Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.
Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).

Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules by salivary gland epithelial cells in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (1/1927)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of B7 costimulatory molecules in the lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland (SG) biopsy tissues and in SG epithelial cell lines derived from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in minor SGs obtained from 11 patients with SS and 10 disease control patients with nonspecific sialadenitis and in cultured SG epithelial cell lines obtained from minor SGs from 15 SS patients and 15 control patients. B7.1 and B7.2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by SG epithelial cell lines was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In biopsy tissues from SS patients, but not control patients, ductal and acinar epithelial cells showed increased expression of both B7.1 and B7.2. Intense spontaneous B7.1 protein expression (as well as HLA-ABC, but not B7.2 or HLA-DR) was also found in 73% of SG epithelial cell lines from SS patients versus 13% of those from control patients (P < 0.01). Interferon-y treatment induced, or up-regulated, B7.1, B7.2, and HLA-DR expression in all SG epithelial cell lines tested. B7.1 and B7.2 expression by SG epithelial cell lines was also verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Human SG epithelia are intrinsically capable of expressing B7 proteins upon activation. In SS patients, the expression of B7 molecules by SG epithelial tissues and by SG epithelial cell lines indicates the activated status of SG epithelial cells in this disorder and, possibly, their capacity for presenting antigens to T cells.  (+info)

Cellular and molecular characterization of the scurfy mouse mutant. (2/1927)

Mice hemizygous (Xsf/Y) for the X-linked mutation scurfy (sf) develop a severe and rapidly fatal lymphoproliferative disease mediated by CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes. We have undertaken phenotypic and functional studies to more accurately identify the immunologic pathway(s) affected by this important mutation. Flow cytometric analyses of lymphoid cell populations reveal that scurfy syndrome is characterized by changes in several phenotypic parameters, including an increase in Mac-1+ cells and a decrease in B220+ cells, changes that may result from the production of extremely high levels of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage CSF by scurfy T cells. Scurfy T cells also exhibit strong up-regulation of cell surface Ags indicative of in vivo activation, including CD69, CD25, CD80, and CD86. Both scurfy and normal T cells are responsive to two distinct signals provided by the TCR and by ligation of CD28; scurfy cells, however, are hyperresponsive to TCR ligation and exhibit a decreased requirement for costimulation through CD28 relative to normal controls. This hypersensitivity may result, in part, from increased costimulation through B7-1 and B7-2, whose expression is up-regulated on scurfy T cells. Although the specific defect leading to this hyperactivation has not been identified, we also demonstrate that scurfy T cells are less sensitive than normal controls to inhibitors of tyrosine kinases such as genistein and herbimycin A, and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A. One interpretation of our data would suggest that the scurfy mutation results in a defect, which interferes with the normal down-regulation of T cell activation.  (+info)

Requirement for nuclear factor-kappaB activation by a distinct subset of CD40-mediated effector functions in B lymphocytes. (3/1927)

CD40 stimulation, which is crucial for generating an effective T-dependent humoral response, leads to the activation of transcription factors NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), AP-1 (activator protein-1), and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB). However, which CD40-mediated B cell functions actually require activation of specific transcription factors is unknown. We examined the causal relationship between NF-kappaB activation and CD40 effector functions by evaluating CD40 functions in the presence of an inducible mutant inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) superrepressor. IkappaBalphaAA inhibited nuclear translocation of multiple NF-kappaB dimers without the complicating effect of depriving cells of NF-kappaB during development. This approach complements studies that use mice genetically deficient in single or multiple NF-kappaB subunits. Interestingly, only a subset of CD40 effector functions was found to require NF-kappaB activation. Both CD40-induced Ab secretion and B7-1 up-regulation were completely abrogated by expression of IkappaBalphaAA. Surprisingly, up-regulation of Fas, CD23, and ICAM-1 was partially independent, and up-regulation of LFA-1 was completely independent, of CD40-induced NF-kappaB activation. For the first time, it is clear that distinct transcription factors are required for the dynamic regulation of CD40 functions.  (+info)

Experimental murine schistosomiasis in the absence of B7 costimulatory molecules: reversal of elicited T cell cytokine profile and partial inhibition of egg granuloma formation. (4/1927)

The granulomatous inflammation in infection with the helminth Schistosoma mansoni represents a cellular hypersensitivity reaction mediated by, and dependent upon, MHC class II-restricted CD4+ Th cells sensitized to parasite egg Ags. The current work examines the role and significance of the B7:CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in providing the costimulation necessary for the activation of these pathogenic T cells. In vitro T cell responses in B7-1-/- mice, 7-8 wk postinfection, were no different from wild-type controls, but the absence of B7-2 molecules resulted in a decrease in egg Ag-induced proliferation with increased IFN-gamma production. Both B7-1-/- and B7-2-/- mice exhibited intact granuloma formation. In contrast, CD4+ Th cells from B7-1/2 double-deficient mice displayed a dramatic loss of proliferative capacity upon stimulation with egg Ag. Most strikingly, these T cells secreted only IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 and IL-10, a pattern entirely opposite to that displayed by wild-type controls. Despite these major differences in T cell reactivity, B7-1/2-/- mice had only a limited reduction of granuloma size and fibrosis, without appreciable difference in cellular composition. These results show that substantial granuloma formation can occur under conditions of limited T cell expansion and restricted Th1-type cytokine production. They also support the notion that the combined effect of B7 signaling is not as critical for Th1 cell activation as it is for the development of the Th2 dominant environment characteristic of the evolving schistosome infection in H-2b mice.  (+info)

The role of interleukin 12 in the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. (5/1927)

The cytokine profile of atherosclerotic aortas from apoE-deficient mice was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results clearly showed that the expression of mRNA for IL-12p40 was evident in aortas from 3-month-old apoE-deficient mice. The mRNA for IL-10 was detected in aorta from these mice at the age of 6 months, indicating that expression of IL-12 is earlier than that of IL-10 in these animals. Concurrent with IL-12p40, the mRNA for the T-cell cytokine IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, was detected in aortas of mice at young and old ages. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining further demonstrated the localization of IL-12 in macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the expression of costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 in macrophages, suggesting that activation of T lymphocytes by macrophages may occur via surface antigens in lesions. When the immunoglobulin isotype of the antioxidized LDL antibodies in sera of apoE-deficient mice was determined, it revealed that both IgM and IgG were present. Furthermore, IgG2a is predominant and comprises approximately 50% of the antioxidized LDL IgG in sera from young mice (3 months), but decreased to lower levels (35%) in older mice (6 months). Daily administration of IL-12 led to an increase in serum levels of antioxidized LDL antibodies and accelerated atherosclerosis in young apoE-deficient mice compared with control mice injected with PBS alone. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-12 plays an active role in regulating the immune response during the early phase of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice.  (+info)

B7-2 expressed on EL4 lymphoma suppresses antitumor immunity by an interleukin 4-dependent mechanism. (6/1927)

For T cells to become functionally activated they require at least two signals. The B7 costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 provide the "second signal" pivotal for T cell activation. In this report, we studied the relative roles of B7-1 and B7-2 molecules in the induction of antitumor immunity to the T cell thymoma, EL4. We generated EL4 tumor cells that expressed B7-1, B7-2, and B7-1+B7-2 by transfecting murine cDNAs. Our results demonstrate that EL4-B7-1 cells are completely rejected in syngeneic mice. Unlike EL4-B7-1 cells, we find that EL4-B7-2 cells are not rejected but progressively grow in the mice. A B7-1- and B7-2-EL4 double transfectant was generated by introducing B7-2 cDNA into the EL4-B7-1 tumor line that regressed in vivo. The EL4-B7-1+B7-2 double transfectant was not rejected when implanted into syngeneic mice but progressively grew to produce tumors. The double transfectant EL4 cells could costimulate T cell proliferation that could be blocked by anti-B7-1 antibodies, anti-B7-2 antibodies, or hCTLA4 immunoglobulin, showing that the B7-1 and B7-2 molecules expressed on the EL4 cells were functional. In vivo, treatment of mice implanted with double-transfected EL4 cells with anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody resulted in tumor rejection. Furthermore, the EL4-B7-2 and EL4-B7-1+B7-2 cells, but not the wild-type EL4 cells, were rejected in interleukin 4 (IL-4) knockout mice. Our data suggests that B7-2 expressed on some T cell tumors inhibits development of antitumor immunity, and IL-4 appears to play a critical role in abrogation of the antitumor immune response.  (+info)

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 inhibits interleukin 4 production by naive T cells. (7/1927)

The type of cytokines produced during T cell responses determines susceptibility or resistance to many pathogens and influences the development of autoimmunity and allergy. To define the role of individual accessory molecules in cytokine production during primary immune responses, Drosophila cell lines expressing murine major histocompatibility complex class II molecules with defined combinations of accessory molecules were used to present peptide antigen to naive T cell receptor transgenic T cells. Significantly, expression of B7.1 or B7.2 without additional accessory molecules led to very high production of interleukin (IL)-4, which contrasted with minimal IL-4 production elicited by conventional antigen presenting cells (APC). However, coexpression of ICAM-1 and B7 on Drosophila APC induced little IL-4, suggesting an inhibitory role for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In support of this idea, stimulation of T cell receptor transgenic T cells with peptide presented by splenic APC devoid of ICAM-1 (from ICAM-1-deficient mice) led to high IL-4 production. Thus, the level of IL-4 production by naive CD4(+) T cells during typical primary responses appears to be controlled, at least in part, by T-APC interactions involving ICAM-1.  (+info)

Regression of intracerebral rat glioma isografts by therapeutic subcutaneous immunization with interferon-gamma, interleukin-7, or B7-1-transfected tumor cells. (8/1927)

Progress in the definition of the roles of various costimulators and cytokines in determining the type and height of immune responses has made it important to explore genetically altered tumor cells expressing such molecules for therapeutic immunizations. We have studied the effect of therapeutic subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations on the growth of preexisting intracerebral brain tumor isografts in the rat. Transfectant glioma cell clones expressing either rat interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), rat interleukin-7 (IL-7), or rat B7-1 were selected. After irradiation (80 Gy) the clones were used for immunization (administered in up to four s.c. doses in a hind leg over 14-day intervals starting 1 day after the intracranial isografting of the parental tumor). Significant growth inhibition of the intracerebral parental tumors was induced by transfectants expressing IFN-gamma and IL-7, respectively. The strongest effect was observed with IFN-gamma-expressing cells, resulting in cures in 37% of the males and in 100% of the females. Immunization with IL-7 had a similar, strong initial effect, with significantly prolonged survival in the majority of the rats but a lower final cure rate (survival for >150 days). The B7-1-expressing tumor clones induced cures in seven of eight female rats; however, no cures were seen in the male rats. It was also shown that the B7-1-expressing cells were themselves strongly immunogenic in female rats, requiring high cell numbers to result in a progressively growing tumor upon s.c. isografting; this was not the case in male rats. As a whole, the results imply that despite the unfavorable location of intracerebral tumors, therapeutic s.c. immunizations with certain types of genetically altered tumor cells can induce complete regressions with permanent survival and without gross neurological or other apparent signs of brain damage. The present results demonstrate complete regressions when immunizations are initiated shortly after intracranial isografting, when the intracerebral tumor is small.  (+info)

We have previously demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of IL-10 on ConA-induced T cell proliferation or IL-2 production by resting murine T cells were only observed when macrophages, but not when activated B cells, dendritic cells, or L cells, were used as accessory cells. To further elucidate the mechanism of action of IL-10 on the inhibition of macrophage costimulatory activity, we have used a system in which macrophages can develop into effective costimulator cells and the effect of IL-10 on this process can be studied in the absence of T cells. After fixation, resting macrophages have no costimulatory activity for soluble anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation nor do they express the activation Ag B7/BB1. In contrast, macrophages activated by culture alone, or by culture with IFN gamma or LPS for 24 h, and then fixed, were effective accessory cells, expressed B7, and their costimulatory activity correlated with their level of cell surface B7 expression. Addition of IL-10 during the ...
The present results verify the previously suggested, but not definitively proven, mechanism that α-GalCer-activated iNKT-cells at least partly protect NOD mice from type 1 diabetes by driving the maturation of tolerogenic DCs. In contrast, iNKT-conditioned DCs in B6.H2g7 mice mature to an alternative immunogenic state that supports rather than inhibits AI4 T-cell-induced type 1 diabetes. The downstream maturation of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6.H2g7 mice to a tolerogenic versus an immunogenic state is due to the induction of quantitatively different expression levels of T-cell costimulatory and inhibitory molecules.. A series of T-cell costimulatory molecules were upregulated to a much greater extent on iNKT-conditioned DCs from B6.H2g7 than NOD mice. In particular, CD70 and OX40L expression levels were unchanged or strongly upregulated on iNKT-conditioned DCs from NOD and B6.H2g7 mice, respectively. This could be significant given a report that iNKT-cells promote CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell ...
In mammals, the classical B7 molecules expressed on antigen-presenting cells, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), bind the structurally related glycoproteins CD28 and CTLA-4 (CD152), generating costimulatory signals that regulate the activation state of T cells. A recently identified human CD28-like protein, ICOS, also induces costimulatory signals in T cells when crosslinked with antibodies, but it is unclear whether ICOS is part of a B7-mediated regulatory pathway of previously unsuspected complexity, or whether it functions independently and in parallel. Here, we report that, rather than binding B7-1 or B7-2, ICOS binds a new B7-related molecule of previously unknown function that we call LICOS (for ligand of ICOS). At 37 degrees C, LICOS binds only to ICOS but, at lower, non-physiological temperatures, it also binds weakly to CD28 and CTLA-4. Sequence comparisons suggest that LICOS is the homologue of a molecule expressed by avian macrophages and of a murine protein whose expression is induced in non
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;color:#000000;font-size:9pt;>The GL1 antibody specifically recognizes the B7-2 (CD86) costimulatory molecule expressed on a broad spectrum of leukocytes, including B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, thioglycollate-induced peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and astrocytes. CD86 is expressed at low levels by freshly explanted peripheral B and T cells, and its expression is substantially increased by a variety of T cell- and B cell-specific stimuli with a peak expression after 18-42 hours of culture. In contrast to most naive CD4+ T cells, memory CD4+ T cells express B7-2, both at the mRNA and protein level. CD86, a ligand for CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4), is one of the accessory molecules that plays an important role in T cell-B cell costimulatory interactions. It has been shown to be involved in immunoglobulin class-switching and triggering of mouse NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. CD80 (B7-1) is an alternate ligand for CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). GL1 antibody reportedly
In the 1990s download developing costimulatory molecules for immunotherapy Dr Russell Humphreys got about traffic and evolution. I are a standard debris cigarette or prison target agreed Greek. Can you gotta if his corporations about camp and nationalism feel Sorry glad to this nighttime Written this such shadow about special users?
The recipient of a cadaveric kidney was found to have donor melanoma within the graft together with metastatic spread. After cessation of immunosuppression, the kidney rejected and was removed. One month later there was both clinical and radiological evidence of remission and at autopsy 5 months later there was no histological evidence of melanoma. The outcome for recipients of other organs from the same donor was varied. Tumour cells expressed HLA class 1 antigens mismatched in the recipient and mRNA for the costimulator B7, and the cytokines GM-CSF, IL-1 alpha and beta. These characteristics may have been important in the host immunological response.. ...
OX40 is really a T cell costimulatory molecule that belongs to the TNFR superfamily. exhausted Treg phenotype can be prevented by exogenous IL-2, as both OX40 and IL-2 agonists drive further expansion of Tregs in vivo. Importantly, Tregs expanded by both OX40 and IL-2 agonists are potent suppressor cells, and in a heart transplant model, they promote long-term allograft survival. Our data uncover a novel role for buy Bedaquiline (TMC-207) OX40 in buy Bedaquiline (TMC-207) promoting immune tolerance and may have important clinical implications. strong class=kwd-title Keywords: Costimulation, Transplantation, Tolerance, OX40, Foxp3 Introduction Foxp3+ Tregs and conventional T cells (Tconv) express a plethora of cell surface molecules including T cell costimulatory molecules that potentially influence their survival, function, and homeostasis; some of these molecules are constitutively expressed by both Tregs and Tconv (e.g., CD27, CD28, CD39), while others are preferentially expressed by Tregs, ...
A successful T cell immune response has two major products: effector T cells which directly or indirectly remove the antigens, and memory T cells, which allow a faster and more efficient recall response when challenged by related antigens. An important issue is whether costimulatory molecules on the antigen-presenting cells are involved in determining whether T cells will differentiate into effector or memory cells after antigenic stimulation. To address this issue, we have produced mice with targeted mutations of either the heat-stable antigen (HSA), or both HSA and CD28. We show that CD28/B7 and HSA provide two alternative costimulatory pathways for induction of immunological memory to influenza virus. Furthermore, our results revealed that B7 is essential for the generation of effector T cells from either naive or memory T cells, while HSA is not necessary for the generation of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that the induction of memory T cells and effector T cells can utilize ...
To our knowledge, expression of B7-H1 within RCC tumors of the kidney has not been previously demonstrated. We also believe that B7-H1 is the first T cell costimulatory molecule that has been reported to exhibit a strong association with the aggressiveness of a solid (nonhematologic) tumor and patient cancer-specific survival. Finally, our study provides previously undescribed evidence that B7-H1 may function at the clinical level to promote cancer progression, perhaps through impairment of host T cell-mediated immunity, as has recently been reported in the basic scientific literature (2, 6).. B7-H1 represents a recently identified cell-surface glycoprotein belonging to the B7 family of costimulatory molecules (1). Constitutive B7-H1 protein expression is normally restricted to macrophage-lineage cells, where it may participate in the costimulatory activation of naïve T cells or deletion of activated T cells (1, 23). Several human cancers, however, have also been reported to aberrantly express ...
Among the AUA annual meeting take-home messages in basic science is that the immune co-stimulatory molecule B7-H4 is highly expressed in the luminal subtype of bladder urothelial carcinoma and is associated with poor survival.
|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>The MR1 monoclonal antibody specifically binds to CD154 (CD40 Ligand, gp39), an accessory molecule expressed on activated T helper (CD4+) lymphocytes. CD154 has also been detected on other types of leukocytes, including CD8+ T cells, medullary thymocytes, activated CD4+ NK-T cells, and human NK cells. CD154 plays an important role in costimulatory interactions between T and B lymphocytes and between antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes, regulating the immune response at multiple levels. MR1 mAb inhibits in vitro activation of B lymphocytes by T helper cells by blocking interaction of gp39 with CD40. |/span>|span style=font-style:italic;font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>In vitro |/span>|span style=font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>interactions of T cells and antigen-presenting cells can also be blocked by the MR1 antibody. |/span>|span style=font-style:italic;font-family:Times,serif;font-size:9pt;>In vivo|/span>|span style=font
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKCθ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36]. The ...
Activation of CD4+ T cells occurs through the simultaneous engagement of the T-cell receptor and a co-stimulatory molecule (like CD28, or ICOS) on the T cell by the major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) peptide and co-stimulatory molecules on the APC. Both are required for production of an effective immune response; in the absence of co-stimulation, T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually engages the PI3K pathway generating PIP3 at the plasma membrane and recruiting PH domain containing signaling molecules like PDK1 that are essential for the activation of PKC-θ, and eventual IL-2 production. Optimal CD8+ T cell response relies on CD4+ signalling.[33] CD4+ cells are useful in the initial antigenic activation of naïve CD8 T cells, and sustaining memory CD8+ T cells in the aftermath of an acute infection. Therefore, activation of CD4+ T cells can be beneficial to the action of CD8+ T cells.[34][35][36] The ...
The allergic form of asthma is driven by an immune response to airborne allergens, and can be exacerbated by a number of factors including exposure to viruses....
Cancer cell expression of the T-cell co-stimulatory molecule CD80, or treatment with agonistic antibodies targeting the T-cell co-stimulatory receptors OX-40 or 4-1BB, enhances the anti-tumor activity of FAK inhibition.
Folate, a water‐soluble B vitamin, and its synthetic form folic acid (FA) used in fortification and supplements, are critical to human health due to their role in one‐carbon transfer reactions required for biological methylation and nucleotide biosynthesis
B7-DC costimulates PD1−/− CD4+ T cells. (a) Purified CD4+ T cells from wt (open bars) or PD-1 KO mice (filled bars) were stimulated with 30 ng/well of preco
If your heart is not beating efficiently and you meet the eligibility criteria, you may be eligible for a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) heart device. A cardiac resynchronization therapy device is designed to treat heart failure.. A CRT device sends small, undetectable electrical impulses to both lower chambers of the heart to help them beat together in a more synchronized pattern. This improves the hearts ability to pump blood and oxygen to the body. The heart device itself is actually a tiny computer, plus a battery, contained in a small titanium metal case that is about the size of a pocket watch. It weighs about 3 ounces.. In addition to the heart device, insulated wires called leads are implanted for two purposes: to carry information signals from your heart to the heart device, and to carry electrical impulses to your heart. The third part of your implantable device system is a programmer, an external computer located in your doctors office or clinic that is used to program the ...
Methods: T cells were activated with anti-CD3/28 antibodies and subsequently transduced with a bicistronic retrovirus encoding tandem Rim-binding domains (FKBP12v36),cloned in-frame with MyD88 and CD40 cytoplasmic signaling molecules, and first generation CAR targeting CD123 (SFG-iMC-CD123.ζ). The effects ofiMC costimulation on CD123-targeted CARs were assessed in coculture assays with CD123+, EGFPluciferase (EGFPluc)-modified leukemic cell lines (KG1, THP-1 and MOLM-13) with and without Rim using the IncuCyte live cell imaging system. IL-2 production was examined by ELISA from coculture supernatants. In vivo efficacy of iMC-CD123.ζ-modified T cells was assessed using an immune-deficient NSG tumor xenograft model. One million EGFPluc-expressing CD123+ THP-1 tumor cells were injected i.v. into the animals, followed by a single i.v. injection on day 7 with 2.5x106 non-transduced or iMC-CD123.ζ-modified T cells. Groups receiving CAR-T cells subsequently received i.p. injections of Rim (1 mg/kg) ...
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Textbook solution for Chemistry In Focus 7th Edition Tro Chapter 4 Problem 42E. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. routes, or a TLR3 agonist (artificial double-stranded RNA PolyI:C), to evaluate modulation of innate responses during H1N1 IAV contamination. Since IAV utilizes cellular endocytic machinery for viral access, we also assessed ssONs capacity to impact IAV contamination. We first show that IAV infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were unable to up-regulate the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 required Zarnestra novel inhibtior for T cell activation. Exogenous TLR3 stimulation did not overcome the IAV-mediated inhibition of co-stimulatory molecule expression in MoDC. However, TLR3 stimulation using PolyI:C led to an augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine response. We reveal that ssON inhibited PolyI:C-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine creation in MoDC successfully, notably, ssON treatment preserved an interferon response induced by IAV an infection. Appropriately, RNAseq analyses uncovered sturdy up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes ...
In this study, we demonstrated that murine NKT cells constitutively express CD28 and that CD28-mediated costimulation is required for production of both IFN-γ and IL-4 by Vα14 NKT cells in response to their specific ligand α-GalCer. Consequently, blockade of the CD28-mediated costimulation resulted in impairment of both Th1- and Th2-type responses (serum IFN-γ and IL-4 elevation, cytotoxicity induction, antimetastatic effect, and serum IgE/IgG1 elevation) induced by α-GalCer administration in vivo. In contrast, blockade of the CD40-CD154 interaction inhibited only the α-GalCer-induced Th1-type responses (serum IFN-γ elevation, cytotoxicity induction, and antimetastatic effect) but rather enhanced the Th2-type responses (serum IL-4 elevation and serum IgE/IgG1 elevation). These results indicate that Th1- and Th2-like functions of Vα14 NKT cells are differentially regulated by CD28- and CD40-mediated costimulatory pathways.. It has been well established that conventional T cells require a ...
Interleukin 2 (IL-2)-deficient (IL-2-/-) mice develop hemolytic anemia and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Importantly, the induction of disease in IL-2-deficient mice is critically dependent on CD4+ T cells. We have studied the requirements of T cells from IL-2-deficient mice for costimulation with B7 antigens. Stable B7-1 or B7-2 chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants could synergize with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to induce the proliferation of CD4+ T cells from IL-2-/- mutant mice. Further mechanistic studies established that B7-induced activation resulted in surface expression of the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. B7-induced proliferation occurred independently of IL-4 and was largely independent of the common gamma chain of the IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15 receptors. Finally, anti-B7-2 but not anti-B7-1 mAb was able to inhibit the activation of IL-2-/- T cells induced by anti-CD3 mAb in the presence of syngeneic antigen-presenting cells. The results of our experiments
The B cell surface molecule B1 is functionally linked with B cell activation and differentiation. J Immunol. 1985 Aug; 135(2):973-9 ...
The programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1, CD279) with its ligands PD-L1 (CD274, B7-H1) and PD-L2 (CD273, B7-DC) constitutes a inhibitory pathway in cancer immunity. Therapeutic antibodies for blocking PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed and are undergoing human clinical testing. Negating the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is of particular interest as PD-L1 is upregulated by many human cancers. On the other hand, the role of PD-L2 in modulating immune responses is less clear, and its expression is more restricted compared to PD-L1, thus making it a less obvious target in cancer immunotherapy. However, in this context, several aspects of PD-L2 biology deserve attention, including a partial contextual dependency of PD-L2 expression.
Jun 28, 2012· 0.3 mg/kg (N = 3) Anti-PD-L1, 1 mg/kg (N=37) Anti-PD-L1, 3 mg/kg (N = 42) Anti-PD-L1, 10 mg/kg (N = 125) Anti-PD-L1, Total (N = 207) All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4 All Grades Grade 3 or 4; number of patients (percent) Any adverse event of special interest † 1 (33) 0: 18 .... Read more ...
Thiamin is one of the water soluble B Vitamins. Fortunately, on a Paleo Diet, it is far easier to get an adequate level of Thiamin, however, it is still very
Abstract. B cells are well-known mediators of humoral immunity and serve as costimulators in the generation of T cell-mediated responses. In several mouse model
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The interactions of B7-1 with CD28 and CTLA-4 modulate the course of human immune responses, making B7-1 an important target for developing structure-based therapeutics. B7-1 is, however, one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins found at the leukocyte cell surface, complicating the structural analysis of this molecule. Methods for the production, crystallization and selenomethionine labelling of a soluble deglycosylated form of this molecule are described. The protein readily forms both tetragonal plate and bipyramidal crystals belonging to space groups I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9, c = 298.7 A, and P4(1)22 (or P4(3)22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 89.0, c = 261.9 A, respectively. The I4(1)22 and primitive crystal forms diffract to 2.7 and 3.5 A, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance-based assays indicate that the ligand-binding properties of sB7-1 are unaffected by deglycosylation. Since none of the methods relied on any special structural properties of sB7-1, it is
This dissertation focuses on the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of multiple costimulatory pathways involved in T cell activation prolongs allograft survival and alters cell-mediated immunity. Two independent but necessary costimulatory pathways, the CD2 and CD28/CTLA4 coreceptors, were blocked using anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody and the fusion protein CTLA4Ig. Previous work has shown the importance ofCD2 in T cell activation and the immunosuppressive effects of anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody. The work presented here explored the immunosuppressive effects of CTLA4Ig. U sing a heterotopic nonvascularized cardiac allograft model and model of cell mediated immunity, CTLA4Ig was shown to be a potent immunosuppressant at the time of antigen presentation, prolonging allograft survival and inhibiting cell mediated immunity by altering both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Combining anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody with CTLA4Ig at the time of antigen presentation is a more immunosuppressive regimen, as ...
During evolutionary adaptation in the immune system, host defense is traded off against autoreactivity. Signals through the costimulatory receptor CD28 enable T cells to respond specifically to pathogens, whereas those through the related costimulatory receptor, ICOS, which arose by gene duplication, are critical for affinity maturation and memory antibody responses. ICOS ligand, unlike the pathogen-inducible CD28 ligands, is widely and constitutively expressed in the immune system. Here, we show that crosstalk between these two pathways provides a mechanism for obviating the normal T cell dependence on CD28. Several CD28-mediated responses-generation of follicular helper T cells, germinal center formation, T helper 1 cell-dependent extrafollicular antibody responses to Salmonella and bacterial clearance, and regulatory T cell homeostasis-became independent of CD28 and dependent on ICOS when the E3 ubiquitin ligase Roquin was mutated. Mechanisms to functionally compartmentalize ICOS and CD28 signals are
Patients with PD-L1-expressing tumors have a poor prognosis. By upregulating PD-L1, tumor cells can escape immune recognition and attack. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies have shown impressive antitumor effects. However, currently, there is no useful biomarker to predict response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapy, although there are first indications that tumor PD-L1 expression seems to be required for response to treatment. We have shown for the first time that it is feasible to noninvasively detect tumor PD-L1 expression. SPECT/CT imaging with the monoclonal antibody PD-L1.3.1 showed specific and efficient accumulation in PD-L1-expressing xenografts, whereas no specific uptake was measured in PD-L1-negative tumors.. Molecular imaging with radiolabeled anti-PD-L1 antibodies has important advantages over immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression. First of all, imaging allows measurement of PD-L1 expression of whole tumor lesions and their metastases, thereby avoiding sampling errors and thus ...
The purpose of this study is to explore the correlations of interleukin 36 (IL-36) and Soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A total of 35 children with M. pneumnoiae pneumonia (MPP) and 15 control subjects were enrolled. BALF concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and clinical profiles of children with MPP were obtained. Children with MPP had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to control subjects (both P < 0.05). Meanwhile, children with pleural effusion had significantly higher levels of sB7-H3 and IL-36 compared to children without pleural effusion (both P < 0.05). BALF concentration of sB7-H3 was strongly associated with concentration of IL-36 (r = 0.796, P < 0.0001) and sB7-H3 was correlated with duration of fever (r = 0.427, P = 0.11) and length of stay (r = 0.345, P = 0.043). Both concentrations of sB7-H3 and IL-36 were significantly
The study of the ontogeny of skin APCs also provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the development and, thus, the phenotype of their precursor cells. In addition, despite considerable research, the relationship among LCs, dermal DCs, and skin macrophages still remains unclear, not least because of the high plasticity of precursors to differentiate into each of these cells in different microenvironments (7, 12, 15). In this study, we show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be phenotypically separated by the distinct expression of the DC marker CD1c on some HLA-DRhigh cells. HLA-DRhigh leukocytes are capable of phagocytosing bacteria, up-regulating costimulatory molecules, and stimulating proliferation of allogeneic T cells in vitro, thus confirming their DC nature. In contrast, HLA-DRlow skin macrophages neither express CD1c nor up-regulate costimulatory molecules during culture. Collectively, these data show that at 9 wk EGA, skin macrophages and DCs can already be ...
The modulation of co-stimulatory pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases. Auto-reactive CD4+ T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Blocking co-stimulatory signals prevents T-cell activation, thus diminishing autoimmune responses and possibly preventing the progression of autoimmune disease. Blockade of several co-stimulatory pathways has been investigated in animal models and has led to clinical trials testing specific blocking agents in humans. In this review we will describe the role of co-stimulatory pathways, primarily the CD28-B7 pathway, in autoimmune diseases, and we will present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting the efficacy of co-stimulation blockade in animal models of autoimmune disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical therapeutic efficacy of blocking monoclonal antibodies in preventing or reducing auto-antigen driven T-cell activation in humans with ...
CD274 / PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), also known as B7-H1, is a member of the B7 family of regulatory proteins. It can act as both costimulatory and coinhibitory molecule for T cells. Interaction with its ligand CD279 (PD1) appears to be important in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and in prevention of tumor rejection. Even pathogens (e.g. Schistosoma) may exploit CD274 to evade an immune response. Besides CD279, existence of other receptor(s) for CD274 is likely ...
Found in foods such as oatmeal and soy, Biotin, a water soluble B vitamin, helps the body use energy from food. In addition, Biotin helps to maintain healthy skin and hair. Vegetarian and Vegan. Solgar Biotin contains Biotin which is a water-soluble
Apoptosis can be induced be different pathways including the interaction TNF ligand with their receptors at the plasma membrane or the activation of the BCl-2 family molecules.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the costimulatory receptor CD30 is regulated by both CD28 and cytokines. AU - Gilffillan, Molly C.. AU - Noel, Patricia J.. AU - Podack, Eckhard R.. AU - Reiner, Steven L.. AU - Thompson, Craig B.. PY - 1998/3/1. Y1 - 1998/3/1. N2 - Costimulation was originally defined and characterized during primary T cell activation. The signaling events that regulate subsequent antigen encounters by T cells are less well defined. In this study we examined the role of CD30 in T cell activation and defined factors that regulate expression of CD30 on T cells. We demonstrate that CD30 expression is restricted to activated T cells and regulated by CD28 signal transduction. In contrast to CD28-expressing TCR Tg cells, CD28-deficient TCR Tg cells did not express CD30 when cultured with peptide and APCs. However, rIL-4 reconstituted CD30 expression on CD28-deficient TCR Tg cells. Blockade of CD28 interactions or depletion of IL-4 inhibited the induction of CD30, suggesting that both ...
The CD28 antibody is specific for the mouse CD28 costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Clone 37.51 has been shown to activate T cells in combination with CD3. Activation and proliferation of T cells can be induced by interaction of the T cell receptor with peptide-MHC complexes. The T cell receives a signal transduced through the CD3 complex. Cytokines or other costimulatory signals from accessory cells are required in addition. Activated T cells can be used for any downstream processes, such as cytokine analysis or immunoprecipitation. Cells can also be transfected with high efficiency. - España
The CD28 antibody is specific for the mouse CD28 costimulatory molecule, expressed on most thymocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Ligation of CD28 with CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) provides a costimulatory signal for T cell activation. Clone 37.51 has been shown to activate T cells in combination with CD3. Activation and proliferation of T cells can be induced by interaction of the T cell receptor with peptide-MHC complexes. The T cell receives a signal transduced through the CD3 complex. Cytokines or other costimulatory signals from accessory cells are required in addition. Activated T cells can be used for any downstream processes, such as cytokine analysis or immunoprecipitation. Cells can also be transfected with high efficiency. - Italia
Results In their resting state the monocyte derived dendritic cells expressed MHC class II, but very low levels of co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86. Upon culture with H. pylori, the cells expressed significantly higher levels of these co-stimulatory molecules, demonstrating maturation (,25 fold increase in percentage of positive events for CD80, CD83, CD86 on flow cytometry; p,0.01). There were no differences between the responses to wild type and dupA knockout mutant strains, or following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The H. pylori-matured dendritic cells secreted high levels of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-23. The concentrations induced by the dupA+ strains were significantly higher than those induced by the dupA mutants (1.5 fold increase in IL-12p40 production, p,0.05; 1.4 fold increase in IL-12p70, p,0.05).. ...
Costimulatory molecules, such as B7-1/2 and PD-L1/2 play an important role in the function of APC. The regulation of the surface levels of costimulatory molecules is one mechanism by which APC maintain the balance between tolerance and immunity. We examined the contributions of B7-1/2 and PD-L1/2 to the function of IL-10-treated, immunosuppressive DC as well as therapeutic exosomes derived from these DC. IL-10 treatment of DC significantly downregulated surface expression of MHC II, B7-1, B7-2, and decreased levels of MHC I and PD-L2. IL-10 treatment of DC resulted in a modified costimulatory profile of DC-secreted exosomes with a reduction in B7-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2. We further demonstrate that absence of B7-1 or B7-2 on donor DC results in a loss of ability of IL-10-treated DC and their exosomes to suppress the delayed-type hypersensitivity response, whereas IL-10-treated DC deficient in PD-L1/2 as well as their secreted exosomes retained the ability to suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity ...
Within the paradigm of the two-signal model of lymphocyte activation, the interest in costimulation has witnessed a remarkable emergence in the past few years with the discovery of a large array of molecules that can serve this role, including some with an inhibitory function. Interest has been further enhanced by the realization of these molecules potential as targets to modulate clinical immune responses. Although the therapeutic translation of mechanistic knowledge in costimulatory molecules has been relatively straightforward, the capacity to target their inhibitory counterparts has remained limited. This limited capacity is particularly apparent in the case of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), a major negative regulator of T cell responses. Because there have been several previous comprehensive reviews on the function of this molecule, we focus here on the physiological implications of its structural features. Such an exercise may ultimately help us to design
Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), a light chain subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I complex, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, whether it is expressed in different epithelial-type ovarian tumours remains unknown. This study was performed to examine the expression of B2M in different histopathological types of ovarian tumours, to explore the function of B2M in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway. B2M expression in normal ovarian tissues and epithelia-type ovarian tumours was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, followed by the analysis of association with clinical features. OC cells were transfected with B2M-siRNA and cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by WST-1 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway in OC cells was examined by Western blot, ELISA and qRT-PCR. We
|p|The mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes human CD40, a member of the TNFreceptor superfamily. CD40 is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells of the immune system and is essential for mediating a broad variety of immune and inflammatory responses includ
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
High-quality CTLA-4 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of PCSK9 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands (e.g., CD28; MIM 186760) on T ... B7H4 belongs to the B7 family (see CD80; MIM 112203) of costimulatory proteins. ...
During the mTEC maturation are expressed high levels of MHCII, CD80, autoimmune regulator Aire and tissue restricted antigens ( ... So if TCR exhibit high or inappropriate affinity for the self antigen expressed on mTEC, the thymocyte will be destroyed. mTEC ... Aire mediates negative selection of auto-reactive T-cells and organ-specific antigens' expression on mTECs. The outcome of a ... Representative surface markers are UEA-1 and CD80. After maturation continue mTEC to the terminal differentiation stage, which ...
It acts as an "off" switch when bound to CD80 or CD86 on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The CTLA-4 protein is encoded ... on antigen-presenting cells. CTLA-4 binds CD80 and CD86 with greater affinity and avidity than CD28 thus enabling it to ... CTLA4 is homologous to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and ... CTLA-4 can also affect signalling indirectly via competing with CD28 for CD80/86 binding. CTLA-4 can also bind PI3K, although ...
... the CD80 expression is upregulated in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The CD86 expression on antigen-presenting cells is ... Mouse CD Antigen Chart Human CD Antigen Chart Human CD28 genome location and CD28 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... Prasad KV, Cai YC, Raab M, Duckworth B, Cantley L, Shoelson SE, Rudd CE (Mar 1994). "T-cell antigen CD28 interacts with the ...
This suggests Treg-mediated suppression of antigen presenting cells is a multi-step process. In addition to CTLA-4 CD80/CD86 ... T regulatory cell adhesion to antigen presenting dendritic cell causes sequestration of Fascin-1, an actin-bundling protein ... essential for immunological synapse formation, and skews Fascin-1-dependent actin polarization in antigen presenting dendritic ...
They also express high levels of MHC II and costimulatory molecules CD80/CD86 and rank among efficient antigen-presenting cells ... Unidirectional antigen transfer from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs), which itself can´t express TRAs, extends the ... Koble C, Kyewski B (July 2009). "The thymic medulla: a unique microenvironment for intercellular self-antigen transfer". The ... which recognize self antigens via their TCRs. Autoreactive T cells must be eliminated from the body or skewed into the T ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
costimulatory ligands CD80 and CD86 can be found on professional antigen presenting cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells, ... Between CD80 and CD86, CD80 appears to have a higher affinity for both CTLA-4 and CD28 than CD86. This suggest that CD80 is ... The interaction between CD86 (CD80) expressed on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell with CD28 on the surface of a mature ... Both CD80 and CD86 bind CTLA-4 with higher affinity than CD28. This allows CTLA-4 to outcompete CD28 for CD80/CD86 binding. ...
One of those signals is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), combined with the antigen, and the other signal is the CD80 ... In order for T cells to be activated and attack an antigen, that antigen must be presented to the T cell by an antigen- ... Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal. This prevents the T cells from ... the APC must bind the antigen to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, bring that complex to its surface, and ...
The antigens recognized by non-Vδ2 T cells expanded in the above infectious contexts have not been characterized, but the fact ... CD80, CD86) and adhesion receptors (CD11a, CD18, CD54). Thus activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells behave like APCs (γδ T-APC) and present ... It is still not clear whether these non-peptidic antigens bind directly to the Vγ9/Vδ2 TCR or if a presenting element exists. ... However, none of the known antigen-presenting molecules like MHC class I and II or CD1 are required for γδ T cell activation ...
... when IL-10R1 receptor is IL-10 is also an inhibitor of expressions of CD80 and CD86 by dendritic cells (DC) and antigen- ...
... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell displays a peptide antigen on MHC class II proteins, a CD4+ cell will aid those ... During an immune response, professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) endocytose antigens (typically bacteria or viruses), ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ...
C2-set domains are found primarily in the mammalian T-cell surface antigens CD2 (Cluster of Differentiation 2), CD4 and CD80, ... "An African swine fever virus gene with similarity to the T-lymphocyte surface antigen CD2 mediates hemadsorption". Virology. ...
... antigens, cd59 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.179 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.050.301.264.035.180 - antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.050.301.264 ... antigens, cd59 MeSH D23.101.100.110.179 - antigens, cd79 MeSH D23.101.100.110.180 - antigens, cd80 MeSH D23.101.100.110.186 - ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
Antigen Antigenicity Immunogen Superantigen Allergen Hapten Epitope Linear Conformational Mimotope Tumor antigen Antigen- ... CD24 CD44 CD146 CD164 CD69 Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1PR1 S1PR2 S1PR3 S1PR4 S1PR5 Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 - ... T cells Antigen receptor - T cell receptor (TCR) Subunits - [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] Co-receptors CD8 (CD8α / CD8β) CD4 ... CD18 Macrophage-1 antigen (CR3) - Heterodimer: CD11b / CD18 Integrin alphaXbeta2 (CR4) - Heterodimer: CD11c / CD18 Very late ...
CD80, and CD86; in myelin membrane adhesion molecules; in junctional adhesion molecules (JAM); in tyrosine-protein kinase ... IPR003596 T-cell surface antigen CD2 InterPro: IPR013285 ACAM; ACAN; ADAMTSL1; AGC1; AMICA1; BCAM; BCAN; BGP; BGPc; BT3.3; ... CD80; CD83; CD86; CD8A; CD8B; CD8B1; CD96; CEACAM1; CEACAM16; CEACAM19; CEACAM21; CEACAM3; CEACAM4; CEACAM5; CEACAM6; CEACAM7; ...
Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...
... the T-cell receptor binding to an antigen-MHC complex and T-cell surface receptor CD28 binding to CD80 or CD86 proteins. CTLA4 ... Dendritic cells are antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the mammalian immune system. In cancer treatment they aid cancer antigen ... Antigens can be added to the antibody and can induce the dendritic cells to mature and provide immunity to the tumor. Dendritic ... Carbohydrate antigens on the surface of cells can be used as targets for immunotherapy. GD2 is a ganglioside found on the ...
Nishikawa M, Takemoto S, Takakura Y (April 2008). "Heat shock protein derivatives for delivery of antigens to antigen ... CD80, CD86, CD40), MHC molecules and pro-inflammatory and Th1 cytokines. Heat-shock proteins can signal also through scavenger ... "Human heat shock protein 70 enhances tumor antigen presentation through complex formation and intracellular antigen delivery ... Tumor cells usually express only a few neo-antigens, which can be targeted by immune system and also not all tumor cells ...
... antigen (Cluster of Differentiation 48) also known as B-lymphocyte activation marker (BLAST-1) or signaling lymphocytic ... CD48 and CD2 molecular coupling together with other interaction pairs of CD28 and CD80, TCR and peptide-MHC and LFA-1 and ICAM- ... Smith GM, Biggs J, Norris B, Anderson-Stewart P, Ward R (1998). "Detection of a soluble form of the leukocyte surface antigen ... Killeen N, Moessner R, Arvieux J, Willis A, Williams AF (October 1988). "The MRC OX-45 antigen of rat leukocytes and ...
MZ B cells shuttle between the blood-filled marginal zone for antigen collection and the follicle for antigen delivery to ... CD80 and CD86 molecules. Deficiencies of MZ B cells are associated with a higher risk of pneumococcal infection, meningitis and ... MZ B cells respond to a wide spectrum of T-independent, but also T-dependent antigens. It is believed that MZ B cells are ... Moreover, MZ B cells are potent antigen-presenting cells, that are able to activate CD4+ T cells more effectively than FO B ...
McKusick, V. A., & Converse, P. J. (2016, August 05). CD80 Antigen; CD80. Retrieved May 29, 2019 Peach RJ, Bajorath J, Naemura ... the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the antigen-presenting cell. Under the right conditions, this transfer of the CD80 may ... CD80 may also play a role in the negative regulation of effector and memory T-cells. If the interaction between an antigen- ... CD80 can be found on the surface of various immune cells including B cells, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such ...
... (CD94) is an antigen preferentially expressed on NK cells and is classified as a type II membrane protein because it has ... CD80, and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in cytotoxicity induction and interferon-gamma production by human ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ... Ding Y, Sumitran S, Holgersson J (May 1999). "Direct binding of purified HLA class I antigens by soluble NKG2/CD94 C-type ...
Antigen-naive T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help. Antigen ... These self-antigens are expressed by thymic cortical epithelial cells on MHC molecules on the surface of cortical epithelial ...
Binding with its two ligands are CD80 and CD86, expressed on dendritic cells, prompts T cell expansion. CD28 was the target of ... CD27: This molecule supports antigen-specific expansion of naïve T cells and is vital for the generation of T cell memory. CD27 ... The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti- ... CD40: This molecule, found on a variety of immune system cells including antigen presenting cells has CD40L, otherwise known as ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DX beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQB2 gene. ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1998). "Identification of a new DQB1*0613 allele in a family". Tissue Antigens. 50 (6): 685-7. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1997. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
Also known as HLA-DXA or DAAP-381D23.2, it is part of the human leucocyte antigen system. The protein encoded by this gene is ... 1995). "HIV gp120 inhibits T cell activation by interfering with expression of costimulatory molecules CD40 ligand and CD80 ( ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... For example, when an antigen-presenting cell expresses an antigen on MHC class II, a CD4+ cell will aid those cells through a ... that a host antigen is foreign. As a result, the CD8+ T cells treat the host cell presenting that antigen as infected, and go ... but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. The antigens that bind to MHC ...
DCs are also the only cell type which can activate naïve T cells and induce antigen-specific immune responses. Therefore, their ... CD80, CD86) and MHC molecules on their surface. Tolerogenic DCs also produce different cytokines as mature DCs (e.g. anti- ... Tolerogenic effect has been demonstrated also by over-expression of Jagged-1 on DCs which in turn induced antigen specific T ... Mills KH, McGuirk P (April 2004). "Antigen-specific regulatory T cells--their induction and role in infection". Seminars in ...
CD80 • CD81 • CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 ... 2000). "Characterization of a new member of the TNF family expressed on antigen presenting cells.". Biol. Chem. 380 (12): 1443- ... "BLyS receptor signatures resolve homeostatically independent compartments among naïve and antigen-experienced B cells.". Semin ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell function: skin tests for delayed-type hypersensitivity, cell responses to mitogens and ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
I. Partial characterization of soluble Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by ... Josimovic-Alasevic O, Dürkop H, Schwarting R, Backé E, Stein H, Diamantstein T (Jan 1989). "Ki-1 (CD30) antigen is released by ... CD30+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... results from cDNA cloning and sequence comparison of the CD30 antigen from different sources". Molecular Immunology. 31 (17): ...
Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ...
CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 (Ruplizumab). BLyS (Belimumab) • CTLA-4 (Ipilimumab, Tremelimumab) • ... Induction of Potent and Long-Lasting T-Cell Responses against Cancer Antigens". Cancer Research 62: 1477-1480. ... "A divalent major histocompatibility complex/IgG1 fusion protein induces antigen-specific T cell activation in vitro and in ...
Seligman P. A., Butler C. D., Massey E. J., etal. The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same ... Le Beau M. M., Diaz M. O., Plowman G. D., etal. Chromosomal sublocalization of the human p97 melanoma antigen. (англ.) // Hum. ... Plowman G. D., Brown J. P., Enns C. A., etal. Assignment of the gene for human melanoma-associated antigen p97 to chromosome 3 ... Rose T. M., Plowman G. D., Teplow D. B., etal. Primary structure of the human melanoma-associated antigen p97 ( ...
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) also known as CD66e (Cluster of Differentiation 66e), is a ... 2001). "Heterogeneous RNA-binding protein M4 is a receptor for carcinoembryonic antigen in Kupffer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 276 ( ... CEACAM5, CD66e, CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5. External IDs. HomoloGene: 128801 GeneCards: ... Oikawa S, Nakazato H, Kosaki G (1987). "Primary structure of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) deduced from cDNA sequence". ...
The protein also carries the Jr(a) antigen, which defines the Junior blood group system.[9] ...
van Rhenen A., van Dongen G. A., Kelder A., et al. The novel AML stem cell associated antigen CLL-1 aids in discrimination ...
"Interaction of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta with the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma-associated antigen and beta-catenin". Molecular and ...
Ebert LM, McColl SR (2002). "Up-regulation of CCR5 and CCR6 on distinct subpopulations of antigen-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes ... This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may ... dendritic cells induce antitumor immunity when genetically fused with nonimmunogenic tumor antigens". J. Immunol. 167 (11): ...
Antigen-specific peripheral shaping of the natural regulatory T cell population. „J Exp Med". 205 (13), s. 3105-3117, grudzień ... Ponieważ CD80 i CD86 są kluczowe dla stymulacji limfocytów T, efektem jest zahamowanie ich aktywacji[105]; ... De novo production of antigen-specific suppressor cells in vivo. „Nat Protoc". 1 (2), s. 653-661, 2006. PMID: 17802642. ... CTLA-4 - białko to wiąże się z cząsteczkami CD80 i CD86 na komórkach prezentujących antygen. Skutkuje to pobraniem tych ...
"Guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen". Bio/Technology. 12 ... drug were found by guiding the selection of human antibodies from phage display repertoires to a single epitope of an antigen ...
It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem ... CD15 Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... CD15 (3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine) is a cluster of differentiation antigen - an immunologically significant molecule. CD15 ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ... antigen binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • MHC class II protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • ...
CD80 • CD81 • CD82 • CD83 • CD84 • CD85 (a, d, e, h, j, k) • CD86 • CD87 • CD88 • CD89 • CD90 • CD91- CD92 • CD93 • CD94 • CD95 ... CD97 antigen je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CD97 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325-31. PMID 11380941. doi:10.1034/j. ... "Expression cloning and chromosomal mapping of the leukocyte activation antigen CD97, a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of ...
CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 (Ruplizumab). BLyS (Belimumab) • CTLA-4 (Ipilimumab, Tremelimumab) • ... ćelije bile identifikovane kao najpotentniji proizvođači tipa I interferona u odgovoru na antigen, i bile su nazvani prirodne ...
"Entrez Gene: ITGB3 integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)".. *^ May, K. E.; Villar, J.; Kirtley, S.; ... CD61+Antigens at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
CD80 (Galiksimab) • CD147/Basigin (Gavilimomab) • CD154 (Ruplizumab). BLyS (Belimumab) • CTLA-4 (Ipilimumab, Tremelimumab) • ... Nakon presađivanja (transplantacije) organa, telo skoro uvek „odbaci" novi organ usled razlike ljudskih leukocit antigen ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ... T cell exhaustion can be triggered by several factors like persistent antigen exposure and lack of CD4 T cell help.[51] Antigen ... Antigen discriminationEdit. A unique feature of T cells is their ability to discriminate between healthy and abnormal (e.g. ...
"Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26". Science. 261 (5120): 466-9. doi:10.1126/ ...
Past this period CD3 blocks the TCR-antigen binding and causes conformational change or the removal of the entire TCR3/CD3 ... The IL-2a (CD25, T-cell activation antigen, TAC) is expressed only by the already-activated T lymphocytes. Therefore, it is of ... The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute ... Monoclonal antibodies are directed towards exactly defined antigens. Therefore, they cause fewer side-effects. Especially ...
B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... It binds to CD40 (protein) on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. In ... Grewal, IS; Xu, J; Flavell, RA (7 December 1995). "Impairment of antigen-specific T-cell priming in mice lacking CD40 ligand". ...
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I. • lipoprotein transport. • negative ... peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent. • platelet degranulation. • MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling ...
Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very Late Antigen-4 or integrin α4β1) of the β1 subfamily of ...
... uveitis antigens induce CXCR3- and CXCR5-expressing lymphocytes and immature dendritic cells to migrate (англ.) // Blood (англ ...
In addition to aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions the CD8 co-receptor also plays a role in T cell signaling. The ... the CD8 co-receptor plays a role in T cell signaling and aiding with cytotoxic T cell antigen interactions. ... This affinity keeps the T cell receptor of the cytotoxic T cell and the target cell bound closely together during antigen- ... Once the T cell receptor binds its specific antigen Lck phosphorylates the cytoplasmic CD3 and ζ-chains of the TCR complex ...
tr,G3V671,G3V671_RAT CD80 antigen, isoform CRA_a OS=Rattus norvegicus OX=10116 GN=Cd80 PE=4 SV=1 ... CD80 antigen, isoform CRA_aImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/ ... IPR013162, CD80_C2-set. IPR037676, CD80_IgC. IPR007110, Ig-like_dom. IPR036179, Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783, Ig-like_fold. ... IPR013162, CD80_C2-set. IPR037676, CD80_IgC. IPR007110, Ig-like_dom. IPR036179, Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783, Ig-like_fold. ...
where to buy 357613-77-5(Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), ... human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 ... antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 lamda chain ... Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human CD80 (antigen)) (human-Macaca irus monoclonal IDEC-114 heavy chain), disulfide with human-Macaca ...
Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7. ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Pipeline Review, H2 ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Cluster of ... T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) pipeline Target ...
Following antigen stimulation, intercellular interactions of DC:T-cell conjugates were stronger than B:T-cell interactions. DCs ... Blocking antibodies targeting surface co-stimulatory molecules CD80 or CD86 weakened intercellular interactions and dampen T- ... since DCs were superior to B-cells in promoting strong interactions with T-cells even when CD80 and CD86 were inhibited. These ... cell activation, highlighting the amplificatory roles of CD80/86 in regulating APC:T-cell interactions and T-cell functional ...
CD80). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price. ... Purchase Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80( ... Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80(CD80). * ... Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80(CD80),partial. Mammalian cell. CSB-YP004959HU1. CSB-EP004959HU1. CSB- ... Recombinant Human T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80(CD80),partial. Yeast. E.coli. Baculovirus. Mammalian cell. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane receptor that is activated by the binding of CD28 or CTLA-4. The activated protein induces T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. This protein can act as a receptor for adenovirus subgroup B and may play a role in lupus neuropathy. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011 ...
Buy Latest Research Report On T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market at UpMarketResearch. Report Covers Global Industry ... Chapter One T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry Overview. 1.1 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Definition. 1.2 T ... 2.) Asia T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market;. 3.) North American T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market;. 4.) ... 1.6.1 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Global Import Market Analysis. 1.6.2 T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Global ...
Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Overview 3.1. T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Dynamics 3.1.1. ... Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. The report on T ... Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market By Type (Abatacept, Abatacept Biosimilar, CUE-201, KAHR-102, and Others), By ... 1. T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Introduction 1.1. Definition 1.2. Taxonomy 1.3. Research Scope 2. Executive ...
CD80 Molecule, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... cDNA FLJ75225, highly similar to Homo sapiens CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen) (CD80), mRNA (A0N0P2_HUMAN) ... GeneCards Summary for CD80 Gene CD80 (CD80 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CD80 include Vaccinia ... P33681-CD80_HUMAN. Recommended name:. T-lymphocyte activation antigen CD80 Protein Accession:. P33681. Secondary Accessions: * ...
... is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 industry with a ... Global and Chinese T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry, 2013-2023 Market Research Report ... 1.2 Development of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry. 1.3 Status of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Industry ... 2.2 Analysis of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Manufacturing Technology. 2.3 Trends of T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CD80 (B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PE, Clone: 16 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... Description: The 16-10A1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD80 (B7-1), a 55 kDa member of the Ig superfamily. CD80 is ... CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) are ligands of T cell critical costimulatory molecule CD28 and of an inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 ( ...
CD80 (B7-1) Armenian Hamster anti-Canine, Mouse, Porcine, PerCP-eFluor 710, Clone: 16-10A1, eBioscience 25 µg; PerCP-eFluor 710 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 ... Description: The 16-10A1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD80 (B7-1), a 55 kDa member of the Ig superfamily. CD80 is ...
CD80 protein (10107-B1) is manufactured by R&D Systems, over 95% purity. Reproducible results in bioactivity assays. Learn More ... CD28LGB7-1 antigen); CD80 antigen; CD80 molecule; CD80; costimulatory factor CD80; costimulatory molecule variant IgV-CD80; ... Background: B7-1/CD80. B7-1/CD80 and B7-2/CD86, together with their receptors CD28 and CTLA-4, constitute one of the dominant ... Home / B7-1/CD80 / Recombinant Human B7-1/CD80 Fc Chimera Protein, CF ...
T cells that either extrinsically acquired CD80 or were deficient in CD80, and found that CD80, presented by memory CD8+ T ... Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8+ t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ... Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8+ t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ... Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8+ t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ...
Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ... Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific ...
Conclusions: : Therefore, HLA-DR+/CD80+ uveal melanoma cells activate Th cells to endogenous antigens, and could be used in ... As measured by flow cytometry, HLA-DRB*0101 and CD80 transduced uveal melanoma cells express HLA-DR1 and CD80 on the cell ... restricted tumor antigens is difficult due to the inhibition of Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) within the tumor environment and ... HER2/neu-expressing primary and metastatic uveal melanoma transductants MEL202/DR1/CD80 and OMM2.3/DR1/CD80 were co-cultured as ...
CD28 : CD80 interactions mediate antigen independent T cell adhesion and ring junction formation ... CD28 : CD80 interactions mediate antigen independent T cell adhesion and ring junction formation ... CD28 : CD80 interactions mediate antigen independent T cell adhesion and ring junction formation ...
... human hepatocellular carcinoma cells activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes to target HCC cells with shared tumor antigens ... CD80 transfected human hepatocellular carcinoma cells activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes to target HCC cells with shared tumor ...
Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ... Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a ...
Mouse monoclonal CD80 antibody [MEM-233] conjugated to PerCP. Validated in Flow Cyt and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication ... ab82410 reacts with CD80 expressed on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages or activated ... Flow Cytometry analysis of P815 cells labeling CD80 with Anti-CD80 antibody [MEM-233] (PerCP) (ab82410). ... CD80 antigen (CD28 antigen ligand 1, B7-1 antigen) antibody. *CD80 antigen antibody ...
CD80, CD86). DCs can initiate Ag-specific CD4+ T cell responses, without needing prior activation from previously stimulated T ... B lymphocytes can be competent antigen-presenting cells for priming CD4+ T cells to protein antigens in vivo. J. Immunol. 155: ... requirement for professional antigen presenting cells and evidence for antigen transfer from myocytes. Mol. Med. 3:362. ... B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T cell priming in vivo. J. Immunol. 162:5695. ...
Order this anti-CD80 antibody. , Product number ABIN678683 ... Rabbit Polyclonal CD80 antibody AA 270-321 for IF (p), IHC (p ... CD 80, CD28 antigen ligand 1 B7 1 antigen, CD28 antigen ligand 1 B71 antigen, CD28LG, CD28LG1, CD80 antigen, CD80 antigen ... anti-CD80 antibody (CD80) (AA 270-321) CD80 antibody (CD80) (AA 270-321). Details for Product anti-CD80 Antibody No. ABIN678683 ... Cd80 (CD80 Antibody Abstract) Background CD80 is a member of the Ig superfamily and serves as the ligand for two T cell ...
CD80 and CD86 (collectively referred to as B7 for this bioassay). ... CD28 binds to B7 on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Co- ... aAPC/Raji Cells: Raji cells expressing an engineered cell surface protein designed to activate TCR/CD3 in an antigen- ... CD80 and CD86 (collectively referred to as B7 for this bioassay). ...
IPR039810 CD166_antigen. IPR013162 CD80_C2-set. IPR007110 Ig-like_dom. IPR036179 Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783 Ig-like_fold. ... IPR039810 CD166_antigen. IPR013162 CD80_C2-set. IPR007110 Ig-like_dom. IPR036179 Ig-like_dom_sf. IPR013783 Ig-like_fold. ...
Antigen presentation and processing flashcards from Sarah Carlson ... 2. Recognize antigen on MCH I. 3. Release cytotoxic molecules ( ... Diebel- Antigen presentation and processing Flashcards Preview IHO Week 4 , Diebel- Antigen presentation and processing , ... Though they have a profound def in CD8 T cells, and a decreased ability to present antigens to CD8 T cells they still..... Have ... Exogneous antigens are internalized via endocytosis or phagocytosis.. DC/Macropahges- phagocytize B cells- receptor mediated ...
To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell ... To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell ... followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. We previously demonstrated the dMP system ameliorated type 1 diabetes (T1D) and ... followed by tolerogenic antigen presentation. We previously demonstrated the dMP system ameliorated type 1 diabetes (T1D) and ...
The elevated level of CD80 expression on VH11Vκ9 splenic and peritoneal B cells (Fig. 1⇑A) suggests that both these cell ... The Unique Antigen Receptor Signaling Phenotype of B-1 Cells Is Influenced by Locale but Induced by Antigen. Michael J. Chumley ... The Unique Antigen Receptor Signaling Phenotype of B-1 Cells Is Influenced by Locale but Induced by Antigen ... The Unique Antigen Receptor Signaling Phenotype of B-1 Cells Is Influenced by Locale but Induced by Antigen ...
0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, CD28; 0/Antigens, CD80; 0/Antigens, CD86; 0/Antigens, Differentiation; 0/Antigens, Differentiation ... Antigens, CD. Antigens, CD28 / immunology*. Antigens, CD80 / immunology*. Antigens, CD86 / immunology*. Antigens, ... Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Lymphocyte Activation. Receptors, Immunologic / immunology. ... T-Lymphocyte; 0/BTLA protein, human; 0/Receptors, Immunologic; 0/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; 0/inducible T-cell co- ...
The aim of this study was to investigate whether downregulating the expression of B7.1 (CD80) ... Blockade of CD80-CD28 costimulatory pathway induces unresponsiveness of T cells to alloantigens and protects allografts against ... Antigens, CD80 / genetics, immunology*. Antisense Elements (Genetics)*. Down-Regulation. Gene Transfer Techniques. Graft ... OBJECTIVE: Blockade of CD80-CD28 costimulatory pathway induces unresponsiveness of T cells to alloantigens and protects ...
McKusick, V. A., & Converse, P. J. (2016, August 05). CD80 Antigen; CD80. Retrieved May 29, 2019 Peach RJ, Bajorath J, Naemura ... the T-cell can remove the CD80 from the antigen-presenting cell. Under the right conditions, this transfer of the CD80 may ... CD80 may also play a role in the negative regulation of effector and memory T-cells. If the interaction between an antigen- ... CD80 can be found on the surface of various immune cells including B cells, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such ...
  • CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) are ligands of T cell critical costimulatory molecule CD28 and of an inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 (CD152). (fishersci.com)
  • CD80, often in tandem with CD86, plays a large and diverse role in the regulation of both the adaptive and the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2) play an important role in antigen presentation to effector cells. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the functional role of CD80 and CD86 expressed on allergen-specific T cells in atopic diseases has not yet been clarified. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective: We sought to determine the functional role of CD80 and CD86 expressed on allergen- specific T cells in atopic diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: We assayed the expression of CD80 and CD86 on allergen-specific T-cell lines from patients with perennial allergic rhinitis stimulated by Dermatophagoides farinae-crude (Der f-c) antigen, 1 of the major allergens causing house dust mite allergy. (elsevier.com)
  • T-cell proliferation induced by Der f-c-specific TT cell interactions was measured, and the role of CD80 and CD86 in this proliferation was examined. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, we compared the proportion of CD45RO + CD86 + T cells in primary culture of PBMCs stimulated by Der f-c antigen between patients with perennial allergic rhinitis and control subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: On T-cell activation, CD86 antigen was upregulated earlier than CD80. (elsevier.com)
  • Both CD80 and CD86 expressed on Der f-c-specific T cells could provide costimulatory signals to induce allergen-specific T-cell proliferation that was partially inhibitable by both anti-CD80 and anti-CD86 mAbs. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: These results suggest that costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86, expressed on allergen-specific T cells may be involved in the amplification of allergen-specific immune responses through T-T cell interactions in atopic diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • A selectivity of B7.1 (CD80) for promoting Th1 responses and B7.2 (CD86) for promoting Th2 responses in the murine system has recently been suggested. (elsevier.com)
  • Conversely, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones were insensitive to treatment with either anti-CD80, anti-CD86, or a combination of the two. (elsevier.com)
  • B7-1/CD80 and B7-2/CD86, together with their receptors CD28 and CTLA-4, constitute one of the dominant co-stimulatory pathways that regulate T- and B-cell responses (1). (rndsystems.com)
  • Administration of dendritic cells transduced with antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides targeting CD80 or CD86 prolongs allograft survival. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the effects of transduction with high-affinity antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) designed to target the mRNA of CD80 or CD86 on the phenotype and function of dendritic cells (DCs). (nih.gov)
  • H2b) bone marrow cells in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4, and transduced with anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 antisense ODNs (base-mismatched ODNs as controls). (nih.gov)
  • Antisense ODNs targeting CD80 or CD86 mRNA specifically suppressed the expression of CD80 or CD86 in DCs and inhibited their capacity to elicit the proliferative responses, donor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity in C3H (H2k) spleen T cells. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast with the administration of control DCs into C3H recipients that exacerbated rejection of B10 cardiac allografts, injection of DCs transduced with anti-CD80 or CD86 antisense ODN significantly prolonged the survival of heart allografts. (nih.gov)
  • CD40 ligation has been reported to contribute to the induction of accessory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 (25-27), to the induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (27-29), and to the induction of nitric oxide generation (24) and metalloproteinase secretion (30). (bioscience.org)
  • CD80 (B7) and CD86 (B70) provide similar costimulatory signals for T cell proliferation, cytokine production, and generation of CTL^1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Belatacept specifically binds to CD80 and CD86 receptors that are found on the antigen-presenting cell (B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells) to block selective T-cell lymphocyte costimulation. (drugbank.ca)
  • CD80 and CD86 would normally act as the ligands to the CD28 receptor T-cells in which this interaction triggers the activation of T lymphocytes. (drugbank.ca)
  • However in the presence of belatacept, because the extracellular CTLA-4 component binds to CD28 with higher affinity than CD80 or CD86, T lymphyocyte anergy, a state of antigen specific tolerance, occurs instead. (drugbank.ca)
  • Interleukin-10 differentially regulates B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) expression on human peripheral blood dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Flow cytometric analysis indicated that rIL-10 did not modify the expression of ICAM-1 (CD54) and B7-1 (CD80), but decreased HLA-DR and B7-2 (CD86) expression at the DC surface. (nih.gov)
  • Effects on antigen presenting cells were also observed including increased expression of MHC class II, CD80 and CD86. (cdc.gov)
  • Coating antigen: CD86, 0.5 µg/ml. (genscript.com)
  • CTLA4 has two ligands CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). (genscript.com)
  • Mouse CTLA-4 antibodies with has blocking effect against CD80/CD86 binding with CTLA4 can serve as a great surrogate antibody in mouse model. (genscript.com)
  • Yervoy binds to CTLA-4 and blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with its ligands, CD80/CD86. (benzinga.com)
  • Binding of CD28 on the T cell to B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) molecules on the antigen-presenting cell creates an amplifying signal required for full T cell activation. (jci.org)
  • Activation of the toll-like receptor signaling pathways induces expression of nuclear factor κB-dependent cytokines and interferon regulatory factor-dependent costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. (asahq.org)
  • Recognition of the co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) by CD28 on T cell membrane is required to fully activate T cells. (asahq.org)
  • Abatacept binds CD80 and CD86 on antigen presenting cells (APCs), blocking interaction with CD28 on T lymphocytes, which initiates a co-stimulatory signal required for full activation of T lymphocytes. (cancer.gov)
  • The oligonucleotides are targeted to bind to primary transcripts CD40, CD80, CD86 and their combinations. (google.com)
  • Cooperative B7-1/2 (CD80/CD86) and B7-DC costimulation of CD4+ T cells independent of the PD-1 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • CD80 and CD86 also bind to CD28 expressed on T cells, which is critical for T cell activation. (sciencemag.org)
  • see the Perspective by Sakaguchi and Wing) find that CTLA-4, expressed by both human and mouse T cells, plucks CD80 and CD86 from the surface of antigen-presenting cells and internalizes them through trans-endocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • It exerts competitive binding for stimulatory CD28 ligands (CD80/CD86) [1]. (invivogen.com)
  • The antibody BU63 reacts with CD86 (B7-2), a 70 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein of immunoglobulin supergene family, expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages or activated B lymphocytes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The affinity of CTLA4 for its natural B7 family ligands, CD80 and CD86, is considerably stronger than the affinity of their cognate stimulatory co-receptor CD28. (prnewswire.com)
  • Graded function of CD80 and CD86 in initiation of T-cell immune r. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which have opposing functions in T-cell responses, share the two ligands, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To understand the functions of CD80 and CD86, respectively, CD80 low dendritic cells (DCs) and CD86 low DCs were prepared by using RNA interference. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Then CD80 and CD86 functions were analysed by in vitro mixed lymphocyte reaction and cytokine production assay. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this study, graded stimulatory function of CD80 and CD86, stronger inhibition of proliferation, and stronger prolongation of transplant survival were observed when CD80 and CD86 were blocked simultaneously. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The latest report T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 - Pipeline Review, H2 2018, outlays comprehensive information on the T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (reportbuyer.com)
  • CD80 (CD80 Molecule) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • CD80 interaction with CD28 also further stimulates dendritic cells, again enhancing cytokine production, specifically IL-6, a proinflammatory molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD80 is mainly expressed on Ag-presenting cells (APCs) as a costimulatory molecule but is also detected on T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Our studies in mice demonstrate that in the absence of accessory molecule Invariant Chain (Ii), MHC II positive tumor cells present endogenous antigens, stimulate Th cells, and induce protective anti-tumor immunity. (arvojournals.org)
  • We hypothesize that Ii negative uveal melanoma cells genetically modified to express MHC II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 will present endogenous antigens and activate Th cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD80, also known as B7-1, is a 262 amino acid long 60 kDa molecule and a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • 1992) Expression and function of the murine B7 antigen, the major costimulatory molecule expressed by peritoneal exudate cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Several investigators have suggested that the interaction of the CD28 molecule on the T cell with a ligand, B7, on the antigen-presenting cell (APC) is best characterized among the many cell surface receptor/ligand pairs in delivering this costimulatory activity. (google.com)
  • CD80 is one of the ligands for CD28 and is an important co-stimulator molecule on antigen presenting cells necessary for T-cell activation. (usda.gov)
  • CD19-ENG.41BBL/CD80 T cells retained their antigen specificity and had superior effector function compared with both unmodified T cells and CD19-ENG T cells expressing either CD80, 41BBL, or no costimulatory molecule, as judged by cytokine (IFNγ and IL2) production, T-cell proliferation, and their ability to sequentially kill target cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, a non-classical HLA class Ib molecule, plays an important role in immune protection and is in contrast to HLA class Ia molecules exclusively expressed at immune privileged sites (Kovats et al. (springer.com)
  • They also express the costimulatory molecule CD80 (B7-1) after exposure to chemical sensitizers and irritants ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, this hypothesis is not supported by direct evidence since no TCR ligand is known to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation without being recognized by the effector CTL.Our results revealed that this is the case.These data demonstrated that costimulatory molecule B7 modulates antigen specificity of CTLs, and provides a missing link that explains some of the bystander T cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrated that costimulatory molecule B7 modulates antigen specificity of CTLs, and provides a missing link that explains some of the bystander T cell activation. (nih.gov)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a regulatory molecule that suppresses T cell effector function following initial activation by costimulatory signals. (jci.org)
  • Ethanol inhibits exogenous and allogeneic antigen presentation and affects the formation of peptide-MHCII complexes, as well as altering costimulatory molecule expression on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • The latest report CD40 Ligand - Pipeline Review, H2 2, outlays comprehensive information on the CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The latest report Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, outlays comprehensive information on the Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (prnewswire.com)
  • T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) - Cluster of differentiation 80 or CD80 or B7-1 is a protein found on dendritic cells, activated B cells and monocytes. (reportbuyer.com)
  • T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) pipeline Target constitutes close to 10 molecules. (reportbuyer.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 (Activation B7-1 Antigen or CTLA 4 Counter Receptor B7.1 or CD80) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (reportbuyer.com)
  • The interaction of CD80 with its ligands CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4) plays a critical role in induction and regulation of immune responses. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The B-lymphocyte activation antigen B7-1 (formerly referred to as B7) provides regulatory signals for T lymphocytes as a consequence of binding to the CD28 (MIM 186760) and CTLA4 (MIM 123890) ligands of T cells. (abnova.com)
  • These proteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligands (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second or costimulatory signal is mediated by costimulatory ligands on the antigen-presenting cell interacting with costimulatory receptors on the T cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The costimulatory pair of ligands bind CTLA-4 and are expressed on antigen-presenting cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The adaptive immune response however has an enormous diversity of antigen receptors and the ligands it recognises are equally diverse and so it can distinguish between individual pathogens. (infobarrel.com)
  • CD80 dimers on the antigen presenting cells (APCs) bridge CTLA4/CD152 dimers on T-cells in a periodic zipper-like arrangement. (genecards.org)
  • CD80 can be found on the surface of various immune cells including B cells, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells and is the receptor for the proteins CD28 (for autoregulation and intercellular association) and CTLA-4 (for attenuation of regulation and cellular disassociation) found on the surface of T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the extrinsic acquisition of CD80 by CD8 + T cells was observed only in the lymphoid organs but not in the periphery, indicating the trogocytosis of CD80 molecules via interaction between CD8 + T cells and APCs. (elsevier.com)
  • The antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that drive the various phases of MHC class II-dependent organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, experimental allergic encephalitis, and thyroiditis, are not fully identified. (pnas.org)
  • The crucial step for initiation of an adaptive immune response lies in the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and on the capacity of APCs to present antigens to T lymphocytes. (asahq.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are essential for stimulating antigen-specific immunity, including immunity against tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further investigation revealed that CTL activity could be restored partly with additions of IL-2 and fully by coimmunization with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression plasmids, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be a critical target of ethanol's action to promote impaired CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell priming ( 6 , 9 , 10 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Evidence suggests eosinophils may be acting as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) by presenting antigen to T cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Tumor immunity proceeds through multiple processes, which consist of antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) to educate effector cells and destruction by the effector cytotoxic cells. (wjgnet.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether downregulating the expression of B7.1 (CD80) in the donor livers by antisense B7.1 gene transfer could attenuate the acute immune rejection against liver allografts in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast, binding of B7.1 to CTL antigen 4 (CD152) on T cells has an inhibitory effect on T-cell activation ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Description: The 16-10A1 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse CD80 (B7-1), a 55 kDa member of the Ig superfamily. (fishersci.com)
  • The interaction of CD28 and CD152 with CD80 is crucial in T-B cell communication leading to activation of T and B cells, respectively.Applications Reported: This 16-10A1 antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis.Applications Tested: This 16-10A1 antibody has been tested by flow cytometric analysis of stimulated mouse splenocytes. (fishersci.com)
  • Finally, CD80 signaling on activated B-cells may regulate antibody secretion during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flow Cytometry analysis of P815 cells labeling CD80 with Anti-CD80 antibody [MEM-233] (PerCP) (ab82410). (abcam.com)
  • Goat polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of CD80. (abnova.com)
  • CD80 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB18734) (1 ug/mL) staining of human lymph node lysate (35 ug protein in RIPA buffer). (abnova.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant CD80. (abnova.com)
  • Durvalumab is a human immunoglobulin G1 kappa (IgGIk) monoclonal antibody that blocks PD-L1 binding to PD-1 and CD80. (drugbank.ca)
  • ELISA blocking of mouse CTLA4 antibody MCT.E9 (GenScript, A01843) against mouse CD80 recombinant protein binding with Mouse CTLA4 recombinant protein. (genscript.com)
  • The appropriate concentrations may be affected by secondary antibody affinity, antigen concentration, the sensitivity of the method of detection, temperature, the length of the incubations, and other factors. (genscript.com)
  • Yervoy is a recombinant, human monoclonal antibody that binds to the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4). (benzinga.com)
  • A murine IgG1 monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody, containing a variable antigen-binding region that functionally mimics the three-dimensional structure of a specific epitope on the ovarian cancer tumor-associated antigen CA-125, with potential antineoplastic activity. (cancer.gov)
  • The demonstration that a protein-coding gene is able to elicit a specific immune response in vivo was first published by Tang and Johnston [ 2 ] who showed that the direct delivery of the human growth hormone gene into the skin of mice could elicit antigen-specific antibody responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • antibody blockade of CD40:CD40L interactions completely blocks T cell contact-induction of CD80 expression (25). (bioscience.org)
  • The both B7 molecules are expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells and are essential for T cell activation, the both molecules can also substitute for each other in this process. (fishersci.com)
  • In the present study, we demonstrated that effector and memory CD8 + T cells, but not naïve CD8 + T cells, displayed CD80 molecules on their surfaces after acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. (elsevier.com)
  • The expression of costimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells is crucial in determining T-cell immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen-specific T cell activation depends on T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in conjunction with co-stimulatory signals mediated by accessory molecules. (google.com)
  • Since induction of T cell proliferation was mediated by antigen-presenting cells that express costimulatory molecules such as B7, we investigated if cytolysis of H1N1 NP peptide-pulsed targets can be restored by expressing B7-1 on the target cells. (nih.gov)
  • 3 Indeed, evidence suggests that B cells can take part in antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II molecules 4 ⇓ ⇓ - 7 and might even be required to reach full T-cell effector potential. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Effective cancer vaccines deliver concentrated antigen to both HLA class I and II molecules of DCs, promoting both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. (jci.org)
  • The first results after the antigen, presented by major histocompatibility molecules, engages the T-cell receptor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Confocal microscopic analyses revealed that gingival epithelial cells (GEC) from tissue with periodontal disease express both HLA-DR and B7-1 (CD80) costimulatory molecules. (researchmap.jp)
  • CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) pipeline Target constitutes close to 18 molecules. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) pipeline Target constitutes close to 38 molecules. (prnewswire.com)
  • T cells expressing CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) with endodomains that encode a signaling domain derived from CD3ζ and CD28 or 41BB have potent antitumor activity in early-phase clinical studies for B-cell malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In recent years, immunotherapeutic approaches have shown promise in the treatment of CD19 + hematologic malignancies, including the adoptive transfer of T cells expressing CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or the infusion of bispecific antibodies (BiTE) to redirect T cells to CD19 + tumor cells ( 5-16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Unlike the ADAPTIVE immune response the INNATE immune response has a limited number and diversity of antigen receptors. (infobarrel.com)
  • CD80 has high affinity for binding to two T cell surface antigens, CD28 and CD152 (CTLA-4). (fishersci.com)
  • CD80 binds to CD28 and CTLA-4 with lower affinity and fast binding kinetics (Kd =4 μM), allowing for quick interactions between the communicating cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also binds to CD80 with a 2-fold higher affinity than abatacept. (drugbank.ca)
  • B cells within the germinal center then perish through spontaneous apoptosis unless their surface immunoglobulin binds with high affinity to antigen (present within immune complexes) on follicular dendritic cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The CLONAL SELECTION HYPOTHESIS states that each T cell bears a single receptor with UNIQUE specificity and if it recognises an antigen MHC complex it will bind with high affinity to the antigen leading to activation of the T cell generating a clone of effector T cells and memory cells. (infobarrel.com)
  • If a T cell receptor recognise the self antigen and the MHC very well and there is a strong affinity and interaction the T-cell is likely to have perfect recognition of the self antigen and apoptosis takes place and programmed cell death occurs. (infobarrel.com)
  • The interaction of CD28 and CD152 with CD80 is crucial in T-B cell communication leading to activation of T and B cells, respectively. (fishersci.com)
  • The interaction of CD80 and CD152 (CTLA-4) or CD28 induces T cell proliferation and cytokine production. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) - CTLA4 also known as CD152 is a protein receptor found on the surface of T cells. (prnewswire.com)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Protein 4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Antigen 4 or CD152 or CTLA4) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (prnewswire.com)
  • Global T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market is estimated to be valued US$ XX.X million in 2019. (medicalmarketreport.com)
  • The report on T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market provides qualitative as well as quantitative analysis in terms of market dynamics, competition scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, etc. for the forecast year up to 2029. (medicalmarketreport.com)
  • 1. T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market Introduction 1.1. (medicalmarketreport.com)
  • What will the T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market the growth rate be in 2025? (newsandpr.com)
  • What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Global and Chinese T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 market? (newsandpr.com)
  • What are the challenges to Global and Chinese T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market growth? (newsandpr.com)
  • What are the market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the Global and Chinese T Lymphocyte Activation Antigen CD80 Market industry? (newsandpr.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Antigen-presenting cells" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • CD80 is expressed by macrophages, dendritic cells and activated B cells. (fishersci.com)
  • In addition, activated T cells express this antigen. (fishersci.com)
  • This interaction results in an important costimulatory signal in the immunological synapse between antigen-presenting cells, B-cells, dendritic cells and T-cells that result in T and B-cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II)- peptide complex on a dendritic cell interacts with the receptor on a T helper cell, CD80 is up-regulated, licensing the dendritic cell and allowing for interaction between the dendritic cell and CD 8+ T-cells via CD28. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic cells have been found to be suppressed by a CTLA-4-CD80 interaction and this interaction also promotes the suppressive effects of regulatory T cells, which can prevent an immune response to self-antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to interactions with CD28 and CTLA-4, CD80 is also thought to interact with a separate ligand on Natural Killer cells, triggering the Natural Killer cell-mediated cell death of the CD80 carrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD80 may also play a role in the negative regulation of effector and memory T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The up-regulation of CD80 has been linked to various autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sepsis (which may partly be due to over-active T-cells), and CD80 has also been shown to help spread of HIV infection in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The triggering of Natural Killer cell-mediated death via CD80 interactions has been explored as a possible cancer immunotherapy, through the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the origin and physiological role of CD80 on CD8 + T cells remain unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • Using adoptive transfer of CD80-knockout (KO) CD8 + T cells into a wild type or CD80-KO recipient, we demonstrated that the effector CD8 + T cells displayed CD80 by both intrinsic expression and extrinsic acquisition, while memory CD8 + T cells displayed CD80 only by extrinsic acquisition. (elsevier.com)
  • We compared the recall immune responses by memory CD8 + T cells that either extrinsically acquired CD80 or were deficient in CD80, and found that CD80, presented by memory CD8 + T cells, played a role in limiting their expansion and IL-2 production upon exposure to secondary challenge. (elsevier.com)
  • Our study presents the in vivo dynamics of the extrinsic acquisition of CD80 by Ag-specific CD8 + T cells and its role in the regulation of recall immune responses in memory CD8 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Son, J & Ha, SJ 2019, ' Extrinsic acquisition of cd80 by antigen-specific cd8 + t cells regulates their recall immune responses to acute viral infection ', Immune Network , vol. 19, no. 4, e25. (elsevier.com)
  • However, activation of Th cells and identification of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II (MHC II) restricted tumor antigens is difficult due to the inhibition of Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) within the tumor environment and the failure of MHC II positive tumors to present endogenous tumor antigens. (arvojournals.org)
  • As measured by flow cytometry, HLA-DRB*0101 and CD80 transduced uveal melanoma cells express HLA-DR1 and CD80 on the cell surface and do not express Ii. (arvojournals.org)
  • To determine if the transduced cells activate CD4+ T cells, HER2/neu-expressing primary and metastatic uveal melanoma transductants MEL202/DR1/CD80 and OMM2.3/DR1/CD80 were co-cultured as stimulator cells with HER2/neu-primed DR1-matched peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMC) as responders. (arvojournals.org)
  • Therefore, HLA-DR + /CD80 + uveal melanoma cells activate Th cells to endogenous antigens, and could be used in uveal melanoma patients to induce tumor-specific CD4 + T cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • To model antigen-specific activation and downstream function, we co-cultured TCR-engineered autoreactive T cell "avatars," with dMP-DCs or control DCs followed by β-cell line (ßlox5) target cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, these data suggest this dMP formulation conditions human antigen presenting cells toward a tolerogenic phenotype, inducing regulatory and suppressive T cell responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, non-antigen-specific strategies targeting T cells have shown success in subjects with or at-risk for T1D, temporarily maintaining C-peptide production or delaying disease onset, but the decline in C-peptide and T1D progression eventually resumes, suggesting treated subjects do not develop lasting tolerance to islet antigens ( 8 - 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To address this, we developed a novel biomaterial therapy to deliver immunomodulatory agents along with autoantigen as a means to recruit and tolerize dendritic cells (DCs) for robust antigen-specific T cell tolerance ( 20 , 21 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Blockade of CD80-CD28 costimulatory pathway induces unresponsiveness of T cells to alloantigens and protects allografts against immune rejection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Binding of CD80 to CD28, which is constitutively expressed on T cells, provides a costimulatory signal and induces T cell proliferation and cytokine production. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The antigen is also expressed by HTLV-1 transformed T cells and activated monocytes. (beckman.com)
  • CD80 is an important cell surface antigen on antigen presenting cells which is necessary for T-cell activation. (usda.gov)
  • All mAbs to chCD80 showed staining of bursa and spleen, and identified a 80 kDa protein on CD80/IgG4-transfected cells in Western blot. (usda.gov)
  • Immunohistochemistry of lymphoid tissues revealed that CD80-expressing cells were expressed exclusively in the bursal follicles at the outer portion of the cortex in the bursa, and throughout the red pulp and the outer boundary of the white pulp in the spleen. (usda.gov)
  • Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed at high levels on malignant prostate cells and is likely an important therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. (springermedizin.de)
  • Arndt C, Feldmann A, Koristka S, Cartellieri M, Dimmel M, Ehninger A, Ehninger G, Bachmann M (2014) Simultaneous targeting of prostate stem cell antigen and prostate-specific membrane antigen improves the killing of prostate cancer cells using a novel modular T cell-retargeting system. (springermedizin.de)
  • CD19-ENG T cells expressing CD80 and 41BBL on their cell surface (CD19-ENG.41BBL/CD80 T cells) were generated by retroviral transduction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vivo , CD19-ENG.41BBL/CD80 T cells had superior antileukemia activity in the BV173 xenograft model, resulting in a survival advantage in comparison to CD19-ENG T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most likely to be degraded into peptides and amino acids by circulating phagocytic cellsor by target antigen-containing cells [ 4 ] . (drugbank.ca)
  • To assess the functional implications of HLA class I APM component down-regulation in Mb cell lines, we tested their recognition by HLA class I antigen-restricted, tumor antigen (TA)-specific CTL, generated by stimulations with dendritic cells that had been transfected with Mb mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recognition of tumor cells by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen-restricted, tumor antigen (TA)-specific CTLs is mediated by β2-microglobulin-associated HLA class I heavy chains (HC) loaded with TA-derived peptides. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4 + T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. (elifesciences.org)
  • Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. (elifesciences.org)
  • Most of the immunosuppressive effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10) are related to functional inhibition of antigen-presenting cells (APC). (nih.gov)
  • To assess whether activated MSC can modulate adaptive immunity, MSCs were pulsed with islet auto-antigen (GAD65) peptide to stimulate GAD65-specific T-cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conditioning of antigen-specific T-cells by activated and antigen-pulsed MSCs prevented T-cells to proliferate upon subsequent activation by dendritic cells, even after removal of the MSCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The antigen-presenting cells that initiate and maintain MHC class II-associated organ-specific autoimmune diseases are poorly defined. (pnas.org)
  • We now describe a new T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model of inflammatory skin disease in which keratinocytes activate and are the primary target of autoreactive CD4 + T cells. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, cutaneous immunopathology can be directed through antigen presentation by tissue-resident keratinocytes to autoreactive TCR Tg CD4 + cells. (pnas.org)
  • Lymphocytes traffic through the secondary lymphoid organs and interact in lymph nodes (LNs) with dendritic cells transporting tissue antigens to initiate immune responses to model antigens, microbial antigens, and apoptotic cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have developed a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) transgenic (Tg) model in which CD4 + cells are positively and negatively selected by endogenous peptides. (pnas.org)
  • Mouse microglial cell lines differing in constitutive and interferon-gamma-inducible antigen-presenting activities for naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (atcc.org)
  • These cells constitutively expressed high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens but unlike EOC-20 (CRL-2469) expression was not upregulated by recombinant murine interferon-gamma. (atcc.org)
  • B cells then enter the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid follicles and undergo a process of random hypermutation in theirV immunoglobulin region genes, under the influence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), resulting in yet more diversity in the antigen-binding repertoire of their surface immunoglobulin. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Naive B cells are ineffective antigen-presenting cells and are considered unable to activate naive T cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, antigen-specific contact of these cells leads to stable cell pairs that remain associated over hours in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We show here that antigen-specific conjugates between naive B cells and naive T cells display a mature immunologic synapse in the contact zone that is absent in T-cell-dendritic-cell (DC) pairs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Naive B cells are poor antigen-presenting cells (APC) for naive T cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 , 2 Yet antigen presentation by naive B cells is not an immunologic null event. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Animals can be rendered tolerant toward antigens presented by naive B cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have previously shown that naive B cells, despite low efficiency on a per cell basis, when loaded with specific peptide antigen can induce antigen-specific proliferation in naive T cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In contrast, antigen-specific contacts to naive B cells invariably last several hours. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has shown promise in treating some cancers, but the challenge of isolating T cells with high avidity for tumor antigens limits large-scale applicability. (washington.edu)
  • Antigens on nonviral cancers are targeted for immunotherapy, including vaccines, for two main reasons: (a) the antigens can elicit an immune response that selectively attacks cancer cells, and (b) these antigens are (over-)expressed on cancer cells. (jci.org)
  • If such antigens are expressed at all on normal cells, as in the case of differentiation antigens, the immune response to the normal tissues should only cause nonlethal side effects, such as vitiligo in the case of immune responses elicited against melanocyte antigens. (jci.org)
  • An important function of the innate immune system is the recognition of pathogens by macrophages, neutrophils, epithelial cells, and other cell populations that directly interact with microbial antigens. (asahq.org)
  • The ability to measure antigen-specific T cells at the single-cell level by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) is a promising immunomonitoring tool and is extensively applied in the evaluation of immunotherapy of cancer. (springer.com)
  • The protocols used to detect antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses generally work for the detection of antigen-specific T cells in samples that have undergone at least one round of in vitro pre-stimulation. (springer.com)
  • Application of a common protocol but now using long peptides as antigens was not suitable to simultaneously detect antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells directly ex vivo in cryopreserved samples. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we adapted our ICS protocol and show that the use of tenfold higher concentration of long peptides to load APC, the use of IFN-α and poly(I:C) to promote antigen processing and improve T-cell stimulation, does allow for the ex vivo detection of low-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in an HLA-independent setting. (springer.com)
  • With a variable antigen-binding region that acts as a surrogate antigen for CA-125, abagovomab may stimulate the host immune system to elicit humoral and cellular immune responses against CA-125-positive tumor cells, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. (cancer.gov)
  • The development of therapies that specifically target autoreactive immune cells for the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) without inducing generalized immunosuppression that often compromises the host's ability to clear non-self antigen is highly desired. (soc-bdr.org)
  • The putative mechanisms include, but are not limited to, the uptake and processing of antigen-coupled nanoparticles or apoptotic cellular carriers for tolerogenic presentation by host splenic antigen-presenting cells, the induction of regulatory T cells, and the secretion of immune-suppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. (soc-bdr.org)
  • DNA vaccines are based on the delivery of genes encoding a specific protein antigen that is transcribed and translated by host cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • We hypothesized that systemic administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, which promote monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells in vitro , might enhance the number and antigen-presenting activity of CD14 + cells in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • When given alone, GM-CSF increased the number of CD14 + cells but did not enhance the cells' expression of APC markers or antigen-presenting activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A, CD4+ T cells (Th1, Th17) recognize antigens of phagocytosed and extracellular microbes and produce cytokines that recruit and activate the phagocytes to kill the microbes. (brainscape.com)
  • B, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize antigens of microbes residing in the cytoplasm of infected cells and kill the cells. (brainscape.com)
  • CD4+ T cells recognize peptides that are derived from protein antigens and presented by dendritic cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. (brainscape.com)
  • In the tissues, effector T cells recognize the antigen and respond by secreting cytokines that recruit more leukocytes and activate phagocytes to eradicate the infection. (brainscape.com)
  • Dendritic cells process antigens and present peptides associated with MHC class II to CD4 T cells and present peptides associated with MHC class I to CD8 T cells. (brainscape.com)
  • Dendritic cells are extremely efficient antigen-presenting cells that initiate and modulate T-cell dependant immune responses. (springer.com)
  • These results suggested that GEC can take up bacterial antigen and consequently process and present the bacterial antigen to CD4(+) T cells by MHC class II in conjunction with B7 costimulation. (researchmap.jp)
  • GEC appeared to play a role in the adaptive immune response by stimulating antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. (researchmap.jp)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is expressed by activated and regulatory T cells and helps to prevent T cell-mediated immune responses from getting out of control. (sciencemag.org)
  • CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) - CD40 ligand or CD40L is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • But this system is not perfect and self reactive T cells may escape and be let out into the periphery and respond to self antigens. (infobarrel.com)
  • This is through the use of ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS in the thymus that fall into 3 CLASSES. (infobarrel.com)
  • If the self antigen is recognised by any of the T cells the thymus ensures these are destroyed. (infobarrel.com)
  • cd4+ cells recognise antigens presented on MHC class 2 whilst cd8+ cells recognise antigens presented on MHC class-I cells. (infobarrel.com)
  • This nonresponsiveness was ascribed to the inability of CD40L-deficient T cells to induce CD80 expression on dendritic cells. (bioscience.org)
  • The adoptive transfer of CD80-positive accessory cells into CD40L-deficient mice restored their ability to respond to antigen and to develop experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (bioscience.org)
  • CD8 T-cell reactivity to monocytes pulsed with long peptides as antigens ranged between 5 and 25 % of that observed against monocytes pulsed with a direct HLA class I fitting minimal CTL peptide epitope. (springer.com)
  • This review discusses the mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of antigen-specific T cell tolerance techniques using syngeneic apoptotic cellular carriers and synthetic nanoparticles that are covalently cross-linked to diabetogenic peptides or proteins through ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI) to prevent and treat T1D. (soc-bdr.org)
  • In a more direct approach, murine bone marrow-derived DCs have been loaded with tumor antigen peptides (3 , 4) , antigenic proteins (5) , tumor lysates (6) , or tumor antigen genes (7) and have been shown in each case to stimulate antitumor activity when used to vaccinate naive mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, this report also reviews key players involved in CD40 Ligand (T Cell Antigen Gp39 or TNF Related Activation Protein or Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 5 or CD154 or CD40LG) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • two different anti-CD80 blocking antibodies yielded identical results. (elsevier.com)
  • In this paper, ARS scientists developed mouse monoclonal antibodies which detect chicken cytokine CD80. (usda.gov)
  • These mouse antibodies detecting chicken CD80 will be commercially available through technology transfer to Kingfisher company. (usda.gov)
  • Cluster of differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a B7, type I membrane protein that is in the immunoglobulin superfamily, with an extracellular immunoglobulin constant-like domain and a variable-like domain required for receptor binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that some bystander T cell activation may in fact be due to T cell antigen receptor (TCR) cross-reactivity that is too low to be detected by the effector cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). (nih.gov)
  • Adoptive T-cell therapy, particularly chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, is a revolutionary and quickly-evolving means of treating cancer patients who can no longer be helped by standard therapies. (washington.edu)
  • In many phase I/II studies, these vaccines have shown clinical benefit, in particular extended overall or disease-free survival, while objective durable regressions of the type associated with targeted or immunomodulatory mAb therapy ( 2 - 6 ) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) ( 7 - 10 ) or adoptive T cell ( 11 , 12 ) therapy were rarely seen. (jci.org)
  • T cell activation is initiated when antigen is presented to the T cell receptor (TCR) complex by MHC class I or II on an antigen-presenting cell. (jci.org)
  • Under the right conditions, this transfer of the CD80 may induce T-cell apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental models have demonstrated that intravenous injection of autoantigen decorated splenocytes and biodegradable nanoparticles through ECDI fixation effectively induce and maintain antigen-specific T cell abortive activation and anergy by T cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. (soc-bdr.org)
  • Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • 2 μg/lane of Recombinant Human B7‑1/CD80 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 10107-B1) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 67-85 kDa and 130-170 kDa, respectively. (rndsystems.com)
  • CD80 (AAH11399.2, 137 a.a. ~ 230 a.a) partial recombinant protein. (abnova.com)
  • Proliferative responses were significantly strong but became much stronger when DCs were concomitantly incubated with soluble antigens and human recombinant TNF-α and used subsequently as stimulators. (springer.com)
  • Proteins derived from the microorganisms are processed to generate antigens. (asahq.org)
  • The proliferation is specific, as control peptide from a tumor antigen P1A, which binds H-2Ld but not Db, induces no proliferative responses at all doses tested. (nih.gov)
  • The CD80 antigen (B7, BB1) is a highly glycosylated single-chain protein. (beckman.com)
  • Chicken CD80 was purified from the chCD80/IgG4 fusion protein by enterokinase digestion, and used to immunize BALB/c mice, resulting in 158 hybridomas that produced monoclonal Abs (mAbs) against chCD80. (usda.gov)
  • Belatacept is a soluble fusion protein, which links the extracellular domain of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) to the modified Fc (hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains) portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). (drugbank.ca)
  • Ability to assess the expression and function of chicken CD80 will enhance basic and applied research on poultry immunology. (usda.gov)
  • One of its responses to a foreign antigen is the proliferation of a class of lymphocytes which specifically recognizes the antigen. (google.com)
  • The stimulating capacity of antigen-pulsed DCs was measured in a classical proliferation assay using tritium labelled thymidine as a marker of mitosis. (springer.com)
  • Antigen processing and peptide-MHCII complexes were evaluated by flow cytometry. (asm.org)
  • Current monotherapeutic agents fail to restore tolerance to self-antigens in autoimmune individuals without systemic immunosuppression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Good proportion will recognise self antigens. (infobarrel.com)
  • They are all capable of antigen presentation via MHC and all present SELF antigens. (infobarrel.com)
  • DNA can present antigens in a suitable molecular form, ranging from full-length sequence to short MHC class I- or II-binding epitopes, to optimize induction of T-cell responses [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • CD80 is an especially important component in dendritic cell licensing and cytotoxic T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHO-Anti-Human CD80 scFv stable cell line is clonally-derived from a CHO cell line, which has been transfected with an anti-human CD80 scFv gene to allow expression of the scFv. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The act of the APC ingesting antigen and breaking it down stimulates the expression of B7. (brainscape.com)
  • Defects in the expression and/or function of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen-processing machinery (APM) components are found in many tumor types. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, curcumin imparted immunosuppression by mainly down-regulating the expression of CD28 and CD80 and up-regulating CTLA-4. (nih.gov)
  • Resveratrol also functioned by decreasing the expression of CD28 and CD80, as well as by augmenting the production of interleukin (IL)-10. (nih.gov)
  • Since neither IL-10 nor TGF-beta appear to down-regulate CD80 expression (52,53), the down-regulation of CD40L, and hence CD40L stimulation of CD80 expression, may therefore be a pivotal event in the shift from inflammatory to anti-inflammatory activities in the sclerotic lesion. (bioscience.org)
  • The present study explores this hypothesis, using human PBMCs and antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 clones. (elsevier.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids at internal region of human CD80. (abnova.com)
  • Bone marrow derived human MSCs were activated by interferon-γ and analyzed for antigen uptake and processing and immune regulatory features including phenotype, immunosuppressive capacity, and metabolic activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tested positive against native human antigen. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Ideal immunotherapy approaches in antigen-specific autoimmune disease must abrogate autoimmunity without the need for broad and sustained systemic immunosuppression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Schellhammer PF, Chodak G, Whitmore JB, Sims R, Frohlich MW, Kantoff PW (2013) Lower baseline prostate-specific antigen is associated with a greater overall survival benefit from sipuleucel-T in the immunotherapy for prostate adenocarcinoma treatment (IMPACT) trial. (springermedizin.de)
  • We have developed our programs using insights from our proprietary tumor antigen discovery platform, EDGE™, together with an immunotherapy platform which has demonstrated the ability to elicit an enhanced antigen-directed T-cell response in preclinical primate models. (benzinga.com)
  • One such method to gain information about T-cell reactivity at feasible extent constitutes the stimulation of PBMC with overlapping peptide pools of defined antigens. (springer.com)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Neutrophils can also activate macrophages with CD80 viaCD28. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2] YERVOY specifically blocks cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTL4), which plays a role in suppressing the normal immune response. (presseportal.ch)
  • The complicated role CD80 plays in immune system regulation presents an opportunity for CD80 interactions to go rogue in various diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD28 interactions with CD80/86 provide the required costimulatory signals. (brainscape.com)