, Francesca. AU - Carvalho, Silvia. AU - Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas. AU - Schmitt, Fernando. AU - Wiemann, Stefan. AU - Blandino, Giovanni. AU - Yarden, Yosef. PY - 2015/3/17. Y1 - 2015/3/17. N2 - Growth factors promote tumor growth and metastasis. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a set of 22 microRNAs (miRNAs) before promoting the migration of mammary cells. These miRNAs were more abundant in human breast tumors relative to the surrounding tissue, and their abundance varied among breast cancer subtypes. One of these miRNAs, miR-15b, targeted the 3′ untranslated region of MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor protein 1). Although xenografts in which MTSS1 was knocked down grew more slowly in mice ...
A widely expressed transmembrane Glycoprotein that functions as a Metastasis suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of Human Neoplasms ...
The KAI-43140 image sensor is a 43 megapixel CCD in a 35 mm optical format. Leveraging a 4.5 μm pixel design that provides a 50% resolution increase compared to the KAI-29050 and KAI-29052 devices, the KAI-43140 provides excellent image uniformity and broad dynamic range. A flexible output architecture supports 1, 2, or 4 outputs for full resolution readout of up to 4 frames per second, and a true electronic shutter enables image capture without motion artifacts across a broad range of exposure times. In addition to standard monochrome and Bayer Color configurations, the sensor is available in a Sparse CFA configuration which provides a 2x improvement in light sensitivity compared to the standard Bayer Color part. The sensor shares the same package as the KAI-29050 and KAI-29052 image sensors, simplifying camera design. ...
The major factor in the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients is metastasis. There exists a relative lack of specific therapeutic approaches to control metastasis, and this is a fruitful area for
The resources housed under this page showcase the array of assignments developed by PLU faculty since the Lab was launched in the spring of 2018. Because we foster a collaborative model, faculty have shared their assignments and project samples for others to use. Whether you are a PLU faculty member or are visiting us from...
Kai Perfume Kai Rose Body Buffer at b-glowing.com. A body buffing sponge to cleanse and hydrate skin in the cult-coveted Kai Rose scent.
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Uvod: Plućna hipertenzija je hemodinamsko i patofiziološko stanje povećanog srednjeg arterijskog pritiska u plućnoj arteriji, preko 25mmHg u miru, procenjenog kateterizacijom desnog srca. Prikaz bolesnika: Pacijentkinja starosti 44 godine dolazi na kardiološki pregled 13 godina nakon što joj je postavljena dijagnoza primarne plućne hipertenzije. Na koronarnim arterijama nisu viđene promene. Isključeno je postojanje sistemske bolesti vezivnog tkiva. Od tada do danas je na istoj terapiji niskim dozama antagonista Ca (Nifelat 2x10mg) uz oralnu antikoagulantnu terapiju, stabilnog stanja, bez progresije tegoba. Zamara se isključivo pri većem fizičkom naporu, ponekad oseća ubrzani srčani rad i nesvesticu. Objektivno čujan sistolni šum uz naglašen drugi ton nad plućnom arterijom, elektrokardiogram sinusni ritam, inkompletni blok desne grane. Ehokardiografski pregled pokazuje znake plućne hipertenzije. Zaključak: Mali broj bolesnika sa plućnom hipertenzijom koja se odlikuje ...
InkAi??p Billigaste Metronidazole 200 mg, InkAi??p 200 mg Flagyl PA? nAi??tet Belgien, LA?g Kostnad Metronidazole 200 mg BestAi??lla, KAi??pa Metronidazole 200 mg Billigaste, InkAi??p Flagyl Generisk Sverige, KAi??pa Flagyl utan recept Tjeckien, KAi??pa Flagyl PA? nAi??tet GAi??teborg, BestAi??lla Metronidazole PA? nAi??tet Sverige, Apotek PA? NAi??tet Flagyl, Var du kan kAi??pa Metronidazole Kroatien, KAi??pa Flagyl 200 mg Generisk Storbritannien, BestAi??lla Metronidazole LA?gt Pris, Hur mycket kostar Flagyl 200 mg Rabatt, Var att bestAi??lla Flagyl 200 mg Stockholm, BestAi??lla Flagyl utan recept Tjeckien, utan recept Flagyl 200 mg Ai??sterrike, InkAi??p Flagyl utan recept Storbritannien, KAi??pa 200 mg Flagyl Generisk USA, PA? nAi??tet Metronidazole 200 mg Schweiz, BestAi??lla Metronidazole 200 mg billigaste Stockholm, Flagyl KAi??pa Sverige, KAi??pa Metronidazole Generisk Danmark, Flagyl 200 mg Helsingborg, Generisk Metronidazole 200 mg Kanada, uppkAi??p Flagyl Grekland, BestAi??lla ...
Fig. 1 Timeline with companies and products. Harward Systems Corporation (HSC Software Corp.) [also Happy Software Company] was founded by John Wilczak. Ben Weiss and Kai joined him in 1991 at HSC and created the first version of Kais Power Tools. KPT is a set of plug-ins that use the Adobe Photoshop programing interface for 3rd party filters. Many ideas from Kais Power Tips & Tricks get implemented as simple and easy to use pieces of software. KPT evolved until version 3 in 1995. This release contains the Texture Explorer, the Spheroid Designer and KPT Lens f/x among others. Convolver came out as a separate product. HSC was renamed to MetaTools, Inc. the same year.. Eric Wenger and Phil Clevenger came into the team to develop a landscape-simulating product called Bryce (named after the Bryce Canyon). They started creating other kinds of software starting with Kais Power GOO, Kais Photo Soap and Kais Power Show. Before GOO, Kai was well known only by computer artists as a creator of ...
Fig. 1 Timeline with companies and products. Harward Systems Corporation (HSC Software Corp.) [also Happy Software Company] was founded by John Wilczak. Ben Weiss and Kai joined him in 1991 at HSC and created the first version of Kais Power Tools. KPT is a set of plug-ins that use the Adobe Photoshop programing interface for 3rd party filters. Many ideas from Kais Power Tips & Tricks get implemented as simple and easy to use pieces of software. KPT evolved until version 3 in 1995. This release contains the Texture Explorer, the Spheroid Designer and KPT Lens f/x among others. Convolver came out as a separate product. HSC was renamed to MetaTools, Inc. the same year.. Eric Wenger and Phil Clevenger came into the team to develop a landscape-simulating product called Bryce (named after the Bryce Canyon). They started creating other kinds of software starting with Kais Power GOO, Kais Photo Soap and Kais Power Show. Before GOO, Kai was well known only by computer artists as a creator of ...
Increased KAI1 levels in AICD transgenic mice. (A) The AICD transgenic mice, but not the control or Fe.27 mice, show expression of KAI1 gene. Membrane fractions
KAI Pharmaceuticals (now Amgen) was developing KAI 1455, a selective epsilon protein kinase C (εPKC) activator, to prevent ischaemic injury during surgical
On PTC day, Prof, radiologist and doctors were prepared for the procedure in the early morning. We were accompanied Kai Xin till the procedure room. Wao, the room is extremely cool. At that time, Kai Xin was quite sleepy because doctor has given her sedation with oral medicine. The procedure started 8.30 in the morning. Fortunately, after an hour time the surgeon told us that the stent position is not in critical position and it was move into intestine route. The stent will not come out because it has moved to the intestine deadlock position. Most importantly, it wouldnt implicate the liver normal function for future times. Again, it makes us happy and feel released after we heard that ...
Amesos kindynos prokyptei gia megalh kathgoria kardiopaqwn apo thn elleich gnwstoy antiphktikoy farmakoy, poy xorhgeitai apo to stoma. Se anakoinwsh toy, o Iatrikos Syllogos Aqhnwn (ISA) zhta thn parembash toy Eqnikoy Organismoy Farmakwn (EOF) gia thn elleich toy skeyasmatos Sintrom 4mg kaqws, opws ektima, to farmako einai aparaithto kai anantikatastato gia thn agwgh megalhs meridas asqenwn, oi opoioi pasxoyn apo diataraxes phjhs toy aimatos. O ISA exei, hdh, aposteilei sxetiko eggrafo sth Novartis, poy paragei kai diakinei sthn ellhnikh agora to Sintrom 4mg kai zhta na enhmerwqei apo th etaireia gia thn aitia ths elleichs, alla kai ean yparxoyn problhmata sth diakinhsh toy sygkekrimenoy farmakoy. O ISA epishmainei oti yparxei amesos kindynos gia megalh kathgoria kardiopaqwn apo thn elleich aytoy toy monadikoy sthn ellhnikh agora farmakoy kai, gia ayto, prepei na einai amesh kai h parembash toy EOF. Apo thn pleyra ths, h etaireia Novartis se anakoinwsh poy ejedwse gia to qema, epishmainei oti h ...
Bench and Squats Thought Id open this post up with a picture of Kai Greene aka Mr. Getting It Done. Another year with no win for Kai at the Olympia,… Read more ». ...
From NCBI Gene:. This metastasis suppressor gene product is a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily. Expression of this gene has been shown to be downregulated in tumor progression of human cancers and can be activated by p53 through a consensus binding sequence in the promoter. Its expression and that of p53 are strongly correlated, and the loss of expression of these two proteins is associated with poor survival for prostate cancer patients. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
03:25. enw oi idees sou einai poly wraies kai tha borousan na ginoun poly super kommatia, ta exeis grapsei poly sto podi kai ta adikeis... xexwrizw to shimmering eyes apo thn allh den katalavainw pws ginetai na se enoxloun ta midi kai ta vst epeidh einai psifiaka/hlekronika... kai na mhn se enoxlei o digital hxos ths petalieras sou (thn opoia prepei na thn psaxeis giati oi paramorfwseis sou akougodai plastikes)kai o genika o digital hxos tou pc... ...
Honua Kai | BIG 1st Floor lawn~Konea 142 ~1 min to Pools/Beach! Quiet & Private!. My name is Trevor Alt and this is KONEA 142. Aloha and welcome to the KIN...
Hi! Im Kai. Im a New Age Spirituality & Illness blogger, and a Resilience Coach. Ive been in the mind, body, Spirit field for the last 17 years, and I help Spiritual Spoonies & people dealing with illness navigate the Dark Night of their Soul. When Im not coaching clients, I like to
Today I woke up late. No surprise there. We had a scheduled appointment for Kai to have an MRI, so we couldnt be late. The morning was a whirlwind getting Kai fed, showering, packing a hospital bag (aka all the things to entertain Kai while waiting), making my coffee and rushing out the door. Thank…
ne/stwr, *larandeu/s, e)k *luki/as, e)popoio/s, path\r *peisa/ndrou tou= poihtou=, gegonw\s e)pi\ *seuh/rou tou= basile/ws: *)ilia/da leipogra/mmaton h)/toi a)stoixei/wton: o(moi/ws de\ au)tw=, o( *trufio/dwros e)/grayen *)odu/sseian: e)/sti ga\r e)n th=, prw/th, mh\ eu(ri/skesqai a)/lfa kai\ kata\ r(ayw,di/an ou(/tws to\ e(ka/sths e)klimpa/nein stoixei=on. *metamorfw/seis, w(/sper kai\ *parqe/nios o( *nikaeu/s, kai\ a)/lla ...
Jei genetinio tyrimo rezultatai parodo pakitimų, analizė automatiškai papildoma atitinkama biologinių žymenų ir/ar fermentų tyrimu ir rezultatai pateikiami drauge su genetinio tyrimo atsakymu. Tai reiškia, kad tyrimo CentoMetabolic® rezultatai itin patikimi: tuo pat metu diagnozuojami galimi metabolizmo sutrikimai, remiantis genetine paciento informacija, ir kitais analizės metodais patvirtinamos realiai pasireiškiančios genetinių pakitimų pasekmės paciento sveikatai.. Tyrimą CentoMetabolic® rekomenduojama atlikti bet kurio amžiaus asmenims, kuriems yra įtariamas medžiagų apykaitos sutrikimas, arba naujagimiams ir kūdikiams, kuriems pasireiškia: letargija, pilvo skausmai ir vėmimas, gelta, metabolinė acidozė, vystymosi atsilikimas, kai naujagimis paguldomas į intensyvios terapijos skyrių dėl nežinomos kilmės epilepsijos ar dėl sąmonės sutrikimo.. Tyrimas atliekamas Vokietijoje. Rezultatai siunčiami elektroniniu paštu, anglų k., vidutiniškai per 15 darbo ...
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Štai kokosų aliejus turi daug riebalų rūgščių, kurios vadinamos vidutinės grandinės trigliceridais. Vaistininkė pabrėžia, kad sumažėjęs apetitas - visiškai normali ir natūrali reakcija į patiriamą stresą, tad natūralu, kad svoris staiga ima kristi.
Authors: Trottestam, Helena; Berglöf, Elisabet; Horne, AnnaCarin; Onelöv, Erik; Beutel, Karin; Lehmberg, Kai; Sieni, Elena; Silfverberg, Thomas; Aricò, Maurizio; Janka, Gritta; Henter, Jan‐Inge ...
ups -- online free healing our world the other. Please resolve whether or nt you are interested 2000s to see impressionistic to set on your whale that this number maintains a title of yours. Kai Lim; Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
Siekiame užtikrinti, kad visi, pabėgę nuo gimtojoje šalyje patiriamo smurto, persekiojimo, karo ar stichinės nelaimės, turėtų teisę prašyti prieglobsčio ir surastų saugią užuovėją.. Nuo 1950 m.(??) sprendėme krizines situacijas įvairiuose žemynuose, teikdami gyvybiškai svarbią pagalbą pabėgėliams, prieglobsčio prašytojams, šalies viduje perkeltiems asmenis ir asmenims be pilietybės, kurių dauguma neturėjo į ką kreiptis pagalbos.. Milijonams savo namus palikti priverstų žmonių padedame išsigelbėti ir susikurti šviesesnę ateitį.. ...
Parkett No.75 2006,美術,Kai Althoff/ Glenn Brown/ Dana Schutz/ Balthasar Burkhard,Parkett Verlag,,誠品網路書店,9783907582350
Sveitainės tikslas suteikti bendruomenei informaciją apie potencialiai žalingą stiprių elektromagnetinių laukų poveikį, praktiškai patarti, kaip elgiantis mažinti riziką.
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Authors: Pornsuriya, Chaninun; Soytong, Kasem; Poeaim, Supattar; Kanokmedhakul, Somdej; Khumkomkhet, Primmala; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Wang, Hong Kai; Hyde, Kevin David ...
Min hinta 0 25 50 75 1 2 Max hinta 25 50 75 1 2 Yli 2 Vaivattomuus ja nopeus: AutoVexin kautta on vuonna perustettu, Seinjoella toimiva ongelman saa useimmiten ohitettua. Kilpailuta autoliikkeet ympri Suomen ja tarjouksen tai jatkaa neuvotteluita Kai Kantola tarjoajan kanssa.. Autoliike Seinjoen Autot Myy Oy tavoitat autoliikkeet ympri Suomen tekemll kytettyjen henkil- ja tavara-autojen erikoisliike. Min m2 0 50 1 1 2 2 3 Max m2 50 1 1 2 2 3 Yli 3 Outotec Sijoittajat tai MatkailuAuto.. Kaikki2 Joskus evsteet yli tai alle arvion. Mit useampi autoliike tekee tarjouksen. Ilmoituksesi sulkeuduttua voit hyvksy haluamasi myy autosi nopeasti ja vaivattomasti eniten tarjoavalle.. Maahanmuuttovirasto selvitt, miten älytelevisio htmajoituksen perustamiseen Keuruun varuskunta-alueelle vaikuttaa se, vastasyntyneen sisaruksia, isovanhempia tai muita kertoo Yle Joensuu Jyvskyl Kajaani Kemi Kokkola.. 00 No ordinary women I saavuttaisivat vhintn toisen asteen tutkinnon, on rakennuksia 1800-luvun lopulta ...
1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ... HIV gag proteins use tetraspanin enriched microdomains (containing minimally CD81, CD82, CD63) as a platform for virion ...
... amplifying the response of low affinity BCRs to low concentrations of antigen. CD19 has been shown to interact with: CD81 CD82 ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 molecule (Cluster of Differentiation 19), B-Lymphocyte Surface Antigen B4, T-Cell ... Recognition of an antigen by the complement system enables the CD19/CD21 complex and associated intracellular signaling ...
November 1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced ... CD82+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD82 genome location and CD82 ... CD82 (gene) has been shown to interact with CD19, CD63 and CD234. CD82 plays a key role in the development of endometriosis. ... CD82 (Cluster of Differentiation 82), or KAI1, is a human protein encoded by the CD82 gene. This metastasis suppressor gene ...
The protein is also known to interact with the protein KAI1 (CD82) a surface glycoprotein of leukocytes and may have a role in ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group. Its ...
CD49d+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell ... Mannion BA, Berditchevski F, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Hemler ME (1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1), CD82, ... "Entrez Gene: ITGA4 integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ...
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... and CD82) at the surface of a B cell line JY". Journal of Immunology. 157 (7): 2939-46. PMID 8816400. Kanzaki M, Lindorfer MA, ... CD20+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...
... antigen is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of ... Hammond C, Denzin LK, Pan M, Griffith JM, Geuze HJ, Cresswell P (October 1998). "The tetraspan protein CD82 is a resident of ... Hotta H, Miyamoto H, Hara I, Takahashi N, Homma M (May 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional ... Metzelaar MJ, Wijngaard PL, Peters PJ, Sixma JJ, Nieuwenhuis HK, Clevers HC (February 1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal ...
1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...
... and CD82". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823. Charrin S, Le ... "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A new family of cell surface proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (1): 117 ... "Molecular cloning of the mouse equivalent of CD9 antigen". Thrombosis Research. 71 (5): 377-83. doi:10.1016/0049-3848(93)90162- ... "Purification and partial characterization of CD9 antigen of human platelets". FEBS Letters. 264 (2): 270-4. doi:10.1016/0014- ...
... because CR2 binds to opsonized antigens through attached C3d (or iC3b or C3dg) when the B-cell receptor binds antigen. This ... and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH (2003). ... results in the B cell having greatly enhanced response to the antigen. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can bind CR2, enabling EBV to ...
Tissue Antigens (англ.)русск. : journal. - 2007. - Vol. 68, no. 6. - P. 509-517. - DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.00726.x. - PMID ...
CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 ... 2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 ... 1991). „Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene product) in normal human bone marrow". Blood. 78 (1): 30-7. PMID ... 2003). „Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". Int. J. Hematol. 75 ...
1997). "The Oka blood group antigen is a marker for the M6 leukocyte activation antigen, the human homolog of OX-47 antigen, ... 1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a member of the Ig superfamily, is the species homologue of rat OX-47, mouse ... Kasinrerk W, Fiebiger E, Stefanová I, Baumruker T, Knapp W, Stockinger H (1992). "Human leukocyte activation antigen M6, a ... Ok blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chainIa antigen ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ...
CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 ... 1996). "CD88 antibodies specifically bind to C5aR on dermal CD117+ and CD14+ cells and react with a desmosomal antigen in human ...
... is a co-receptor of the T cell receptor (TCR) and assists the latter in communicating with antigen-presenting cells. The ... Leucocyte typing: human leucocyte differentiation antigens detected by monoclonal antibodies: specification, classification, ... T cells displaying CD4 molecules (and not CD8) on their surface, therefore, are specific for antigens presented by MHC II and ... CD1+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
In humans, the CD44 antigen is encoded by the CD44 gene on Chromosome 11.[5] CD44 has been referred to as HCAM (homing cell ... The CD44 antigen is a cell-surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. ... Indian blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH ... "Carcinoembryonic antigen and CD44 variant isoforms cooperate to mediate colon carcinoma cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ... Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): 325-31. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057004325.x. PMID 11380941.. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 • CD96 • CD97 ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ...
The protein is also known to interact with the protein KAI1 (CD82) a surface glycoprotein of leukocytes and may have a role in ... This antigen along with other blood group antigens was used to identify the Basque people as a genetically separate group.[49] ... Because the Duffy antigen is uncommon in those of Black African descent, the presence of this antigen has been used to detect ... The Fy4 antigen, originally described on Fy (a-b-) RBCs, is now thought to be a distinct, unrelated antigen and is no longer ...
T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell. • T cell antigen ... CD82 · CD83 · CD84 · CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) · CD86 · CD87 · CD88 · CD89 · CD90 · CD91 · CD92 · CD93 · CD94 · CD95 · CD96 · ...
CD64+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Antigens, CD82. A widely expressed transmembrane Glycoprotein that functions as a Metastasis suppressor protein. It is ...
Rabbit anti-Mouse CD82 antigen Polyclonal Antibody-NP_001129527.1 (MBS1488866) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary ... anti-CD82 antibody :: Rabbit anti-Mouse CD82 antigen Polyclonal Antibody. Catalog #. MBS1488866 .mycenter { display: block; ... Rabbit anti-mouse CD82 antigen polyclonal Antibody. Product Synonym Names C33 antigen; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; ... CD82 antigen UniProt Synonym Protein Names C33 antigen; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1 ...
Background: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the ...
CD82 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... CD82 Antigen 2 3 4 * Kangai 1 (Suppression Of Tumorigenicity 6, Prostate; CD82 Antigen (R2 Leukocyte Antigen, Antigen Detected ... Protein details for CD82 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P27701-CD82_HUMAN. Recommended name:. CD82 antigen ... GeneCards Summary for CD82 Gene CD82 (CD82 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD82 include Prostate ...
Rabbit Polyclonal CD82 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC-P, ELISA. Tested in Human, Mouse, Rat. - professional antibody ... Antigen Species Human Immunogen CD82 antibody was raised against a 15 amino acid synthetic peptide from near the carboxy ... Cd82 Molecule,4F9,C33,Gr15,Ia4,Kai1,R2,Sar2,St6,Tspan27,Cd82 ... WB analysis of A549 cell lysate using GTX31310 CD82 antibody. ... IHC-P analysis of human colon tissue using GTX31310 CD82 antibody. Working concentration : 2.5 μg/ml. ...
Tetraspanins such as CD82 contain two extracellular loops with its N terminus, C terminus, and inner loop exposed to the ... Antigens, CD / chemistry* * Antigens, CD / genetics * Antigens, CD / physiology* * Cell Line * Gene Products, gag / metabolism ... The cytoplasmic N terminus and C terminus of CD82 were also dispensable for CD82-MA interactions. In contrast, mutations of ... Tetraspanins such as CD82 contain two extracellular loops with its N terminus, C terminus, and inner loop exposed to the ...
RecName: Full=CD82 antigen; AltName: Full=C33 antigen; AltName: Full=IA4; AltName: Full=Inducible membrane protein R2; AltName ...
CD82 CD82 antigen (3/9). Multipass membrane protein. Associates with CD4 or CD8 and delivers costimulatory signals for the TCR/ ... Lymphocyte antigen Ly-6D (1/19). Cell membrane; lipid anchor; GPI anchor. May be involved in cell-cell adhesion and signal ... 4F2 cell surface antigen heavy chain (4/9). Single pass type II membrane protein. Involved in sodium-independent, high affinity ... CD9 antigen (4/56). Multipass membrane protein. Involved in platelet activation and aggregation. Involved in cell adhesion, ...
Mouse monoclonal CD82 antibody [C33] conjugated to APC. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human CD82. C91/PL (Human HTLV-1+ T cell line). ...
Rabbit polyclonal CD82 antibody validated for WB, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human and Mouse. Immunogen corresponding to ... Kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... Anti-CD82 antibody - C-terminal (ab135779) at 1/100 dilution + Mouse liver lysate at 12.5 µg. Predicted band size: 29 kDa. ... Lane 2 : 293 cell lysates, transiently transfected with the CD82 gene Lysates/proteins at 2 µg per lane.. Predicted band size: ...
22 antibodies to CD82 and validated for use in 6 applications (Immunohistochemistry,Flow Cytometry,Western Blot, ... C33 antigen; CD82; CD82 antigen; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 ... antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and antibody IA4)); Metastasis suppressor Kangai-1; Suppressor of ... CD82 Antibodies This metastasis suppressor gene product is a membrane glycoprotein that is a member of the transmembrane 4 ...
12505 Cd44; CD44 antigen 12508 Cd53; CD53 antigen 12509 Cd59a; CD59a antigen 333883 Cd59b; CD59b antigen 12521 Cd82; CD82 ... CD44 antigen K06489 CD53; CD53 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K04008 CD59; CD59 antigen K06509 KAI1; CD82 antigen K05413 ... MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen ... MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen K06752 MHC2; MHC class II antigen ...
CD82 molecule), Authors: Yanhui H Zhang, Mekel M Richardson, Feng Zhang, Xin A Zhang. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... ACSL1--CD82 CD82--ACADVL CD82--ANP32A CD82--BCL6 CD82--CD44 CD82--COLEC12 CD82--G3BP2 CD82--LINC00338 CD82--LYZ CD82--PHF21A ... CD82--POLR2E CD82--SYNJ2BP-COX16 CD82--TAPBP CD82--UVRAG DTNA--CD82 ERBB2--CD82 LAPTM5--CD82 LYZ--CD82 PICALM--CD82 PIGR--CD82 ...
Names/Synonyms: 4F9; C33; C33 antigen; CD82; CD82 antigen; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal ... CD82 a widespread transmembrane protein of the tetraspanin family. A metastasis-suppressor whose decreased expression may be ... R2 leukocyte antigen; SAR2; ST6; suppression of tumorigenicity 6; Suppressor of tumorigenicity 6 protein; Tetraspanin-27; Tspan ... and antibody IA4)); CD82 molecule; GR15; IA4; Inducible membrane protein R2; KAI1; kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, ...
CD82 molecule), Authors: Yanhui H Zhang, Mekel M Richardson, Feng Zhang, Xin A Zhang. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6, prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 leukocyte antigen, antigen detected by monoclonal and ... CD82 Mutations. ICGC Data Portal. CD82 TCGA Data Portal. CD82 Broad Tumor Portal. CD82. OASIS Portal. CD82 [ Somatic mutations ... CD82 [ NCBI-GEO ] CD82 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ] CD82 [ SEEK ] CD82 [ MEM ] Gene Expression Viewer (FireBrowse). CD82 [ ...
... components of the antigen-processing and presentation pathway and tetraspanin CD63, in dendritic cells. Expression of CD82 is ... On the surface of tumor cells, CD82 interacts with integrins and is suggested to serve as a supressor of tumor metastasis. In ... CD82 interacts with other tretaspanins and membrane proteins, thus regulating several functions such as signal transduction. ... addition, on immune cells such as T cells, CD82 associates with CD81, CD4, or CD8 and class II major histocompatibility complex ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD1.1 antigen Antibody (CB3). Validated: Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr, IP, ICC. Tested Reactivity: Chicken. 100% ... Blogs on CD1.1 antigen. There are no specific blogs for CD1.1 antigen, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... Diseases for CD1.1 antigen Antibody (NBP1-28362). Discover more about diseases related to CD1.1 antigen Antibody (NBP1-28362). ... Reviews for CD1.1 antigen Antibody (NBP1-28362) (0) There are no reviews for CD1.1 antigen Antibody (NBP1-28362). By submitting ...
CD82 antibody LS-C169739 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD82 (aa98-147) from human. It is reactive with human ... R2 leukocyte antigen , SAR2 , ST6 , Tetraspanin-27 , Tspan-27 , TSPAN27 , CD82 antigen , Leukocyte surface antigen r2 , ... CD82 , 4F9 , C33 , C33 antigen , CD82 molecule , GR15 , IA4 , Inducible membrane protein R2 , KAI1 , Kangai 1 , R2 , ... Polyclonal Rabbit anti‑Human CD82 Antibody (aa98‑147, WB) LS‑C169739 Polyclonal Rabbit anti‑Human CD82 Antibody (aa98‑147, WB) ...
101710024620 CD82 Proteins 0.000 description 1 * 102100008204 CD82 antigen Human genes 0.000 description 1 ...
112924116 CD82; CD82 antigen 112919933 THBS1; thrombospondin-1 112919310 SERPINB5; serpin B5 isoform X1 112924073 DDB2; DNA ... CD82 antigen K16857 THBS1; thrombospondin 1 K10139 SERPINB5; serpin B5 K10140 DDB2; DNA damage-binding protein 2 K10808 RRM2; ... 112924853 TP53; cellular tumor antigen p53 112922285 MDM2; E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 112914392 MDM4; protein Mdm4 ... 112924853 TP53; cellular tumor antigen p53 112913942 CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 112924157 CCND1; G1/S-specific ...
102085372 CD82; CD82 antigen 102091738 THBS1; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: thrombospondin-1 102093220 SERPINB5; serpin B5 102087151 ... CD82 antigen K16857 THBS1; thrombospondin 1 K10139 SERPINB5; serpin B5 K10140 DDB2; DNA damage-binding protein 2 K10808 RRM2; ... 102083685 antigen-presenting glycoprotein CD1d isoform X2 102084043 T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1b-3 106145650 T-cell surface ... 102087248 antigen-presenting glycoprotein CD1d 102083859 LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1b-1-like 102089481 ...
CSB-E13037h; 4F9; C33; GR15; IA4; KAI1; R2; SAR2; ST6; TSPAN27; C33 antigen; CD82 antigen; R2 leukocyte antigen; inducible ... Human cluster Of differentiation 82 (CD82) ELISA Kit. Catalog number. ... membrane protein R2; kangai 1 (suppression of tumorigenicity 6; prostate; CD82 antigen (R2 l. ...
Cd82 (untagged) - Mouse CD82 antigen (Cd82), transcript variant 2, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene ... Cd82 Rat Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. RN200770. Cd82 (untagged ORF) - Rat Cd82 molecule (Cd82), (10 ug). $390. 3 ... Cd82 Human Clones. SKU. Description. Price. Shipping. SC107926. CD82 (untagged)-Human CD82 molecule (CD82), transcript variant ... Cd82 (untagged) - Mouse CD82 antigen (Cd82), transcript variant 2, (10ug), NM_001136055.2, 10ug. $390. 4 weeks. ...
Exbio - Research products - Antibodies - CD and related antigens - Anti-Hu CD82 APC ... Imai T, Yoshie O: C33 antigen and M38 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to syncytium formation by human T ... Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of CD82 on human peripheral blood cells with anti-CD82 (C33) APC. ... Fukudome K, Furuse M, Imai T, Nishimura M, Takagi S, Hinuma Y, Yoshie O: Identification of membrane antigen C33 recognized by ...
Antigen Details Structure 26 kD, type III transmembrane protein, member of the TM4SF tetraspanin family. Complexed with CD82, ... Antigen References 1. Menno C, et al. 2010. J. Clin. Invest. 4:1265.. 2. Fearon D, et al. 1995. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13:127.. 3 ... and CD82 in B cells, and CD4, CD8, and CD82 in T cells. ...
Cusabio offers CD82 related Antibodies, Proteins, cDNA and ELISA Kits. We also illustrate the related signaling pathways ... Recombinant Mouse CD82 antigen(Cd82). in vitro E.coli expression system. CSB-EP004961MO. Recombinant Mouse CD82 antigen(Cd82) , ... CD82. CD82. CD82 antigen is a protein in humans that is encoded by CD82 gene. Associates with CD4 or CD8 and delivers ... Recombinant Rat CD82 antigen(Cd82). in vitro E.coli expression system. CSB-YP004961RA1. CSB-EP004961RA1. CSB-BP004961RA1. CSB- ...
The transcriptomic data also revealed differential gene transcription for molecules involved in antigen presentation, pathogen ... The transcriptomic data also revealed differential gene transcription for molecules involved in antigen presentation, pathogen ... In mice, the tetraspanins CD82 and CD37 have been described to be involved in migration and antigen presentation of DC (92). ... Dendritic cell migration and antigen presentation are coordinated by the opposing functions of the tetraspanins CD82 and CD37. ...
EVs derived from antigen presenting cells (APCs) that are loaded with either peptide or whole protein antigens are reported to ... CD82, CD9, and CD63) (5, 26, 27). These proteins route various sEV cargoes by forming clusters with each other as well as with ... Lindenbergh MFS, Stoorvogel W. Antigen presentation by extracellular vesicles from professional antigen-presenting cells. Annu ... and cells that are devoid of MHC class I antigen expression. This innate killing activity is not governed by any antigen ...
1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... The tetraspanin family includes CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81 (this protein), CD82 and CD151. CD81 interacts directly with ... HIV gag proteins use tetraspanin enriched microdomains (containing minimally CD81, CD82, CD63) as a platform for virion ...
Dendritic Cell Migration and Antigen Presentation Are Coordinated by the Opposing Functions of the Tetraspanins CD82 and CD37. ...
  • Small volumes of anti-CD82 antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • CD82 antibody was raised against a 15 amino acid synthetic peptide from near the carboxy terminus of human CD82.The immunogen is located within the last 50 amino acids of CD82. (genetex.com)
  • IHC-P analysis of human colon tissue using GTX31310 CD82 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • WB analysis of A549 cell lysate using GTX31310 CD82 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • There are currently no images for CD1.1 antigen Antibody (NBP1-28362). (novusbio.com)
  • CD82 antibody LS-C169739 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to CD82 (aa98-147) from human. (lsbio.com)
  • The mouse monoclonal antibody C33 recognizes an extracellular/luminal epitope of CD82, a widely expressed cell surface protein of the tetraspanin family. (exbio.cz)
  • citation needed] In 1950, the Duffy antigen was discovered in a multiply-transfused hemophiliac whose serum contained the first example of anti-Fya antibody. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each antibody is crafted with care according to rigorous protocols for immunogen design and preparation, presentation to host animal, and high-affinity purification against the antigen. (abgent.com)
  • The antibody MEM-53 reacts also with deglycosylated molecule (molecular weight of the antigen is reduced by 15 kDa using endoglycosidase F). (exbio.cz)
  • CD82 (CD82 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Today, the HLDA Workshop meeting has been held 10 times and has over 371 CD antigens molecule have been identified. (sinobiological.com)
  • This molecule has been reported to form complexes with other leukocyte surface proteins such as CD2, CD19, CD21, MHC II, VLA-4 or tetraspanins CD37, CD81 and CD82, thus probably modulating various signaling processes. (exbio.cz)
  • The basic principle of tetramer staining requires that TCRs bind to the antigen-presenting molecule and that this physical interaction is mediated by a groove-bound cognate antigen that physically ligates CD1 to the TCR. (rupress.org)
  • Imai T, Yoshie O: C33 antigen and M38 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to syncytium formation by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 are both members of the transmembrane 4 superfamily and associate with each other and with CD4 or CD8 in T cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Fukudome K, Furuse M, Imai T, Nishimura M, Takagi S, Hinuma Y, Yoshie O: Identification of membrane antigen C33 recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced syncytium formation: altered glycosylation of C33 antigen in HTLV-1-positive T cells. (exbio.cz)
  • The virus-containing vacuoles were also labeled with antibodies against LAMP-1, CD81, and CD82, which were also incorporated into the viral envelope. (rupress.org)
  • Only antibodies against antigens found in late endosomes precipitated infectious virus, whereas antibodies against proteins located primarily on the cell surface did not. (rupress.org)
  • CD antigens for cluster of differentiation, which indicates a defined subset of cellular surface receptors (epitopes) that identify cell type and stage of differentiation, and which are recognized by antibodies. (sinobiological.com)
  • HIV gag proteins use tetraspanin enriched microdomains (containing minimally CD81, CD82, CD63) as a platform for virion assembly and release. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vesicles derived from mammalian cells contain a family of integral membrane proteins that cross four times the lipid bilayer and are called tetraspanins [ 11 ], including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we reveal the presence of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) containing the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, CD81, and CD82 at the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • CD63 has been shown to interact with CD117 [ 2 ] and CD82 . (thefullwiki.org)
  • 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The CD63 antigen, also known as lysosomal membrane associated glycoprotein 3 (LAMP3), is a member of the tetraspanin (TM4SF) family. (mybeckman.pl)
  • CD63, as other tetraspanins (CD9, CD81, CD82), has recently been reported as forming complexes with VLA-3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, with VLA-6, CD11/CD18 and tyrosine kinase. (mybeckman.pl)
  • CD63 has been found to be identical to the ME491 antigen expressed by melanoma cells. (mybeckman.pl)
  • CD63 antigen, present in azurophilic granules of non-stimulated neutrophils, is strongly expressed on the surface of neutrophils after activation. (mybeckman.pl)
  • It exists in a complex with MHC class I and II, CD53, CD81, and CD82. (biolegend.com)
  • Yunta M, Rodríguez-Barbero A, Arévalo MA, López-Novoa JM, Lazo PA: Induction of DNA synthesis by ligation of the CD53 tetraspanin antigen in primary cultures of mesangial cells. (exbio.cz)
  • Yunta M, Lazo PA: Apoptosis protection and survival signal by the CD53 tetraspanin antigen. (exbio.cz)
  • Mollinedo F, Martín-Martín B, Gajate C, Lazo PA: Physiological activation of human neutrophils down-regulates CD53 cell surface antigen. (exbio.cz)
  • Angelisova P, Vlcek C, Stefanova I, Lipoldova M, Horejsi V: The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens. (exbio.cz)
  • Angelisova P, Hilgert I, Horejsi V. Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/C33) with MHC class II glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • In relation to cancer, CD82 function is to inhibit tumor invasion and suppresses tumor metastasis. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The metastasis-suppressive effect of CD82 can be observed in the animal studies of cancer metastasis by re-introducing CD82 expression in various metastatic cancer cell lines such as prostate cancer AT6.1, prostate cancer LNCaP, fibroblastoma HT1080, melanoma MDA-MB-435, breast cancer LCC6, liver cancer MHCC97-H, and lung cancer LLC lines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The observations of CD82-mediated suppression of cancer metastasis in animal models are supported by a variety of clinical studies on the human cancers from prostate, breast, ovary, colon, lung, stomach, liver, and other organs. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Some are involved in oncogenesis and in the control of metastasis: CD9, CD81, CD82, C0/029, and CD151 can all modulate cancer cell motility both in vitro and in vivo (reviewed in references 5 and 49). (asm.org)
  • To investigate the relationship of KAI1/CD82, CD44, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and β-catenin, and examine its association with clinicopathological features, metastasis and prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, decreased KAI1/CD82 expression correlated significantly with distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that KAI1/CD82 and β-catenin expression were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and KAI1/CD82 was significantly associated with distant metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of KAI1/CD82, CD44, MMP7 and β-catenin is related to tumor metastasis and prognosis in CRC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for CD82 . (mybiosource.com)
  • GA733 tumor-associated antigen gene family may function as growth factor receptors. (mcponline.org)
  • Currently there is no report for the disease-related or biologically significant mutation for CD82 gene ( See HGMD ). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CD82 antigen is a protein in humans that is encoded by CD82 gene. (cusabio.com)
  • The transcriptomic data also revealed differential gene transcription for molecules involved in antigen presentation, pathogen sensing, and migration, and therefore gives insights into functional differences between bovine DC and monocyte subsets. (frontiersin.org)
  • Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC), also known as Fy glycoprotein (FY) or CD234 (Cluster of Differentiation 234), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACKR1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Duffy antigen gene was the fourth gene associated with the resistance after the genes responsible for sickle cell anaemia, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was first localised to chromosome 1 in 1968, and was the first blood system antigen to be localised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcriptional enhancement of the human gene encoding for a melanoma-associated antigen (ME491) in association with malignant transformation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Tetraspanins such as CD82 contain two extracellular loops with its N terminus, C terminus, and inner loop exposed to the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • CD82 associates with other transmembrane proteins such as tetraspanins, integrins, Ig superfamily members, and growth factor receptors and intracellular signaling proteins to regulate membrane microdomain organization, vesicular trafficking, and transmembrane signaling. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The tetraspanins Cd9 , Cd81 , and Cd82 were also associated with the late, sustained response. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tetraspanins form multimolecular complexes with each other and with other membrane proteins, including integrins, major histocompatibility complex antigens, signaling complexes, and cell-associated growth factors. (asm.org)
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
  • We surmised that CD82 are participates in trophoblast differentiation during placenta development. (jove.com)
  • Non-peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells, marks T-cells at the short cortical thymic stage of differentiation. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Brackman D, Lund-Johansen F, Aarskog D. Expression of leukocyte differentiation antigens during the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: comparison with the maturation of normal monocytic and granulocytic bone marrow cells. (springer.com)
  • CD82 is a 4-transmembrane glycoprotein and belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in eukaryotic cells. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Thus, association of HTLV-1 Gag with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains is mediated by the inner loops of CD81 and CD82. (nih.gov)
  • Imai T, Kakizaki M, Nishimura M, Yoshie O: Molecular analyses of the association of CD4 with two members of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, CD81 and CD82. (exbio.cz)
  • Polyclonal T cells from patients sorted with tetramers are activated by GMM antigens presented by CD1b. (rupress.org)
  • The KAI1/CD82 protein is a member of the TM4SF (transmembrane 4 superfamily), which mediates signal transduction both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Synthetic peptide located between aa98-147 of human CD82 (P27701, NP_001020015). (lsbio.com)
  • CD82 expression is frequently diminished or lost in invasive and metastatic solid-tumor tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • EVs derived from antigen presenting cells (APCs) that are loaded with either peptide or whole protein antigens are reported to induce anti-tumor immunity in animal models but show only modest improvements in cancer patients ( 2 , 7 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These observations support the proposal that nano-sized EVs can be used as carriers to deliver soluble antigens in tumor models ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • CD antigens are used widely for research, immunotherary, tumor and drug target. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD82 is a member of transmembrane 4 superfamily, which showed important role in inhibiting tumor cell invasion and migration. (jove.com)
  • 1988). "Molecular cloning and characterization of an antigen associated with early stages of melanoma tumor progression. (thefullwiki.org)
  • CD1 molecules, like MHC I and II, play an equally important role in the immune system by presenting lipid, glycolipid and lipopeptide antigen to T and NKT cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The CD antigens are protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • Like most mammalian species, humans express several structurally distinct CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Because of the glycosylation, the molecular weight of CD82 proteins ranges between 30-90 kDa depending on tissue and cell types. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Germline deletion of group 1 proteins is not currently feasible, so development of CD1 tetramers represents a promising method to study fresh antigen-specific T cells at the population level. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, mutations of conserved amino acids in the inner loop of CD82 or of palmitoylated cysteines that flank the inner loop diminished CD82 association with MA. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH, corresponding to a region within C terminal amino acids 238-267 of Human CD82. (abcam.com)
  • 2003). In this variant, the 84bp exon that encodes the amino acids 215-242 of CD82/kAI1 protein is selectively deleted. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Non peptide antigen presentation to T-cell receptors on NKT cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • Non peptide antigen presentation. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Purified from goat serum by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by antigen affinity chromatography using the immunizing peptide. (genetex.com)
  • The large extracellular loop of CD82, which is important for interactions with integrins, was not required for the association with HTLV-1 MA. (nih.gov)
  • CD82 undergoes two types of post-translational modifications: glycosylation at its large extracellular loop and palmitoylation at the cysteine residues in or near cytoplasmic domains. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Wild type (red) and knockout cells (blue) were stained with CD82-PE, clone (REA221). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Microbial lipids activate T cells by binding directly to CD1 and T cell receptors (TCRs) or by indirect effects on antigen-presenting cells involving induction of lipid autoantigens, CD1 transcription, or cytokine release. (rupress.org)
  • Flow cytometry analysis (surface staining) of CD82 on human peripheral blood cells with anti-CD82 (C33) APC. (exbio.cz)
  • The Duffy antigen is located on the surface of red blood cells, and is named after the patient in whom it was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palmitoylation is essential for CD82 function as well as the presence of three polar residues, NQE, located within its transmembrane domains. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • the Duffy Antigen Chemokine Receptor, or DARC, on endothelial cells. (coursera.org)
  • Discrimination of biclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative neoplasias by tetraspanin antigen expression. (springer.com)
  • Pattern of expression of tetraspanin antigen genes in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was used to detect the expression of KAI1/CD82, CD44, MMP7 and β-catenin in 174 archival surgical specimens of human CRC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KAI1/CD82 expression showed a negative correlation with CD44, MMP7 and β-catenin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that CD44, MMP7 and β-catenin expression was negatively correlated with overall survival (OS), while KAI1/CD82 expression was positively correlated with OS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low KAI1/CD82 expression and high expression of CD44, MMP7 and β-catenin was associated with a poor prognosis in CRC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antigens, CD14" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human CD82. (abcam.com)
  • CD82 is ubiquitously expressed in various human tissues such as epithelium and endothelium. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • miR-203 Inhibits Frizzled-2 Expression via CD82/KAI1 Expression in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells. (genetex.com)
  • The cDNA encoding the corresponding antigen was cloned from megakaryoblastic leukemia cells and shown to be a member of the transmembrane 4 or tetraspanin family ( 10 ). (asm.org)