Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions. (1/333)

The tetraspans are molecules with four transmembrane domains which are engaged in multimolecular complexes (the tetraspan web) containing a subset of beta1 integrins (in particular alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alpha6beta1), MHC antigens and several unidentified molecules. The molecules associated with tetraspans are readily detected after immunoprecipitation performed in mild detergents such as Brij 97 or CHAPS. In this study we show that another classical mild detergent, digitonin, dissociated most of these associated molecules, including integrins, from the tetraspans CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, Co-029, Talla-1 and NAG-2. In contrast, reciprocal immunoprecipitations from various cell lines demonstrated that two other tetraspans, CD81 and CD151, formed complexes with integrins not disrupted by digitonin. These complexes were CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1 and CD151/alpha6beta1. Furthermore, a new anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody (mAb), TS151r, was shown to have a restricted pattern of expression, inversely related to the sum of the levels of expression of alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1. This mAb was unable to co-precipitate integrins in digitonin, suggesting that its epitope is blocked by the association with integrins. Indeed, the binding of TS151r to the cell surface was quantitatively diminished following alpha3beta1 overexpression. Altogether, these data suggest that, among tetraspans, CD81 interacts directly with the integrin alpha4beta1, and CD151 interacts directly with integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Because all tetraspan-tetraspan associations are disrupted by digitonin, it is likely that the other tetraspans interact indirectly with integrins, through interactions with CD81 or CD151.  (+info)

Characterization of hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein interaction with a putative cellular receptor, CD81. (2/333)

A truncated soluble form of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein, E2661, binds specifically to the surface of cells expressing human CD81 (hCD81) but not other members of the tetraspanin family (CD9, CD63, and CD151). No differences were noted between the level of E2661 binding to hCD81 expressed on the surface of rat RBL or KM3 cells compared to Daudi and Molt-4 cells, suggesting that additional human-cell-specific factors are not required for the primary interaction of E2 with the cell surface. E2 did not interact with African green monkey (AGM) CD81 on the surface of COS cells, which differs from the hCD81 sequence at four residues within the second extracellular region (EC2) (amino acids [aa] 163, 186, 188, and 196), suggesting that one or more of these residues defines the site of interaction with E2. Various recombinant forms of CD81 EC2 show differences in the ability to bind E2, suggesting that CD81 conformation is important for E2 recognition. Regions of E2 involved in the CD81 interaction were analyzed, and our data suggest that the binding site is of a conformational nature involving aa 480 to 493 and 544 to 551 within the E2 glycoprotein. Finally, we demonstrate that ligation of CD81 by E2661 induced aggregation of lymphoid cells and inhibited B-cell proliferation, demonstrating that E2 interaction with CD81 can modulate cell function.  (+info)

Functional analysis of cell surface-expressed hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein. (3/333)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins E1 and E2, when expressed in eukaryotic cells, are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). C-terminal truncation of E2 at residue 661 or 715 (position on the polyprotein) leads to secretion, consistent with deletion of a proposed hydrophobic transmembrane anchor sequence. We demonstrate cell surface expression of a chimeric glycoprotein consisting of E2 residues 384 to 661 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA), termed E2661-HATMCT. The E2661-HATMCT chimeric glycoprotein was able to bind a number of conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies and a recombinant soluble form of CD81, suggesting that it was folded in a manner comparable to "native" E2. Furthermore, cell surface-expressed E2661-HATMCT demonstrated pH-dependent changes in antigen conformation, consistent with an acid-mediated fusion mechanism. However, E2661-HATMCT was unable to induce cell fusion of CD81-positive HEK cells after neutral- or low-pH treatment. We propose that a stretch of conserved, hydrophobic amino acids within the E1 glycoprotein, displaying similarities to flavivirus and paramyxovirus fusion peptides, may constitute the HCV fusion peptide. We demonstrate that influenza virus can incorporate E2661-HATMCT into particles and discuss experiments to address the relevance of the E2-CD81 interaction for HCV attachment and entry.  (+info)

Finding the right RNA: identification of cellular mRNA substrates for RNA-binding proteins. (4/333)

Defects in RNA-binding proteins have been implicated in human genetic disorders. However, efforts in understanding the functions of these proteins have been hampered by the inability to obtain their mRNA substrates. To identify cognate cellular mRNAs associated with an RNA-binding protein, we devised a strategy termed isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins (SNAAP). The SNAAP technique allows isolation and subsequent identification of these mRNAs. To assess the validity of this approach, we utilized cellular mRNA and protein from K562 cells and alphaCP1, a protein implicated in a-globin mRNA stability, as a model system. Immobilization of an RNA-binding protein with the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) domain enables isolation of mRNA within an mRNP context and the identity of the bound mRNAs is determined by the differential display assay. The specificity of protein-RNA interactions was considerably enhanced when the interactions were carried out in the presence of cellular extract rather than purified components. Two of the mRNAs specifically bound by alphaCP1 were mRNAs encoding the transmembrane receptor protein, TAPA-1, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II enzyme, coxII. A specific poly(C)-sensitive complex formed on the TAPA-1 and coxII 3' UTRs consistent with the binding of aCP1. Furthermore, direct binding of purified alphaCP proteins to these 3' UTRs was demonstrated and the binding sites determined. These results support the feasibility of the SNAAP technique and suggest a broad applicability for the approach in identifying mRNA targets for clinically relevant RNA-binding proteins that will provide insights into their possible functions.  (+info)

Role of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins CD9 and CD81 in muscle cell fusion and myotube maintenance. (5/333)

The role of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins during muscle cell fusion has not been investigated previously. Here we show that the appearance of TM4SF protein, CD9, and the formation of CD9-beta1 integrin complexes were both regulated in coordination with murine C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation. Also, anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 monoclonal antibodies substantially inhibited and delayed conversion of C2C12 cells to elongated myotubes, without affecting muscle-specific protein expression. Studies of the human myoblast-derived RD sarcoma cell line further demonstrated that TM4SF proteins have a role during muscle cell fusion. Ectopic expression of CD9 caused a four- to eightfold increase in RD cell syncytia formation, whereas anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 antibodies markedly delayed RD syncytia formation. Finally, anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 monoclonal antibodies triggered apoptotic degeneration of C2C12 cell myotubes after they were formed. In summary, TM4SF proteins such as CD9 and CD81 appear to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance.  (+info)

Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato. (6/333)

It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.  (+info)

Association of a tetraspanin CD9 with CD5 on the T cell surface: role of particular transmembrane domains in the association. (7/333)

CD9 is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily which is characterized by four transmembrane (TM) domains and associates with other surface molecules. This tetraspanin was recently found to be expressed on mature T cells. Here, we investigated which molecules associate with CD9 on T cells and which CD9 domains are required for the association. Immunoprecipitation of T cell lysates with anti-CD9 mAb followed by immunoblotting with mAb against various T cell molecules showed the association of CD9 with CD3, CD4, CD5, CD2, CD29 and CD44. Because association with CD5 was most prominent, we determined the role of CD9 TM or extracellular (EC) domains in the association with CD5. CD9 mutant genes lacking each domain were constructed and introduced into EL4 thymoma cells deficient in CD9 but expressing CD5. Among various types of stable EL4 transfectants, EL4 transfected with the mutant gene lacking TM domains (TM2/TM3) between two EC domains expressed a small amount of the relevant protein without showing association with CD5. CD9(-)CD5(-) monkey COS-7 cells transfected with this mutant gene and the CD5 gene expressed both transfected gene products, but the association of these was not detected. EL4 cells transfected with a CD9/CD81 chimera gene (the CD9 gene containing TM2/TM3 of CD81) expressed the chimeric protein on the cell surface and showed association with CD5. These results suggest an essential role of particular CD9 TM domains in the surface expression of the CD9 molecule as well as the association with CD5.  (+info)

Functional characterization of intracellular and secreted forms of a truncated hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein. (8/333)

The E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to be a virion surface glycoprotein that is a candidate for inclusion in an antiviral vaccine. A truncated soluble version of E2 has recently been shown to interact with CD81, suggesting that this protein may be a component of the receptor for HCV. When expressed in eukaryotic cells, a significant proportion of E2 forms misfolded aggregates. To analyze the specificity of interaction between E2 and CD81, the aggregated and monomeric forms of a truncated E2 glycoprotein (E2(661)) were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and analyzed for CD81 binding. Nonaggregated forms of E2 preferentially bound CD81 and a number of conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Furthermore, intracellular forms of E2(661) were found to bind CD81 with greater affinity than the extracellular forms. Intracellular and secreted forms of E2(661) were also found to differ in reactivity with MAbs and human sera, consistent with differences in antigenicity. Together, these data indicate that proper folding of E2 is important for its interaction with CD81 and that modifications of glycans can modulate this interaction. Identification of the biologically active forms of E2 will assist in the future design of vaccines to protect against HCV infection.  (+info)

The hepatitis C virus glycoproteins E1 and 2 have been expressed using recombinant baculoviruses following fusion to the carrier protein glutathione S-transferase (GST). Proteins were expressed singly and as an E1E2 polyprotein with and without an N-terminal affinity tag. Expression of the E1E2 polyprotein, even when preceded by GST, led to processing in insect cells and detection of an E1E2 complex that could be specifically purified by glutathione affinity chromatography. Baculovirus expressed E2 and a purified GST-E1E2 protein bound to the second extracellular loop of CD81 (EC2), a reported ligand for the molecule, but not to a truncated derivative of CD81 consisting of only the central domain of the loop. Purified GST-E2, however, failed to bind to CD81 suggesting a requirement for a free E2 amino terminus for biological activity. The binding to CD81 by baculovirus expressed E2 protein was comparable to that observed for E2 derived from mammalian cells when detected by a monoclonal antibody
Fedry J, Forcina J, Legrand P, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Haouz A, Johnson M*, Rey FA*, Krey T*. 2018. Evolutionary diversification of the HAP2 membrane insertion motifs to drive gamete fusion across eukaryotes. PLoS biology 16:e2006357. (M.J., F.A.R. and T.K. contributed equally to this work) Ströh LJ, Nagarathinam K, Krey T. 2018. Conformational Flexibility in the CD81-Binding Site of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. Frontiers in immunology 9:1396. Vasiliauskaite I, Owsianka AM, England P, Khan AG, Cole S, Bankwitz D, Foung SKH, Pietschmann T, Marcotrigiano J, Rey FA, Patel AH*, Krey T*. 2017. Conformational Flexibility in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2. mBio 8:e00382-00317. (A.H.P. and T.K. contributed equally to this work) Fedry J, Liu Y, Pehau-Arnaudet G, Pei J, Li W, Tortorici MA, Traincard F, Meola A, Bricogne G, Grishin NV, Snell WJ*, Rey FA*, Krey T*. 2017. The Ancient Gamete Fusogen HAP2 Is a Eukaryotic Class II Fusion Protein. Cell ...
The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular (BC) structures. HepG2 cells expressing CD81 provide a model system to study the effects of hepatic polarity on HCV infection. We found an inverse association between HepG2-CD81 polarization and HCV pseudoparticle entry. As HepG2 cells polarize, discrete pools of claudin-1 (CLDN1) at the TJ and basal/lateral membranes develop, consistent with the pattern of receptor staining observed in liver tissue. The TJ and nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 show an altered association with CD81 and localization in response to the PKA antagonist Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPs (cAMPs). Rp-8-Br-cAMPs reduced CLDN1 expression at the basal membrane and inhibited HCV infection, supporting a model where the nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma membrane receptor for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). The encoded protein mediates cholesterol transfer to and from HDL. In addition, this protein is a receptor for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011 ...
Meola, Annalisa et al Structural Flexibility of a Conserved Antigenic Region in Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Recognized by Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies. Journal of Virology 89.4 (2015): 2170-2181. Web. 08 Dec. 2019. ...
|p|CD81 is a 26 kD non-glycosylated member of the tetraspanin superfamily (TM4SF), also known as TAPA-1 (target of an antiproliferative antibody). CD81 is expressed on T and B cells, NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, thymocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. It also has low levels of expre
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigenicity of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. AU - Inudoh, M.. AU - Nyunoya, H.. AU - Tanaka, T.. AU - Hijikata, M.. AU - Kato, N.. AU - Shimotohno, K.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - A putative second envelope glycoprotein (E2) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was constitutively produced in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line stably transformed with a plasmid expressing E2 protein under the control of an exogenous promoter and a signal sequence. E2 protein that lacked part of the C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with high-mannose type oligosaccharides and retained in the cells. On the other hand, E2 protein lacking the entire C-terminal hydrophobic region was glycosylated with complex type oligosaccharides (complex form) and excreted into the culture medium. Immunoreactivity of the high-mannose and complex forms of E2 proteins against sera from HCV infected patients were analyzed. We found that the antigenicity of the ...
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Was looking for a Tapas place over Valentines Day. We found Tapas Valencia via an internet search. We were intrigued by the menu selection, along with the on line reviews. We liked the fact that we were able to make a reservation and when we arrived we were seated right away. Our server was very knowledgeable and gave us excellent suggestions on food, wine and beer. The added treat was the Flamenco guitar players and dancer. Truly added a lot to the experience. All the food was very delicious and a good size helping for 4 to try each Tapas ...
All there is to know about Tapas! The ultimate way of life for Spaniards and also a delicious way to explore and get the essence of beautiful Spain. Tapas are not a simple meal nor a snack, its a social event, a way of living, a philosophy in Spain. A great way to meet friends…
Insulated: we use high density epe foam to keep your Yumbox lunch bag well insulated. It stores flat. . This means that your meals stay cooler or hotter longer than with non-insulated bags. . Yes it also fits Yumbox Tapas and a drink bottle. It is easy to clean with a wet cloth. It fits lots of stuff: bags exterior dimensions are 1025 l x 8 w x 4 h inches. Interior dimensions are 10 l x 7. 75 w x 3. 75 h ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where Tapas Hazra is active. These topic labels come from the works of this person. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Taste gourmet tapas-sized dishes and perfectly paired wines from around the world at our most popular event of the year, Tapas on the Trails!
AutoRAE 2 Kit with inCase Calibration configured for AutoRAE 2 controller and 3 QRAE 3 cradles. Kit includes 3 QRAE3s (O2/LEL/CO+H2S/PID), 3 gas meters, 1 cylinder of calibration gas, 1 regulators, and supporting accessories.
Disclosed is an electroluminescent device comprising a cathode and an anode; and, located therebetween, a light-emitting layer (LEL) comprising a phosphorescent green-light-emitting material and a host material for the light-emitting material, and in a layer adjacent to the LEL on the anode side, an exciton-blocking layer containing a compound having a hole mobility of at least 1 10−3 cm2V−1s−1 and a triplet energy exceeding that of the green-light-emitting material of the LEL. Such a device provides useful light emission.
The Overlocker Technique Manual: The Complete Guide to Serging and Decorative Stitching de Julia Hincks en - ISBN 10: 1782210202 - ISBN 13: 9781782210207 - Search Press Ltd - 2014 - Tapa blanda
Para acompañar nuestra carta de tapas y refrescar las noches de verano de Madrid te proponemos cócteles variados, tanto clásicos como innovadores.
Tetraspanins are integral transmembrane proteins organized in microdomains displaying specific and direct interactions with other tetraspanins and molecular partners. Among them, CD81 has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. CD81 also plays a crucial role in pathogen entry into host cells, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes. HCV is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV entry into hepatocytes is a complex process that requires the coordinated interaction of viral and host factors for the initiation of infection, including CD81, scavenger receptor BI, claudin-1, occludin, membrane-bound host cell kinases, Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRas), CD63 and transferrin receptor 1. Furthermore, recent data in HCV model systems have demonstrated that targeting critical components of tetraspanins and associated cell membrane proteins open new avenues to prevent and treat viral infection.
1921. aastal loo-di Tapa Noor-soo Kas-va-tuse selt-si raa-matukogu, mis asus ale-vival-it-suse ru-umides Paul Uusvel-li maja II ko-r-rusel Jaa-ma tn 4.. Seoses haridus-selt-si-ma-ja ehi-ta-misega Nigoli puies-teel tulekahjus häv-in-ud kooli-ma-ja asemele, er-al-dati seal 1927. aastal ru-umid ka lugemis-toa ja selt-si raa-matukogu tarvis. Alek-sander Tas-sa poolt valmis-tatud ek-sli-ib-risel on näha, raa-matukogu kan-dis Tapa Hariduse Selt-si Rah-varaa-matukogu nime.. Peale sõda sai raa-matukogule pike-maks pea-tusko-haks prae-gune vallaval-it-suse hoone (Pikk tn 15). Ka-su-ta-da oli kaks ru-u-mi alu-misel ko-r-rusel sis-sepää-suga hoovi poolt. Raa-matukogu oli avatud ku-uel päe-val nä-dalas ja töö-ta-jaid oli üks. 1944. aas-ta ok-too-bris loo-di ju-urde veel ühe töö-ta-ja ametiko-ht. Tööle asus Hel-ja Jür-gen-son-Bötch-er, kes oli sell-es ametis kuni 1977. aastani.. 1940-ndate lõ-pus koli-ti endistesse lin-naval-it-suse ru-umidesse haridus-selt-si-ma-ja teise-le ko-r-ruse-le ...
MultiRAE: Pumped / 10.6 eV PID / LEL / H2S / CO / O2 / Li-ion / Non-Wireless. Unit with Accessories / Confined Space and Calibration (4-gas + Iso) Kits. MultiRAE is the most advanced portable chemical detector on the market. With the flexibility of up to six gas sensors and the convenience of wireless portability, this multi-gas monitor is versatile and customizable, while delivering real-time access to instrument readings and alarm status from any location. Choose from 25 sensor options including LEL, PID, NDIR, and exotics that can be easily changed in the field. With five built-in alarms, including man down, and wireless connectivity to your command center, MultiRAE delivers vital information for fast incident response.. Key Features:. ...
Clone REA716 recognizes the human CD36L1 antigen, an integral membrane protein, also known as SR-BI. CD36L1 is widly expressed, e.g. on macrophages, dendritic cells, adrenocortical cells, adipocytes, and trophoblastic cells. In hepatocytes, CD36L1 acts as a receptor for hepatitis C. It has been reported, that CD36L1 is able to bind HCV envelope glycoprotein E2, participate in entry of HCV pseudotype particles, and modulate HCV infection. Furthermore, CD36L1 is a receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins, vitamin E, phosphatidylserine, and apoptotic cells. Additional information: Clone REA716 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Canada
Years ago, when I was living in Salamanca Spain, I use to visit a local bar that served the best Tapas. They had one that was a small skewer...
Jimao Tapas e Vinhos: Perfect! - See 1,821 traveler reviews, 942 candid photos, and great deals for Porto, Portugal, at TripAdvisor.
Tapas restaurants come and go. Maybe they call their food small plates instead of tapas, but they still want to plug into the same long-outdated...
Want to become better at yoga? Practice. Its that simple, and that challenging. - Tapas, the Niyama of Discipline - Yoga at BellaOnline
Los camareros amables, el arte religioso, el jamón colgado del techo, los clientes que se sientan o se quedan de pie en un bar... ¡Bienvenido a la vida gastronómica de Sevilla! Esta ciudad es el lugar perfecto para descubrir la cocina de Andalucía, ya que es conocida como la capital mundial de la Tapa.
23.10.2020 - mein Landbrot mit Vollkorn Preiselbeer- und Schwarzkirschmarmelade auf Frischkäseaufstrich Zutaten: Water Roux: 75 g Wasser 5 g Meh...
Tapas in Birmingham: Browse the menus and prices. Look at the amazing photos and compare the scores of the most authoritative websites. Read the reviews and get advice from Sluurpy
Make Mud Pies and Mud Art Outdoors! What are the elements kids love the most? Water and dirt, and when you combine the two, they will be in heaven playing outside and creating mud pies. Is there anything better than the feeling of mud squishing between your hands as you mold it into a mud pie? ...
Bar ubicado en el Primer Ensanche de Pamplona. Ha sido premiado en varias ocasiones de la edici n anual de la Semana del Pincho; la ltima en...
Essentials of Pharmaceutical Chemistry en - ISBN 10: 0853699798 - ISBN 13: 9780853699798 - Pharmaceutical Press - 2012 - Tapa blanda
Guitarra Especial niños modelo 3ST58. Tapa: Cedro o Abeto sólida . Aros y Fondo: Sapelly. Mástil: Okume. Diapasón: Palosanto o Sonokeling. Escala: 580mm
A better understanding of natural variation in neutralization resistance and fitness of diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope (E1E2) variants will be critical to guide rational development of an HCV vaccine. This work has been hindered by inadequate genetic diversity in viral panels and by a lack of standardization of HCV entry assays. Neutralization assays generally use lentiviral pseudoparticles expressing HCV envelope proteins (HCVpp) or chimeric full-length viruses that are replication competent in cell culture (HCVcc). There have been few systematic comparisons of specific infectivities of E1E2-matched HCVcc and HCVpp, and to our knowledge, neutralization of E1E2-matched HCVpp and HCVcc has never been compared using a diverse panel of human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) targeting distinct epitopes. Here, we describe an efficient method for introduction of naturally occurring E1E2 genes into a full-length HCV genome, producing replication-competent chimeric HCVcc. We
Additional entry factors have been described more recently such as tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) and Ephrin A2 receptor [15], the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 receptor [16], the transferrin receptor [17] and the tetraspanin CD63 [18]. an extensive functional study to characterize the ability of these two natural variants to prevent HCV access. We used lentiviral vectors to Centrinone express Wildtype or mutated CLDN6 and OCLN in different cell lines and main human being hepatocytes. HCV illness was then investigated using cell tradition produced HCV particles (HCVcc) as well as HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) expressing envelope proteins from different genotypes. Our results show that variants of CLDN6 and OCLN indicated separately or in combination did not impact HCV illness nor cell-to-cell transmission. Hence, our study highlights the difficulty of HCV resistance mechanisms supporting the fact that this process probably not primarily involves HCV access factors and that ...
Te whare tapa wha spiritual health. It is a metaphor based on four pillars of a wharenuimeeting house. The following aspects of Whare Tapa Wha are described below. Te whare tapa whā is a model of the 4 dimensions of wellbeing developed by Sir Mason Durie in 1984 to provide a Māori perspective on health. Te taha wairua spiritual health. These four dimensions are represented by the four walls of a house. Taha wairua the spiritual side taha hinengaro thoughts and feelings taha tinana the physical side taha whanau family. This means our understanding of wellbeing must be holistic. Physical health is easy to understand. Is acknowledged to be the most essential requirement for health. Spirit and spirituality can mean different things to different people. Taha tinana Physucal health Taha wairua spiritual health Taha whanau family health and Taha hinengaro mental health. Te Whare Tapa Whā is represented by the four walls of a wharenui meeting house where each wall symbolises the elements necessary to ...
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Making Tapa Eastern Pacific Style Te Rangi Hiroa (Peter H. Buck) writes in Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands that the tapa makers of the time (1944) wrapped the pre-beaten bark in banana leaves and left it to ret for three days. Todays tapa makers on Atiu usually beat the bark right away. When…
S&A Foods , the UK independent food manufacturer, has unveiled a new range of tapas for home consumption. Of Spanish origin, tapas snacks have been growing in popularity in Europe over the last decade, and S&A Foods managing director Perween Warsi believes it is time to facilitate the introduction of ready-made tapas for convenient use at home.
Tapas Teatro Cafe: Tapas and the theater - See 122 traveler reviews, 24 candid photos, and great deals for Baltimore, MD, at TripAdvisor.
Stamataki, Zania and Coates, Stephen and Evans, Matthew J and Wininger, Mark and Crawford, Kevin and Dong, Christine and Fong, Yiu-Lian and Chien, David and Abrignani, Sergio and Balfe, Peter and Rice, Charles M and McKeating, Jane A and Houghton, Michael (2007) Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein immunization of rodents elicits cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine, 25 (45). pp. 7773-84. ISSN 0264-410X. ...
Stellas Tap & Tapas Bar Reviews Vancouver 288 8th Ave W Average Rating: 4 out of 5 (1 Reviews) Review by Josh M.Stellas has a huge selection of beer and some pretty nice appetizers. I got the ribs and seared tuna, both which I liked quite a bit.Rating: 4
FIND THE BEST Tapas restaurants in Paris 1rst, Paris on TheFork. Read restaurant reviews from our community and reserve your table online today!
Shore excursion from Barcelona cruise port. Tapas walking Tour with Flamenco Show. Convenient and comfortable. Check out the unbeatable value for money.
Despite staggering community opposition, Cold Miller has managed to secure a liquor license for the small wine and tapas bar hes planning to open at...
Tanzania Tapas Party, Dar es Salaam, January 30, 2016. The National Bailliage was inaugurated in November 2015 with a Chapitre at the Hyatt Regency. It was a grand affair!In complete contrast, the first event of the New Year was an informal dining event at the
Gas Detection Kit with inCase Calibration for MultiRae Lite O2/LEL/CO+H2S/10.6 PID. Includes calibration station, 2 cylinders of calibration gas, and supporting accessories.
[[start tab]]Description 25% LEL Pentane / 19% Oxygen / 25 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide / Balance Nitrogen Industrial Scientific multi-mixture calibration gas ...
FtsX is a ubiquitous bacterial integral membrane protein involved in cell division that regulates the activity of peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases. FtsX is representative of a large group of ABC3 superfamily proteins that function as mechanotransmitters, proteins that relay signals from the inside to the outside of the cell. Here, we present a structural characterization of the large extracellular loop, ECL1, of FtsX from the... ...
Clarke, J. L.; Branza-Nichita, N.; Stavaru, C. S.; Sivertsen, A.; Steen, H.; Paruch, L.; Eerde, A.; Heldal, I.; Dobrica, M.-O.; Tucureanu, C. et al.; Onu, A.; Ciulean, S.; Petrareanu, C.; Lazar, C.; Popescu, I.; Haugslien, S.; Bock, R.; Dubuisson, J.: Lettuce-produced hepatitis C virus E1E2 heterodimer triggers immune responses in mice and antibody production after oral vaccination. In In vitro cellular & developmental biology-plant, 54 (Supplement 1), S. S118 - S119. 14th Quadrennial Congress of the International-Association-of-Plant-Biotechnology (IAPB), Dublin, IRELAND, 19. August 2018 - 24. August 2018. (2018 ...
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Meanwhile, slice the chorizo and sauté in a pan over a medium heat. Chop the chicory endive and the tomato and mix. Once the chorizo is cook add the vinegar in the pan and mix with the rest of the salad. Serve with the squid, the combination of sea and land ingredients is fabulous ...
It has a fantastically rich food landscape, with beautiful cafes, tapas bars, patisseries and markets on every street. There are small bakeries selling baguettes, simply filled with a smear of fresh tomato and Serrano ham, ideal for the weary tourist. There are so many tapas bars to choose from that its hard to recommend one. We found one we liked in the Barri Gothic area and went back more than once - it was nice to go in the second time and for the waitress to recognise us. One of my favourite dishes were garlicky haricot beans. ...
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Lel and Zhou beat the heat Kenyas Martin Lel won the mens race of the 2007 Flora London Marathon in blistering heat
Title: Investigating the molecular mechanism of COPD in tetraspanin CD9/CD81 DKO mice- a new model for ageing. 6/9 Yuko Tsuchiya. 6/16 Special seminar 15:00 ...
Hello all what would you consider to be the best hcg brand and what were your experiences Im between getting hucog or ovidiac Sent from my SPH-L720 using Tapa
Esto es Hoy en @sensesgastrobar Mañana bailarás toda la noche al ritmo de @labandaswing y no te pierdas las estupendas promociones en tus tragos y tapas favoritas. Ahora activos hasta las 2am! #senses #gastrobar #food #foodie #puntofijo #falcon #venezuela #chef #drinks
During the summer months, our garden offers a delightful alternative to eating inside. It really is the perfect place to enjoy our range of tapas. We can happily cater for parties outside - please call for more information. ...
that it remains below the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) (4.3% by volume). Additionally, the presence of rising concentrations of SO2 in the sulfur pit vapour space provides an early indication of smoldering fires.Therefore, on-line, continuous monitoring of SO2 can enable detection of
Michal Ulom mu , kter loni v kv tnu brut ln napadl ma etou sv ho n kdej ho psychiatra Karla Hynka - pom lel na sv j in nejm n rok dop edu. Docenta beru sebou do pekla, napsal si do den ku v b eznu 2002. Jeho p b h, o n m MF DNES z skala detailn informace, je p b hem ne astn ho mu e.
Britsk spisovatel Anthony Horowitz se proslavil d tskou kni n s ri o detektivovi Alexu Riderovi. Poda ilo se mu z skat pr va na Jamese Bonda od rodiny Iana Flemminga, autora cel postavy. Jeho prvn bondovsk rom n se rodin tak l bil, e Horowitzovi umo n ud lat n co, co Ian Flemming zam lel, ale u nestihl - vymyslet pln za tky agenta s k dov m ozna en m 007.
... is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. T cells require two signals ... CR2 on mature B cells forms a complex with CD19 and CD81. This complex is called the B cell coreceptor complex for such ... B cell binds antigens with its BCR (a membrane-bound antibody), which transfers intracellular signals to the B cell as well as ... Co-stimulation is a secondary signal which immune cells rely on to activate an immune response in the presence of an antigen- ...
1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... HCV-E2 and CD81 binding Kd is 1.8 nM. HCV-E2 engaged CD81 is only 30% internalized after 12hr, suggesting CD81 may be primarily ... CD81 molecule, also known as CD81 (Cluster of Differentiation 81), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD81 gene. It ... CD81+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD81 genome location and CD81 ...
This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known ... TSPAN4 has been shown to interact with CD9, ITGA6, CD29, CD49c and CD81. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000214063 - Ensembl ... 1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions ...
... amplifying the response of low affinity BCRs to low concentrations of antigen. CD19 has been shown to interact with: CD81 CD82 ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 molecule (Cluster of Differentiation 19), B-Lymphocyte Surface Antigen B4, T-Cell ... CD81, attached to CD19, is a part of the tetraspanin web, acts as a chaperone protein, and provides docking sites for molecules ...
IFC and UMC antigens. Complement receptor type 1 (C3b/C4b receptor) (Antigen CD35) belongs to the Knops blood group system and ... CD21 is part of a large signal-transduction complex that also involves CD19, CD81, and Leu13. Some of the proteins in this ... Complement decay-accelerating factor (Antigen CD55) belongs to the Cromer blood group system and is associated with Cr(a), Dr(a ... Lomas-Francis, Christine; Reid, Marion E. (2004). The blood group antigen: factsbook. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-586585- ...
... and signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. Antigens that activate B cells ... Antigens that activate B cells without T cell help are known as T cell-independent (TI) antigens and include foreign ... As with TD antigens, B cells activated by TI antigens need additional signals to complete activation, but instead of receiving ... Upon antigen binding, the memory B cell takes up the antigen through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degrades it, and presents ...
The CR2-CD19-CD81 complex is often called the B cell co-receptor complex, because CR2 binds to opsonized antigens through ... This results in the B cell having greatly enhanced response to the antigen. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can bind CR2, enabling EBV ... Complement receptor 2 interacts with CD19, and, on mature B cells, forms a complex with CD81 (TAPA-1). ... CD81, and the fragilis/Ifitm (murine equivalents of LEU13) proteins. The CR2 gene of primates produces only the smaller isoform ...
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors Stimulatory CD21 CD19 CD81 Inhibitory CD22 Accessory molecule (CD79) Ig-α (CD79A) Ig-β ... CD79B) T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...
Carloni V, Mazzocca A, Ravichandran KS (2004). "Tetraspanin CD81 is linked to ERK/MAPKinase signaling by Shc in liver tumor ... Subrahmanyam G, Rudd CE, Schneider H (2003). "Association of T cell antigen CD7 with type II phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase, a ...
CD49d+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell ... Mannion BA, Berditchevski F, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Hemler ME (1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1), CD82, ... "Entrez Gene: ITGA4 integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ...
B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and ... CD81, and CD82) at the surface of a B cell line JY". Journal of Immunology. 157 (7): 2939-46. PMID 8816400. Kanzaki M, ... CD20+antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...
... and virus-derived antigens". J Immunol Methods. 320 (1-2): 119-131. doi:10.1016/j.jim.2007.01.001. PMID 17306825. Bollard, C. M ... "Lymphocyte enrichment using CD81-targeted immunoaffinity matrix". Cytometry A. 91A: 62-72. Pelák, O.; Kužílková, D.; Thürner, D ... "Lymphocyte enrichment using CD81-targeted immunoaffinity matrix". Cytometry A. 91A: 62-72. Neudorfer, J; Schmidt, B; Huster, K ... "Lymphocyte enrichment using CD81-targeted immunoaffinity matrix". Cytometry A. 91A: 62-72. "IBA GmbH Certified with ISO 9001: ...
... has been shown to interact with: CD117, CD29 CD46, CD49c, CD81, PTGFRN, TSPAN4. CD63 ADAM17 CD81 Tetraspanin Myogenesis ... "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A new family of cell surface proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (1): 117 ... Shown in HIV-1 infection, exosomes are able to enhance HIV-1 entry through tetraspanin CD9 and CD81. However, expression of CD9 ... Tachibana I, Hemler ME (August 1999). "Role of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins CD9 and CD81 in muscle cell fusion ...
November 1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced ... Mannion BA, Berditchevski F, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Hemler ME (September 1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1 ... CD81, and CD82) at the surface of a B cell line JY". Journal of Immunology. 157 (7): 2939-46. PMID 8816400. Dong JT, Isaacs WB ... CD81 and CD82". Journal of Immunology. 155 (3): 1229-39. PMID 7636191. Horváth G, Serru V, Clay D, Billard M, Boucheix C, ...
"The primary structure of the human leukocyte antigen CD37, a species homologue of the rat MRC OX-44 antigen". The Journal of ... CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical ... Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... Angelisová P, Hilgert I, Horejsí V (1994). "Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/ ...
CD29+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... CD29 has been shown to interact with ACTN1; CD46, CD9, FHL2, Filamin, FLNB, CD81, GNB2L1, ITGB1BP1, LGALS8, MAP4K4, NME1, PKC ... These and other integrin beta 1 complexes have been historically known as very late activation (VLA) antigens. Integrin beta 1 ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ...
Stipp CS, Kolesnikova TV, Hemler ME (2001). "EWI-2 is a major CD9 and CD81 partner and member of a novel Ig protein subfamily ... Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. Soares ...
CD154 knockout mice are incapable of producing IgG, IgE, or IgA as a response to antigens. Microvesicles can also transfer ... Finally, tetraspanin proteins, including CD9, CD37, CD63 and CD81 are one of the most abundant protein families found in ... This mechanism of action can be used in processes such as antigen presentation, where MHC molecules on the surface of ... For example, those released from antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as B cells and dendritic cells, are enriched in proteins ...
... antigen is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ... Hotta H, Miyamoto H, Hara I, Takahashi N, Homma M (May 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional ... Metzelaar MJ, Wijngaard PL, Peters PJ, Sixma JJ, Nieuwenhuis HK, Clevers HC (February 1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal ...
1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...
Charrin S, Le Naour F, Oualid M, Billard M, Faure G, Hanash SM, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (2001). "The major CD9 and CD81 ... Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3". Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. doi: ...
The Knops antigen was the 25th blood group system recognized and consists of the single antigen York (Yk) a with the following ... CD81, and the fragilis/Ifitm (murine equivalents of LEU13) proteins. The complement receptor 2 (CR2) gene of primates produces ... Rao N, Ferguson DJ, Lee SF, Telen MJ (May 1991). "Identification of human erythrocyte blood group antigens on the C3b/C4b ... The Knops blood group system is a system of antigens located on this protein. The protein mediates cellular binding to ...
"Molecular cloning of cDNA for the human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 and identification of related transmembrane antigens". ... CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule-1 (Caecam1) is an immunoglobulin-like co-receptor that aids in cell adhesion in ... The Hepatitis C virus requires the CD81 co-receptor for infection. Studies suggest that the tight junction protein Claudin-1 ( ... Analysis of the CD4 coreceptor and activation-induced costimulatory molecules in antigen-mediated mature T lymphocyte death. ... or CD28 to bind antigens or regulate T cell activity in some way. Many co-receptor-related disorders occur due to mutations in ...
... squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T-cells 1 SBF2: SET binding factor 2 SCGB1D2: secretoglobin family 1D member 2 ... ligand 9 CD81: cluster of differentiation 81 CDHR5: cadherin related family member 5 COMMD9: COMM domain-containing protein 9 ...
CLTC MTX2 AP2S1 CD81 GPAA1 LGALS9 MGAT2 MGAT4B VAMP3 CTNNA1 NM_001903 CTNNB1 CTNNBIP1 NM_020248 CTNNBL1 NM_030877 CTNND1 NM_ ... in testes SPAG7 SRM Spermidine synthase TEGT Bax-1 inhibitor DAZAP2 Deleted in azoospermia MEA1 Male enhanced antigen Inducible ...
Kaufman SJ, Foster RF, Haye KR, Faiman LE (June 1985). "Expression of a developmentally regulated antigen on the surface of ... Tachibana I, Hemler ME (1999). "Role of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins CD9 and CD81 in muscle cell fusion and ...
It prevents CD81 from latching onto its respective receptor on the virus. In addition, E2 can shield E1 from the immune system ... Walewski JL, Keller TR, Stump DD, Branch AD (2001). "Evidence for a new hepatitis C virus antigen encoded in an overlapping ... Claudin 1, which is a tight-junction protein, and CD81 link to create a complex, priming them for later HCV infection processes ... and cell-surface molecules CD81, LDL receptor, SR-BI, DC-SIGN, Claudin-1, and Occludin. The envelope of HCV is similar to very ...
KIT has been shown to interact with: APS, BCR, CD63, CD81, CD9, CRK, CRKL, DOK1, FES, GRB10, Grb2, KITLG, LNK, LYN, MATK, MPDZ ... Ashman LK, Cambareri AC, To LB, Levinsky RJ, Juttner CA (July 1991). "Expression of the YB5.B8 antigen (c-kit proto-oncogene ... "Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells". International Journal of ...
The effect of BCR cross-linking on BCR raft association in B cells from cd81+/+ and cd81−/− mice. Splenic B cells from cd81+/+ ... The effect of BCR cross-linking on BCR raft association in B cells from cd81+/+ and cd81−/− mice. Splenic B cells from cd81+/+ ... cd81+/+). The BCR and the CD19/CD21 complex were coligated on B cells from cd81+/+ and cd81−/− mice using rat Abs specific for ... vs cd81−/− B cells, the mechanism by which CD81 functions remains to be elucidated. The reduced expression of CD19 on cd81−/− B ...
The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is associated with co-receptors CD19, CD21, CD81, and CD225, which play a critical role in B- ... CD81 gene defect in humans disrupts CD19 complex formation and leads to antibody deficiency. J Clin Invest. April 2010. 120: ... Though CD19 expression was reduced, CD21 and CD81 expressions were normal. IgM+ memory and class-switched B cells were ... They hypothesized that since CD19+ complex regulates B-cell activation following BCR-antigen stimulation, that this may lead to ...
BST-2, CD63, CD81, CD82 and CD40L all associated with the cSMAC (Figure 2-figure supplement 5A). Tetraspanins CD81, CD63 and ... 1989) Antigen-specific helper function of cell-free T cell products bearing TCR V beta 8 determinants Science 244:1477-1480. ... 2017) CD40L is transferred to antigen-presenting B cells during delivery of T-cell help European Journal of Immunology 47:41-50 ... CD81 staining also allowed visualization of the complete SE membrane by dSTORM. BST2 may tether some SE to the T cell membrane ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal CD81 antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-CD81 antibodies. ... CD81 molecule (CD81) Antibodies. CD81 molecule b (cd81b) Antibodies. CD81 antigen (Cd81) Antibodies. Cd81 molecule (Cd81) ... CD81 Antibodies by Reactivity. Find CD81 Antibodies for a variety of species such as anti-Human CD81, anti-Mouse CD81, anti-Rat ... CD81 antibody (ABIN1720914) CD81 Reactivity: Human cELISA, FACS Host: Rat Monoclonal QV-6A8-S3 unconjugated ...
The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is associated with co-receptors CD19, CD21, CD81, and CD225, which play a critical role in B- ... CD81 gene defect in humans disrupts CD19 complex formation and leads to antibody deficiency. J Clin Invest. April 2010. 120: ... Though CD19 expression was reduced, CD21 and CD81 expressions were normal. IgM+ memory and class-switched B cells were ... They hypothesized that since CD19+ complex regulates B-cell activation following BCR-antigen stimulation, that this may lead to ...
Antigen Details Structure Ig superfamily, associates with CD21 and CD81, 95 kD Distribution Pro-B cells to mature B cells ( ... CD21, CD81, Leu-13 Cell Type B cells, Dendritic cells Biology Area Costimulatory Molecules, Immunology Molecular Family CD ... Antigen References 1. Fearon DT. 1993. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 5:341.. 2. Krop I, et al. 1996. Eur. J. Immunol. 26:238.. 3. Krop I ... CD19, in association with CD21 and CD81, forms a molecular complex integral to B cell activation. ...
Listed positive regulators include the CD44 antigen (CD44), CD81 antigen (CD81), basigin (BSG), integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) and the ... They share many antigens with vascular endothelial cells (vasculogenic mimicry) which enables them to survive in the ...
Antigens, CD53 D12.776.543.982.153 D12.776.543.900.153 Antigens, CD63 D12.776.543.982.163 D12.776.543.900.163 Antigens, CD81 ... Antigens, CD9 D12.776.543.982.109 D12.776.543.900.109 Antigens, CD95 D12.776.543.750.73.500 D12.776.543.750.690.500 Antigens, ... Antigens, CD11b D12.776.543.750.705.833.62 Antigens, CD151 D12.776.543.982.251 D12.776.543.900.251 Antigens, CD19 D23.50. ... HLA-DR1 Antigen D12.776.543.550.423.400.440.400.10 D12.776.543.550.440.400.440.400.10 HLA-DR2 Antigen D12.776.543.550.423.400. ...
Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens) Workshops and names and characterises CD molecules. ... B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7; B7-1; B7.1. CD81. CD81. CD81. S5.7; TAPA1. ...
... while the biotinylated anti-CD81 monoclonal antibody (specific for CD81 binding) was purchased from LifeSpan BioSciences. ... Identification of distinct populations of prostasomes that differentially express prostate stem cell antigen, Annexin A1, and ... G) Anti-CD81 signal obtained exciting its linked fluorophore Alexa 647. (H) sEVs CD81+ capture demonstration by using exosome- ... Anti-CD81 can selectively bind to the corresponding tetraspanin present on the surface of sEVs, thus anchoring the ...
Proteintechs Mouse Monoclonal CD81 antibody is validated in FC and shows reactivity with Human samples. ... CD81, CD81 antigen, CD81 molecule, Cell and organelle markers, Exosome marker, S5.7, TAPA1, Tetraspanin 28, Tspan 28, TSPAN28 ... CD81 is involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion in the immune system (PMID: 9597125). CD81 has also been identified ... CD81 (also known as TAPA1or TSPAN28) is a membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, which are characterized by the ...
Lymphocyte antigen CD81 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD81 (substance). ...
Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human CD81 (TAPA-1) Antibody, S5.7, CVID6, TSPAN28 ... Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human CD81 (TAPA-1) Antibody. Antigen Description. CD81 is a 26 kD non-glycosylated member of the ... CD81 induces B cell adhesion via VLA-4 integrin and has been shown to play a role in early T cell development. CD81 associates ... Home Page > ANTIBODY > MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY > Common Antibody > Mouse Monoclonal anti-Human CD81 (TAPA-1) Antibody Mouse ...
CD47 antigen (Rh-related antigen, integrin-associated signal transducer). U: 2. CD81. CD81 antigen. U: 2 ...
Cd81. CD81 antigen. 0.017. Tmem111. transmembrane protein 111. 0.016. Fgl1. fibrinogen-like protein 1. 0.016. ...
Antigène CD81 Entry term(s):. Antigen, CD81. Antigen, TAPA-1. Antigens, CD81. CD81 Antigen. CD81 Antigens. TAPA 1 Antigen. TAPA ... Antigen, CD81 Antigen, TAPA-1 Antigens, CD81 CD81 Antigen CD81 Antigens TAPA 1 Antigen TAPA-1 Antigen ... 2018; see ANTIGENS, CD81 2012-2017; TETRASPANIN-28 was indexed under ANTIGENS, CD 2004-2011; and under ANTIGENS, SURFACE and ... antígeno CD81 antígeno TAPA-1 antígenos CD81 Scope note:. Las proteínas tetraspaninas que participan en una variedad de ...
CD19, in association with CD21 and CD81, forms a molecular complex integral to B cell a ... Antigen Details Structure Ig superfamily, associates with CD21 and CD81, 95 kD Distribution Pro-B cells to mature B cells ( ... CD21, CD81, Leu-13 Cell Type B cells, Dendritic cells Biology Area Costimulatory Molecules, Immunology Molecular Family CD ... CD19, in association with CD21 and CD81, forms a molecular complex integral to B cell activation. ...
... recognizes human CD81, a 26 kDa cell surface antigen also known as TAPA-1, and a member of the tetraspanin family. CD81 is ... strong,Mouse anti Human CD81 antibody, clone 1D6,/strong, ... Mouse anti Human CD81 antibody, clone 1D6 is a potent CD81 ... Mouse anti Human CD81 antibody, clone 1D6 recognizes human CD81, a 26 kDa cell surface antigen also known as TAPA-1, and a ... Mouse anti Human CD81. Product Type. Monoclonal Antibody. Clone. 1D6. Isotype. IgG1. Specificity. CD81. Quick Links:. * ...
Well-established antigens have diagnostic limitations. This study aimed to assess the expression of CD71, CD81, CD44 and CD39 ... CD39 between CD10-negative DLBCL and MZL/LPL and CD81 between MCL and CLL. To conclude, we report the expression of CD71, CD81 ... AML are challenging because of the absence of a universal pan-AML target antigen and the shared expression of target antigens ... Expression of these 4 antigens was queried in 185 samples with a diagnosis of a B cell lymphoma according to a histological ...
The human CD19 antigen is a 95 kd transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD19 is classified as ... and the tetraspanin membrane protein CD81 (TAPA-1), as well as CD225. Through study of CD19 transgenic and knockout mouse ... models, it becomes clear that CD19 plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between humoral, antigen-induced response ...
Antigens, CD79. CD79 Antigens. Antigens, CD80. B7-1 Antigen. Antigens, CD81. Tetraspanin 28. ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD79. CD79 Antigens. Antigens, CD80. B7-1 Antigen. Antigens, CD81. Tetraspanin 28. ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
Antigens, CD79. CD79 Antigens. Antigens, CD80. B7-1 Antigen. Antigens, CD81. Tetraspanin 28. ... Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1, Heavy Chain. Antigens, CD98 Light Chains. Fusion Regulatory Protein 1 ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-1. ATP-Binding Cassette Sub-Family B Member 2. ... Antigen Peptide Transporter-2. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. ...
... increased accessibility of the CD81 binding site without affecting the usage of CD81 and SR-BI. We finally demonstrated that ... such as studies of HCV particle composition and development of whole-virus vaccine antigens. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV ... Single-cycle virus production assays in CD81-deficient Huh7-derived cells demonstrated that these changes did not affect ... increased accessibility of the CD81 binding site without affecting the usage of CD81 and SR-BI. We finally demonstrated that ...
英文全称:B-lymphocyte antigen CD19 中文全称:B淋巴细胞抗原CD19 种类:Homo sapiens 上市药物数量:9详情 临床药物数量:181详情 最高研发阶段:临床三期 查看更多信息 ... It primarily acts as a B cell co-receptor in conjunction with CD21 and CD81. Upon activation, the cytoplasmic tail of CD19 ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19 is also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a single-pass type I membrane protein which ... As on T cells, several surface molecules form the antigen
Antigens, CD53 D12.776.543.982.153 D12.776.543.900.153 Antigens, CD63 D12.776.543.982.163 D12.776.543.900.163 Antigens, CD81 ... Antigens, CD9 D12.776.543.982.109 D12.776.543.900.109 Antigens, CD95 D12.776.543.750.73.500 D12.776.543.750.690.500 Antigens, ... Antigens, CD11b D12.776.543.750.705.833.62 Antigens, CD151 D12.776.543.982.251 D12.776.543.900.251 Antigens, CD19 D23.50. ... HLA-DR1 Antigen D12.776.543.550.423.400.440.400.10 D12.776.543.550.440.400.440.400.10 HLA-DR2 Antigen D12.776.543.550.423.400. ...
Impaired Ca++ flux after BCR stimulation; autoimmunity; impaired response to protein and polysaccharide antigens; nearly absent ... Reduced switched memory B cells; impaired somatic hypermutation; impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens ... CD81; , 1% of cases. AR. Unclear. ...
... encoding two Mouse monoclonal to CD81.COB81 reacts with the CD81, a target for anti-proliferative antigen (TAPA-1) with 26 kDa ... CD81 play role as a member of CD19/CD21/Leu-13 signal transdiction complex. It also is reported that anti-TAPA-1 induce protein ... CD81 is broadly expressed on hemapoietic cells and enothelial and epithelial cells, but absent from erythrocytes and platelets ...
The B‐cell co‐receptor complex (Figure 4.6) is composed of four components: CD19, CD21 (complement receptor type 2, CR2), CD81 ... There is also a growing appreciation that while B‐cells can be stimulated by soluble antigen, the primary form of antigen that ... Thus, spreading along an antigen‐coated surface facilitates engagement of many BCRs with antigen, which can then be ... The B‐Cell Surface Receptor For Antigen (BCR) pediagenosis May 03, 2021 Immunology , Organ Comment ...
Single-cycle virus production assay with a CD81- negative cell line reveals that the inhibitory effect of 25(OH)D3 is at the ... and intracellular levels ofHCV core antigen in a concentration-dependent manner. ...
  • In B cells the tetraspanin CD81 is a component of the CD19/CD21 complex. (
  • CD81 (also known as TAPA1or TSPAN28) is a membrane protein of the tetraspanin superfamily, which are characterized by the presence of four conserved transmembrane regions. (
  • CD81 is a 26 kD non-glycosylated member of the tetraspanin superfamily (TM4SF), also known as TAPA-1 (target of an antiproliferative antibody). (
  • CD19 functions as the dominant signaling component of a multimolecular complex on the surface of mature B cells, alongside complement receptor CD21, and the tetraspanin membrane protein CD81 (TAPA-1), as well as CD225. (
  • Mouse monoclonal to CD81.COB81 reacts with the CD81, a target for anti-proliferative antigen (TAPA-1) with 26 kDa MW, which ia a member of the TM4SF tetraspanin family. (
  • Here we studied the effects of blocking the integrin-associated tetraspanin CD81 in in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Susa, K. J. , Seegar, T. Cm , Blacklow, S. C. , and Kruse, A. C. (2020) A dynamic interaction between CD19 and the tetraspanin CD81 controls B cell co-receptor trafficking . (
  • Find CD81 Antibodies with a specific Grade. (
  • Find CD81 Antibodies for a variety of species such as anti-Human CD81, anti-Mouse CD81, anti-Rat CD81. (
  • Find CD81 Antibodies validated for a specific application such as FACS, WB, IHC, IP. (
  • Find available monoclonal or polyclonal CD81 Antibodies. (
  • Find CD81 Antibodies with a specific conjugate such as FITC, Biotin, PE. (
  • Interestingly, the E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) mutation T385P caused (i) increased sensitivity to neutralizing patient IgG and human monoclonal antibodies AR3A and AR4A and (ii) increased accessibility of the CD81 binding site without affecting the usage of CD81 and SR-BI. (
  • In Chapter 2 we discussed the cunning system by which an antigen can be led inexorably to its doom by activating B‐cells that are capable of making antibodies complementary in shape to itself through interacting with a copy of the antibody molecule on the lymphocyte surface. (
  • Using human antigen-specific antibodies, FAVS was able to detect human EGFR and CD9 on exosomes isolated from the plasma of athymic nude mice bearing DiFi tumour xenografts. (
  • In this study CD81 is shown to associate with lipid rafts upon coligation of the BCR and the CD19/CD21 complex. (
  • Using B cells from CD81-deficient mice we demonstrate that in the absence of CD81, coligated BCR and CD19/CD21 complexes fail to partition into lipid rafts and enhance BCR signaling from rafts. (
  • Furthermore, a chimeric CD19 protein that associates only weakly if at all with CD81 fails to promote the association of coligated BCR with lipid rafts. (
  • The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is associated with co-receptors CD19, CD21, CD81, and CD225, which play a critical role in B-cell response. (
  • Though CD19 expression was reduced, CD21 and CD81 expressions were normal. (
  • They hypothesized that since CD19 + complex regulates B-cell activation following BCR-antigen stimulation, that this may lead to hypogammaglobulinemia. (
  • CD19, in association with CD21 and CD81, forms a molecular complex integral to B cell activation. (
  • Figure B. FITC conjugated Mouse anti Human CD19 ( MCA1940F ) and RPE-Alexa Fluor 647 conjugated Mouse anti Human CD81 (MCA1847P647). (
  • Figure B. RPE conjugated Mouse anti Human CD19 ( MCA1940PE ) and Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated Mouse anti Human CD81 ( MCA1847A488 ). (
  • The human CD19 antigen is a 95 kd transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. (
  • Through study of CD19 transgenic and knockout mouse models, it becomes clear that CD19 plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between humoral, antigen-induced response and tolerance induction. (
  • B-lymphocyte antigen CD19 is also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a single-pass type I membrane protein which contains two Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains. (
  • CD81 play role as a member of CD19/CD21/Leu-13 signal transdiction complex. (
  • The main proposed roles of CD19 are to recruit multimolecular complexes at the surface of mature B cells (e.g., with CD21 and CD81) and lower the signaling pathways threshold for BCRs. (
  • The requirement for CD81 to promote lipid raft association may define a novel mechanism by which tetraspanins function as molecular facilitators of signaling receptors. (
  • b) T‐cells use distinct antigen receptors, which are also expressed at the plasma membrane, but T‐cell receptors (TCRs) cannot recognize free antigen as immunoglobulin can. (
  • It has been recently reported that there is a range of exosomal functions, it involve in intercellular transfer of membrane receptors and RNA, induction of immunity, antigen presentation, modulation of bone mineralization,[3] and antiapoptotic responses[3-7]. (
  • In the author's studies, antibody responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens ( S pneumoniae immunizations) were decreased. (
  • 1X10^6 human peripheral blood lymphocytes were surface stained with 5 ul CoraLite®488-conjugated Anti-Human CD81 (CL488-65195, Clone: 5A6) (green) or isotype control antibody (black). (
  • It will be recalled that binding of antigen to membrane antibody can activate the B‐cell and cause it to proliferate, followed by maturation into a clone of plasma cells secreting antibody specific for the inciting antigen (Figure 4.1a). (
  • It primarily acts as a B cell co-receptor in conjunction with CD21 and CD81. (
  • A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. (
  • the responses to protein immunizations are typically normal, but the responses to polysaccharide and conjugated polysaccharide antigens are typically decreased. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene represents the beta subunit of the neuron-specific AP-3 complex and was first identified as the target antigen in human paraneoplastic neurologic disorders. (
  • Originally called leukocyte common antigen (LCA), human CD45 is a type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the protein tyrosine phosphatase family ( UniProt Link ). (
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) based vaccines use lab-created mRNA that provides cells with instructions for making protein antigens and triggers an adaptive immune response. (
  • Proteins commonly found on the surface and used as extracellular vesicle markers are tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82) and major histocompatibility complex. (
  • These include muscle side population cells that were identified based on their ability to exclude Hoechst 33342 dye from their cytoplasm as well as the presence of stem cell antigen Sca1 and CD45 proteins [ 6 ]. (
  • CD45 plays an essential role in the regulation of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. (
  • The virus is taken up by dendritic cells, which, after antigen processing, presents it to T cells, leading to immune activation and release of a cascade of cytokines that are believed to mediate the systemic effects of plasma leakage and circulatory insufficiency. (
  • Its extracellular functions through direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor complexes (considered as a co-stimulator) or by activating various intracellular kinases involved in the antigen receptor signaling using its phosphatase activity located in two intracellular domains. (
  • A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. (
  • To our surprise, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], but not vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3, reduced the extra- and intracellular levels ofHCV core antigen in a concentration-dependent manner. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antigens, CD18" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (
  • Results of an ex vivo study evaluating the phenotypic and growth characteristics of T cells collected by leukapheresis from cohorts of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma support use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy earlier in course of the disease. (
  • They share many antigens with vascular endothelial cells (vasculogenic mimicry) which enables them to survive in the circulation, and increases their migration and invasion capacity as well. (
  • Blot was probed for EGFR and the exosomal markers, syntenin-1 and CD81. (
  • As on T cells, several surface molecules form the antigen receptor and form a complex on B lymphocytes. (
  • CD40L is transferred to antigen presenting cells in vitro ( Gardell and Parker, 2017 ). (
  • Super-resolution microscopy demonstrated that CD40L is present in microclusters within CD81 defined SE that are spatially segregated from TCR/ICOS/BST-2. (
  • Single-cycle virus production assay with a CD81- negative cell line reveals that the inhibitory effect of 25(OH)D3 is at the level of infectious virus assembly but not entry or replication. (
  • Single-cycle virus production assays in CD81-deficient Huh7-derived cells demonstrated that these changes did not affect replication but increased HCV assembly and specific infectivity as early as 24 h posttransfection. (
  • CD81 is broadly expressed on hemapoietic cells and enothelial and epithelial cells, but absent from erythrocytes and platelets as well as neutrophils. (
  • Figure 4.1 B‐cells and T‐cells "see" antigen in fundamentally different ways. (
  • a) In the case of B‐cells, membrane‐bound immunoglobulin serves as the B‐cell receptor (BCR) for antigen. (
  • The majority of T‐cells can only recognize antigen when presented within the peptide‐binding groove of an MHC molecule. (
  • however, while higher in the postinduction cohort, the difference in the frequency of T cells with the CD81 CD45RO2 CD271 T-cell memory phenotype was not statistically significant when these 2 groups were compared. (
  • CD81 is involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion in the immune system (PMID: 9597125). (
  • CD81 induces B cell adhesion via VLA-4 integrin and has been shown to play a role in early T cell development. (
  • Because secreted immunoglobulin is no longer physically connected to the B‐cell that generated it, there is no way for the B‐cell to know when the secreted Ig has found its target antigen. (
  • So how does the BCR spur the B‐cell into action upon encounter with antigen? (
  • While CAR-T therapy targeted against the B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has been associated with promising results in patients with multiple myeloma, nearly all of the patients responding to this approach eventually develop progressive disease. (
  • Las proteínas tetraspaninas que participan en una variedad de funciones celulares, incluido el ensamblaje de la MEMBRANA BASAL, y en la formación de un complejo molecular en la superficie de los LINFOCITOS. (
  • CL488-65195 targets CD81 in FC applications and shows reactivity with Human samples. (
  • Antigens, Thy-1" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This study has implications for investigations requiring high virus concentrations, such as studies of HCV particle composition and development of whole-virus vaccine antigens. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antigens, Thy-1" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antigens, Thy-1" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (