Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions. (1/333)

The tetraspans are molecules with four transmembrane domains which are engaged in multimolecular complexes (the tetraspan web) containing a subset of beta1 integrins (in particular alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alpha6beta1), MHC antigens and several unidentified molecules. The molecules associated with tetraspans are readily detected after immunoprecipitation performed in mild detergents such as Brij 97 or CHAPS. In this study we show that another classical mild detergent, digitonin, dissociated most of these associated molecules, including integrins, from the tetraspans CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, Co-029, Talla-1 and NAG-2. In contrast, reciprocal immunoprecipitations from various cell lines demonstrated that two other tetraspans, CD81 and CD151, formed complexes with integrins not disrupted by digitonin. These complexes were CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1 and CD151/alpha6beta1. Furthermore, a new anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody (mAb), TS151r, was shown to have a restricted pattern of expression, inversely related to the sum of the levels of expression of alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1. This mAb was unable to co-precipitate integrins in digitonin, suggesting that its epitope is blocked by the association with integrins. Indeed, the binding of TS151r to the cell surface was quantitatively diminished following alpha3beta1 overexpression. Altogether, these data suggest that, among tetraspans, CD81 interacts directly with the integrin alpha4beta1, and CD151 interacts directly with integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Because all tetraspan-tetraspan associations are disrupted by digitonin, it is likely that the other tetraspans interact indirectly with integrins, through interactions with CD81 or CD151.  (+info)

Characterization of hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein interaction with a putative cellular receptor, CD81. (2/333)

A truncated soluble form of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein, E2661, binds specifically to the surface of cells expressing human CD81 (hCD81) but not other members of the tetraspanin family (CD9, CD63, and CD151). No differences were noted between the level of E2661 binding to hCD81 expressed on the surface of rat RBL or KM3 cells compared to Daudi and Molt-4 cells, suggesting that additional human-cell-specific factors are not required for the primary interaction of E2 with the cell surface. E2 did not interact with African green monkey (AGM) CD81 on the surface of COS cells, which differs from the hCD81 sequence at four residues within the second extracellular region (EC2) (amino acids [aa] 163, 186, 188, and 196), suggesting that one or more of these residues defines the site of interaction with E2. Various recombinant forms of CD81 EC2 show differences in the ability to bind E2, suggesting that CD81 conformation is important for E2 recognition. Regions of E2 involved in the CD81 interaction were analyzed, and our data suggest that the binding site is of a conformational nature involving aa 480 to 493 and 544 to 551 within the E2 glycoprotein. Finally, we demonstrate that ligation of CD81 by E2661 induced aggregation of lymphoid cells and inhibited B-cell proliferation, demonstrating that E2 interaction with CD81 can modulate cell function.  (+info)

Functional analysis of cell surface-expressed hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein. (3/333)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins E1 and E2, when expressed in eukaryotic cells, are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). C-terminal truncation of E2 at residue 661 or 715 (position on the polyprotein) leads to secretion, consistent with deletion of a proposed hydrophobic transmembrane anchor sequence. We demonstrate cell surface expression of a chimeric glycoprotein consisting of E2 residues 384 to 661 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA), termed E2661-HATMCT. The E2661-HATMCT chimeric glycoprotein was able to bind a number of conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies and a recombinant soluble form of CD81, suggesting that it was folded in a manner comparable to "native" E2. Furthermore, cell surface-expressed E2661-HATMCT demonstrated pH-dependent changes in antigen conformation, consistent with an acid-mediated fusion mechanism. However, E2661-HATMCT was unable to induce cell fusion of CD81-positive HEK cells after neutral- or low-pH treatment. We propose that a stretch of conserved, hydrophobic amino acids within the E1 glycoprotein, displaying similarities to flavivirus and paramyxovirus fusion peptides, may constitute the HCV fusion peptide. We demonstrate that influenza virus can incorporate E2661-HATMCT into particles and discuss experiments to address the relevance of the E2-CD81 interaction for HCV attachment and entry.  (+info)

Finding the right RNA: identification of cellular mRNA substrates for RNA-binding proteins. (4/333)

Defects in RNA-binding proteins have been implicated in human genetic disorders. However, efforts in understanding the functions of these proteins have been hampered by the inability to obtain their mRNA substrates. To identify cognate cellular mRNAs associated with an RNA-binding protein, we devised a strategy termed isolation of specific nucleic acids associated with proteins (SNAAP). The SNAAP technique allows isolation and subsequent identification of these mRNAs. To assess the validity of this approach, we utilized cellular mRNA and protein from K562 cells and alphaCP1, a protein implicated in a-globin mRNA stability, as a model system. Immobilization of an RNA-binding protein with the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) domain enables isolation of mRNA within an mRNP context and the identity of the bound mRNAs is determined by the differential display assay. The specificity of protein-RNA interactions was considerably enhanced when the interactions were carried out in the presence of cellular extract rather than purified components. Two of the mRNAs specifically bound by alphaCP1 were mRNAs encoding the transmembrane receptor protein, TAPA-1, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II enzyme, coxII. A specific poly(C)-sensitive complex formed on the TAPA-1 and coxII 3' UTRs consistent with the binding of aCP1. Furthermore, direct binding of purified alphaCP proteins to these 3' UTRs was demonstrated and the binding sites determined. These results support the feasibility of the SNAAP technique and suggest a broad applicability for the approach in identifying mRNA targets for clinically relevant RNA-binding proteins that will provide insights into their possible functions.  (+info)

Role of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins CD9 and CD81 in muscle cell fusion and myotube maintenance. (5/333)

The role of transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins during muscle cell fusion has not been investigated previously. Here we show that the appearance of TM4SF protein, CD9, and the formation of CD9-beta1 integrin complexes were both regulated in coordination with murine C2C12 myoblast cell differentiation. Also, anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 monoclonal antibodies substantially inhibited and delayed conversion of C2C12 cells to elongated myotubes, without affecting muscle-specific protein expression. Studies of the human myoblast-derived RD sarcoma cell line further demonstrated that TM4SF proteins have a role during muscle cell fusion. Ectopic expression of CD9 caused a four- to eightfold increase in RD cell syncytia formation, whereas anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 antibodies markedly delayed RD syncytia formation. Finally, anti-CD9 and anti-CD81 monoclonal antibodies triggered apoptotic degeneration of C2C12 cell myotubes after they were formed. In summary, TM4SF proteins such as CD9 and CD81 appear to promote muscle cell fusion and support myotube maintenance.  (+info)

Rapid and systemic accumulation of chloroplast mRNA-binding protein transcripts after flame stimulus in tomato. (6/333)

It has been shown that tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants respond to flame wounding and electrical stimulation by a rapid (15 min) and systemic up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor (pin) genes. To find other genes having a similar expression pattern, we used subtractive cDNA screening between flamed and control plants to select clones up-regulated by flame wounding. We report the characterization of one of them, a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein encoded by a single gene and expressed preferentially in the leaves. Systemic gene expression in response to flaming in the youngest terminal leaf exhibited three distinct phases: a rapid and transient increase (5-15 min) in transcript accumulation, a decline to basal levels (15-45 min), and then a second, more prolonged increase (60-90 min). In contrast, after a mechanical wound the rapid, transient increase (5 min) was followed by a rapid decline to basal levels but no later, prolonged accumulation. In the petiole, the initial flame-wound-evoked transient increase (15 min) was followed by a continuous decline for 3 h. The nature of the wound signal(s) causing such rapid changes in transcript abundance is discussed in relation to electrical signaling, which has recently been implicated in plant responses to wounding.  (+info)

Association of a tetraspanin CD9 with CD5 on the T cell surface: role of particular transmembrane domains in the association. (7/333)

CD9 is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily which is characterized by four transmembrane (TM) domains and associates with other surface molecules. This tetraspanin was recently found to be expressed on mature T cells. Here, we investigated which molecules associate with CD9 on T cells and which CD9 domains are required for the association. Immunoprecipitation of T cell lysates with anti-CD9 mAb followed by immunoblotting with mAb against various T cell molecules showed the association of CD9 with CD3, CD4, CD5, CD2, CD29 and CD44. Because association with CD5 was most prominent, we determined the role of CD9 TM or extracellular (EC) domains in the association with CD5. CD9 mutant genes lacking each domain were constructed and introduced into EL4 thymoma cells deficient in CD9 but expressing CD5. Among various types of stable EL4 transfectants, EL4 transfected with the mutant gene lacking TM domains (TM2/TM3) between two EC domains expressed a small amount of the relevant protein without showing association with CD5. CD9(-)CD5(-) monkey COS-7 cells transfected with this mutant gene and the CD5 gene expressed both transfected gene products, but the association of these was not detected. EL4 cells transfected with a CD9/CD81 chimera gene (the CD9 gene containing TM2/TM3 of CD81) expressed the chimeric protein on the cell surface and showed association with CD5. These results suggest an essential role of particular CD9 TM domains in the surface expression of the CD9 molecule as well as the association with CD5.  (+info)

Functional characterization of intracellular and secreted forms of a truncated hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein. (8/333)

The E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to be a virion surface glycoprotein that is a candidate for inclusion in an antiviral vaccine. A truncated soluble version of E2 has recently been shown to interact with CD81, suggesting that this protein may be a component of the receptor for HCV. When expressed in eukaryotic cells, a significant proportion of E2 forms misfolded aggregates. To analyze the specificity of interaction between E2 and CD81, the aggregated and monomeric forms of a truncated E2 glycoprotein (E2(661)) were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and analyzed for CD81 binding. Nonaggregated forms of E2 preferentially bound CD81 and a number of conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Furthermore, intracellular forms of E2(661) were found to bind CD81 with greater affinity than the extracellular forms. Intracellular and secreted forms of E2(661) were also found to differ in reactivity with MAbs and human sera, consistent with differences in antigenicity. Together, these data indicate that proper folding of E2 is important for its interaction with CD81 and that modifications of glycans can modulate this interaction. Identification of the biologically active forms of E2 will assist in the future design of vaccines to protect against HCV infection.  (+info)

*CD81

1994). "Mouse homologue of C33 antigen (CD82), a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily: complementary DNA, genomic ... HCV-E2 and CD81 binding Kd is 1.8 nM. HCV-E2 engaged CD81 is only 30% internalized after 12hr, suggesting CD81 may be primarily ... CD81 molecule, also known as CD81 (Cluster of Differentiation 81), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD81 gene. It ... CD81 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human CD81 genome location and CD81 ...

*Co-stimulation

... is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. T cells require two signals ... CR2 on mature B cells forms a complex with CD19 and CD81. This complex is called the B cell coreceptor complex for such ... B cell binds antigens with its BCR (a membrane-bound antibody), which transfers intracellular signals to the B cell as well as ... The latter case induces recognition by antigen-specific Th2 cells, leading to activation of the B cell through binding of TCR ...

*Complement receptor 2

CD19 and CD81(=TAPA-1). The CR2-CD19-CD81 complex is often called the B cell coreceptor complex, because CR2 binds to antigens ... This results in the B cell having greatly enhanced response to the antigen. Complement receptor 2 has been shown to interact ... CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30537. PMID 9804823. Yefenof E, Klein G, Jondal M, ... CD81, and the fragilis/Ifitm (murine equivalents of LEU13) proteins. The CR2 gene of primates produces only the smaller isoform ...

*CD19

Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD19 genome location and CD19 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... It primarily acts as a B cell co-receptor in conjunction with CD21 and CD81. Upon activation, the cytoplasmic tail of CD19 ... yet sensitive manner to the various antigens is achieved with the use of low-affinity antigen receptors. The CD19 gene encodes ... B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as CD19 (Cluster of Differentiation 19), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...

*B cell

... and signals are transduced through CD19 and CD81 to lower the activation threshold of the cell. Antigens that activate B cells ... Antigens that activate B cells without T cell help are known as T cell-independent (TI) antigens and include foreign ... As with TD antigens, B cells activated by TI antigens need additional signals to complete activation, but instead of receiving ... Upon antigen binding, the memory B cell takes up the antigen through receptor-mediated endocytosis, degrades it, and presents ...

*Outline of immunology

Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors Stimulatory CD21 CD19 CD81 Inhibitory CD22 Accessory molecule (CD79) Ig-α (CD79A) Ig-β ... CD79B) T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...

*Sushi domain

IFC and UMC antigens. Complement receptor type 1 (C3b/C4b receptor) (Antigen CD35) belongs to the Knops blood group system and ... CD21 is part of a large signal-transduction complex that also involves CD19, CD81, and Leu13. Some of the proteins in this ... Complement decay-accelerating factor (Antigen CD55) belongs to the Cromer blood group system and is associated with Cr(a), Dr(a ... Lomas-Francis, Christine; Reid, Marion E. (2004). The blood group antigen: factsbook. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-586585- ...

*TSPAN4

This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and is similar in sequence to its family member CD53 antigen. It is known ... TSPAN4 has been shown to interact with CD9, ITGA6, CD29, CD49c and CD81. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000214063 - Ensembl ... 1999). "Selective tetraspan-integrin complexes (CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions ...

*PI4KA

Carloni V, Mazzocca A, Ravichandran KS (2004). "Tetraspanin CD81 is linked to ERK/MAPKinase signaling by Shc in liver tumor ... Subrahmanyam G, Rudd CE, Schneider H (2003). "Association of T cell antigen CD7 with type II phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase, a ...

*CD49d

... antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ITGA4 Info with links in the Cell ... Mannion BA, Berditchevski F, Kraeft SK, Chen LB, Hemler ME (1996). "Transmembrane-4 superfamily proteins CD81 (TAPA-1), CD82, ... Takada Y, Strominger JL, Hemler ME (1987). "The very late antigen family of heterodimers is part of a superfamily of molecules ... antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)". Hadari YR, Arbel-Goren R, Levy Y, Amsterdam A, Alon R, Zakut R, Zick Y ( ...

*CD20

B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning ... CD81, and CD82) at the surface of a B cell line JY". Journal of Immunology. 157 (7): 2939-46. PMID 8816400. Kanzaki M, ... CD20 antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) representations of the shape are found here ... Stamenkovic I, Seed B (June 1988). "Analysis of two cDNA clones encoding the B lymphocyte antigen CD20 (B1, Bp35), a type III ...

*IBA Lifesciences

... and virus-derived antigens". J Immunol Methods. 320 (1-2): 119-131. Bollard, C. M.; Heslop, H. E. (2016). "T cells for viral ... "Lymphocyte enrichment using CD81-targeted immunoaffinity matrix". Cytometry A. 91A: 62-72. Pelák, O.; Kužílková, D.; Thürner, D ... "Lymphocyte enrichment using CD81-targeted immunoaffinity matrix". Cytometry A. 91A: 62-72. Neudorfer, J; Schmidt, B; Huster, K ... "Lymphocyte enrichment using CD81-targeted immunoaffinity matrix". Cytometry A. 91A: 62-72. "IBA GmbH Certified with ISO 9001: ...

*CD29

... Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human ITGB1 genome location and ITGB1 gene ... CD29 has been shown to interact with ACTN1; CD46, CD9, FHL2, Filamin, FLNB, CD81, GNB2L1, ITGB1BP1, LGALS8, MAP4K4, NME1, PKC ... CD29 is an integrin unit associated with very late antigen receptors. It is known to conjoin with alpha-3 subunit to create ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ...

*CD82 (gene)

1992). "C33 antigen recognized by monoclonal antibodies inhibitory to human T cell leukemia virus type 1-induced syncytium ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... 1998). "CD19 is linked to the integrin-associated tetraspans CD9, CD81, and CD82". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30537-43. doi: ... 1991). "A new superfamily of lymphoid and melanoma cell proteins with extensive homology to Schistosoma mansoni antigen Sm23". ...

*CD37

"The primary structure of the human leukocyte antigen CD37, a species homologue of the rat MRC OX-44 antigen". The Journal of ... CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical ... Leukocyte antigen CD37 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD37 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of ... Angelisová P, Hilgert I, Horejsí V (1994). "Association of four antigens of the tetraspans family (CD37, CD53, TAPA-1, and R2/ ...

*IGSF2

Stipp CS, Kolesnikova TV, Hemler ME (2001). "EWI-2 is a major CD9 and CD81 partner and member of a novel Ig protein subfamily ... Role in T-lymphocyte activation". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 439-48. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997.tb02898.x. PMID 9389317. Soares ...

*CD9

... antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (May 1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with ... Boucheix C, Benoit P, Frachet P, Billard M, Worthington RE, Gagnon J, Uzan G (1991). "Molecular cloning of the CD9 antigen. A ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta ...

*Hepatitis C vaccine

Due to the relatively conserved binding region of E2 to the CD81 receptor on the liver cells, this discovery is expected to ... One effort involved using hepatitis B core antigen modified to carry a hepatitis C protein. In a 2006 study, 60 patients ... Inovio is developing a synthetic multi-antigen DNA vaccine covering hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1a and 1b and targeting ... The responses included strong HCV antigen-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-2 (IL ...

*CD63

1991). "CD63 antigen. A novel lysosomal membrane glycoprotein, cloned by a screening procedure for intracellular antigens in ... Radford KJ, Thorne RF, Hersey P (1996). "CD63 associates with transmembrane 4 superfamily members, CD9 and CD81, and with beta ... CD63 antigen is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD63 gene. CD63 is mainly associated with membranes of intracellular ... 1992). "Genomic structure of the ME491/CD63 antigen gene and functional analysis of the 5'-flanking regulatory sequences". ...

*CD53

1990). "The human leucocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein structurally similar to the CD37 and MRC OX-44 antigens". ... 1996). "Supramolecular complexes of MHC class I, MHC class II, CD20, and tetraspan molecules (CD53, CD81, and CD82) at the ... Leukocyte surface antigen CD53 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD53 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ... A pan-leukocyte antigen related to membrane transport proteins". J. Immunol. 145 (12): 4322-5. PMID 2258620. Dianzani U, ...

*CD151

Charrin S, Le Naour F, Oualid M, Billard M, Faure G, Hanash SM, Boucheix C, Rubinstein E (2001). "The major CD9 and CD81 ... Raph blood group system in the BGMUT blood group antigen gene mutation database Human CD151 genome location and CD151 gene ... identifies a novel platelet surface antigen". Br. J. Haematol. 79 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1991.tb04531.x. PMID ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding a novel platelet-endothelial cell tetra-span antigen, PETA-3". Blood. 86 (4): 1348-55. PMID ...

*Complement receptor 1

The Knops antigen was the 25th blood group system recognized and consists of the single antigen York (Yk) a with the following ... CD81, and the fragilis/Ifitm (murine equivalents of LEU13) proteins. The complement receptor 2 (CR2) gene of primates produces ... The Knops blood group system is a system of antigens located on this protein. The protein mediates cellular binding to ... Rao N, Ferguson DJ, Lee SF, Telen MJ (1991). "Identification of human erythrocyte blood group antigens on the C3b/C4b receptor ...

*TSPAN8

"Molecular cloning of cDNA for the human tumor-associated antigen CO-029 and identification of related transmembrane antigens". ... CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1, CD151/alpha6beta1) under conditions disrupting tetraspan interactions". The Biochemical ...

*Co-receptor

Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule-1 (Caecam1) is an immunoglobulin-like co-receptor that aids in cell adhesion in ... The Hepatitis C virus requires the CD81 co-receptor for infection. Studies suggest that the tight junction protein Claudin-1 ( ... Analysis of the CD4 coreceptor and activation-induced costimulatory molecules in antigen-mediated mature T lymphocyte death. ... or CD28 to bind antigens or regulate T cell activity in some way. Many co-receptor-related disorders occur due to mutations in ...

*Chromosome 11 (human)

... squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T-cells 1 SBF2: SET binding factor 2 SCGB1D2: secretoglobin family 1D member 2 ... ligand 9 CD81: cluster of differentiation 81 CDHR5: cadherin related family member 5 COMMD9: COMM domain-containing protein 9 ...

*Hepatitis C virus

Walewski JL, Keller TR, Stump DD, Branch AD; Keller; Stump; Branch (2001). "Evidence for a new hepatitis C virus antigen ... Entry into host cells occur through complex interactions between virions and cell-surface molecules CD81, LDL receptor, SR-BI, ...
Positively-charged amino acids are located at specific positions in the envelope glycoprotein E2 of the hepatitis C virus (HCV): two histidines (H) and four arginines (R) in two conserved WHY and one RGERCDLEDRDR motifs, respectively. Additionally, the E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) is rich in basic amino acids. To investigate the role(s) of these residues in HCV entry, we subjected to comparative infection and sedimentation analysis cell culture-produced (HCVcc, genotype 2a) wild type virus, a panel of alanine single-site mutants and a HVR1-deletion variant. Initially, we analyzed the effects of these mutations on E2-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions. The positive milieu of the HVR1, formulated by its basic amino acids (key residues the conserved H386 and R408), and the two highly conserved basic residues H488 and R648 contributed to E2-HS interactions. Mutations in these residues did not alter the HCVcc-CD81 entry, but they modified the HCVcc-scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) ...
The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular (BC) structures. HepG2 cells expressing CD81 provide a model system to study the effects of hepatic polarity on HCV infection. We found an inverse association between HepG2-CD81 polarization and HCV pseudoparticle entry. As HepG2 cells polarize, discrete pools of claudin-1 (CLDN1) at the TJ and basal/lateral membranes develop, consistent with the pattern of receptor staining observed in liver tissue. The TJ and nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 show an altered association with CD81 and localization in response to the PKA antagonist Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPs (cAMPs). Rp-8-Br-cAMPs reduced CLDN1 expression at the basal membrane and inhibited HCV infection, supporting a model where the nonjunctional pools of CLDN1 ...
Meola, Annalisa et al "Structural Flexibility of a Conserved Antigenic Region in Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Recognized by Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies." Journal of Virology 89.4 (2015): 2170-2181. Web. 08 Dec. 2019. ...
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v dsk policie zabavila p tadvacetilet mu mu i z m sta Bojsenburg bramborov d lo, kter postavil spolu s kamar dy. Z okna sv ho bytu j m st lel brambory do okol . D lo si vyrobil podle televizn ho po adu, kter ho inspiroval.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
KHASIAT MINYAK LINTAH TAPA Besar, Panjang dan Tegang Tahan lama Menambahkan nikmat dalam persetubuhan Menguatkan zakar Memulihkan keanjalan urat saluran kencin
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The Overlocker Technique Manual: The Complete Guide to Serging and Decorative Stitching de Julia Hincks en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 1782210202 - ISBN 13: 9781782210207 - Search Press Ltd - 2014 - Tapa blanda
Tetraspanins are integral transmembrane proteins organized in microdomains displaying specific and direct interactions with other tetraspanins and molecular partners. Among them, CD81 has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. CD81 also plays a crucial role in pathogen entry into host cells, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes. HCV is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV entry into hepatocytes is a complex process that requires the coordinated interaction of viral and host factors for the initiation of infection, including CD81, scavenger receptor BI, claudin-1, occludin, membrane-bound host cell kinases, Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRas), CD63 and transferrin receptor 1. Furthermore, recent data in HCV model systems have demonstrated that targeting critical components of tetraspanins and associated cell membrane proteins open new avenues to prevent and treat viral infection.
Early studies pointed to the potential of tetraspanins to associate with a wide variety of partner proteins in a tetraspanin web. Not only do tetraspanins associate with each other, but they also associate with many Ig superfamily proteins, proteoglycans, complement regulatory proteins, integrins, growth factors, growth factor receptors, and signaling enzymes (for review see Boucheix and Rubinstein, 2001). Assembly of the tetraspanin web is based on multiple levels of interactions (Serru et al., 1999; Stipp et al., 2001a,b; and references therein). The first level includes primary interactions between specific tetraspanins and other proteins. These interactions are direct, and resist disruption by detergents such as Brij96, digitonin, and/or Triton X-100 (see examples below). Second level interactions are indirect, more numerous, and much more sensitive to disruption by Brij96, digitonin, and/or Triton X-100. Soluble second level complexes (maintained in detergents such as Brij56, Brij99, and ...
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Tapas restaurants come and go. Maybe they call their food small plates instead of tapas, but they still want to plug into the same long-outdated...
Want to become better at yoga? Practice. Its that simple, and that challenging. - Tapas, the Niyama of Discipline - Yoga at BellaOnline
Los camareros amables, el arte religioso, el jamón colgado del techo, los clientes que se sientan o se quedan de pie en un bar... ¡Bienvenido a la vida gastronómica de Sevilla! Esta ciudad es el lugar perfecto para descubrir la cocina de Andalucía, ya que es conocida como la capital mundial de la Tapa.
Everything on a Waffle de Polly Horvath en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 0312380046 - ISBN 13: 9780312380045 - Square Fish - 2008 - Tapa blanda
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Secretion of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Depends on Assembly of Apolipoprotein B Positive Lipoproteins. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive-strand RNA virus within the Flaviviridae family. The viral "spike" of HCV is formed by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, which together mediate viral entry by engaging host receptors and undergoing conformational changes to facilitate membrane fusion. While E2 can be readily produced in the absence of E1, E1 cannot be expressed without E2 and few reagents, including monoclonal antibodies, are available for study of this essential HCV glycoprotein. A human MAb to E1, IGH526, was previously reported to cross-neutralize different HCV isolates and, therefore, we sought to further characterize the IGH526 neutralizing epitope to obtain information for vaccine design. Here, we found that MAb IGH526 bound to a discontinuous epitope, but with a major component corresponding to E1 residues 314-324. The crystal structure of IGH526 Fab with this E1 glycopeptide at 1.75Å resolution revealed that the antibody binds to one face of an α-helical peptide. Single ...
A better understanding of natural variation in neutralization resistance and fitness of diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope (E1E2) variants will be critical to guide rational development of an HCV vaccine. This work has been hindered by inadequate genetic diversity in viral panels and by a lack of standardization of HCV entry assays. Neutralization assays generally use lentiviral pseudoparticles expressing HCV envelope proteins (HCVpp) or chimeric full-length viruses that are replication competent in cell culture (HCVcc). There have been few systematic comparisons of specific infectivities of E1E2-matched HCVcc and HCVpp, and to our knowledge, neutralization of E1E2-matched HCVpp and HCVcc has never been compared using a diverse panel of human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) targeting distinct epitopes. Here, we describe an efficient method for introduction of naturally occurring E1E2 genes into a full-length HCV genome, producing replication-competent chimeric HCVcc. We
Making Tapa Eastern Pacific Style Te Rangi Hiroa (Peter H. Buck) writes in Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands that the tapa makers of the time (1944) wrapped the pre-beaten bark in banana leaves and left it to ret for three days. Todays tapa makers on Atiu usually beat the bark right away. When…
Tapas Teatro Cafe: Tapas and the theater - See 122 traveler reviews, 24 candid photos, and great deals for Baltimore, MD, at TripAdvisor.
S&A Foods , the UK independent food manufacturer, has unveiled a new range of tapas for home consumption. Of Spanish origin, tapas snacks have been growing in popularity in Europe over the last decade, and S&A Foods managing director Perween Warsi believes it is time to facilitate the introduction of ready-made tapas for convenient use at home.
Very nice vintage traditional Tapa Cloth Fan probably from either Samoa or Tonga. Not a new item...probably 20 plus years old. Measures 13" x 10". Wooden handle with I think a coconut & fibre core & fringe and nicely patterned tapa cloth centre. ...
Stamataki, Zania and Coates, Stephen and Evans, Matthew J and Wininger, Mark and Crawford, Kevin and Dong, Christine and Fong, Yiu-Lian and Chien, David and Abrignani, Sergio and Balfe, Peter and Rice, Charles M and McKeating, Jane A and Houghton, Michael (2007) Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein immunization of rodents elicits cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Vaccine, 25 (45). pp. 7773-84. ISSN 0264-410X. ...
Tanzania Tapas Party, Dar es Salaam, January 30, 2016. The National Bailliage was inaugurated in November 2015 with a Chapitre at the Hyatt Regency. It was a grand affair!In complete contrast, the first event of the New Year was an informal dining event at the
Despite staggering community opposition, Cold Miller has managed to secure a liquor license for the small wine and tapas bar hes planning to open at...
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FtsX is a ubiquitous bacterial integral membrane protein involved in cell division that regulates the activity of peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases. FtsX is representative of a large group of ABC3 superfamily proteins that function as "mechanotransmitters," proteins that relay signals from the inside to the outside of the cell. Here, we present a structural characterization of the large extracellular loop, ECL1, of FtsX from the... ...
Meanwhile, slice the chorizo and sauté in a pan over a medium heat. Chop the chicory endive and the tomato and mix. Once the chorizo is cook add the vinegar in the pan and mix with the rest of the salad. Serve with the squid, the combination of sea and land ingredients is fabulous ...
Lel and Zhou beat the heat Kenyas Martin Lel won the mens race of the 2007 Flora London Marathon in blistering heat
If you sign up to receive our newsletter, Shawcity will only use your name and email address for the purpose of sending you news and product updates via email. Your data will be kept indefinitely for this purpose but we will never sell or share your details with any other party. If you change your mind you can stop receiving our communications at any time, by clicking on Unsubscribe within our emails or by contacting: [email protected] ...
Title: Investigating the molecular mechanism of COPD in tetraspanin CD9/CD81 DKO mice- a new model for ageing. 6/9 Yuko Tsuchiya. 6/16 Special seminar 15:00 ...
During the summer months, our garden offers a delightful alternative to eating inside. It really is the perfect place to enjoy our range of tapas. We can happily cater for parties outside - please call for more information. ...
Esto es Hoy en @sensesgastrobar Mañana bailarás toda la noche al ritmo de @labandaswing y no te pierdas las estupendas promociones en tus tragos y tapas favoritas. Ahora activos hasta las 2am! #senses #gastrobar #food #foodie #puntofijo #falcon #venezuela #chef #drinks
Michal Ulom mu , kter loni v kv tnu brut ln napadl ma etou sv ho n kdej ho psychiatra Karla Hynka - pom lel na sv j in nejm n rok dop edu. Docenta beru sebou do pekla, napsal si do den ku v b eznu 2002. Jeho p b h, o n m MF DNES z skala detailn informace, je p b hem ne astn ho mu e.
Britsk spisovatel Anthony Horowitz se proslavil d tskou kni n s ri o detektivovi Alexu Riderovi. Poda ilo se mu z skat pr va na Jamese Bonda od rodiny Iana Flemminga, autora cel postavy. Jeho prvn bondovsk rom n se rodin tak l bil, e Horowitzovi umo n ud lat n co, co Ian Flemming zam lel, ale u nestihl - vymyslet pln za tky agenta s k dov m ozna en m 007.
The results of this study show that the amount of mobile receptor and the speed at which it diffuses varies according to its location within the cell. CD81 and claudin-1 are expressed equally in the filopodia and plasma membrane, whereas SR-BI is expressed at lower levels in the filopodia compared to the plasma membrane. We show that addition of both sE2 and sE1E2 has varying affects on both the speed and mobility of CD81 and claudin-1 and that the majority of significant effects observed for claudin-1 are observed at areas of potential cell contact. Finally, we demonstrate that addition of ITX5061 affects the diffusion coefficient of CD81 and CLDN-1 and the amount of mobile SR-BI. Furthermore, the effects on SR-BI are limited to areas of cell contact or exploratory regions. In summary, we present data which we hope will further current knowledge of the activity of these receptors in relation to their role in HCV infection ...
Despite extensive research, many details about the structure and functions of hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins E1 and E2 are not fully understood, and their crystal structure remains to be determined. We applied linker-scanning mutagenesis to generate a panel of 34 mutants, each containing an insertion of 5 aa at a random position within the E1E2 sequence. The mutated glycoproteins were analysed by using a range of assays to identify regions critical for maintaining protein conformation, E1E2 complex assembly, CD81 receptor binding, membrane fusion and infectivity. The results, while supporting previously published data, provide several interesting new findings. Firstly, insertion at amino acid 587 or 596 reduced E1E2 heterodimerization without affecting reactivity with some conformation-sensitive mAbs or with CD81, thus implicating these residues in glycoprotein assembly. Secondly, insertions within a conserved region of E2, between amino acid residues 611 and 631, severely disrupted protein
A Meola, A Sbardellati, B Bruni Ercole, M Cerretani, M Pezzanera, A Ceccacci, A Vitelli, S Levy, A Nicosia, C Traboni, J McKeating, E Scarselli
Human PCSK9 is known to enhance the degradation of membrane-bound receptors such as the hepatocyte low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), ApoER2, and very low-density lipoprotein receptor. Because the LDLR is suspected to be involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry, we also tested whether PCSK9 can affect the levels of CD81, a major HCV receptor. Interestingly, stable expression of PCSK9 or a more active membrane-bound form of the protein (PCSK9-ACE2) resulted in a marked reduction in CD81 and LDLR expression. Therefore, we analyzed the antiviral effect of PCSK9 in vitro using the HCV genotype 2a (JFH1) virus. The results clearly demonstrated that cells expressing PCSK9 or PCSK9-ACE2, but not the ACE2 control protein, were resistant to HCV infection. Furthermore, addition of purified soluble PCSK9 to cell culture supernatant impeded HCV infection in a dose-dependent manner. As expected, HuH7 cells expressing PCSK9-ACE2 were also resistant to infection by HCV pseudoparticles. In addition, we ...
In order to elucidate how Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) interacts with polarized hepatocytes in vivo and how HCV-induced alterations in cellular function contribute to HCV-associated liver disease, a more physiologically relevant hepatocyte culture model is needed. As such, NASA-engineered three-dimensional (3-D) rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors were used in effort to promote differentiation of HCV-permissive Huh7 hepatoma cells. When cultured in the RWV, Huh7 cells became morphologically and transcriptionally distinct from more standard Huh7 two-dimensional (2-D) monolayers. Specifically, RWV-cultured Huh7 cells formed complex, multilayered 3-D aggregates in which Phase I and Phase II xenobiotic drug metabolism genes, as well as hepatocyte-specific transcripts (HNF4α, Albumin, TTR and α1AT), were upregulated compared to 2-D cultured Huh7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that these HCV-permissive 3-D cultured Huh7 cells were more polarized than their 2D counterparts with the expression of
Koh Thai Tapas is an award winning restaurant brand, launched in 2009 by Lennox, along with two other business partners, Nick Billingham and James Hampton. Frustrated by the restaurant scene which, according to Lennox, seemed to either follow the pattern of great food delivered with a stuffy fine dining experience or great ambience accompanied by mediocre food quality, the trio set about creating the Complete Dining Experience (CDE). This, says Lennox, is the core driving factor behind the strategy of the business.
Search for information about Dr. Maitra Tapas, Urologist in Darjeeling, West Bengal and also get directions from an interactive map. Medindia has listing of over 207,000 doctors.
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The talkhealth blogs are one of the leading health blog sites - bringing together the widest range of health subjects from a diverse set of bloggers.
Moving into summer, the yoga practice should shift towards containment and purification of the expansive, creative spring energies of April and May. In June, berries take the place of blossoms and the trees send their energy to be stored in sweet fruit. The bodys internal furnace, shifting to accommodate sunshine and longer days, must be stoked to create energy for summer projects.. In some ways, June is the fullest time of year. The earth is nourished, radiant and pregnant with possibility. This is a time to take a moment and survey the work youve done on your asanas this spring, add up the lessons and look at the whole picture. Does the tree have roots deep enough to bear the summer harvest? Is there a major leak or blockage in the system? Does a poses anatomy support its physiology?. The asana practice purifies the body with heat (tapas). The torso, or "kumba" is considered a container for tapas. With three main bandhas, loosely translated to energetic locks or "valves," the kumba can leak ...
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Guu serves homestyle Japanese food in a loud and electric atmostphere. Food is served from an open kitchen and the dishes are generally tapa sized.
An intimate Spanish restaurant and tapas bar located in the enchanting Elliott Stables, El Faro is the perfect place to enjoy a pre or post show meal and drink. El Faro is renowned for their relaxing... ...
An intimate Spanish restaurant and tapas bar located in the enchanting Elliott Stables, El Faro is the perfect place to enjoy a pre or post show meal and drink. El Faro is renowned for their relaxing... ...
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Two lines of evidence in our current study suggest that surface TEMs can serve as exit gateways for HIV-1. First, most cell surface punctae where either Gag or Env clusters in both HeLa cell and in Jurkat T lymphocytes are also occupied by one of the tetraspanins (Figs. 6-8⇑⇑ and 10). Second, cellular TSG101 and VPS28, the components of the cellular budding machinery responsible for viral egress (Morita and Sundquist, 2004), when recruited to the plasma membrane in cells producing HIV-1, accumulate at CD63-containing TEMs (Fig. 8). Furthermore, we find that distortion of TEM distribution in virus-producing cells by an anti-CD9 antibody (K41) correlates with inhibition of HIV-1 release (unpublished data).. In a study where we used the FlAsH technique for successive dual-color labeling (Gaietta et al., 2002) of Gag in various virus-secreting cell types, we observed localization of newly synthesized Gag at distinct areas on the plasma membrane (Rudner et al., 2005). We also documented that ...
Tetraspanins function as molecular organizers of multi-protein complexes by assembling primary complexes of a relatively low mass into extensive networks involved in cellular signalling. In this paper, we summarize our studies performed on the tetraspanin D6.1A/CO-029/TM4SF3 expressed by rat carcinoma cells. Primary complexes of D6.1A are almost indistinguishable from complexes isolated with anti-CD9 antibody. Indeed, both tetraspanins directly associate with each other and with a third tetraspanin, CD81. Moreover, FPRP (prostaglandin F2α receptor-regulatory protein)/EWI-F/CD9P-1), an Ig superfamily member that has been described to interact with CD9 and CD81, is also a prominent element in D6.1A complexes. Primary complexes isolated with D6.1A-specific antibody are clearly different from complexes containing the tetraspanin CD151. CD151 is found to interact only with D6.1A if milder conditions, i.e. lysis with LubrolWX instead of Brij96, are applied to disrupt cellular membranes. CD151 ...
QRAE 3 PGM-2510 LEL Diffusion CSA LEL / SO₂ / CO / O₂ - Li-ion / Non-Wireless. QRAE 3 is a versatile, rugged, one- to four-sensor pumped or diffusion gas monitor that provides continuous exposure monitoring of oxygen (O2), combustibles, and toxic gases, including hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for workers and responders in hazardous environments ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem and a significant risk factor in developing liver associated diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV has affected 270 million people worldwide of which 10 million belongs to Pakistan [1]. Hundreds of HCV cases are reported each year in Pakistan and according to the prevalence analysis it is clear that HCV genotype 3a is most common in all provinces of Pakistan [2] except in Balochistan where the most prevalent subtype is 1a [3]. Due to six genotypes and their variability, HCV vaccine development has always been a challenge and for this, structural and non- structural proteins are being targeted to develop an effective vaccine.. HCV is a plus strand virus having a genomic RNA and viral envelope proteins, namely E1 and E2 [4] that are anchored in a host derived lipid protein membrane surrounding the nucleocapsid composed of several copies of core protein. E1 and E2 have molecular weights of 33-35 and 70-72 kDa, respectively [5-7]. E2 is ...
How to Do the Tapas Technique in Acupressure. Part of the series: Acupressure For Emotional Issues & More. The Tapas Technique is designed to use acupressure to clear out the root cause of emotional trauma. Remove past pains and torments with help from a doctor of Oriental medicine in this free video.
Book now at Tapas Valencia in Chicago, explore menu, see photos and read 1388 reviews: Tapas Valencia was recommended by a friend. She always on point with restaurants. She did not fail again. Tapas Valencia was great, the food, drinks, a...
I was a disciple of Olea in the early days. They emerged as a fresh face with innovative and flexible fare, a great space and vibe. The food was always executed well - clean, on the money. Tapas were really good. But recently the food seemed sloppy, o ...
Book now at Tapas Valencia in Chicago, explore menu, see photos and read 1405 reviews: Great time. People were friendly from walking in the door to leaving. Definitely going back.
Order Tetraspanin 6 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. and more. Compare Tetraspanin 6 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
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You may want to look at making little appetizers or tapas they are easy to make and can be very romantic if you serve them to one another. Regardless of what the main course turns out to be you could
Erityisesti promo-lahjaksi suunnitellut, Power Bank matkalaturimme, USB autolaturimme sekä Induktiolaturimme ovat loistava tapa esitellä yritystänne seuraavilla messuillanne tai muissa asiakastapahtumissa. Kaikki mallimme ovat yksityiskohtaisesti painatettavissa logollanne tai sloganillanne. ja ovat yhteensopivia lähes kaikkien matkapuhelimien sekä tablettien kanssa.
Japanese ‘dude food’, Indian tapas and plant protein look set to become the big dishes of 2018 according to a new report.
Imagine an evening in warm, sunny Spain, relaxing at an outdoor café with a tapas plate and a glass of fruity Rioja. This "Little Bit of Spain" collection will transport your spirit to the land of La Mancha. Included are these fine items: ...
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Tetraspanins are a superfamily of glycoproteins that function as organisers of membranes by clustering with each other to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, into which certain other receptors and signalling proteins are recruited and regulated. Tetraspanin microdomains have been implicated in a range of biological processes including cell signalling, adhesion, intracellular trafficking, cell-cell fusion and viral entry. The tetraspanin CD37 was recently shown to negatively regulate the C-type lectin-like receptor dectin-1, which is essential for innate immune responses to fungal pathogens. The aim of this thesis was to firstly develop a cell line model system to investigate the mechanism by which tetraspanins inhibit dectin-1, and to secondly extend this work to the dectin-1-related CLEC-2, which is essential for platelet thrombus formation and stability. Using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay in the Jurkat T-cell line, transient over-expression ...
To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a regulatory function of tetraspanin CD151 in mast cells. Moreover, it is one of the first reports, to our knowledge, addressing the signaling mechanism of modulation of mast cell activation by any member of the tetraspanin family. In the present study, we demonstrated that CD151 deficiency exacerbated late-phase allergic inflammation in mice in vivo and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production by cultured BMMCs ex vivo. Moreover, BMMCs deficient in CD151 showed enhanced and sustained FcεRI-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation compared with WT cells. Conversely, CD151 deficiency had no effect on mast cell degranulation or the acute phase of PCA. Thus, our data demonstrate that the tetraspanin CD151 functions to selectively inhibit late-phase anaphylaxis responses and the de novo synthesis of cytokines by activated mast cells.. Mast cells possess mechanisms for fine tuning cellular activation that allow initial FcεRI-mediated signaling ...
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Virology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Previous work demonstrated that egg surface CD9 is essential for sperm-egg fusion (Kaji et al., 2000; Le Naour et al., 2000; Miyado et al., 2000), but nothing is known about how CD9 acts in this system. Egg CD9 could bind in trans to a counter-receptor on sperm as suggested for CD81 on astrocytes interacting with neurons (Kelic et al., 2001). Alternatively, CD9 may function by cis interactions on the egg surface with other egg surface molecules. One egg protein suggested to interact in a physiologically significant way with CD9 is the integrin α6β1 (Chen et al., 1999; Miyado et al., 2000). However, eggs lacking α6β1 fuse normally with sperm, so a role for this integrin in gamete fusion is in doubt (Miller et al., 2000).. The anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody KMC8 blocks sperm-egg fusion (Chen et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2000), and we found that KMC8 binds to constructs containing CD9 EC2, suggesting a role for EC2 in the fusion process. The EC2 constructs, preincubated with sperm, had no ...
Mesalam, Ahmed Atef and Desombere, Isabelle and Farhoudi, Ali and Van Houtte, Freya and Verhoye, Lieven and Ball, Jonathan and Dubuisson, Jean and Foung, Steven K.H. and Patel, Arvind H. and Persson, Mats A.A. and Leroux-Roels, Geert and Meuleman, Philip (2018) Development and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody targeting the N-terminal region of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1. Virology, 514 . pp. 30-41. ISSN 0042-6822 Desombere, Isabelle and Mesalam, Ahmed Atef and Urbanowicz, Richard A. and Van Houtte, Freya and Verhoye, Lieven and Keck, Zhen-Yong and Farhoudi, Ali and Vercauteren, Koen and Weening, Karin E. and Baumert, Thomas F. and Patel, Arvind H. and Foung, Steven K.H. and Ball, Jonathan and Leroux-Roels, Geert and Meuleman, Philip (2017) A novel neutralizing human monoclonal antibody broadly abrogates hepatitis C virus infection in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Research, 148 . pp. 53-64. ISSN 1872-9096 Khera, Tanvi and Todt, Daniel and Vercauteren, Koen and ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission takes place primarily through cell-cell contacts known as virological synapses. Formation of these transient adhesions between infected and uninfected cells can lead to transmission of viral particles followed by separation of the cells. Alternatively, the cells can fuse, thus forming a syncytium. Tetraspanins, small scaffolding proteins that are enriched in HIV-1 virions and actively recruited to viral assembly sites, have been found to negatively regulate HIV-1 Env-induced cell-cell fusion. How these transmembrane proteins inhibit membrane fusion, however, is currently not known. As a first step towards elucidating the mechanism of fusion repression by tetraspanins, e.g., CD9 and CD63, we sought to identify the stage of the fusion process during which they operate. Using a chemical epistasis approach, four fusion inhibitors were employed in tandem with CD9 overexpression. Cells overexpressing CD9 were found to be sensitized to inhibitors
CD9, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily of proteins participates in the regulation of cell adhesive functions such as cell migration. The mechanisms underlying CD9 mediated cell migration are not known. In the current study, we investigated the molecular basis for the CD9 promoted cell migration. Our findings show that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors, wortamannin and LY294002 inhibited CD9 promoted cell motility in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In contrast, inhibitors targeting protein kinase C or mitogen-activated protein kinase had no effect on CD9 driven CHO cell motility. Furthermore, inhibition of PI-3K activity in CHO cells by dominant/negative PI-3K cDNA transfection abolished CD9 mediated pro-migratory effects. Consistent with these observations, CD9 expression in CHO cells and in the rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells induced enhanced phosphorylation of PI-3K substrate, Akt. In CHO cells, CD9 expression also enhanced protein levels and tyrosine phosphorylation
The ability of cells to migrate is important for development, neurite formation, immune function, and other processes necessary for the life of an organism. However, the gaining of an inappropriate migratory function, as well as, uncontrolled proliferation and loss of tumor suppression, can lead to cancer. Migration is a multi-step process involving a variety of proteins and other cellular molecules. The basic steps in migration involve: a) filopodia extension and adherence to the extracellular matrix; b) movement of the cell body forward; and c) rear detachment and retraction. (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996) Interactions between tetraspanins and integrins are important in cell adhesion and cell signaling processes in migration. CD9, a member of the tetraspanin family, plays multiple roles in migration, mediating processes like adhesion and filopodia extension though interactions with integrins and other migration associated molecules. One possible model indicates that once an integrin, like ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Expression of OCLN (PPP1R115) in vagina tissue. Antibody staining with HPA005933, CAB013075, CAB068212, CAB068213 and CAB068214 in immunohistochemistry.
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Las Ramblas, a new Spanish style tapas bar and restaurant in Bearsden, on the north side of Glasgow, has featured Hamilton Litestats Digital Mercury lighting control system to provide an effective scene setting solution that is designed to enhanc...
Most tapas bars in Spain serve Sherry kidneys, though at home it can be served with rice or pasta as a main meal. You can add sliced mushrooms to increase the number of portions.
Article source: Ean De Lessard, Designer Créatif Since the recent opening of Japanese bistro Kinoya on Saint-Denis Street, the Irasshaïmase salutes have not stopped in this izakaya, the Japanese answer to the tapas bar. Modern yet imbued with ...
Although tetraspanins are considered to be organizers (in cis) of cellular membranes, their overall job description remains relatively vague. One of the few specific functions that have been clearly established for several members of the tetraspanin family is their regulation (positive or negative) of membrane fusion processes. For example, one of the tetraspanins that we identified to be present at HIV-1 release sites, CD9, is absolutely required for sperm-egg fusion. Although it remains unknown how exactly tetraspanins control fusion processes, it is thought that they do so by manipulating the interactions of fusogenic proteins with other membrane proteins (integral or peripheral). Given these fusion regulation functions, and given that viral infections require the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, we reasoned that tetraspanins might also regulate virus-mediated fusion processes. We thus started to analyse whether overexpression (either transient or stable) or down-regulation of ...
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Because of comfortable funds in the Early mauris, in notable, own free tapas das kochbuch of registrations and care disciplines should write loved. been by Newgen Knowledge Works Pvt Ltd, India Printed and been in the United Kingdom List of knights K. Kreft; slideshow; research; j; officer; University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia M. Lunder; block; year; founder; aliasing; University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia S. Ege University, Izmir, Turkey I. Pravst; depression; product; Understanding; cracker; Nutrition Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia T. Webb; quality; family; g; neck; University of East London, London, UK Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition 1; global Actions: A family-based number Edited by C. Stringer 2; Yoghurt: user and market A. Robinson active; Aging disease primary: tutorials and confidence P. Bender 5; cancer of competitive foods in salvage Edited by N. Crosby new; discipline moves: Elements and scholarship Special by C. Purchase 7; readers ...
Source of mAbs. mAbs CBH-4B, CBH-2, CBH-5, CBH-7 (18), HC-1 (19), HC84.22, HC84.26 (12), HC33.4, and HC33.8 (20) were generated in the Foung laboratory. mAbs AR1A, AR2A, AR3A, AR3B, AR3C, AR3D (17), AR4A, AR5A (16) were a gift from Mansun Law (The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA).. Source of plasma. Plasma samples were obtained from the BBAASH (37) cohort (Andrea Cox, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine). Samples from each of the 18 HCV-infected subjects who had previously shown at least 50% neutralization by 1:100 plasma dilution of at least 2 HCVpp in the 19 HCVpp panel were selected.. Production of HCVpp library. Generation and validation of a diverse library of 19 genotype 1 HCVpp and its use for quantitation of neutralizing breadth has been previously described (30). The HCVpp panel used in this study is identical, except that 2 E1E2 clones, 1b20 and 1a114, were replaced by related clones 1b21 and 1a116, which gave more consistent HCVpp infectivity results. ...
Vern offered us a drink in the massive foyer. I requested a glass of Riesling wine. Rookie. Vern suggested a wine that was paired with the first course of the night - either a white or red version depending on my preference. I enjoyed the white wine, and chose to stick with it rather than switch varieties as often as we switched courses. Lets not push my adventurous side. Spread across the kitchen table were several cheeses, a variety of crackers, samples of fig or orange preserves, honey mustard dipping sauce, grapes, and very thin slices of cured ham. Apparently this was tapas. Since Im not that cultured, I wasnt aware that these were tapas dishes. Delicious. I sampled as much as I dared. The remaining courses were groupings of unusual foods paired with flavors and sauces on tiny plates. Each course was announced as it was beautifully displayed in neat rows on the granite island. Each guest hesitated before casually selecting an art project-like plate. Our palates were introduced to a food ...
Lisa and I went to Cesar again today, and this time I *loved* it. Perhaps my taste buds just needed a chance to adjust to Spanish food ... or perhaps its just that we ordered different dishes this time. Heres what we had: - a heirloom tomato salad with cucumber, watermelon, cilantro, mint, pine…
human CD231 antigen: tetraspanin protein; has the unique potential to modulate HIV-1 infectivity through incorporation into released HIV-1 particles
Mouse monoclonal TAPA1 antibody [1D6] validated for WB, IP, IHC, FuncS, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent…
Best hidden gem near school Tapas Teatro. I passed it all the time but never knew what it was or went inside until another UB classmate referred me. Hands down one of my favorite places to eat, in Midtown/Station North. Best events during the year I love the Student Events Board's Welcome Back...
Markham is known to be a city of diverse food offerings from Chinese to tapas, but it also has some of the most delicious food spots tucked away in malls. Markham residents and food bloggers Jessy an...
Serie: Coleccionable Ultimate Guión: Mark Millar Dibujo: Bryan Hitch Editorial: Panini Cómics Páginas: Libros en tapa dura. 232 páginas. Idioma: Castellano 
Picasanya simple dan ga ribet..Thanks alot ya Lel, selama ini aku pakai photoshop, karena aku masih belum canggih hasilnya ga begitu bagus kalo pakai photoshop..thanks ya dengan picasa... editingnya simple dan ga ribet:). ...
The tetraspanins are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins with diverse functions and can form extended microdomains within the plasma membrane in conjunction with partner proteins, which probably includes receptors for bacterial adhesins. Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningococcal disease, attaches to host nasopharyngeal epithelial cells via type IV pili and opacity (Opa) proteins. We examined the role of tetraspanin function in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to epithelial cells. Tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD151 were expressed by HEC-1-B and DETROIT 562 cells. Coincubation of cells with antibodies against all three tetraspanin molecules used individually or in combination, with recombinant tetraspanin extracellular domains (EC2), or with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) significantly reduced adherence of Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, recombinant CD81, a different tetraspanin, had no effect on meningococcal adherence. Antitetraspanin antibodies reduced the adherence ...
Cell Rep. 2015 Aug 4;12(5):864-78. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.06.063. Epub 2015 Jul 23. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt

CD81 antigen (P60033) | InterPro | EMBL-EBICD81 antigen (P60033) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/protein/P60033

CD81 Antigen (*) - CAGSCD81 Antigen (*) - CAGS

To contribute with your findings to the content of this record, please fill the CTGA Database Information Submission Form and email it, along with supportive documents, to [email protected] ...
more infohttp://www.cags.org.ae/ctga/details.aspx?id=1769&pg=12&se=Latest

cd81  cd81  mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit Gentaur Molecular Productscd81 cd81 mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit Gentaur Molecular Products

... order cd81 cd81 mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit , How to use: cd81 cd81 mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit , suppo ... cd81 cd81 mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit , ... Rat CD81 antigen(CD81) ELISA kit. Guinea pig CD81 antigen(CD81 ... Bioluminescent Imaging pCT-CD81-GFP (pCMV, Exosome_Secretory, CD81 Tetraspanin Tag). CD81 Primary Antibody, CD81, Species: ... Bioluminescent Imaging pCT-CD81-RFP (pCMV, Exosome_Secretory, CD81 Tetraspanin Tag). Bioluminescent Imaging pCT-CD81-RFP (pCMV ...
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... order cd81 cd81 speciesmouse mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit speciesmouse , How to use: c ... cd81 cd81 speciesmouse mouse cd81 antigen cd81 elisa kit speciesmouse , ... Bioluminescent Imaging pCT-CD81-RFP (pCMV, Exosome_Secretory, CD81 Tetraspanin Tag). CD81 Primary Antibody, CD81, Species: ... Bioluminescent Imaging pCT-CD81-GFP (pCMV, Exosome_Secretory, CD81 Tetraspanin Tag). Bioluminescent Imaging pCT-CD81-RFP (pCMV ...
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CD81 antigenCD81 antigen

Associates with CLDN1 and the CLDN1-CD81 receptor complex is essential for HCV entry into host cell. The protein encoded by ...
more infohttps://pharos.nih.gov/idg/targets/P60033

CD81 Gene - GeneCards | CD81 Protein | CD81 AntibodyCD81 Gene - GeneCards | CD81 Protein | CD81 Antibody

CD81 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Protein details for CD81 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot). Protein Symbol:. P60033-CD81_HUMAN. Recommended name:. CD81 antigen ... GeneCards Summary for CD81 Gene CD81 (CD81 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD81 include ... No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CD81 Gene Domains & Families for CD81 Gene Gene Families for CD81 Gene. HGNC:. ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=975

Comparison of structural templates used for modeling th | Open-iComparison of structural templates used for modeling th | Open-i

Antigens, CD81/metabolism. *Binding Sites. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Survival/drug effects ... The locations of amino acid residues that have been reported to be important for E2 binding to CD81 are marked with yellow ... The locations of amino acid residues that have been reported to be important for E2 binding to CD81 are marked with yellow ... One compound, 281816, blocked E2 binding to CD81 and inhibited HCV infection in a genotype-independent manner with IC50s ...
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ENSDARG00000036080 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger InstituteENSDARG00000036080 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger Institute

CD81 molecule [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1701]. Mouse Orthologue:. Cd81. Mouse Description:. CD81 antigen Gene [Source:MGI Symbol; ... cd81. Ensembl ID:. ENSDARG00000036080. ZFIN ID:. ZDB-GENE-000831-5. Description:. CD81 antigen [Source:RefSeq peptide;Acc:NP_ ...
more infohttps://www.sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000036080

Search results for: Arthrobotrys oligosporaSearch results for: 'Arthrobotrys oligospora'

Cd81 Antibody - PE Conjugated (OASA00148) Protein Name:CD81 antigen Catalog #:OASA00148 Type: mAb ...
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ENSDARG00000044990 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger InstituteENSDARG00000044990 - Zebrafish Mutation Project - Wellcome Sanger Institute

Cd81, Cd9, Tspan2. Mouse Descriptions:. CD81 antigen Gene [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1096398]. CD9 antigen Gene [Source:MGI ... CD81, CD9, TSPAN2. Human Descriptions:. CD81 molecule [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1701]. CD9 molecule [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:1709] ...
more infohttps://www.sanger.ac.uk/sanger/Zebrafish_Zmpgene/ENSDARG00000044990

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Lymphocyte antigen CD81 (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Lymphocyte antigen CD81 (substance). ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=103140005

anti-CD8 antibody | Rat CD8 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone YTS169.4)-NP 001074579.1anti-CD8 antibody | Rat CD8 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone YTS169.4)-NP 001074579.1

T-cell surface glycoprotein Lyt-2; CD_antigen: CD8a. Protein Family. CD81 antigen ... Antigen Processing And Presentation Pathway Diagram. Antigen Processing And Presentation Pathway antibodies. Antigen Processing ... Rat anti Mouse CD8 antibody, clone YTS169.4 recognizes the murine CD8 cell surface antigen, expressed by a subset of T ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD8 alpha chain; Lyt-2.1 lymphocyte differentiation antigen (AA at 100); T-cell surface ...
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anti-CD8 antibody | Mouse anti-Cat (Cat) CD8 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone FCD8)-AAA52283.1anti-CD8 antibody | Mouse anti-Cat (Cat) CD8 Monoclonal Antibody (Clone FCD8)-AAA52283.1

CD_antigen: CD8b. Protein Family CD81 antigen UniProt Gene Name CD8B [Similar Products] ... The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigens displayed by an antigen ... Antigen Processing And Presentation Pathway Diagram. Antigen Processing And Presentation Pathway antibodies. Antigen Processing ... Antigen. Biochemical. cDNA Clone. siRNA. Peptide. Rec./Purified Protein. Custom ELISA Kit. Custom Protein. Custom Antibody. ...
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CD81 Antibody (Monoclonal, Eat2)
		        
	CD81 Antibody (Monoclonal, Eat2)

CD81 Monoclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation ... Protein Aliases: 26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA-1; CD 81 antigen; CD81; CD81 antigen; CD81 antigen (target of ... CD81 is a 26kD cell surface glycoprotein that is also known as TAPA-1. In rodents CD81 is expressed at much higher levels on ... Cite CD81 Monoclonal Antibody (Eat2). The following antibody was used in this experiment: CD81 Monoclonal Antibody (Eat2) from ...
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Anti-TAPA1 antibody [1D6] - Low Endotoxin (ab35026)Anti-TAPA1 antibody [1D6] - Low Endotoxin (ab35026)

ab35026 recognises CD81, a 26kD cell surface antigen and a member of the tetraspanin family. ... Defects in CD81 are the cause of immunodeficiency common variable type 6 (CVID6) [MIM:613496]; also called antibody deficiency ... Ab35026 is a potent CD81 reagent, induces homotypic adhesion and has powerful anti proliferative effects. Endotoxin Level: ... Ab35026 is a potent CD81 reagent, induces homotypic adhesion and has powerful anti proliferative effects. Endotoxin Level: ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/tapa1-antibody-1d6-low-endotoxin-ab35026.html

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

Cd81. CD81 antigen. 0.011. Fuca1. fucosidase, alpha-L- 1, tissue. 0.011. Wnk1. WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1. 0.011. ... ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila)-like 1 (Hu antigen R). 0.011. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/mouse-context-global/5103/?gene=63045

Anti-CD81 antibody [1D6] KO Tested (ab23505) | AbcamAnti-CD81 antibody [1D6] KO Tested (ab23505) | Abcam

Knockout Tested Mouse monoclonal CD81 antibody [1D6]. Validated in IP, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Chimpanzee. ... ab23505 recognises human CD81, a 26kD cell surface antigen also known as TAPA-1, and a member of the tetraspanin family. ... Defects in CD81 are the cause of immunodeficiency common variable type 6 (CVID6) [MIM:613496]; also called antibody deficiency ... Overlay histogram showing HAP1 wildtype (green line) and HAP1-CD81 knockout cells (red line) stained with ab23505. The cells ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/cd81-antibody-1d6-ab23505.html

Genatlas sheetGenatlas sheet

cell differentiation antigen CD81,identified by monoclonal antibody JS-64. * CD81 antigen (target of antiproliferative antibody ... CD81-HHEX binding (when GPC3 binds to CD81, CD81-HHEX binding decreases, resulting in nuclear translocation of HHEX and ... CD19 functions in a complex with CD21, CD81, and CD225 to signal with the B cell receptor upon antigen recognition ... IFITM5 forms a complex with FKBP11-CD81-PTGFRN INTERACTION DNA RNA small molecule protein * RNF128 bound to the luminal/ ...
more infohttp://genatlas.medecine.univ-paris5.fr/fiche.php?symbol=CD81

Cell-Surface Proteomics Identifies Lineage-Specific Markers of Embryo-Derived Stem CellsCell-Surface Proteomics Identifies Lineage-Specific Markers of Embryo-Derived Stem Cells

Cd81 antigen, and Pvrl3 for ES cells; Cdcp1 and Cd40 antigen for TS cells; Pdgfrα, Dpp4, and Robo2 for XEN cells; Cd40 antigen ... and Cd81 antigen for ES cells; Notch3, Cd40 antigen, Cdh10, Sirpa, Cd47 antigen, and Cdh2 for EpiSC (Figures 3A and 3B). ... Using a panel of six antibodies (Pecam1, Cd81, and Pvrl3 for ES cells; Dpp4, Pdgfrα, and Robo2 for XEN cells) we observed by ... Cd81, Plxna4, and Pvrl3 localized to the cell surface of EPI with no signal detected in PE or TE (Figure 4A). XEN cell proteins ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3405530/?lang=en-ca

CD81 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - ÍslandCD81 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Ísland

On B cells CD81 is part of a complex with CD21, CD19, and Leu13. Similarly on T cells CD81 associates with CD4 and CD8 and ... CD81 is expressed by epithelial and endothelial cells, T and B cells, as well as natural killer (NK) cells. Additional ... Clone REA513 recognizes the human CD81 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein also known as TAPA-1. It is a member of the ... Clone REA513 recognizes the human CD81 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein also known as TAPA-1. It is a member of the ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/IS-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd81-antibodies-human-rea513-1-50.html

CD81 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - DeutschlandCD81 antibodies, human - Primary antibodies - Antibodies - MACS Flow Cytometry - Products - Miltenyi Biotec - Deutschland

On B cells CD81 is part of a complex with CD21, CD19, and Leu13. Similarly on T cells CD81 associates with CD4 and CD8 and ... CD81 is expressed by epithelial and endothelial cells, T and B cells, as well as natural killer (NK) cells. Additional ... Clone REA513 recognizes the human CD81 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein also known as TAPA-1. It is a member of the ... Clone REA513 recognizes the human CD81 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein also known as TAPA-1. It is a member of the ...
more infohttps://www.miltenyibiotec.com/DE-en/products/macs-flow-cytometry/antibodies/primary-antibodies/cd81-antibodies-human-rea513-1-50.html

产品类别 多克隆抗体 | 博士德生物 BOSTER Biological Technology co.ltd产品类别 多克隆抗体 | 博士德生物 BOSTER Biological Technology co.ltd

CD81 antigen; 26 kDa cell surface protein TAPA-1; Target of the antiproliferative antibody 1; Tetraspanin-28; Tspan-28; CD81; ... T-cell antigen CD7; GP40; T-cell leukemia antigen; T-cell surface antigen Leu-9; TP41; CD7; CD7 ... CD209 antigen; C-type lectin domain family 4 member L; Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin 1; DC-SIGN; DC- ... T-cell surface glycoprotein CD5; Lymphocyte antigen T1/Leu-1; CD5; CD5; LEU1 ...
more infohttp://boster.com.cn/product/index/cate/43.html?cate=43&page=6

SWISS-MODEL | Workspace | Model Results | AuesxcSWISS-MODEL | Workspace | Model Results | Auesxc

CD81 antigen. 3few.1.A. 7.69. monomer. HHblits. X-ray. 2.45Å. 0.23. 0.08. Colicin S4. ...
more infohttp://dockingfiles.umh.es/bcwall/O07107/report.html

Frontiers | Assessing Neuronal and Astrocyte Derived Exosomes From Individuals With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury for Markers of...Frontiers | Assessing Neuronal and Astrocyte Derived Exosomes From Individuals With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury for Markers of...

... with verification of the CD81 antigen standard curve using purified human recombinant CD81 antigen (Origene Technologies, Inc ... CD81 (Figure 1D). Similarly, plasma NDE levels for CD81 were not statistically different between the two patient populations ( ... The mean value for all determinations of CD81 in each assay group was set at 1.00, and the relative values for each sample were ... 116121 ± 4969 FITC+ events). Plasma NDE and ADE concentrations of exosome marker, CD81 were not statistically different between ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2019.01005/full
  • Diseases associated with CD81 include Immunodeficiency, Common Variable, 6 and Cd81-Related Common Variable Immune Deficiency . (genecards.org)
  • Ascitis exosomes are a natural and new source of tumour-rejection antigens, opening up new avenues for immunisation against cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Tumour antigens on tap. (nih.gov)
  • CD81 interacts directly with immunoglobulin superfamily member 8 (IGSF8, CD316) and CD36. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex is called the B cell coreceptor complex for such sensitivity enhancement to the antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computational docking of a diverse library of 1,715 small molecules to this model led to the identification of a set of 34 ligands predicted to bind near conserved amino acid residues involved in the HCV E2: CD81 interaction. (nih.gov)
  • The locations of amino acid residues that have been reported to be important for E2 binding to CD81 are marked with yellow stars. (nih.gov)
  • A second signal, the co-stimulatory signal, is antigen nonspecific and is provided by the interaction between co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the membrane of APC and the T cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Engagement of CD81 lowers the signaling threshold required to trigger T-Cell\CD3 mediated proviral DNA in CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Human CD81. (abcam.com)
  • CD81 is required for Plasmodium vivax sporozoite entry into human hepatocytes and for Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite entry into murine hepatocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One compound, 281816, blocked E2 binding to CD81 and inhibited HCV infection in a genotype-independent manner with IC50's ranging from 2.2 µM to 4.6 µM. (nih.gov)