Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.NAD+ NucleosidaseAntigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell SeparationAntigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules by salivary gland epithelial cells in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (1/1927)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of B7 costimulatory molecules in the lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland (SG) biopsy tissues and in SG epithelial cell lines derived from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in minor SGs obtained from 11 patients with SS and 10 disease control patients with nonspecific sialadenitis and in cultured SG epithelial cell lines obtained from minor SGs from 15 SS patients and 15 control patients. B7.1 and B7.2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by SG epithelial cell lines was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In biopsy tissues from SS patients, but not control patients, ductal and acinar epithelial cells showed increased expression of both B7.1 and B7.2. Intense spontaneous B7.1 protein expression (as well as HLA-ABC, but not B7.2 or HLA-DR) was also found in 73% of SG epithelial cell lines from SS patients versus 13% of those from control patients (P < 0.01). Interferon-y treatment induced, or up-regulated, B7.1, B7.2, and HLA-DR expression in all SG epithelial cell lines tested. B7.1 and B7.2 expression by SG epithelial cell lines was also verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Human SG epithelia are intrinsically capable of expressing B7 proteins upon activation. In SS patients, the expression of B7 molecules by SG epithelial tissues and by SG epithelial cell lines indicates the activated status of SG epithelial cells in this disorder and, possibly, their capacity for presenting antigens to T cells.  (+info)

Cellular and molecular characterization of the scurfy mouse mutant. (2/1927)

Mice hemizygous (Xsf/Y) for the X-linked mutation scurfy (sf) develop a severe and rapidly fatal lymphoproliferative disease mediated by CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes. We have undertaken phenotypic and functional studies to more accurately identify the immunologic pathway(s) affected by this important mutation. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphoid cell populations reveal that scurfy syndrome is characterized by changes in several phenotypic parameters, including an increase in Mac-1+ cells and a decrease in B220+ cells, changes that may result from the production of extremely high levels of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage CSF by scurfy T cells. Scurfy T cells also exhibit strong up-regulation of cell surface Ags indicative of in vivo activation, including CD69, CD25, CD80, and CD86. Both scurfy and normal T cells are responsive to two distinct signals provided by the TCR and by ligation of CD28; scurfy cells, however, are hyperresponsive to TCR ligation and exhibit a decreased requirement for costimulation through CD28 relative to normal controls. This hypersensitivity may result, in part, from increased costimulation through B7-1 and B7-2, whose expression is up-regulated on scurfy T cells. Although the specific defect leading to this hyperactivation has not been identified, we also demonstrate that scurfy T cells are less sensitive than normal controls to inhibitors of tyrosine kinases such as genistein and herbimycin A, and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A. One interpretation of our data would suggest that the scurfy mutation results in a defect, which interferes with the normal down-regulation of T cell activation.  (+info)

Requirement for nuclear factor-kappaB activation by a distinct subset of CD40-mediated effector functions in B lymphocytes. (3/1927)

CD40 stimulation, which is crucial for generating an effective T-dependent humoral response, leads to the activation of transcription factors NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), AP-1 (activator protein-1), and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB). However, which CD40-mediated B cell functions actually require activation of specific transcription factors is unknown. We examined the causal relationship between NF-kappaB activation and CD40 effector functions by evaluating CD40 functions in the presence of an inducible mutant inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) superrepressor. IkappaBalphaAA inhibited nuclear translocation of multiple NF-kappaB dimers without the complicating effect of depriving cells of NF-kappaB during development. This approach complements studies that use mice genetically deficient in single or multiple NF-kappaB subunits. Interestingly, only a subset of CD40 effector functions was found to require NF-kappaB activation. Both CD40-induced Ab secretion and B7-1 up-regulation were completely abrogated by expression of IkappaBalphaAA. Surprisingly, up-regulation of Fas, CD23, and ICAM-1 was partially independent, and up-regulation of LFA-1 was completely independent, of CD40-induced NF-kappaB activation. For the first time, it is clear that distinct transcription factors are required for the dynamic regulation of CD40 functions.  (+info)

Experimental murine schistosomiasis in the absence of B7 costimulatory molecules: reversal of elicited T cell cytokine profile and partial inhibition of egg granuloma formation. (4/1927)

The granulomatous inflammation in infection with the helminth Schistosoma mansoni represents a cellular hypersensitivity reaction mediated by, and dependent upon, MHC class II-restricted CD4+ Th cells sensitized to parasite egg Ags. The current work examines the role and significance of the B7:CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in providing the costimulation necessary for the activation of these pathogenic T cells. In vitro T cell responses in B7-1-/- mice, 7-8 wk postinfection, were no different from wild-type controls, but the absence of B7-2 molecules resulted in a decrease in egg Ag-induced proliferation with increased IFN-gamma production. Both B7-1-/- and B7-2-/- mice exhibited intact granuloma formation. In contrast, CD4+ Th cells from B7-1/2 double-deficient mice displayed a dramatic loss of proliferative capacity upon stimulation with egg Ag. Most strikingly, these T cells secreted only IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 and IL-10, a pattern entirely opposite to that displayed by wild-type controls. Despite these major differences in T cell reactivity, B7-1/2-/- mice had only a limited reduction of granuloma size and fibrosis, without appreciable difference in cellular composition. These results show that substantial granuloma formation can occur under conditions of limited T cell expansion and restricted Th1-type cytokine production. They also support the notion that the combined effect of B7 signaling is not as critical for Th1 cell activation as it is for the development of the Th2 dominant environment characteristic of the evolving schistosome infection in H-2b mice.  (+info)

The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (5/1927)

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

B7-2 expressed on EL4 lymphoma suppresses antitumor immunity by an interleukin 4-dependent mechanism. (6/1927)

For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the "second signal" pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4-B7-1 cells are completely rejected in syngeneic mice. Unlike EL4-B7-1 cells, we find that EL4-B7-2 cells are not rejected but progressively grow in the mice. A B7-1- and B7-2-EL4 double transfectant was generated by introducing B7-2 cDNA into the EL4-B7-1 tumor line that regressed in vivo. The EL4-B7-1+B7-2 double transfectant was not rejected when implanted into syngeneic mice but progressively grew to produce tumors. The double transfectant EL4 cells could costimulate T cell proliferation that could be blocked by anti-B7-1 antibodies, anti-B7-2 antibodies, or hCTLA4 immunoglobulin, showing that the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules expressed on the EL4 cells were functional. In vivo, treatment of mice implanted with double-transfected EL4 cells with anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody resulted in tumor rejection. Furthermore, the EL4-B7-2 and EL4-B7-1+B7-2 cells, but not the wild-type EL4 cells, were rejected in interleukin 4 (IL-4) knockout mice. Our data suggests that B7-2 expressed on some T cell tumors inhibits development of antitumor immunity, and IL-4 appears to play a critical role in abrogation of the antitumor immune response.  (+info)

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 inhibits interleukin 4 production by naive T cells. (7/1927)

The type of cytokines produced during T cell responses determines susceptibility or resistance to many pathogens and influences the development of autoimmunity and allergy. To define the role of individual accessory molecules in cytokine production during primary immune responses, Drosophila cell lines expressing murine major histocompatibility complex class II molecules with defined combinations of accessory molecules were used to present peptide antigen to naive T cell receptor transgenic T cells. Significantly, expression of B7.1 or B7.2 without additional accessory molecules led to very high production of interleukin (IL)-4, which contrasted with minimal IL-4 production elicited by conventional antigen presenting cells (APC). However, coexpression of ICAM-1 and B7 on Drosophila APC induced little IL-4, suggesting an inhibitory role for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In support of this idea, stimulation of T cell receptor transgenic T cells with peptide presented by splenic APC devoid of ICAM-1 (from ICAM-1-deficient mice) led to high IL-4 production. Thus, the level of IL-4 production by naive CD4(+) T cells during typical primary responses appears to be controlled, at least in part, by T-APC interactions involving ICAM-1.  (+info)

Regression of intracerebral rat glioma isografts by therapeutic subcutaneous immunization with interferon-gamma, interleukin-7, or B7-1-transfected tumor cells. (8/1927)

Progress in the definition of the roles of various costimulators and cytokines in determining the type and height of immune responses has made it important to explore genetically altered tumor cells expressing such molecules for therapeutic immunizations. We have studied the effect of therapeutic subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations on the growth of preexisting intracerebral brain tumor isografts in the rat. Transfectant glioma cell clones expressing either rat interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), rat interleukin-7 (IL-7), or rat B7-1 were selected. After irradiation (80 Gy) the clones were used for immunization (administered in up to four s.c. doses in a hind leg over 14-day intervals starting 1 day after the intracranial isografting of the parental tumor). Significant growth inhibition of the intracerebral parental tumors was induced by transfectants expressing IFN-gamma and IL-7, respectively. The strongest effect was observed with IFN-gamma-expressing cells, resulting in cures in 37% of the males and in 100% of the females. Immunization with IL-7 had a similar, strong initial effect, with significantly prolonged survival in the majority of the rats but a lower final cure rate (survival for >150 days). The B7-1-expressing tumor clones induced cures in seven of eight female rats; however, no cures were seen in the male rats. It was also shown that the B7-1-expressing cells were themselves strongly immunogenic in female rats, requiring high cell numbers to result in a progressively growing tumor upon s.c. isografting; this was not the case in male rats. As a whole, the results imply that despite the unfavorable location of intracerebral tumors, therapeutic s.c. immunizations with certain types of genetically altered tumor cells can induce complete regressions with permanent survival and without gross neurological or other apparent signs of brain damage. The present results demonstrate complete regressions when immunizations are initiated shortly after intracranial isografting, when the intracerebral tumor is small.  (+info)

We have previously demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on ConA-induced T cell proliferation or IL-2 production by resting murine T cells were only observed when macrophages, but not when activated B cells, dendritic cells, or L cells, were used as accessory cells. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-10 on the inhibition of macrophage costimulatory activity, we have used a system in which macrophages can develop into effective costimulator cells and the effect of IL-10 on this process can be studied in the absence of T cells. After fixation, resting macrophages have no costimulatory activity for soluble anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation nor do they express the activation Ag B7/BB1. In contrast, macrophages activated by culture alone, or by culture with IFN gamma or LPS for 24 h, and then fixed, were effective accessory cells, expressed B7, and their costimulatory activity correlated with their level of cell surface B7 expression. Addition of IL-10 during the ...
The present results verify the previously suggested, but not definitively proven, mechanism that α-GalCer-activated iNKT-cells at least partly protect NOD mice from type 1 diabetes by driving the maturation of tolerogenic DCs. In contrast, iNKT-conditioned DCs in B6.H2g7 mice mature to an alternative immunogenic state that supports rather than inhibits AI4 T-cell-induced type 1 diabetes. The downstream maturation of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6.H2g7 mice to a tolerogenic versus an immunogenic state is due to the induction of quantitatively different expression levels of T-cell costimulatory and inhibitory molecules.. A series of T-cell costimulatory molecules were upregulated to a much greater extent on iNKT-conditioned DCs from B6.H2g7 than NOD mice. In particular, CD70 and OX40L expression levels were unchanged or strongly upregulated on iNKT-conditioned DCs from NOD and B6.H2g7 mice, respectively. This could be significant given a report that iNKT-cells promote CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
A successful T cell immune response has two major products: effector T cells which directly or indirectly remove the antigens, and memory T cells, which allow a faster and more efficient recall response when challenged by related antigens. An important issue is whether costimulatory molecules on the antigen-presenting cells are involved in determining whether T cells will differentiate into effector or memory cells after antigenic stimulation. To address this issue, we have produced mice with targeted mutations of either the heat-stable antigen (HSA), or both HSA and CD28. We show that CD28/B7 and HSA provide two alternative costimulatory pathways for induction of immunological memory to influenza virus. Furthermore, our results revealed that B7 is essential for the generation of effector T cells from either naive or memory T cells, while HSA is not necessary for the generation of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that the induction of memory T cells and effector T cells can utilize ...
To our knowledge, expression of B7-H1 within RCC tumors of the kidney has not been previously demonstrated. We also believe that B7-H1 is the first T cell costimulatory molecule that has been reported to exhibit a strong association with the aggressiveness of a solid (nonhematologic) tumor and patient cancer-specific survival. Finally, our study provides previously undescribed evidence that B7-H1 may function at the clinical level to promote cancer progression, perhaps through impairment of host T cell-mediated immunity, as has recently been reported in the basic scientific literature (2, 6).. B7-H1 represents a recently identified cell-surface glycoprotein belonging to the B7 family of costimulatory molecules (1). Constitutive B7-H1 protein expression is normally restricted to macrophage-lineage cells, where it may participate in the costimulatory activation of naïve T cells or deletion of activated T cells (1, 23). Several human cancers, however, have also been reported to aberrantly express ...
Among the AUA annual meeting take-home messages in basic science is that the immune co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4 is highly expressed in the luminal subtype of bladder urothelial carcinoma and is associated with poor survival.
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKC-θ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36]. The ...
The allergic form of asthma is driven by an immune response to airborne allergens, and can be exacerbated by a number of factors including exposure to viruses....
Folate, a water‐soluble B vitamin, and its synthetic form folic acid (FA) used in fortification and supplements, are critical to human health due to their role in one‐carbon transfer reactions required for biological methylation and nucleotide biosynthesis
B7-DC costimulates PD1−/− CD4+ T cells. (a) Purified CD4+ T cells from wt (open bars) or PD-1 KO mice (filled bars) were stimulated with 30 ng/well of preco
Textbook solution for Chemistry In Focus 7th Edition Tro Chapter 4 Problem 42E. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. routes, or a TLR3 agonist (artificial double-stranded RNA PolyI:C), to evaluate modulation of innate responses during H1N1 IAV contamination. Since IAV utilizes cellular endocytic machinery for viral access, we also assessed ssONs capacity to impact IAV contamination. We first show that IAV infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were unable to up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 required Zarnestra novel inhibtior for T cell activation. Exogenous TLR3 stimulation did not overcome the IAV-mediated inhibition of co-stimulatory molecule expression in MoDC. However, TLR3 stimulation using PolyI:C led to an augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We reveal that ssON inhibited PolyI:C-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in MoDC successfully, notably, ssON treatment preserved an interferon response induced by IAV an infection. Appropriately, RNAseq analyses uncovered sturdy up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes ...
Whether tumors of different lineages share common Ags is a critical issue for understanding anti-tumor immune responses and for designing Ag-specific tumor immunotherapy. Because of lack of cross-protection among individually derived tumors, it has been proposed that tumor Ags are specific for individual tumors. Here we show that lack of cross-protection is not due to lack of a shared tumor Ag. Thus, a plasmocytoma J558 transfected with the costimulatory molecule B7 activates a cross-reactive CTL response in vivo. The major Ag recognized by the cross-reactive CTL is P1A, which is expressed in mastocytoma P815, plasmocytoma J558, and fibrosarcoma Meth A. Surprisingly, no significant cross-protection can be detected among P1A-expressing tumors after immunization with either P1A-expressing or B7-transfected P815 cells. Our results demonstrate that multiple lineages of tumors are not cross-protected even though they share a tumor Ag that can be recognized by CTL. These results have important ...
The programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1, CD279) with its ligands PD-L1 (CD274, B7-H1) and PD-L2 (CD273, B7-DC) constitutes a inhibitory pathway in cancer immunity. Therapeutic antibodies for blocking PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed and are undergoing human clinical testing. Negating the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is of particular interest as PD-L1 is upregulated by many human cancers. On the other hand, the role of PD-L2 in modulating immune responses is less clear, and its expression is more restricted compared to PD-L1, thus making it a less obvious target in cancer immunotherapy. However, in this context, several aspects of PD-L2 biology deserve attention, including a partial contextual dependency of PD-L2 expression.
Thiamin is one of the water soluble B Vitamins. Fortunately, on a Paleo Diet, it is far easier to get an adequate level of Thiamin, however, it is still very
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During evolutionary adaptation in the immune system, host defense is traded off against autoreactivity. Signals through the costimulatory receptor CD28 enable T cells to respond specifically to pathogens, whereas those through the related costimulatory receptor, ICOS, which arose by gene duplication, are critical for affinity maturation and memory antibody responses. ICOS ligand, unlike the pathogen-inducible CD28 ligands, is widely and constitutively expressed in the immune system. Here, we show that crosstalk between these two pathways provides a mechanism for obviating the normal T cell dependence on CD28. Several CD28-mediated responses-generation of follicular helper T cells, germinal center formation, T helper 1 cell-dependent extrafollicular antibody responses to Salmonella and bacterial clearance, and regulatory T cell homeostasis-became independent of CD28 and dependent on ICOS when the E3 ubiquitin ligase Roquin was mutated. Mechanisms to functionally compartmentalize ICOS and CD28 signals are
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlations of interleukin 36 (IL-36) and Soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A total of 35 children with M. pneumnoiae pneumonia (MPP) and 15 control subjects were enrolled. BALF concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and clinical profiles of children with MPP were obtained. Children with MPP had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to control subjects (both P < 0.05). Meanwhile, children with pleural effusion had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to children without pleural effusion (both P < 0.05). BALF concentration of sB7-H3 was strongly associated with concentration of IL-36 (r = 0.796, P < 0.0001) and sB7-H3 was correlated with duration of fever (r = 0.427, P = 0.11) and length of stay (r = 0.345, P = 0.043). Both concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were significantly
The study of the ontogeny of skin APCs also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the development and, thus, the phenotype of their precursor cells. In addition, despite considerable research, the relationship among LCs, dermal DCs, and skin macrophages still remains unclear, not least because of the high plasticity of precursors to differentiate into each of these cells in different microenvironments (7, 12, 15). In this study, we show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be phenotypically separated by the distinct expression of the DC marker CD1c on some HLA-DRhigh cells. HLA-DRhigh leukocytes are capable of phagocytosing bacteria, up-regulating costimulatory molecules, and stimulating proliferation of allogeneic T cells in vitro, thus confirming their DC nature. In contrast, HLA-DRlow skin macrophages neither express CD1c nor up-regulate costimulatory molecules during culture. Collectively, these data show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be ...
The modulation of co-stimulatory pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases. Auto-reactive CD4+ T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Blocking co-stimulatory signals prevents T-cell activation, thus diminishing autoimmune responses and possibly preventing the progression of autoimmune disease. Blockade of several co-stimulatory pathways has been investigated in animal models and has led to clinical trials testing specific blocking agents in humans. In this review we will describe the role of co-stimulatory pathways, primarily the CD28-B7 pathway, in autoimmune diseases, and we will present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting the efficacy of co-stimulation blockade in animal models of autoimmune disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical therapeutic efficacy of blocking monoclonal antibodies in preventing or reducing auto-antigen driven T-cell activation in humans with ...
CD274 / PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. It can act as both costimulatory and coinhibitory molecule for T cells. Interaction with its ligand CD279 (PD1) appears to be important in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and in prevention of tumor rejection. Even pathogens (e.g. Schistosoma) may exploit CD274 to evade an immune response. Besides CD279, existence of other receptor(s) for CD274 is likely ...
Found in foods such as oatmeal and soy, Biotin, a water soluble B vitamin, helps the body use energy from food. In addition, Biotin helps to maintain healthy skin and hair. Vegetarian and Vegan. Solgar Biotin contains Biotin which is a water-soluble
Apoptosis can be induced be different pathways including the interaction TNF ligand with their receptors at the plasma membrane or the activation of the BCl-2 family molecules.
The CD28 antibody is specific for the mouse CD28 costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Clone 37.51 has been shown to activate T cells in combination with CD3. Activation and proliferation of T cells can be induced by interaction of the T cell receptor with peptide-MHC complexes. The T cell receives a signal transduced through the CD3 complex. Cytokines or other costimulatory signals from accessory cells are required in addition. Activated T cells can be used for any downstream processes, such as cytokine analysis or immunoprecipitation. Cells can also be transfected with high efficiency. - Italia
The CD28 antibody is specific for the mouse CD28 costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Clone 37.51 has been shown to activate T cells in combination with CD3. Activation and proliferation of T cells can be induced by interaction of the T cell receptor with peptide-MHC complexes. The T cell receives a signal transduced through the CD3 complex. Cytokines or other costimulatory signals from accessory cells are required in addition. Activated T cells can be used for any downstream processes, such as cytokine analysis or immunoprecipitation. Cells can also be transfected with high efficiency. - España
Results In their resting state the monocyte derived dendritic cells expressed MHC class II, but very low levels of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86. Upon culture with H. pylori, the cells expressed significantly higher levels of these co-stimulatory molecules, demonstrating maturation (,25 fold increase in percentage of positive events for CD80, CD83, CD86 on flow cytometry; p,0.01). There were no differences between the responses to wild type and dupA knockout mutant strains, or following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The H. pylori-matured dendritic cells secreted high levels of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-23. The concentrations induced by the dupA+ strains were significantly higher than those induced by the dupA mutants (1.5 fold increase in IL-12p40 production, p,0.05; 1.4 fold increase in IL-12p70, p,0.05).. ...
Costimulatory molecules, such as B7-1/2 and PD-L1/2 play an important role in the function of APC. The regulation of the surface levels of costimulatory molecules is one mechanism by which APC maintain the balance between tolerance and immunity. We examined the contributions of B7-1/2 and PD-L1/2 to the function of IL-10-treated, immunosuppressive DC as well as therapeutic exosomes derived from these DC. IL-10 treatment of DC significantly downregulated surface expression of MHC II, B7-1, B7-2, and decreased levels of MHC I and PD-L2. IL-10 treatment of DC resulted in a modified costimulatory profile of DC-secreted exosomes with a reduction in B7-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2. We further demonstrate that absence of B7-1 or B7-2 on donor DC results in a loss of ability of IL-10-treated DC and their exosomes to suppress the delayed-type hypersensitivity response, whereas IL-10-treated DC deficient in PD-L1/2 as well as their secreted exosomes retained the ability to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity ...
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), a light chain subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I complex, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, whether it is expressed in different epithelial-type ovarian tumours remains unknown. This study was performed to examine the expression of B2M in different histopathological types of ovarian tumours, to explore the function of B2M in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway. B2M expression in normal ovarian tissues and epithelia-type ovarian tumours was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, followed by the analysis of association with clinical features. OC cells were transfected with B2M-siRNA and cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by WST-1 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway in OC cells was examined by Western blot, ELISA and qRT-PCR. We
|p|The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD40, a member of the TNFreceptor superfamily. CD40 is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses includ
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
High-quality CTLA-4 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
Our findings support the hypothesis that T cell activation is a critical and proximal event in the complex chronic inflammatory cascade that culminates in the generation of psoriatic plaques. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the accumulation of mature DCs in a human autoimmune target organ, the skin. Additionally, the resolution of activated phenotypes on lesional keratinocytes, DCs, and vascular endothelium after T cell costimulatory blockade has not previously been reported. Thus, these data expand upon our prior observations (15) and provide possible mechanisms for the observed durable reduction in intralesional T cells after administration of CTLA4Ig. We have demonstrated that a reduced capacity for lesional T cell clonal expansion (due to reversion of the lesional skin APC population to a less mature/immunocompetent state) and decreased vascular recruitment may both have been contributory factors. These observations suggest that clinical activity in this chronic ...
Therapeutic tumor immunity requires the presence and appropriate activation of tumor antigen specific CD8+ T cells and migration of activated tumor-antigen specific CD8+ T cells into a tumor microenvironment where immunosuppressive barriers have been eliminated. Antibody mediated blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 is a clinically effective strategy to dampen tumor mediated immunosuppression in a minority of patients with advanced cancer, and this approach may be potentiated through vaccination to prime additional CTL clones and through direct stimulation of T cell costimulatory molecules of the TNF superfamily. Here we provide a systematic comparison of anti-tumor vaccination with either heat shock protein gp96-Ig or traditional peptide/adjuvant vaccines given alone or in combination with CTLA-4 or PD-1 blockade and direct T cell costimulation via OX40, 4-1BB and TNFRSF25. Through the tracking of tumor-antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, these studies demonstrate that both TNFRSF4 and ...
CD2 (cluster of differentiation 2) is a cell adhesion molecule found on the surface of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. It has also been called T-cell surface antigen T11/Leu-5, LFA-2, LFA-3 receptor, erythrocyte receptor and rosette receptor. It interacts with other adhesion molecules, such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3/CD58) in humans, or CD48 in rodents, which are expressed on the surfaces of other cells. In addition to its adhesive properties, CD2 also acts as a co-stimulatory molecule on T and NK cells. CD2 is a specific marker for T cells and NK cells, and can therefore be used in immunohistochemistry to identify the presence of such cells in tissue sections. The great majority of T cell lymphomas and leukaemias also express CD2, making it possible to use the presence of the antigen to distinguish these conditions from B cell neoplasms. Due to its structural characteristics, CD2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily; it possesses two immunoglobulin-like ...
CD26, also known as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), is a homodimeric cell surface serine peptidase that degradates IFN-gamma-induced cytokines, acts as a T cell costimulatory molecule, and participates in multiple immunopathological roles in leukocyte homing and inflammation. Alterations in its peptidase activity are characteristic of malignant transformation. The enzymatic activity increases dramatically with tumour grade and severity. CD26 is expressed in various blood cell types, but also e.g. in cells that are histogenetically related to activated fibroblasts. Alterations in CD26 density have been reported on circulating monocytes and CD4+ T cells during rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus ...
A population of individual T cells expressing an invariant V24JQ T cell antigen receptor (TCR) chain and high levels of CD161 (NKR-P1A) appears to play an immunoregulatory role through production of both T helper (Th) type 1 and Th2 cytokines. and cytokine secretion in response to CD1d+ target cells, demonstrating a physiological accessory molecule function for CD161. However, CD1d-restricted target cell lysis by activated V24invt T cells, which involved a granule-mediated exocytotic mechanism, was CD161-impartial. In further contrast to the mouse, the signaling pathway involved in V24invt T cell costimulation through CD161 did not appear to involve stable association with tyrosine kinase p56Lck. These results demonstrate a role for CD161 as a novel costimulatory molecule for TCR-mediated acknowledgement of CD1d by human V24invt T cells. (Camarillo, CA). Functional Analysis of T Cells. For activation of T cells (105/ well), anti-CD3 mAb OKT3 was bound overnight in PBS (50 l/well) to 96-well ...
Our study is the first to evaluate the role of CD40L-induced maturation as a component of the DC manufacturing process in a prospectively randomized trial. At the time we began this trial, it was known that CD40 activation of murine and human DCs led to enhanced generation of CTLs by increasing DC expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and by inducing IL-12 secretion (14, 18). It had also been showed that activating murine tumor lysate-pulsed DCs with CD40L led to more potent induction of systemic immunity than DCs prepared without CD40L activation (14). Therefore, we hypothesized that CD40L-activated human DCs would induce a more potent immune response than DCs grown without a specific maturation factor. However, treatment of DCs with CD40L did not increase tumor or KLH-specific immune responses in our patients. It is unlikely that this was due to inactive or inadequate amounts of CD40L, as we observed significant upregulation of CD86 and CD83 expression. One possible ...
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a receptor on T cells that has been shown to suppress activating signals from the T cell receptor when bound by either of its ligands, Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2. When PD-1 expressing T cells contact cells expressing its ligands, functional activities in response to antigenic stimuli, including proliferation, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity are reduced. PD-1/PD-Ligand interactions down regulate immune responses during resolution of an infection or tumor, or during the development of self tolerance.. Interference with the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction has also shown enhanced T cell activity in chronic infection systems. Chronic lymphocytic chorio meningitis virus infection of mice also exhibits improved virus clearance and restored immunity with blockade of PD-L1.. In addition to enhancing immunologic responses to chronic antigens, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has also been shown to enhance responses to vaccination, including therapeutic ...
|p|The MR1 antibody is specific for mouse CD154, a 39 kD glycoprotein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells. CD154 (CD40 ligand, gp39) binds to CD40 expressed on antigen presenting cells and mediates important costimulatory functions between th
Programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 is expressed on many tumors and inhibits anti-tumor T cells through programmed death (PD)-1. Tumor PD-L1 predicts αPD-L1 treatment effects, but mechanism(s) for PD-L1- tumor response to αPD-L1 are unclear. Our studies suggest tumor-intrinsic PD-L1 signals and spatially varied PD-L1 expression may contribute to response deviation. We used PD-L1+ B16 melanoma (ctrl) and made PD-L1KO by CRISPR. αPD-L1 slowed ctrl but not PD-L1KO B16 growth in mice as expected, but PD-L1KO also responded to αPD-L1 if ctrl B16 was on the trans flank. αPD-L1 elicited similar CD3+ T cell infiltration into ctrl vs. PD-L1KO tumors, but without detectable B16-specific T cell increase. CD11b+ cell infiltration was similar in ctrl and PD-L1KO. Strikingly, NKp46+ and NK1.1+ natural killer (NK) cells infiltrated PD-L1KO , ctrl. NK cells increased significantly (~2-fold) after αPD-L1 in PD-L1KO vs. ctrl, along with NK effector functions (e.g., IFN-γ). Tumor PD-L1 altered tumor chemokines ...
Syndax Pharmaceuticals Announces Clinical Collaboration to Evaluate Entinostat in Combination with anti-PD-L1 Cancer Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer
SUGGESTED USAGE: As a dietary supplement, take 1 Vcap® daily as needed, preferably with meals. For intensive use, take 1-2 Vcaps® twice daily, under the supervision of a health care practitioner. BENEFITS: Niacin is a water soluble B vitamin whose main role is to serve as a precursor for two essential biochemical coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP). These two cofactors participate in virtually every aspect of the energy production and metabolic processes. Consequently, Niacin nutriture has been shown to impact many areas of human health. NAD functions in reactions involving the degradation (catabolism) of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy. Niacin is also critical for DNA replication and repair, and therefore plays a critical role in genetic stability. In addition, Niacin has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects on lipid and cholesterol transport, and thus is important for the maintenance of healthy serum lipid levels that are
T cell activation through the TCR can result in either cell proliferation or cell death. The role of costimulatory receptors in regulating T cell survival has not been defined. Here, we present data demonstrating that CD28 costimulation enhances the in vitro survival of activated T cells. One mechan …
It is now understood that PD-L1 protein expression is not binary; it is a continuous variable whereby a range of PD-L1 expression levels are observed, with tumor heterogeneity also frequently noted (21, 23, 31), all of which may have biological and/or clinical significance. Staining cutoffs are used to classify patients with high or low/no tumor PD-L1 expression (20, 23), and the cutoff appropriate for clinical decision making for each PD-1 or PD-L1 therapy is determined by clinical data.. Expression cutoffs for PD-L1 used in clinical trials to date vary between 1% and 50%, depending on the study and assay used (refs. 5, 7, 17, 19; Supplementary Table S1). Two recent reviews have examined the correlation between PD-L1 expression and outcome in patients with NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapeutic agents (32, 33). One of these, a meta-analysis by Abdel-Rahman, found that the advantage of anti-PD-1 agents over docetaxel in second-line treatment of NSCLC is limited to tumors with ,1% ...
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ON OCTOBER 18, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta), a cell-based gene therapy, to treat adult patients with certain types of large B-cell lymphoma who have not responded to or who have relapsed after at least two other kinds of treatment. Axicabtagene ciloleucel, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, is the second gene therapy approved by the FDA and the first for certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (On August 30, 2017, the FDA approved the CAR T-cell immunotherapy, tisagenlecleucel [Kymriah], for the treatment of patients up to age 25 years with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia that is refractory or in second or later relapse.) A Scientific Paradigm "[OCTOBER 18 ] MARKS another milestone in the development of a whole new scientific paradigm for the treatment of serious diseases. In just several decades, gene therapy has gone from being a promising concept to a practical solution to deadly and largely untreatable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Costimulation of antitumor immunity by the B7 counterreceptor for the T lymphocyte molecules CD28 and CTLA-4. AU - Chen, Lieping. AU - Ashe, Stephanie. AU - Brady, William A.. AU - Hellström, Ingegerd. AU - Hellström, Karl Erik. AU - Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.. AU - McGowan, Patrick. AU - Linsley, Peter S.. PY - 1992/12/24. Y1 - 1992/12/24. N2 - Interaction of the B7 molecule on antigen-presenting cells with its receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells provides costimulatory signals for T cell activation. We have studied the effects of B7 on antitumor immunity to a murine melanoma that expresses a rejection antigen associated with the E7 gene product of human papillomavirus 16. While this E7+ tumor grows progressively in immunocompetent hosts, cotransfection of its cells with B7 led to tumor regression by a B7-dependent immune response mediated by CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes. The immune response induced by E7+B7+ tumor cells also caused regression of E7+ B7- tumors at distant sites and ...
BACKGROUND: Activated T cells play a key role in allograft rejection. T cell activation requires signaling via the T cell receptor as well as costimulatory signals. Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), with its ligand B7RP-1, is a recently discovered costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family. The role of this signaling pathway during the early phases of kidney allograft rejection is not clear so far. METHODS: Kidneys were orthotopically transplanted from BALB/c to C57BL/6 mice. Animals were assigned to five experimental groups: blocking anti-ICOS monoclonal antibody, ICOS fusion protein, anti-B7RP1 monoclonal antibody, B7RP-1 fusion protein, and control immunoglobulin G. RESULTS: Survival was significantly reduced in animals treated with ICOS monoclonal antibody (mAb) and B7RP-1 Fc as compared with controls. These animals had also a lower number of apoptotic graft infiltrating T cells, whereas the expression of intracellular interferon-gamma in CD3CD4 T cells was increased. Animals treated ...
Inactivation of MYC induces tumor regression through both cell-autonomous mechanisms, including proliferative arrest and induction of apoptosis, and host-dependent mechanisms, such as inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and induction of tumor cell senescence (1-4, 13). We investigated the effect of enforced expression of CD47 or PD-L1 on these mechanisms and found that CD47 or PD-L1 expression prevented the shutdown of angiogenesis after MYC inactivation, as measured by the presence of CD31+ microvessels (Fig. 4E and fig. S15A) and expression of Ang2 and Tie2 (fig. S15C). The induction of tumor cell senescence, as measured by β-galactosidase (Fig. 4F and fig. S15B) and p15Ink4b and p19ARF levels (fig. S15D), was also affected, but we did not observe any effect on apoptosis or proliferation, as evaluated by annexin V and 7-AAD (fig. S16A), cleaved caspase 3 (fig. S16, B and D), and phospho-histone H3 (fig. S16, C and E). Therefore, the down-regulation of CD47 and PD-L1 appears to be required for ...
Looking for Antigen-presenting cells? Find out information about Antigen-presenting cells. A morphologically distinct epidermal cell adjacent to, and apparently functionally associated with, guard cells on the leaves of many plants. Explanation of Antigen-presenting cells
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Immune check points are a topic of increasing interest in the field of cancer immunology, as molecular research has begun to explain the complex mechanisms regulating cellular immune responses [3]. For example, there are a number of inhibitory mechanisms that can be induced by the activated immune system, especially in T-cells, which can prevent an excessive immune response [4-6]. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) was initially cloned in 1992 during a study of thymus T-cell molecules [7], and a study from 2000 revealed that one PD-1 ligand (programmed death ligand 1 [PD-L1], B7-H1, and CD274) induces T-cell apoptosis. These discoveries led to research regarding the function of PD-1 as an immune checkpoint [8], which revealed that PD-1 is only expressed in activated T-cells, and that PD-1 and CD28 regulate their response through ligand binding. The ligands of PD-1 are PD-L1 and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273), with PD-L1 being expressed on many cell types (e.g., immune cells, epithelial cells, and endothelial ...
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Learn more about FAZ053 (anti-PD-L1), an investigational immuno-oncology treatment being developed by Novartis for patients with advanced cancers.
Costimulation is a fundamental principle of T-cell activation. In addition to T-cell receptor engagement, the interaction between CD80 and/or CD86 with CD28 and/or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) receptors is required to regulate T-cell activation and tolerance. While the importance of costimulation is clearly established, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. We demonstrate that T-cell proliferation and the ability of CD8(+) T-effector cells to kill were enhanced slightly by CD80 but dramatically by CD86 costimulation. To further analyse the cellular process of costimulation, we developed a single-cell assay to analyse Ca(2+) signals following costimulation with bi-specific antibodies. We found that this stimulation method worked in every human T-cell that was analysed, making it one of the most efficient T-cell activation methods to date for primary human T cells. The enhanced proliferation and killing by costimulation was paralleled by an increase of Ca(2+) influx following CD86 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flow cytometry used for the analysis of calcium signaling induced by antigen-specific T-cell activation. AU - Réthi, Bence. AU - Detre, Cynthia. AU - Gogolák, Péter. AU - Kolonics, Attila. AU - Magócsi, Mária. AU - Rajnavölgyi, Éva. PY - 2002/4/1. Y1 - 2002/4/1. N2 - Background: In this study, the effect of antigen-presenting cells (APC), peptide concentration, and CD28 costimulation on calcium signaling, induced by antigen-specific T-cell activation, was studied by flow cytometry. Methods: We used two experimental approaches, which differed in their time scale and in the duration of the T cell-APC interaction, to measure the increase of intracellular free calcium levels ([Ca2+]i) in activated T cells: (1) Fluo-3-loaded T cells were activated by cocentrifugation with peptide-loaded APC and the kinetics of fluorescence intensity changes was monitored continuously and (2) peptide-loaded APC and T cells were mixed, cocultured, and the fluorescence intensity was measured at ...
Preclinical experiments with allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells11 have opened up a new treatment paradigm and have made the use of allogeneic hCPC via cell banks a more realistic proposition, assuming that cryopreserved cells retain their original characteristics and are immunologically safe. In the present study, we provide the first detailed description of T-cell responses to cryopreserved allogeneic hCPC. We show that cryopreserved hCPC retain their primitive pluripotent and early cardiac lineage-committed phenotype. Tailored immune assays showed that these cells are hypoimmunogenic because, whether under inflammatory conditions or not, they lack the costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 required for conventional Th1 or Th2 type T-cell responses. In contrast, the hCPC express the costimulatory molecule PD-L1, which endows them with the capacity to drive significant allogeneic Treg responses and to attenuate an ongoing immune response.. Patients who experience heart failure after MI have ...
Definition of antigen-presenting cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is antigen-presenting cell? Meaning of antigen-presenting cell as a finance term. What does antigen-presenting cell mean in finance?
C1R-sB7 is a stable transfectant cell line established in 1988 with a modified histocompatibility complex (MHC) HLA B7 gene. It secretes HLA B7 but does not express surface HLA B7. C1R-sB7 was established by transfection by electroporation of the C1R cell line with a modified neomycin drug-resistant eukaryotic vector, pSP65-Neo carrying the gene for soluble B7 (sB7). It was selected in geneticin and cloned by limiting dilution.  C1R is a human B-cell lymphoblastoid line lacking surface HLA A and B antigens. C1R was derived from Hmy.2 B-LCL by gamma irradiation followed by selection for Class I monoclonal antibodies and complement.
Chinas First Fully Human, Full-length Anti-PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody Receives Approval to Initiate Clinical Trials by the China Food and Drug Administration
One reason for the poor immunogenicity of many tumors may be that they cannot provide signals for CD28-mediated costimulation necessary to fully activate T cells. It has recently become apparent that CTLA-4, a second counterreceptor for the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is a negative regulator of T cell activation. Here, in vivo administration of antibodies to CTLA-4 resulted in the rejection of tumors, including preestablished tumors. Furthermore, this rejection resulted in immunity to a secondary exposure to tumor cells. These results suggest that blockade of the inhibitory effects of CTLA-4 can allow for, and potentiate, effective immune responses against tumor cells.. ...
We have shown that a "KIR-CAR" can be simply constructed by swapping the two immunoglobulin-like domains of the KIR2DS2 ectodomain with an scFv capable of binding a desired target antigen. When delivered to T cells together with DAP12, this KIR-based CAR triggers antigen-specific cytotoxicity, cytokine production, and proliferation that is comparable with second-generation CD3ζ-based CARs in vitro without the need for additional domains from costimulatory receptors. The ability of a KIR-based CAR to activate T cells in the absence of added costimulation is interesting in light of the critical importance of costimulation for full T-cell activation and acquisition of effector function. KIR2DS2, the natural KIR upon which the presented KIR-CAR is based, has previously been reported to deliver a costimulation-like signal to T cells. In these studies, engagement of the KIR in T-cell clones lacking DAP12 expression augmented anti-CD3-induced IFNγ production (16). The mechanism of this costimulatory ...
INTRODUCTION: Green space in the built environment is an important topic on the health agenda today. Studies have shown that access to green spaces is associated with better mental and physical health, yet green spaces can also be detrimental to health if they are not managed appropriately. Despite the increasing interest in urban green spaces, little research has so far been conducted into the links between green spaces and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this scoping review is therefore to map the literature available on the types of relationship between urban green spaces and cancer ...
Ligands for iDimerize/ARGENT systems (previously from ARIAD) are now available exclusively from Clontech. B/B Homodimerizer (AP20187), A/C Heterodimerizer (AP21967) & D/D Solubilizer (AP21998).
Ligands for iDimerize/ARGENT systems (previously from ARIAD) are now available exclusively from Clontech. B/B Homodimerizer (AP20187), A/C Heterodimerizer (AP21967) & D/D Solubilizer (AP21998).
Dr Ascierto talks to ecancertv at ITOC-3 about PD-L1 checkpoint inhibition. In particular, he discusses whether or not it can be truly considered a
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Estimating the kon and koff for sCD80 binding CTLA-4 Ig. (A) Example of primary data. sCD80 (265 nM) was injected (solid bar) at 40 μl/min through FCs with n
The markers include CD11c, CD80, CD83, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II antigens. The neoplastic dendritic ... Dendritic cells function as antigen-presenting cells. They process antigen material and present it on the surface to other ...
These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands (e.g., CD28; MIM 186760) on T ... B7H4 belongs to the B7 family (see CD80; MIM 112203) of costimulatory proteins. ...
... the CD80 expression is upregulated in antigen presenting cells (APCs). The CD86 expression on antigen presenting cells is ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Schneider H, Cai YC, Prasad KV, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Apr 1995). "T cell antigen CD28 binds to the GRB-2/SOS complex, ...
It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and avidity than CD28 thus enabling it to ... CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and ... CTLA-4 can also affect signalling indirectly via competing with CD28 for CD80/86 binding. CTLA-4 can also bind PI3K, although ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
This suggests Treg-mediated suppression of antigen presenting cells is a multi-step process. In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 ... T regulatory cell adhesion to antigen presenting dendritic cell causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein ... essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting dendritic ...
CD80, and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion molecules; in junctional adhesion molecules (JAM); in tyrosine-protein kinase ... IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; AMICA1; BCAM; BCAN; BGP; BGPc; BT3.3; ... CD80; CD83; CD86; CD8A; CD8B; CD8B1; CD96; CEACAM1; CEACAM16; CEACAM19; CEACAM21; CEACAM3; CEACAM4; CEACAM5; CEACAM6; CEACAM7; ...
Cluster of differentiation CD80 CD28 CTLA-4 List of human clusters of differentiation for a list of CD molecules GRCh38: ... Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides ... Grujic M, Bartholdy C, Remy M, Pinschewer DD, Christensen JP, Thomsen AR (August 2010). "The role of CD80/CD86 in generation ... CD86 works in tandem with CD80 to prime T cells. The CD86 gene encodes a type I membrane protein that is a member of the ...
... (CD94) is an antigen preferentially expressed on NK cells and is classified as a type II membrane protein because it has ... CD80, and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in cytotoxicity induction and interferon-gamma production by human ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ...
One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), combined with the antigen, and the other signal is the CD80 ... In order for T cells to be activated and attack an antigen, that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen- ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ... the APC must bind the antigen to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, bring that complex to its surface, and ...
The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... CD80, CD86) and adhesion receptors (CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like APCs (γδ T-APC) and present ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ...
... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption". Virology. ...
... antigens, cd59 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.179 --- antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.180 --- antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.050. ... antigens, cd59 MeSH D23.101.100.110.179 --- antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.101.100.110.180 --- antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.101.100.110.186 ... hla-a antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.372 --- hla-a1 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.370.374 --- hla-a2 antigen MeSH ... hla-b antigens MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.383 --- hla-b7 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.380.385 --- hla-b8 antigen MeSH ...
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD69 Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1PR1 S1PR2 S1PR3 S1PR4 S1PR5 Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 - Expressed by APCs CD86 - ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... B cells Antigen receptor - B cell receptor (BCR) Subunits- Immunoglobulin heavy chain / Immunoglobulin light chain Co-receptors ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ... The second signal licenses the T cell to respond to an antigen. Without it, the T cell becomes anergic, and it becomes more ...
Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ... CD27 - This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ... CD40 - This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known ...
Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...
... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ...
... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... CD48 and CD2 molecular coupling together with other interaction pairs of CD28 and CD80, TCR and peptide-MHC and LFA-1 and ICAM- ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
... is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors. T cells require two signals ... One of the best characterized co-stimulatory molecules expressed by T cells is CD28, which interacts with CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 ... B cell binds antigens with its BCR (a membrane-bound antibody), which transfers intracellular signals to the B cell as well as ... This additional binding makes the B cells 100- to 10,000-fold more sensitive to antigen. CR2 on mature B cells forms a complex ...
... and T cell costimulatory activity of the murine homologue of the human B lymphocyte activation antigen B7". The Journal of ... Human CD80 genome location and CD80 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R (April 2006). " ... Lanier LL, O'Fallon S, Somoza C, Phillips JH, Linsley PS, Okumura K, Ito D, Azuma M (January 1995). "CD80 (B7) and CD86 (B70) ... Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes that ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DX beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQB2 gene. ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1998). "Identification of a new DQB1*0613 allele in a family". Tissue Antigens. 50 (6): 685-7. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
Also known as HLA-DXA or DAAP-381D23.2, it is part of the human leucocyte antigen system. The protein encoded by this gene is ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
CD80 • CD81 • CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
where to buy 357613-77-5(Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), ... human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 ... antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 lamda chain ... Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca ...
Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7. ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Pipeline Review, H2 ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Cluster of ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) pipeline Target ...
Following antigen stimulation, intercellular interactions of DC:T-cell conjugates were stronger than B:T-cell interactions. DCs ... Blocking antibodies targeting surface co-stimulatory molecules CD80 or CD86 weakened intercellular interactions and dampen T- ... since DCs were superior to B-cells in promoting strong interactions with T-cells even when CD80 and CD86 were inhibited. These ... cell activation, highlighting the amplificatory roles of CD80/86 in regulating APC:T-cell interactions and T-cell functional ...
CD80). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price. ... Purchase Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80( ... Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80(CD80). * ... Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80(CD80),partial. Mammalian cell. CSB-YP004959HU1. CSB-EP004959HU1. CSB- ... Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80(CD80),partial. Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane receptor that is activated by the binding of CD28 or CTLA-4. The activated protein induces T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. This protein can act as a receptor for adenovirus subgroup B and may play a role in lupus neuropathy. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Buy Latest Research Report On T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market at UpMarketResearch. Report Covers Global Industry ... Chapter One T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry Overview. 1.1 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Definition. 1.2 T ... 2.) Asia T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market;. 3.) North American T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market;. 4.) ... 1.6.1 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Global Import Market Analysis. 1.6.2 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Global ...
Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Overview 3.1. T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Dynamics 3.1.1. ... Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T ... Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market By Type (Abatacept, Abatacept Biosimilar, CUE-201, KAHR-102, and Others), By ... 1. T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Introduction 1.1. Definition 1.2. Taxonomy 1.3. Research Scope 2. Executive ...
CD80 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... cDNA FLJ75225, highly similar to Homo sapiens CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen) (CD80), mRNA (A0N0P2_HUMAN) ... GeneCards Summary for CD80 Gene CD80 (CD80 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD80 include Vaccinia ... P33681-CD80_HUMAN. Recommended name:. T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80 Protein Accession:. P33681. Secondary Accessions: * ...
... is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 industry with a ... Global and Chinese T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry, 2013-2023 Market Research Report ... 1.2 Development of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry. 1.3 Status of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry ... 2.2 Analysis of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Manufacturing Technology. 2.3 Trends of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen ...
CD80 (B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PerCP-eFluor 710, Clone: 16-10A1, eBioscience 25 µg; PerCP-eFluor 710 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... Description: The 16-10A1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD80 (B7-1), a 55 kDa member of the Ig superfamily. CD80 is ...
T cells that either extrinsically acquired CD80 or were deficient in CD80, and found that CD80, presented by memory CD8+ T ... Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8+ t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ... Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8+ t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ... Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8+ t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ...
Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ...
Conclusions: : Therefore, HLA-DR+/CD80+ uveal melanoma cells activate Th cells to endogenous antigens, and could be used in ... As measured by flow cytometry, HLA-DRB*0101 and CD80 transduced uveal melanoma cells express HLA-DR1 and CD80 on the cell ... restricted tumor antigens is difficult due to the inhibition of Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) within the tumor environment and ... HER2/neu-expressing primary and metastatic uveal melanoma transductants MEL202/DR1/CD80 and OMM2.3/DR1/CD80 were co-cultured as ...
... human hepatocellular carcinoma cells activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes to target HCC cells with shared tumor antigens ... CD80 transfected human hepatocellular carcinoma cells activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes to target HCC cells with shared tumor ...
Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ...
Mouse monoclonal CD80 antibody [MEM-233] conjugated to PerCP. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication ... ab82410 reacts with CD80 expressed on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages or activated ... Flow Cytometry analysis of P815 cells labeling CD80 with Anti-CD80 antibody [MEM-233] (PerCP) (ab82410). ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen) antibody. *CD80 antigen antibody ...
CD80, CD86). DCs can initiate Ag-specific CD4+ T cell responses, without needing prior activation from previously stimulated T ... B lymphocytes can be competent antigen-presenting cells for priming CD4+ T cells to protein antigens in vivo. J. Immunol. 155: ... requirement for professional antigen presenting cells and evidence for antigen transfer from myocytes. Mol. Med. 3:362. ... B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T cell priming in vivo. J. Immunol. 162:5695. ...
IPR039810 CD166_antigen. IPR013162 CD80_C2-set. IPR007110 Ig-like_dom. IPR036179 Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783 Ig-like_fold. ... IPR039810 CD166_antigen. IPR013162 CD80_C2-set. IPR007110 Ig-like_dom. IPR036179 Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783 Ig-like_fold. ...
Order this anti-CD80 antibody. , Product number ABIN678683 ... Rabbit Polyclonal CD80 antibody AA 270-321 for IF (p), IHC (p ... CD 80, CD28 antigen ligand 1 B7 1 antigen, CD28 antigen ligand 1 B71 antigen, CD28LG, CD28LG1, CD80 antigen, CD80 antigen ... anti-CD80 antibody (CD80) (AA 270-321) CD80 antibody (CD80) (AA 270-321). Details for Product anti-CD80 Antibody No. ABIN678683 ... Cd80 (CD80 Antibody Abstract) Background CD80 is a member of the Ig superfamily and serves as the ligand for two T cell ...
Antigen presentation and processing flashcards from Sarah Carlson ... 2. Recognize antigen on MCH I. 3. Release cytotoxic molecules ( ... Diebel- Antigen presentation and processing Flashcards Preview IHO Week 4 , Diebel- Antigen presentation and processing , ... Though they have a profound def in CD8 T cells, and a decreased ability to present antigens to CD8 T cells they still..... Have ... Exogneous antigens are internalized via endocytosis or phagocytosis.. DC/Macropahges- phagocytize B cells- receptor mediated ...
0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Receptors, Immunologic / immunology. ... T-Lymphocyte; 0/BTLA protein, human; 0/Receptors, Immunologic; 0/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; 0/inducible T-cell co- ...
The aim of this study was to investigate whether downregulating the expression of B7.1 (CD80) ... Blockade of CD80-CD28 costimulatory pathway induces unresponsiveness of T cells to alloantigens and protects allografts against ... Antigens, CD80 / genetics, immunology*. Antisense Elements (Genetics)*. Down-Regulation. Gene Transfer Techniques. Graft ... OBJECTIVE: Blockade of CD80-CD28 costimulatory pathway induces unresponsiveness of T cells to alloantigens and protects ...
CD80 is expressed on activated B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/ macrophages. The interaction of CD80 with its ligands ... Binding of CD80 to CD28, which is constitutively expressed on T cells, provides a costimulatory signal and induces T cell ... CD80, also known as B7-1, is a 262 amino acid long 60 kDa molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Together ... Distribution of antigen: B cells, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, macrophages, monocytes, T cells ...
CD80 is expressed on activated B cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes/ macrophages. The interaction of CD80 with its ligands ... Binding of CD80 to CD28, which is constitutively expressed on T cells, provides a costimulatory signal and induces T cell ... CD80 is a 262 amino acid long 60 kDa molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Together with CD86 (B7-2) it ... Clone REA661 recognizes the human CD80 antigen, also known as B7-1. ...
The interaction of CD80 and CD152 (CTLA-4) or CD28 induces T cell proliferation and cytokine production. ... The monoclonal antibody 16-10A1 recognizes mouse CD80 also known as B7, B7-1 or Ly-53. The 55 kDa member of the Ig superfamily ... Razi-Wolf, Z. et al. (1992) Expression and function of the murine B7 antigen, the major costimulatory molecule expressed by ... Cells labeled with CD80-Biotin were stained with Anti-Biotin-PE as well. Cell debris and dead cells were excluded from the ...
  • Adoptive T-cell therapy, particularly chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, is a revolutionary and quickly-evolving means of treating cancer patients who can no longer be helped by standard therapies. (washington.edu)
  • In many phase I/II studies, these vaccines have shown clinical benefit, in particular extended overall or disease-free survival, while objective durable regressions of the type associated with targeted or immunomodulatory mAb therapy ( 2 - 6 ) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) ( 7 - 10 ) or adoptive T cell ( 11 , 12 ) therapy were rarely seen. (jci.org)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy has gained significant attention in the past decade due to its considerable potential in the treatment of various types of malignancies, particularly hematological. (springer.com)
  • Smith AJ, Oertle J, Warren D, Prato D. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for malignant cancers: summary and perspective. (springer.com)
  • Sadelain M, Brentjens R, Riviere I. The basic principles of chimeric antigen receptor design. (springer.com)
  • In 2017 Kymriah (or tisagenlecleucel), a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, was approved by FDA to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proliferation is specific, as control peptide from a tumor antigen P1A, which binds H-2Ld but not Db, induces no proliferative responses at all doses tested. (nih.gov)
  • The process of formation begins when the T-cell receptor (TCR) binds to the peptide:MHC complex on the antigen-presenting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids at internal region of human CD80. (abnova.com)
  • One such method to gain information about T-cell reactivity at feasible extent constitutes the stimulation of PBMC with overlapping peptide pools of defined antigens. (springer.com)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • CD48 and CD2 molecular coupling together with other interaction pairs of CD28 and CD80, TCR and peptide-MHC and LFA-1 and ICAM-1 contribute to the formation of an immunological synapse between a T cell and an antigen presenting cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schellhammer PF, Chodak G, Whitmore JB, Sims R, Frohlich MW, Kantoff PW (2013) Lower baseline prostate-specific antigen is associated with a greater overall survival benefit from sipuleucel-T in the immunotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma treatment (IMPACT) trial. (springermedizin.de)
  • Numerous animal models demonstrate conclusively that ex vivo generated DCs pulsed with protein antigen are useful for the immunotherapy of infectious diseases and cancer ( 11 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Initial clinical studies indicate that tumor antigen-pulsed DCs can be effective in the immunotherapy of cancer patients ( 17 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have developed our programs using insights from our proprietary tumor antigen discovery platform, EDGE™, together with an immunotherapy platform which has demonstrated the ability to elicit an enhanced antigen-directed T-cell response in preclinical primate models. (benzinga.com)
  • This finding implied that depressed effector T-cell functions in the setting of chronic ethanol feeding may be due in part to intrinsic defects in antigen presentation capacity by DCs. (asm.org)
  • Clone REA661 recognizes the human CD80 antigen, also known as B7-1. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The antigen-binding repertoire of the surface immunoglobulin is already unique for each clone, as a result of selective usage in each cell of different variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) region sequences, accompanied by the generation of random-linking N sequences (via the action of terminal transferase). (bloodjournal.org)